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Sample records for one-phonon mixed-symmetry state

  1. Search for one-phonon mixed-symmetry states in the radioactive nucleus {sup 140}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Gladnishki, K. A.; Damyanova, A.; Danchev, M.; Karagyozov, D.; Topchiyska, R.; Rainovski, G.; Petkov, P.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Hackstein, M.; Pissulla, T.; Rother, W.; Pietralla, N.; Moeller, O.; Reese, M.

    2010-09-15

    Low-spin excited states of {sup 140}Nd have been studied via the {sup 140}Ce({sup 3}He,3n){sup 140}Nd reaction. The data show that one of the candidates for the one-phonon mixed-symmetry state (MSS) of {sup 140}Nd, namely, the 2{sub 3}{sup +} state at 2140 keV with an effective lifetime of 220(90) fs, exhibits a fast M1 decay to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state. Thus, this state can be considered, at least, as a fragment of the one-phonon MSS of {sup 140}Nd. This is the first example where mixed symmetry character is tentatively assigned to a state of an unstable nucleus from the mass A{approx_equal}140 region based on the data on absolute M1 transition rates. However, the data are not conclusive on whether this decay exhausts the total M1 strength or whether the one-phonon MSS of {sup 140}Nd is fragmented.

  2. Mixed-symmetry states in ^114Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, D.; Reynolds, C. C.; Fransen, C.; Boukharouba, N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the properties of a new class of low-lying excitations known as mixed-symmetry states. These states, associated with the isovector part of the boson wave functions and characterized by their strong M1 transitions, have been extensively studied in deformed nuclei; however, for U(5) nuclei these states have rarely been characterized(P. E. Garrett et al., Phy. Rev. C 54). 2259(1996). Therefore, we have examined the low-spin states in ^114Cd, which has long been considered as a good vibrational nucleus(R. F. Casten et al. Phys. Lett. 297B), 19(1992). Levels in ^114Cd were studied at the University of Kentucky 7 MV accelerator facility in measurements of excitation functions and angular distributions of γ-rays emitted in the (n,n^'γ) reaction. The Doppler-shift attenuation method has been used to determine level lifetimes. A strong M1 transition from the 2218.9-keV level (2^+) to the 2_1^+ level indicates that the 2218.9-keV level is a probable candidate for the fundamental mixed-symmetry state. A weak E2 transition from this level to the ground state further supports the assignment of this state as one-phonon mixed-symmetry state. The search for two-phonon mixed-symmetry states is in progress. This work was supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation under grant No. PHY-0098813

  3. One-phonon isovector 2(1,MS)(+) state in neutron-rich nucleus (132)Te

    SciTech Connect

    Danchev, M.; Rainovski, G.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu; Scheck, M.; Wambach, J.; Pietralla, N.; Gargano, A.; Covello, A.; Baktash, Cyrus; Beene, James R; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Gross, Carl J; Radford, David C; Yu, Chang-Hong; Bingham, C. R.; Riedinger, L. L.; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Zamfir, Nicolae Victor

    2011-01-01

    The 2{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 132}Te is identified as the one-phonon mixed-symmetry state in a projectile Coulomb excitation experiment presenting a firm example of a mixed-symmetry state in unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. The results of shell-model calculations based on the low-momentum interaction V{sub low-k} are in good agreement with experiment demonstrating the ability of the effective shell-model interaction to produce states of mixed-symmetry character.

  4. Mixed-Symmetry States in ^93Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, C. J.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Lesher, S. R.; Mynk, M.; Orce, J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2003-10-01

    The neutron-proton version of the interacting boson model predicts the existence of mixed-symmetry collective excitations. In an even-even nucleus the 2^+_ms state has the distinctive signature of a strong M1 transition to the first 2^+ state and a weak E2 transiton to the ground state. Previous investigations of the N=52 isotones ^92Zr, ^94Mo and ^96Ru have have led to the identification of mixed-symmetry states. It is expected that odd-A nuclei will also display states with mixed-symmetry character. Therefore, excitation function and angular distibution measurements have been performed on ^93Nb, the lone stable odd-A N=52 isotone, using the (n,n^'γ) reaction at the University of Kentucky. Lifetimes were determined with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant No. PHY-0098813

  5. Mixed-Symmetry States in 96Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, S.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boukharouba, N.; Mynk, M.; McKay, C.J.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Yates, S.W.; Fransen, C.

    2004-09-13

    Mixed-symmetry states in 96Mo have been identified using the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction. From the lifetime measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method and multipole mixing ratios, B(E2) and B(M1) values were determined. The 2{sub ms}{sup +} state was found at 2095.77 keV with B(M1: 2{sub ms}{sup +} {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}) = 0.18{mu}{sub N}{sup 2}, while the 1{sub ms}{sup +} strength lies primarily in states at 2794.45 and 3300.23 keV.

  6. Mixed-Symmetry States in ^96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, S. R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boukharouba, N.; Fransen, C.; Mynk, M.; McKay, C. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2003-10-01

    Mixed-symmetry states, a new class of low-lying collective excitations, are predicted by the neutron-proton version of the interacting boson model. The signatures for the 2^+_ms excitation in an even-even nucleus are a strong M1 transition to the first 2^+ state and a weak E2 transition to the ground state. Above the 2^+_ms state, the 2^+øtimes2^+_ms coupling will produce 2-phonon states, i.e., a 0^+, 1^+, 2^+, 3^+, 4^+ quintet. Extensive studies have been performed to identify these states in ^94Mo, which is thought to be well understood, and two other N=52 isotones, ^92Zr and ^96Ru. It is interesting to examine the collectivity of these excitations further from the closed N=50 shell. Therefore, we initiated a study of ^96_42Mo_54 using the (n,n^'γ) reaction at the University of Kentucky, including excitation function and angular distribution measurements, to search for these states. Lifetimes were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and B(E2) and B(M1) values were determined. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant No. PHY-0098813.

  7. Population of mixed-symmetry states via {alpha} transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.; Pietralla, N.

    2008-07-15

    Within the neutron-proton interacting boson model we study the population of mixed-symmetry states via {alpha} transfer processes. Closed expressions are deduced in the case of the limiting U{sub {pi}}{sub +{nu}}(5) and SU{sub {pi}}{sub +{nu}}(3). We find that the population of the lowest mixed-symmetry 2{sup +} state, vanishing along the N{sub {pi}}=N{sub {nu}} line, depends on the number of active bosons and is normally smaller than that of the lowest full symmetric 2{sup +} state. In particular, for deformed nuclei where the number of bosons is normally large, the relative population of the mixed-symmetry 2{sup +} state is of the order of a few percent. More favorable cases can be found near shell closures, as in the case of {alpha} transfer leading to {sup 140}Ba.

  8. Identification of Mixed-Symmetry States in an Odd-Mass Nearly Spherical Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Orce, J. N.; McKay, C. J.; Lesher, S. R.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Holt, J. D.; Holt, J. W.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Linnemann, A.; Fransen, C.; Warr, N.; Werner, V.; Jolie, J.; Pietralla, N.; Yates, S. W.

    2006-08-11

    The low-spin structure of {sup 93}Nb has been studied using the (n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reaction at neutron energies ranging from 1.5 to 3 MeV and the {sup 94}Zr(p,2n{gamma}){sup 93}Nb reaction at bombarding energies from 11.5 to 19 MeV. States at 1779.7 and 1840.6 keV, respectively, are proposed as mixed-symmetry states associated with the {pi}2p{sub 1/2}{sup -1}x(2{sub 1,MS}{sup +},{sup 94}Mo) coupling. These assignments are derived from the observed M1 and E2 transition strengths to the 2p{sub 1/2}{sup -1}x(2{sub 1}{sup +},{sup 94}Mo) symmetric one-phonon states, energy systematics, spins and parities, and comparison with shell model calculations.

  9. Search for mixed-symmetry states in 212Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocheva, D.; Rainovski, G.; Jolie, J.; Pietralla, N.; Stahl, C.; Petkov, P.; Blazhev, A.; Hennig, A.; Astier, A.; Braunroth, Th.; Cortes, L.; Dewald, A.; Djongolov, M.; Fransen, C.; Gladnishki, K.; Karayonchev, V.; Litzinger, J.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Scheck, M.; Scholz, Ph.; Schramm, C.; Tölle, P.; Werner, V.; Witt, W.; Wölk, D.; Van Isacker, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present an experiment dedicated to searching for quarupole- collective isovector valence-shell excitation — the states with so-called mixed proton-neutron symmetry (MSSs), in the nucleus 212Po. The states of interest were populated and studied by an α-transfer reaction. The experiment provides indication for existence of one-phonon MSS in the nucleus 212Po which is the first experimentally identified MSS in the region around double magic nucleus 208Pb.

  10. Nature of One- and Two-Phonon Mixed Symmetry States in 92Zr and 94Mo from High-Resolution Electron and Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N. T.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Pietralla, N.

    2006-03-13

    High-resolution inelastic electron (performed at the S-DALINAC) and proton (performed at iThemba LABS) scattering experiments on 92Zr and 94Mo with emphasis on E2 transitions are presented The measured form factors and angular distributions provide a measure for the F-spin purity, respectively the isovector nature, of the proposed one-phonon mixed symmetry states and furthermore provide a sensitive test of a possible two-phonon character of excited 2+ states.

  11. High-Energy-Resolution Inelastic Electron and Proton Scattering and the Multiphonon Nature of Mixed-Symmetry 2{sup +} States in {sup 94}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Holt, J. D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholten, O.

    2007-08-31

    High-energy-resolution inelastic electron scattering (at the S-DALINAC) and proton scattering (at iThemba LABS) experiments permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states of the nucleus {sup 94}Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic nuclear model calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2{sup +} states is extracted.

  12. E2 strengths and transition radii difference of one-phonon 2+ states of 92Zr from electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeid, A. Scheikh; Burda, O.; Chernykh, M.; Krugmann, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Walz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mixed-symmetry 2+ states in vibrational nuclei are characterized by a sign change between dominant proton and neutron valence-shell components with respect to the fully symmetric 2+ state. The sign can be measured by a decomposition of proton and neutron transition radii with a combination of inelastic electron and hadron scattering [C. Walz , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.062501 106, 062501 (2011)]. For the case of 92Zr, a difference could be experimentally established for the neutron components, while about equal proton transition radii were indicated by the data.Purpose: Determination of the ground-state (g.s.) transition strength of the mixed-symmetry 22+ state and verification of the expected vanishing of the proton transition radii difference between the one-phonon 2+ states in 92Zr.Method: Differential cross sections for the excitation of one-phonon 2+ and 3- states in 92Zr have been measured with the (e,e') reaction at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q≃0.3-0.6 fm-1.Results: Transition strengths B(E2;21+→01+)=6.18(23), B(E2;22+→01+)=3.31(10), and B(E3;31-→01+)=18.4(1.1) Weisskopf units are determined from a comparison of the experimental cross sections to quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) calculations. It is shown that a model-independent plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) analysis can fix the ratio of B(E2) transition strengths to the 21,2+ states with a precision of about 1%. The method furthermore allows to extract their proton transition radii difference. With the present data ΔR=-0.12(51) fm is obtained.Conclusions: Electron scattering at low momentum transfers can provide information on transition radii differences of one-phonon 2+ states even in heavy nuclei. Proton transition radii for the 21,2+ states in 92Zr are found to be identical within uncertainties. The g.s. transition probability for the mixed-symmetry state can be determined with high precision limited only by the available

  13. Quasiparticle-phonon model and quadrupole mixed-symmetry states of 96Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Ch.; Pietralla, N.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of low-lying quadrupole states of 96Ru was calculated within the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model. It is shown that symmetric and mixed-symmetry properties manifest themselves via the structure of the excited states. The first 2+ state is collective and neutron and proton transition matrix elements Mn and Mp are in-phase, while the neutron and proton transition matrix elements Mn and Mp have opposite signs for the third 2+ state. This property of the third 2+ state leads to a large M1 transition between the first and third 2+ states. It is an unambigous demonstration of the mixed-symmetry nature of the third 2+ state. The structure of the first 1+ state is calculated. The state is a member of the two-phonon multiplet generated by the coupling of the [21+]QRPA and the [22+]QRPA states.

  14. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  15. Anomalous behavior of the 2{sup +} mixed-symmetry state in {sup 94}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Elhami, E.; Orce, J. N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Choudry, S. N.; Scheck, M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2007-01-15

    The low-spin structure of {sup 94}Zr has been studied with the (n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reaction, and branching ratios, lifetimes, multipolarities and spin assignments were determined. The 2{sub 2}{sup +} state at 1671.4 keV has been identified as the lowest mixed-symmetry state in {sup 94}Zr. The 752.5-keV transition from this state to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level has a large B(M1) value of 0.33(5) {mu}{sub N}{sup 2}, and the B(E2) of the transition to the ground state has an unusually large value of 8(1) W.u. The M1 transition strength is in agreement with IBM-2 predictions in the U(5) vibrational limit, whereas the large B(E2;2{sub 1,MS}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) value significantly exceeds the E2 strength predicted by the IBM-2. For the first time, the 2{sub 1,MS}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}E2 transition is observed to have a larger E2 transition strength than the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +} decay.

  16. Description of the evolution of mixed-symmetry states in the N = 78 isotonic chain with IBM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Yuan, Shu-Qing; Ding, Bin-Gang

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the lowest mixed-symmetry states 2+ms and 1+ms for 132Xe, 134Ba and 136Ce in the even-even N = 78 isotones are investigated within the framework of the IBM2 model. The lowest mixed-symmetry state 2+ms levels for both a single isolated state in 132Xe and 136Ce and a fragmented state in 134Ba are reproduced by the predictions. The agreement between the IBM2 calculation and the experimental values is good for the B(E2) and B(M1) transition probabilities both quantitatively and qualitatively. The predicted summed B(M1) strength follows the experimental data, remaining nearly constant as a function of proton number along the chain of the N = 78 isotones. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475062) and Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (KY6100135)

  17. The effect of in-plane mass anisotropy on the properties of high temperature superconductors in states of mixed symmetry.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2009-10-01

    Experiments have suggested that the high- T(c) cuprate YBCO shows marked anisotropy in penetration depth and coherence length measurements. In order to take into account the presence of this anisotropy in the system and its corresponding effect on the various properties of the high- T(c) superconducting materials, we have developed an anisotropic two-order parameter Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory involving a mixed symmetry state of the order parameter components. For this we have generalized a two-order parameter GL theory, recently developed for the isotropic high- T(c) superconductors involving a mixed symmetry state of the order parameter components (Karmakar and Dey 2008 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20 255218), in which the effect of the presence of in-plane anisotropy has been taken into account by an effective mass approximation, with the anisotropy being characterized by the parameter γ = m(x)/m(y). The work goes beyond the limitations of the earlier studies in this field as it enables us to carry out a detailed study of the various properties of the system over the entire range of applied magnetic field and wide range of temperature for arbitrary values of the GL parameter κ(y) and vortex lattice symmetry. The model successfully explains not only the observed oblique vortex lattice structure in the presence of in-plane anisotropy but also the experimentally observed angle between the primitive axes of the vortex lattice. The generation of two-fold symmetry of the vortices in the presence of in-plane anisotropy, for a very low applied magnetic field can also be analyzed by our model. We have also compared our theoretical results with various other experiments on high- T(c) cuprate YBCO. PMID:21832422

  18. One-phonon octupole vibrational states in 211At, 212Rn, 213Fr and 214Ra with N = 126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Excited high spin states in 211At, 212Rn, 213Fr and 214Ra with N = 126 are reorganized and interpreted in terms of the stretched weak coupling of an octupole 3- phonon. Nearly identical sequences of levels with ΔI = 3 and the parity change are found, for the first time, up to 25- for 20 states of 214Ra, up to 35- for 36 states of 212Rn and up to 53/2+ for 16 states of 213Fr. The stretched weak coupling of an octupole phonon is extended up to the highest excitation energy of 11355 keV for 212Rn which has the largest experimental B( E3) value of 44.1(88) W.u. for the 11- → 8{2/+} transition. The stretched weak coupling of an octupole 3- phonon needs to be considered when single particle configurations are assigned to high spin states. Average octupole excitation energies of 657(51) keV for 211At, 1101(28) keV for 212Rn, 667(25) keV for 213Fr, and 709(25) keV for 214Ra are obtained. The calculated level enegies are in a good agreement with the experimental level energies within the error limit of 4.3%.

  19. B (E2) strength ratio of one-phonon 2+ states of 94Zr from electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheikh Obeid, A.; Aslanidou, S.; Birkhan, J.; Krugmann, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Background: The B (E2) transition strength to the 22+ state in 94Zr was initially reported to be larger by a factor of 1.63 than the one to the 21+ state from lifetime measurements with the Doppler-shift attenuation method using the (n,n'γ) reaction [Elhami et al., Phys. Rev. C 75, 011301(R) (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevC.75.011301]. This surprising behavior was recently revised in a new measurement by the same group using the same experimental technique leading to a ratio below unity as expected in vibrational nuclei. Purpose: The goal is an independent determination of the ratio of B (E2) strengths for the transitions to the 21,2+ states of 94Zr with inelastic electron scattering. Method: The relative population of the 21,2+ states in the (e,e') reaction was measured at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q =0.17-0.51 fm-1 and analyzed in plane-wave Born approximation with the method described by Scheikh Obeid et al. [Phys. Rev. C 87, 014337 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.87.014337]. Results: The extracted B (E2) strength ratio of 0.789(43) between the excitation of the 21+ and 22+ states of 94Zr is consistent with but more precise than the latest (n,n'γ) experiment. Using the B (E2) transition strength to the first excited state from the literature a value of 3.9(9) Weisskopf units is deduced for the B (E2;22+→01+) transition. Conclusions: The electron scattering result independently confirms the latest interpretation of the different (n,n'γ) results for the transition to the 22+ state in 94Zr.

  20. Schematic microscopic approach to the description of M1 transitions between mixed-symmetry and fully symmetric collective states in {gamma}-soft nuclei based on RPA-IBM boson mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Jolos, R. V.; Shirikova, N. Yu.; Voronov, V. V.; Pietralla, N.

    2011-07-15

    A schematic microscopic method is developed to calculate the M1 transition probabilities between the mixed-symmetry and the fully symmetric states in {gamma}-soft nuclei. The method is based on the random-phase approximation-interacting boson model (RPA-IBM) boson mapping of the most collective isoscalar boson. All other boson modes with higher excitation energies, including the mixed-symmetry boson, are described in the framework of RPA. As an example the M1 transition probabilities are calculated for the {sup 124-134}Xe isotopes and compared with the experimental data. The results agree well with the data for the ratio B(M1;1{sub ms}{sup +}{yields}2{sub 2}{sup +})/B(M1;1{sub ms}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}). However, the calculated ratio B(M1;2{sub ms}{sup +}{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +})/B(M1;1{sub ms}{sup +}{yields}0{sub 1}{sup +}) shows a significantly weaker dependence on the mass number than the experimental data.

  1. Mixed-symmetry octupole and hexadecapole excitations in N=52 isotones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Andreas; Spieker, Mark; Werner, Volker; Ahn, Tan; Anagnostatou, Vassia; Cooper, Nathan; Derya, Vera; Elvers, Michael; Endres, Janis; Goddard, Phil; Heinz, Andreas; Hughes, Richard O.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mineva, Milena N.; Pickstone, Simon G.; Petkov, Pavel; Pietralla, Norbert; Radeck, Desirée; Ross, Tim J.; Savran, Deniz; Zilges, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In addition to the well-established quadrupole mixed-symmetry states, octupole and hexadecapole excitations with mixed-symmetry character have been recently proposed for the N = 52 isotones 92Zr and 94Mo. We performed two inelastic proton-scattering experiments to study this kind of excitations in the heaviest stable N = 52 isotone 96Ru. From the combined experimental data of both experiments absolute transition strengths were extracted.

  2. One-phonon absorption by type IIa diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiflawi, I.; Welbourn, C. M.; Woods, G. S.

    1993-02-01

    Brown type IIa diamonds have been found to exhibit a very weak one-phonon infrared absorption that begins near the Raman energy at 1332cm -1, and increases, with decreasing wavenumber, to a maximum at 1016cm -1 with a shoulder on the high-wavenumber side at about 1050cm -1. A colourless type IIa specimen showed an even weaker absorption beginning again near 1332cm -1 and increasing to show two maxima near 1100cm -1 and 1000cm -1. These specimen also showed birefringence patterns between crossed polars that are indicative of plastic deformation. It is suggested that the infrared absorptions are caused by dislocations.

  3. Fragmentation of mixed-symmetry excitations in stable even-even tellurium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-11-15

    The lowest six excited 2{sup +} levels of the even-even {sup 122-130}Te nuclei have been investigated using {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering. These levels have been identified and their decay properties have been characterized from {gamma}-ray excitation functions and {gamma}-ray angular distributions; additionally, lifetimes of these levels have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Electromagnetic transition rates and E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6]{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +} transitions have been examined to identify the lowest mixed-symmetry states in these nuclei. In each nucleus, the mixed-symmetry strength appears to be fragmented between more than one level. The summed M1 strength from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6] states to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level agrees rather well with neutron-proton interacting boson model predictions in the U(5) or O(6) limits for these Te nuclei.

  4. Evidence for Eight-Node Mixed-Symmetry Superconductivity in a Correlated Organic Metal.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Diehl, Sandra; Altmeyer, Michaela; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Schubert, Harald; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; Huth, Michael; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-10

    We report on a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the superconducting state in the quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor κ-(ET)_{2}Cu[N(CN)_{2}]Br. Applying spin-fluctuation theory to a low-energy, material-specific Hamiltonian derived from ab initio density functional theory we calculate the quasiparticle density of states in the superconducting state. We find a distinct three-peak structure that results from a strongly anisotropic mixed-symmetry superconducting gap with eight nodes and twofold rotational symmetry. This theoretical prediction is supported by low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy on in situ cleaved single crystals of κ-(ET)_{2}Cu[N(CN)_{2}]Br with the tunneling direction parallel to the layered structure. PMID:27341250

  5. Evidence for Eight-Node Mixed-Symmetry Superconductivity in a Correlated Organic Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Diehl, Sandra; Altmeyer, Michaela; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Schubert, Harald; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; Huth, Michael; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    We report on a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the superconducting state in the quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor κ -(ET )2Cu [N (CN )2]Br . Applying spin-fluctuation theory to a low-energy, material-specific Hamiltonian derived from ab initio density functional theory we calculate the quasiparticle density of states in the superconducting state. We find a distinct three-peak structure that results from a strongly anisotropic mixed-symmetry superconducting gap with eight nodes and twofold rotational symmetry. This theoretical prediction is supported by low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy on in situ cleaved single crystals of κ -(ET )2Cu [N (CN )2]Br with the tunneling direction parallel to the layered structure.

  6. Mixed-symmetry tensor conserved currents and AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin

    2013-05-01

    We present the full list of conserved currents built of two massless spinor fields in Minkowski space and their derivatives multiplied by Clifford algebra elements. The currents have particular mixed-symmetry type described by Young diagrams with one row and one column of arbitrary lengths and heights. Along with Yukawa-like totally antisymmetric currents, the complete set of constructed currents exactly matches the spectrum of AdS mixed-symmetry fields arising in the generalized Flato-Frønsdal theorem for two spinor singletons. As a by-product, we formulate and study general properties of primary fields and conserved currents of mixed-symmetry type. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  7. One-phonon and multiphonon processes in atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, V.; Himes, D.; Bortolani, V.; Santoro, G.; Toennies, J. P.; Zhang, G.

    1991-02-01

    We show that previously unexplained features in the TOF spectra of He and Ne scattered from solid surfaces can be attributed to multiphonon processes. We find that a simple Gaussian distribution, obtained by Brako and Newns within the trajectory approximation, accounts rather well for these features. The average energy transfer appearing in this distribution is evaluated by the Baule formula. We obtain an interpolation formula that describes both multiphonon and one-phonon processes, and is consistent with the Distorted Wave Born Approximation for the latter.

  8. Projectors and seed conformal blocks for traceless mixed-symmetry tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Hansen, Tobias; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we derive the projectors to all irreducible SO( d) representations (traceless mixed-symmetry tensors) that appear in the partial wave decomposition of a conformal correlator of four stress-tensors in d dimensions. These projectors are given in a closed form for arbitrary length l 1 of the first row of the Young diagram. The appearance of Gegenbauer polynomials leads directly to recursion relations in l 1 for seed conformal blocks. Further results include a differential operator that generates the projectors to traceless mixed-symmetry tensors and the general normalization constant of the shadow operator.

  9. Evolution of the mixed-symmetry 2{sup+}{sub 1,ms} quadrupole-photon excitation from spherical to {gamma}-soft Xe nuclei.

    SciTech Connect

    Coquard, L.; Pietralla, N.; Rainovski, G.; Ahn, T.; Bettermann, L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R.V. F.; Leske, J.; Lister, C. J.; Moller, O.; Rother, W.; Werner, V.; Zhu, S.

    2010-08-23

    Low-lying collective states of {sup 130,132}Xe have been investigated by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following {sup 12}C(Xe,Xe*){sup 12}C projectile Coulomb excitation. The one-phonon 2{sub 1,ms}{sup +} states have been identified: the 2{sub 4}{sup +} state at 2150 keV with B(M1;2{sub 4}{sup +} {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +})=0.15(4){mu}{sub {mu}}{sup N} in {sup 130}Xe and the 2{sub 3}{sup +} state at 1985 keV with B(M1;2{sub 3}{sup +} {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +})=0.22(6){mu}{sub N}{sup 2} in {sup 132}Xe. The evolution of the one-phonon 2{sub 1,ms}{sup +} states in the even-even stable xenon isotopic chain from the vibrators near N=82 to the {gamma}-soft nuclei toward midshell is discussed.

  10. Search for Multiphonon and Mixed-Symmetry States in 127I

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Orce, J. N.; Choudry, S. N.; Varadarajan, V.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2006-03-13

    The low-spin structure of 127I has been studied using the (n,n'{gamma}) reaction at neutron energies ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 MeV and the (n,n'{gamma}{gamma}) reaction at 3 MeV. New excited levels and {gamma}-rays have been identified by using excitation functions and coincidence data. Lifetimes were also determined from an angular distribution experiment. Future work involves determining multipolarities and spin assignments in order to obtain B(M1) and B(E2) values.

  11. Excitons in one-phonon resonant Raman scattering: Fröhlich and interference effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, A.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Cardona, M.

    1989-12-01

    A theoretical model of resonant Raman scattering including excitons as intermediate states in the process is compared with recent experimental results in some III-V compound semiconductors where the Raman polarizability was obtained in absolute value for several scattering configurations. In particular, Fröhlich (F) interaction and its interference with the deformation potential (DP) one is analyzed in the E0+Δ0 critical point (CP) of GaAs at three different temperatures. Also the E0 and E0+Δ0 CP of GaP and E0+Δ0 of GaSb are analyzed. We show that the inclusion of impurity-induced forbidden LO-phonon Raman scattering is not necessary when excitonic effects are considered. The experimental data of GaAs corresponding to F interaction can be fitted by assuming a Fröhlich constant cF=0.14 eV Aṥ/2. Lifetime broadenings of 12 meV (10 K), 14 meV (100 K), and 28 meV (300 K) are deduced. The lifetime broadening of GaAs and GaSb at 100 K are taken from two-phonon Raman scattering spectra where the incoming and outgoing resonances are well defined. The general features in the comparison with the experiment is that the measured spectra corresponding to F interaction are well fitted; however, the theoretical interference is stronger than the measured one.

  12. Weyl action of two-column mixed-symmetry field and its factorization around (A)dS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Euihun; Mkrtchyan, Karapet

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the four-derivative free Weyl action for two-column mixed-symmetry field that makes use of maximal gauge symmetries. In flat space, the action can be uniquely determined from gauge and Weyl (trace shift) symmetry requirements. We show that there is a smooth and unique deformation of the flat action to (A)dS which keeps the same amount of gauge symmetries. This action admits a factorization into two distinct two-derivative actions having gauge parameters of different Young diagrams. Hence, this factorization pattern naturally extends that of the Weyl actions of symmetric higher spin fields to mixed-symmetry cases. The mass-deformation for these actions can be realized preserving one of the gauge symmetries. Although generically non-unitary, in special dimensions, unitarity is achieved selecting different mass deformations for dS and AdS. We consider particular examples of our construction such as New Massive Gravity in three dimensions, linearized bigravity in four dimensions and their arbitrary dimensional generalizations.

  13. Low-lying Collective States in {sup 136}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Scheck, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Crider, B.; Choudry, S. N.; Elhami, E.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Orce, J. N.; Yates, S. W.

    2009-01-28

    Low-lying collective states in {sup 136}Ba were investigated with (n,n'{gamma}) techniques, including Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements. The level spins, lifetimes, branching ratios, multipole-mixing ratios and transition strengths reveal candidates for symmetric-phonon states up to third order. The 2{sub ms}{sup +} mixed-symmetry state was confirmed as unfragmented and a candidate for a [2{sub 1}{sup +} x 2{sub ms}{sup +}]{sub 3}{sup +} two-phonon mixed-symmetry state is proposed.

  14. Collective excitations of 96Ru by means of (p ,p'γ ) experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, A.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Blazhev, A.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Goddard, P.; Heinz, A.; Hughes, R. O.; Ilie, G.; Mineva, M. N.; Petkov, P.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, D.; Ross, T. J.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.

    2015-12-01

    Background: One-phonon mixed-symmetry quadrupole excitations are a well-known feature of near-spherical, vibrational nuclei. Their interpretation as a fundamental building block of vibrational structures is supported by the identification of multiphonon states resulting from a coupling of fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric quadrupole phonons. In addition, the observation of strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states has been interpreted as an evidence for one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitations of octupole and hexadecapole character. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to identify collective one- and two-phonon excitations in the heaviest stable N =52 isotone 96Ru based on a measurement of absolute M 1 , E 1 , and E 2 transition strengths. Methods: Inelastic proton-scattering experiments have been performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, and the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), University of Cologne. From the acquired proton-γ and γ γ coincidence data we deduced spins of excited states, γ -decay branching ratios, and multipole mixing ratios, as well as lifetimes of excited states via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Results: Based on the new experimental data on absolute transition strengths, we identified the 2+ and 3+ members of the two-phonon mixed-symmetry quintuplet (21,ms +⊗21,s +) . Furthermore, we observed strong M 1 transitions between low-lying 3- and 4+ states suggesting one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric octupole and hexadecapole components in their wave functions, respectively. The experimental results are compared to s d g -IBM-2 and shell-model calculations. Conclusions: Both the s d g -IBM-2 and the shell-model calculations are able to describe key features of mixed-symmetry excitations of 96Ru. Moreover, they support the one-phonon mixed-symmetry hexadecapole assignment of the experimental 42+ state.

  15. Multiphonon excitations in 62Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, M.; Mücher, D.; Bernards, C.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; Lisetskiy, A.; Petkov, P.; Radeck, D.; Zell, K. O.

    2010-12-01

    We studied excited states in 62Zn up to an excitation energy of 5.5 MeV via the 61Ni( 3He, 2n γ) reaction at the Cologne Tandem accelerator with the high-efficiency HORUS cube spectrometer. We identified several multi-phonon excitations, especially two fragments of the one-phonon mixed-symmetry state 21,MS+ based on effective M1 and E2 transition strengths. The quantities were obtained from γγ angular correlation and Doppler-shift measurements. Shell-model calculations performed for 62Zn give clear support for the fragmentation of the one-phonon mixed-symmetry 21,MS+ state. The assumption of 62Zn being a vibrator-like nucleus is supported by calculations of excitation energies and E2 and M1 transition strengths within the U(5) limit of the neutron-proton Interacting Boson Model.

  16. Mixed symmetry tensors in the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Olindo; Edwards, James P.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the first quantised approach to quantum field theory coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. Representing the colour degrees of freedom with a single family of auxiliary variables the matter field transforms in a reducible representation of the gauge group which — by adding a suitable Chern-Simons term to the particle action — can be projected onto a chosen fully (anti-)symmetric representation. By considering F families of auxiliary variables, we describe how to extend the model to arbitrary tensor products of F reducible representations, which realises a U( F ) "flavour" symmetry on the world-line particle model. Gauging this symmetry allows the introduction of constraints on the Hilbert space of the colour fields which can be used to project onto an arbitrary irreducible representation, specified by a certain Young tableau. In particular the occupation numbers of the wavefunction — i.e. the lengths of the columns (rows) of the Young tableau — are fixed through the introduction of Chern-Simons terms. We verify this projection by calculating the number of colour degrees of freedom associated to the matter field. We suggest that, using the worldline approach to quantum field theory, this mechanism will allow the calculation of one-loop scattering amplitudes with the virtual particle in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group.

  17. Multiphonon states in {sub 56}{sup 136}Ba{sub 80}

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Scheck, M.; Crider, B.; Choudry, S. N.; Elhami, E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Orce, J. N.; Peters, E.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-09-15

    Low-lying multiphonon states in {sup 136}Ba have been populated with the inelastic neutron scattering reaction. Excitation functions were performed at neutron energies from 2.2 to 3.9 MeV, and {gamma}-ray angular distributions were measured at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 MeV. Lifetimes have been determined using the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and electromagnetic transition rates have been deduced. The previously assigned 2{sub 1,ms}{sup +} mixed-symmetry state at 2128.9 keV has been confirmed and is not greatly fragmented. For the first time in the N=80 isotones, a 3{sub 2,ms}{sup +} two-phonon mixed-symmetry state is proposed. In addition, the 2{sub 5}{sup +} and the 4{sub 3}{sup +} levels at 2222.7 and 2356.4 keV, respectively, decay with large B(M1) values to the two-phonon 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 4{sub 1}{sup +} states, respectively, which suggests two-phonon mixed-symmetric character. Their excitation energies, however, are not consistent with this interpretation.

  18. Microscopic structure of low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Iudice, N.; Sushkov, A. V.

    2008-11-15

    The phonon and quasiparticle structure of the low-lying states in {sup 188,190,192}Os is investigated within the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model. An overall agreement with the data is obtained for energies and transitions. The properties of the 0{sup +} states are found to be correlated with the evolution of the nuclear shape toward the {gamma}-soft region. Special attention is devoted at the 4{sub 3}{sup +} state. This state is found to be composed of a large double-{gamma} phonon component coexisting with an even larger one-phonon hexadecapole piece. Such a mixed phonon structure explains the observed, apparently contradictory, properties of the 4{sub 3}{sup +} states in Os isotopes.

  19. Multiphonon structure in ^114Cd:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, D.; Reynolds, C. C.; Lesher, S. R.; Fransen, C.; Boukharouba, N.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2003-10-01

    We have studied ^114Cd to reveal the appearance of the systematic pattern of several collective properties in this nucleus, e.g., the fully-symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures. Levels in ^114Cd have been studied at the University of Kentucky 7 MV accelerator facility in measurements of excitation functions and angular distributions of γ rays emitted in the (n,n^'γ) reaction. The Doppler-shift attenuation method has been used to determine level lifetimes, and reduced transition probabilities have been calculated in order to characterize the levels. One-phonon mixed-symmetry^1 and quadrupole-octupole^2 coupled states are identified. In addition, a 2-phonon 1^+ mixed-symmetry state is found at 2800 keV, which is consistent with the similar behavior observed in ^108,112Cd isotopes^3,4. ^114Cd, with 9 bosons in its valence shell, is also found to be a promising candidate for 4-phonon structures. This work was supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation under grant No. PHY-0098813. ^1 D. Bandyopadhyay et al., Phy. Rev. C 67, 034319(2003). ^2 D. Bandyopadhyay et al., Phy. Rev. C, In press. ^3 P. E. Garrett et al., Phy. Rev. C 64, 024316(2001). ^4 A. Gade et al., Phy. Rev. C 66, 0343112).

  20. Investigation of the mixed-symmetric one-quadrupole phonon 2+ 1,ms state of the heavy nucleus 204Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, R.; Stahl, C.; Rainovski, G.; Pietralla, N.; Möller, T.; Lettmann, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M.; Zhu, S.

    2016-06-01

    Low-energy quadrupole-collective excitations of isovector character, the so-called states with proton-neutron mixed-symmetric character (MSS), have been investigated in 204Hg which is the sole stable nucleus in the straight vicinity of 208Pb exhibiting a 2π — 2ν structure. A 12C(204Hg,204Hg*)12C projectile Coulomb-excitation experiment at 890MeV was performed at Argonne National Laboratory using the ATLAS accelerator. γ-rays originating from the decay of the excited states of 204Hg were detected using the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer. The measured Coulomb-excitation yields provide the B(M1) and the B(E2) strength distributions which unambiguously reveal the 23 + state at 1948 keV as the one-phonon MSS of 204Hg.

  1. Symmetry-adapted excited states for the T1u⊗hg Jahn-Teller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Q. C.; Dunn, J. L.; Bates, C. A.

    2001-08-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) systems typically contain a set of equivalent-energy wells in the lowest adiabatic potential-energy surface (APES). Quantum-mechanical tunneling between these wells (the dynamic JT effect) must be allowed for by taking appropriate symmetrized combinations of oscillator-type states associated with the wells. It is important to be able to describe the excited states of such systems for a number of reasons. One particular reason is that they are required for the calculation of second-order vibronic reduction factors, which in turn are useful for modeling experimental data using effective Hamiltonians. In this paper, projection-operator techniques are used to obtain general expressions for the symmetry-adapted excited states of the icosahedral T1u⊗hg JT system for the case of D5d minima in the APES. Analytical expressions for the states and their energies for one-phonon excitation are given explicitly. The energies of a selection of states with two-phonon excitations are also obtained and plotted. The results obtained in this paper are applicable to the C-60 molecule.

  2. Low-spin excitations in ^100Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeck, D.; Bettermann, L.; Blazhev, A.; Bernards, C.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Heinze, S.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Pissulla, T.; Zell, K. O.; Moeller, O.

    2009-10-01

    In the context of investigating collectivity in the A=100 mass region the nucleus ^100Pd was measured at the Cologne Tandem facility using the HORUS and the plunger setups. Detailed data exists for the N=52 isotones and the evolution of collectivity - especially of the symmetric and mixed-symmetric phonon states - was discussed. To extend the knowledge of the evolution in this region it is important to measure the N=54 isotones. Up to now the low-energy part of the excitation spectrum of ^100Pd was known sparsely and only the lifetime of an 8^+ isomer was known. Using the HORUS data the level scheme was extended, clarified and multipole mixing ratios were determined for the first time. The plunger experiment yielded lifetimes of the yrast states up to 12^+1. Both, the experimental excitation spectrum and electric transition strengths, were compared to predictions of theoretical models, i.e. the anharmonic vibrator model, the Interacting Boson Model and the shell model. A candidate for the one-phonon mixed-symmetry excitation 2^+1,ms was identified due to its dominating M1 transition to the symmetric 2^+1 state. The results will be presented and discussed. Supported by DFG, grant Jo 391/3-2 and US DOE DE-FG02-91ER40609.

  3. Computation of diffuse scattering arising from one-phonon excitations in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Matthias J.; Graziano, Gabriella; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Refson, Keith; von Zimmerman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Direct phonon excitation in a neutron time-of-flight single-crystal Laue diffraction experiment has been observed in a single crystal of NaCl. At room temperature both phonon emission and excitation leave characteristic features in the diffuse scattering and these are well reproduced using ab initio phonons from density functional theory (DFT). A measurement at 20 K illustrates the effect of thermal population of the phonons, leaving the features corresponding to phonon excitation and strongly suppressing the phonon annihilation. A recipe is given to compute these effects combining DFT results with the geometry of the neutron experiment. PMID:26306090

  4. Symmetry-adapted excited states for the T{sub 1u}(direct-product)h{sub g} Jahn-Teller system

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Q. C.; Dunn, J. L.; Bates, C. A.

    2001-08-15

    Jahn-Teller (JT) systems typically contain a set of equivalent-energy wells in the lowest adiabatic potential-energy surface (APES). Quantum-mechanical tunneling between these wells (the dynamic JT effect) must be allowed for by taking appropriate symmetrized combinations of oscillator-type states associated with the wells. It is important to be able to describe the excited states of such systems for a number of reasons. One particular reason is that they are required for the calculation of second-order vibronic reduction factors, which in turn are useful for modeling experimental data using effective Hamiltonians. In this paper, projection-operator techniques are used to obtain general expressions for the symmetry-adapted excited states of the icosahedral T{sub 1u}(direct-product)h{sub g} JT system for the case of D{sub 5d} minima in the APES. Analytical expressions for the states and their energies for one-phonon excitation are given explicitly. The energies of a selection of states with two-phonon excitations are also obtained and plotted. The results obtained in this paper are applicable to the C{sub 60}{sup -} molecule.

  5. Decay of quadrupole-octupole 1- states in 40Ca and 140Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derya, V.; Tsoneva, N.; Aumann, T.; Bhike, M.; Endres, J.; Gooden, M.; Hennig, A.; Isaak, J.; Lenske, H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Two-phonon excitations originating from the coupling of two collective one-phonon states are of great interest in nuclear structure physics. One possibility to generate low-lying E 1 excitations is the coupling of quadrupole and octupole phonons. Purpose: In this work, the γ -decay behavior of candidates for the (21+⊗31-)1- state in the doubly magic nucleus 40Ca and in the heavier and semimagic nucleus 140Ce is investigated. Methods: (γ ⃗,γ') experiments have been carried out at the High Intensity γ -ray Source (HI γ S ) facility in combination with the high-efficiency γ -ray spectroscopy setup γ3 consisting of HPGe and LaBr3 detectors. The setup enables the acquisition of γ -γ coincidence data and, hence, the detection of direct decay paths. Results: In addition to the known ground-state decays, for 40Ca the decay into the 31- state was observed, while for 140Ce the direct decays into the 21+ and the 02+ state were detected. The experimentally deduced transition strengths and excitation energies are compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of EDF theory plus QPM approach and systematically analyzed for N =82 isotones. In addition, negative parities for two J =1 states in 44Ca were deduced simultaneously. Conclusions: The experimental findings together with the theoretical calculations support the two-phonon character of the 11- excitation in the light-to-medium-mass nucleus 40Ca as well as in the stable even-even N =82 nuclei.

  6. State of the States 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education Finance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Presenters at the State of the States Roundtable session at the 2014 National Education Finance Conference in Louisville were invited to submit their papers for publication. These papers address the following topics: (1) State issues affecting P-12 and/or higher education funding; (2) Funding priorities/trends for P-12 and/or higher education; (3)…

  7. State of the States 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education Finance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Presenters at the State of the States Roundtable session at the 2014 National Education Finance Conference in Louisville were invited to submit their papers for publication. These papers address the following topics: (1) State issues affecting P-12 and/or higher education funding; (2) Funding priorities/trends for P-12 and/or higher education; (3)…

  8. State Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Janita

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 100 state government documents from 45 states published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including historical and cultural issues; health and social issues, including education, crime, and homelessness; the environment; and the economy. A list of contributors is included. (two references) (MES)

  9. Study of collectivity in 62Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, M.; Mü; cher, D.; Jolie, J.; Bernards, C.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Petkov, P.; Radeck, D.; Zell, K. O.

    2009-01-01

    An essential property of collectivity is the proton-neutron degree of freedom, that leads to the so-called states of mixed symmetry. Predictions for the electromagnetic decay of the lowest-lying mixed-symmetry state 2MS,1+ in vibrator-like even-A nuclei are a strong M1 decay to the fully-symmetric 21+ state and a weak collective E2 decay to the ground state 01+. Excited states in 62Zn have been studied via the 61Ni(3He,2nγ) reaction using the HORUS-cube spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne. Two fragments of the mixed-symmetry state 2MS,1+ could be identified by determining absolute M1 transition strengths to the 21+ state.

  10. State Treasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2013-01-01

    When a music teacher is named Teacher of the Year for an entire state, one just know a special story awaits. The narrative of Heidi Welch, director of music at Hillsboro-Deering High School in New Hampshire, does not disappoint. Welch, who grew up in abject poverty and was often homeless, developed her love of music through memorizing and singing…

  11. Workfare States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Jamie

    This book discusses the evolution of workfare policies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Chapter 1 defines the term "workfare" and examines the concepts of transnationalizing workfare and workfarist labor regulation. Chapter 2 establishes workfare's theoretical context and explores the relationship between welfare arrangements…

  12. State Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Janita

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 100 items published in 1993 by state governments. Subject areas include health and health care, environment, conservation, business, economic issues, reevaluation of the educational system, government reorganization, crime and justice, families and child care, minority issues, and local history. (KRN)

  13. Microwave Electromechanics: Measuring and Manipulating the Quantum State of a Macroscopic Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jennifer Wightman

    In the past several years, the field of optomechanics has progressed from proof-of-principle experiments to the realization of mechanical oscillators and measurements in the quantum regime. Mechanical oscillators are of great interest because they can have small dissipation rates, can couple to many different systems of interest, and are the fundamental elements of ultrasensitive force detectors. Coupling these mechanical oscillators to microwave or optical fields provides a two-fold advantage. Firstly, information about mechanical position can be encoded in the interrogating field, enabling sensitive readout of the mechanical oscillator. Secondly, the radiation pressure force of that field can be used to control the state of the mechanical oscillator. Including a high-quality microwave or optical cavity enhances both of these effects, as the field strength is resonantly increased. The major questions in the field of optomechanics in the last several years have dealt with using mechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive measurements and as tools for quantum information. Both of these goals have the prerequisite that we be able to read out the motion of the mechanical oscillator in a quantum efficient manner. To that end, we developed a nearly shot-noise limited microwave interferometer capable of measuring mechanical motion with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit. This achievement is not only a critical improvement for the electromechanical experiments we do, but is also an important tool for any experiment that encodes the information of interest in microwave fields. In order to use mechanical oscillators as tools for quantum information, the mechanical oscillator must also be cooled into the quantum regime and fully controllable by the interrogating fields. To this end, we used the radiation pressure of microwave fields to cool our macroscopic mechanical oscillator to less than one phonon. We also demonstrated coherent transfer between

  14. State of the States 2016: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The "State of the States 2016" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or administrative code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based on a comprehensive search of state education statute and codes on each state's relevant websites. Complete results from this review are available in…

  15. State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

  16. United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Karen

    2008-10-01

    The 'Green House' effect; the rise of community care; and suicide awareness Baltimore: When he took a parttime job in a nursing home, Harvard-trained physician Bill Thomas realised that the biggest problems residents faced were not their illnesses but 'loneliness, helplessness and boredom'. He went on to found the Eden Alternative, 'a movement to de-institutionalise nursing homes', and has since revolutionised older people's residential care around Baltimore, replacing nursing homes with clusters of small homes, each for up to ten residents. Called 'Green Houses', Dr Thomas now has a $10 million (£5.6 million) grant to replace more than 100 nursing homes in all 50 US states with these small dwellings. Last month he began teaching an experimental class at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County's Erickson School on Aging, Management and Policy: 'Aging 100: You Say You Want a Revolution'. Classes will be broadcast on YouTube. PMID:27316081

  17. K-12 Science Standards, State by State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Lawrence S.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a study evaluating state standards in science. The treatment of evolution, which varies tremendously in quality from state to state, is discussed at length. In some states--Arizona for example--evolution is completely ignored in the life sciences. Highlights local political battles. Describes good evolution curricula in Connecticut,…

  18. The State of State English Standards, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    The importance of state academic standards soared in January 2002 with passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Not only does that milestone law require all states to have demanding academic standards in place and to demonstrate steady student progress toward academic proficiency as set forth in those standards, it also links states'…

  19. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This is the latest edition of the "State of the States in Developmental Disabilities" study--a thorough and the only one of its kind investigation on public spending, revenues, and programmatic trends of intellectual and developmental programs and services within the United States since 1977. Directed by leading researcher, Dr. David Braddock, the…

  20. Dance Teacher Licensure: State by State Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Susan, Comp.; Richard, Byron, Comp.

    This paper presents state-by-state requirements for dance teacher licensure in the following states: Arizona, Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Each listing includes information on address, telephone number, e-mail and/or Web site, and…

  1. Talent: A State's Resource, A State's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, J. Ned, Ed.

    The development of provisions for gifted and talented students at the state level was the subject of a conference attended by State directors of programs for the gifted. Presented in the report are conference addresses on quality in education, the differentiated educational process, the role and responsibility of the State department of education…

  2. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  3. California State University, Sacramento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    California State University, Sacramento, commonly referred to as "Sacramento State," is a booming metropolitan university located on 300 acres in the state capital of California. The university, the seventh largest in the California State University system, enrolls a multicultural student body of approximately 29,000 students. At Sacramento State,…

  4. State energy information networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, J.; Ettinger, G.; Wrabel, M.

    1984-06-01

    In November 1983, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a study under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) State Programs Branch to examine state energy information networks. Goal was to help DOE decide how best to allocate resources to assist states in acquiring information related to state energy programs and policies.

  5. State Appropriations: Drought Warning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, James A.

    1981-01-01

    After two decades of increase, state funding for higher education is drying up because of inflation and declining state revenues due to recession. States need to reemphasize the importance of higher education. Political action may be the way to reverse the downward trend in state financing of higher education. (MLW)

  6. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  7. State Issues Digest, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This digest is designed to provide campus leaders with an up-to-date, "bird's eye" view of key issues affecting state colleges and universities. The American Association of State Colleges and Universities conducted is annual State Issues Survey of the Council of State Representatives in 2002 and received 44 responses from 61 college and university…

  8. Doorway states and billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Villafane, J. A.; Mendez-Sanchez, R. A.; Flores, J.; Mateos, J. L.; Novaro, O.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-12-23

    Whenever a distinct state is immersed in a sea of complicated and dense states, the strength of the distinct state, which we refer to as a doorway, is distributed in their neighboring states. We analyze this mechanism for 2-D billiards with different geometries. One of them is symmetric and integrable, another is symmetric but chaotic, and the third has a capricious form. The fact that the doorway-state mechanism is valid for such highly diverse cases, proves that it is robust.

  9. Product-State Approximations to Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.

    2016-02-01

    We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.

  10. State-Chart Autocoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Kenneth; Watney, Garth; Murray, Alexander; Benowitz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    A computer program translates Unified Modeling Language (UML) representations of state charts into source code in the C, C++, and Python computing languages. ( State charts signifies graphical descriptions of states and state transitions of a spacecraft or other complex system.) The UML representations constituting the input to this program are generated by using a UML-compliant graphical design program to draw the state charts. The generated source code is consistent with the "quantum programming" approach, which is so named because it involves discrete states and state transitions that have features in common with states and state transitions in quantum mechanics. Quantum programming enables efficient implementation of state charts, suitable for real-time embedded flight software. In addition to source code, the autocoder program generates a graphical-user-interface (GUI) program that, in turn, generates a display of state transitions in response to events triggered by the user. The GUI program is wrapped around, and can be used to exercise the state-chart behavior of, the generated source code. Once the expected state-chart behavior is confirmed, the generated source code can be augmented with a software interface to the rest of the software with which the source code is required to interact.

  11. State Analysis Database Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Bennett, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The State Analysis Database Tool software establishes a productive environment for collaboration among software and system engineers engaged in the development of complex interacting systems. The tool embodies State Analysis, a model-based system engineering methodology founded on a state-based control architecture (see figure). A state represents a momentary condition of an evolving system, and a model may describe how a state evolves and is affected by other states. The State Analysis methodology is a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models and states, and defining goal-based operational plans consistent with the models. Requirements, models, and operational concerns have traditionally been documented in a variety of system engineering artifacts that address different aspects of a mission s lifecycle. In State Analysis, requirements, models, and operations information are State Analysis artifacts that are consistent and stored in a State Analysis Database. The tool includes a back-end database, a multi-platform front-end client, and Web-based administrative functions. The tool is structured to prompt an engineer to follow the State Analysis methodology, to encourage state discovery and model description, and to make software requirements and operations plans consistent with model descriptions.

  12. The State Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.; Jonsen, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews higher education consumer protection activities currently undertaken by the states, with suggestions about others that should be implemented and the role that state coordinating agencies can play in them. (Editor/JT)

  13. States of Matter

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA scientists and engineers utilize the basic principles of the states of matter on a daily basis. The states and properties of matter are very important to the design and construction of NASA sp...

  14. State Health Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... per 100,000 Women by Race/Ethnicity Featured Data Collections Medicaid Policy Action Trends For 15 years, the ... formally collaborated on this project since 2014. This data collection pulls together state by state information on select ...

  15. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  16. Model State Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    Models of state involvement in training child care providers are briefly discussed and the employers' role in training is explored. Six criteria for states that are taken as models are identified, and four are described. Various state activities are described for each criterion. It is noted that little is known about employer and other private…

  17. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  18. State Taxes in 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodley, Joanne H.

    This report describes tax revenues in fiscal year 1967 and tax legislation enacted during the calendar year 1967, for all 50 States. The amount and percent of the total for major sources of tax revenue during fiscal 1967 are listed by State as are the amount per capita and percent change in the States' total tax revenues from 1966 to 1967. Major…

  19. [California State Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jay W.

    The first paper on the California State Archives treats the administrative status, legal basis of the archives program, and organization of the archives program. The problem areas in this States' archival program are discussed at length. The second paper gives a crude sketch of the legal and administrative history of the California State Archives,…

  20. Changing State Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  1. One State, Two State, Red State, Blue State: Education Funding Accounts for Outcome Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Using publically available data, states coded as "blue" based upon results from the 2004 presidential election were significantly higher in education funding than were states coded as "red." Students in blue states scored significantly higher on outcome measures of math and reading in grades four and eight in 2004 and 2007 than did students in red…

  2. State energy overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each State, and for the District of Columbia. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, and the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type. Also provided for each State are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected State energy information and State rankings for various socioeconomics and energy items.

  3. Quantum state sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-05-01

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol that utilizes entanglement to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating together, a majority of the players can reconstruct the state, whilst the remaining player obtains nothing. This (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme is characterized in terms of fidelity (F), signal transfer (T) and reconstruction noise (V). We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73 +/- 0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  4. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources. PMID:15169193

  5. Tripartite Quantum State Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73±0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  6. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  7. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy Resources, (5

  8. The State of State MATH Standards, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, David; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Parker,Thomas; Quirk, William; Schmid, Wilfried; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Two decades after the United States was diagnosed as "a nation at risk," academic standards for our primary and secondary schools are more important than ever?and their quality matters enormously. In 1983, as nearly every American knows, the National Commission on Excellence in Education declared that "The educational foundations of our society…

  9. Arkansas: The State of the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppmeyer, Martin W.

    In a poor state such as Arkansas, progress is often a slow and painful process. Particularly in the area of teacher salaries, school funding plans are often thwarted by budget shortfalls. Court decisions and efforts to stabilize and equalize school funding and local property taxes have led to political battles over taxation. Constitutional…

  10. The State of State Science Standards, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Lawrence S.; Goodenough, Ursula; Lynch, John; Schwartz, Martha; Schwartz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This report examines K-12 science standards for fifty states and the District of Columbia, as well as the science assessment framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The reviewers' aim is to evaluate them for their intrinsic clarity, completeness, and scientific correctness. Their earlier evaluations, as well as those…

  11. The State of State Science Standards, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Until now, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has focused everyone's attention on reading and math--and on whether schools are making "adequate yearly progress" in those two core subjects. Although some states incorporate additional subjects into their own accountability systems, reading and math have dominated most discussions of state…

  12. Educational Decentralization: Weak State or Strong State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Street, Susan

    1986-01-01

    A government is a complex system of competing factions that adopts a decentralization policy when the dominant group sees current government structures or procedures as an obstacle to the realization of group interests. Case studies of educational decentralization in Peru, Chile, and Mexico demonstrate that the "state" tends to share power only…

  13. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  14. Oxidation State 10 Exists.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyu S; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-07-25

    In a recent paper, Wang et al. found an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of 9. This is the highest oxidation state ever found in a stable compound. To learn if this is the highest chemical oxidation state possible, Kohn-Sham density functional theory was used to study various compounds, including PdO4 (2+) , PtO4 (2+) , PtO3 F2 (2+) , PtO4 OH(+) , PtO5 , and PtO4 SH(+) , in which the metal has an oxidation state of 10. It was found that PtO4 (2+) has a metastable state that is kinetically stable with a barrier height for decomposition of 31 kcal mol(-1) and a calculated lifetime of 0.9 years. All other compounds studied would readily decompose to lower oxidation states. PMID:27273799

  15. New squeezed landau states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.

    1993-01-01

    We introduce a new set of squeezed states through the coupled two-mode squeezed operator. It is shown that their behavior is simpler than the correlated coherent states introduced by Dodonov, Kurmyshev, and Man'ko in order to quantum mechanically describe the Landau system, i.e., a planar charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. We compare results for both sets of squeezed states.

  16. State Energy Overview 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Data are presented for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related data that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. Methodology is detailed; a glossary is provided.

  17. Optimally Squeezed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    We consider optimally spin-squeezed states that maximize the sensitivity of the Ramsey spectroscopy, and for which the signal to noise ratio scales as the number of particles N. Using the variational principle we prove that these states are eigensolutions of the Hamiltonian H(λ)=λ S_z^2-S_x, and that, for large N, the states become equivalent to the quadrature squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We present numerical results that illustrate the validity of the equivalence. We also present results of spin squeezing via atom-field interactions within the context of the Tavis-Cummings model. An ensemble of N two-level atoms interacts with a quantized cavity field. For all the atoms initially in their ground states, it is shown that spin squeezing of both the atoms and the field can be achieved provided the initial state of the cavity field has coherence between number states differing by 2. Most of the discussion is restricted to the case of a cavity field initially in a coherent state, but initial squeezed states for the field are also discussed. An analytic solution is found that is valid in the limit that the number of atoms is much greater than unity. References: A. G. Rojo, Phys. Rev A, 68, 013807 (2003); Claudiu Genes, P. R. Berman, and A. G. Rojo Phys. Rev. A 68, 043809 (2003).

  18. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  19. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  20. Healthcare. State Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This report projects education requirements linked to forecasted job growth in healthcare by state and the District of Columbia from 2010 through 2020. It complements a larger national report which projects educational demand for healthcare for the same time period. The national report shows that with or without Obamacare, the United States will…

  1. Centennial State Libraries, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Kathleen D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of 12 consecutive issues of the monthly "Centennial State Libraries" newsletter, of the Colorado Department of Education, State Library and Adult Education Office. The issues cover the year 1998. Each issue of the newsletter--except the August issue which is an Annual Report--includes some or all of the following sections:…

  2. Kansas State Inservice Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KASCO Record, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The first paper (by Jim Jarrett) in this monograph on the Kansas State Inservice Plan offers an overview of one facet of staff development plans, i.e., peer coaching and its effectiveness in teacher inservice education. The next paper (by Dan Neuenswander) reviews the Kansas State Department of Education Inservice Plan, defining inservice and/or…

  3. Qubit state discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Deconinck, Matthieu E.

    2010-06-15

    We show how one can solve the problem of discriminating between qubit states. We use the quantum state discrimination duality theorem and the Bloch sphere representation of qubits, which allows for an easy geometric and analytical representation of the optimal guessing strategies.

  4. State Librarianship: Modular Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jane; Powell, Anne

    This modular curriculum on state librarianship is designed to be used as a basis for a full-length library science course, instructional segments of several courses, continuing education courses, or workshops. The 20 curriculum modules cover the many facets of state libraries and their activities--history, functions, social and political…

  5. Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.

  6. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  7. Solid-state configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts developed for the solar power satellite (SPS) are described. In both concepts, the beam was centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed are results of solid state studies.

  8. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  9. Education and Fragile States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Within the fragile states agendas and policies of development agencies and organisations education is of concern; education is a social service sector in which the impacts of state fragility are significant, in terms of access and quality of provision for children, working conditions and support for teachers, good governance and legitimacy for the…

  10. Grid State Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-09

    This software code is designed to track generator state variables in real time using the Ensemble Kalman Filter method with the aid of PMU measurements. This code can also be used to calibrate dynamic model parameters by augmenting parameters in the state variable vector.

  11. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  12. The State Regulatory Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brenda N.

    1998-01-01

    A national survey of 31 college business officers at state and land-grant colleges and universities finds that, although several states have given greater management flexibility to colleges and universities, many campuses operate in a highly regulated mode, with layers of external, and frequently internal, rules. Most difficult business officers…

  13. State Workforce Policy Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, PA.

    Surging demand for workers, growing income inequality, and passage of welfare reforms have made work force development one of the United States' key national concerns. Public/Private Ventures has been working with various states to design work force development strategies that seek to address the concerns of many work force development specialists…

  14. Quantum State Magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsen, Nils; Hosten, Onur; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The standard quantum limit (SQL) for quantum metrology has been surpassed by as much as a factor of 100 using entangled states. However, in order to utilize these states, highly engineered, low-noise state readout is required. Here we present a new method to bypass this requirement in a wide variety of physical systems. We implement the protocol experimentally in a system using the clock states of 5 ×105 87 Rb atoms. Through a nonlinear, optical cavity-mediated interaction we generate spin squeezed states. A small microwave rotation followed by an additional optical cavity interaction stage allow us to exploit the full sensitivity of the squeezed states with a fluorescence detection system. Though the technical noise floor of our fluorescence detection is 15dB above the SQL, we show metrology at 8dB below the SQL. This is the first time squeezed states prepared in a cavity are read out by fluorescence imaging. The method described can be used in any system with a suitable nonlinear interaction.

  15. Correlations in Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shun-Long; Li, Nan

    2008-02-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  16. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  17. Stats of the States

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjusted death rates from malignant neoplasms. Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality by State, 2013 - Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates from various lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis, ...

  18. NetState

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  19. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  20. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  1. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  2. Noninvasive Metallic State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Takane, Yositake

    Topological insulator is a newly established exotic state of matter that has been intensively discussed in the field of condensed-matter nanophysics since the last couple of years. Though it is undistinguishable from ordinary band insulators in the bulk, in the sense it has a gapped spectrum with its Fermi energy lying in that gap, on the surface (if the sample has a surface) it exhibits a "protected" gapless state, i.e., it behaves like a metal on its surface. The central issue that has been discussed so far was on the existence of such a metallic surface state protected by the topological non-triviality of the (gapped) bulk spectrum. Here, in this article we attempt to quantify the remaining question, "why does such a protected gapless state appear only on the surface?" in the language of the surface Dirac theory.

  3. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  4. The state of concordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastin, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    What is the computational power of a quantum computer that is restricted to transitioning from one effectively classical state to another via gates which act on only a few qudits at a time? A plausible answer is that such a machine is no more powerful than a classical computer, but this turns out to be surprisingly difficult to prove. The difficulty is that the effectively classical states referenced are concordant states, which are classical up to the choice of local classical basis, and determining the next local basis in which the state of the computer looks classical appears to be a hard problem. The recent paper by Cable and Browne (2015 New J. Phys. 17 113049), describes powerful new techniques for addressing this fundamental question and provides some partial answers.

  5. Ground State Spin Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James; Faccin, Mauro; Biamonte, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground-state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground-state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground-state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground-state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.

  6. Coma / Vegetative State

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the self and the ... 13-15 – mild brain injury, or loss of consciousness for fewer than 20 minutes 15 – full consciousness ...

  7. Stable coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipfel, Antonia; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability under time evolution of complexifier coherent states (CCS) in one-dimensional mechanical systems. A system of coherent states is called stable if it evolves into another coherent state. It turns out that a system can only possess stable CCS if the classical evolution of the variable z =e-i Lχ Cq for a given complexifier C depends only on z itself and not on its complex conjugate. This condition is very restrictive in general so that only a few systems exist that obey this condition. However, it is possible to access a wider class of models that in principle may allow for stable coherent states associated with certain regions in the phase space by introducing action-angle coordinates.

  8. [Twilight states in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Kharchevnikov, G M; Boldyrev, A I

    1980-01-01

    A total of 82 epileptic patients with twilight states were studied. Such conditions were more frequently encountered in epilepsy due to neuroinfections and brain trauma. Twilight states, as a rule, appear after several years from the onset of the disease, when it was not treated or inadequately treated and indicate an unfavorable development of the epileptic process. It is desirable that twilight states be classified as developing rapidly and with a retarded course. In rapidly developing epileptic disorders the epileptic focus on EEG was more frequently seen in the temporal areas, while in protractd disorders it was seen in the subcortical and stem brain structures. Pneumoencephalography revealed pronounced scarry and cystoadhesive lesions. Twilight states should be differentiated with temporal psychomotor attacks by certain clinical signs. PMID:6774534

  9. State v. Federal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calpin, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a learning activity in which students compare their state constitution's bill of rights with the federal Bill of Rights. Provides a chart for identifying comparisons of enumerated rights. Includes background information and explains objectives and procedures. (CH)

  10. Iowa State Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the Iowa state fair. The magazine begins with a map of the fair as it looks today. The article explains that the first Iowa state fair was held in 1854. After traveling from town to town for several years, the fair settled in the capital city of Des Moines in 1878. Eight years later, in 1886, the first fair…

  11. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  12. State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony; Jayasundera, Tamara; Repnikov, Dmitri; Gulish, Artem

    2015-01-01

    "State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States" analyzes the online college labor market on a state-by-state basis. We examine the geographic distribution of online job ads for college graduates within industries and occupational clusters, and compare the relative strength of the online college labor market across states. We…

  13. Intranets and Extranets at State Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Nancy M.

    This paper is an analysis of Intranets and Extranets at selected state libraries in the United States. The paper does not review World Wide Web sites designed for use by the general public; rather, it focuses on Web sites designed and delivered by the state library to a targeted audience, typically state government employees, state library…

  14. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  15. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  16. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  17. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  19. Superpowers and client states

    SciTech Connect

    Efrat, M.; Bercovitch, J.

    1987-01-01

    Throughout the world the two superpowers often conduct their global conflict by proxy, taking different sides in regional disputes. An important question of international relations is where the balance of power lies in the superpower client state relationship-how far are the interests of the superpower subordinated to those of the client state or vice versa. Taking the two case studies of the US-Israel relationship and the Soviet-Syrian relationship, this book explores the perceptions by each side of the relationship and the reality. It goes on to make general conclusions about superpower-client state relationships. Contents: Introduction; In Search of a Theoretical Framework; Client-States in Superpower Perception; Superpowers in Client States' Perception; The Case of US-Israel Relations; Israel in US Perspective; The USA in Israeli Perspective; Flows of US Civilian and Military Resources to Israel; The Case of Soviet-Syrian Relations; Syria in Soviet Perspective; The USSR in Syrian Perspective; Flows of Soviet Civilian and Military Resources to Syria; Comparative Analysis and Conclusions; Overview of the two cases studies and conclusions.

  20. Pfaffian States: Quantum Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2009-09-14

    The Pfaffian determinant is sometimes used to multiply the Laughlin's wave function at the half filled Landau level. The square of the Pfaffian gives the ordinary determinant. We find that the Pfaffian wave function leads to four times larger energies and two times faster time. By the same logic, the Pfaffian breaks the supersymmetry of the Dirac equation. By using the spin properties and the Landau levels, we correctly interpret the state with 5/2 filling. The quantum numbers which represent the state vectors are now products of n (Landau level quantum number), l(orbital angular momentum quantum number and the spin, s |n, l, s>. In a circuit, the noise measures the resistivity and hence the charge. The Pfaffian velocity is different from that of the single-particle states and hence it has important consequences in the measurement of the charge of the quasiparticles.

  1. Parametric State Space Structuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco; Tilgner, Marco

    1997-01-01

    Structured approaches based on Kronecker operators for the description and solution of the infinitesimal generator of a continuous-time Markov chains are receiving increasing interest. However, their main advantage, a substantial reduction in the memory requirements during the numerical solution, comes at a price. Methods based on the "potential state space" allocate a probability vector that might be much larger than actually needed. Methods based on the "actual state space", instead, have an additional logarithmic overhead. We present an approach that realizes the advantages of both methods with none of their disadvantages, by partitioning the local state spaces of each submodel. We apply our results to a model of software rendezvous, and show how they reduce memory requirements while, at the same time, improving the efficiency of the computation.

  2. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boards Representing the 70 medical boards of the United States and its territories. The Federation of State ... the 70 medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories. Since its founding, the ...

  3. The Association between State Attachment Security and State Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Pepping, Christopher A.; Davis, Penelope J.; O’Donovan, Analise

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions. PMID:25786134

  4. See Your State From Space!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Each of the 50 States in the United States is beautiful in its own way. That beauty can be seen from a unique perspective using satellite images taken from high above the Earth. These State images were created from multiple satellite images stitched together into one seamless image for each State. Names of major cities, administrative boundaries, and State flags have been added.

  5. Report on State Virtual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nearly all Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states have a state-sponsored virtual school, and the remaining states are either planning or beginning initial implementation. Just 12 years ago, none of the 50 states used the Web to provide courses to middle grades or high school students. By 2000, several SREB states, including Florida,…

  6. Excited Charm States

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.

    1994-12-31

    Characteristics of mass spectra and decays of orbitally excited charm mesons and baryons, expected on the basis of quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry, are briefly described. The difficulties associated with measurements on these excited states are discussed. The accuracy and reliability of currently available experimental information is examined. The reasons, for the widely accepted spin-parity assignments to the observed excited mesons and baryons, are stated. Finally, the experimental data, with the accepted spin-parity assignments, is compared with expectations based on quark models and Heavy Quark Symmetry.

  7. State summaries: Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Oklahoma mines produced both industrial minerals and coal. No metals were mined in the state. Based on value, leading industrial minerals include crushed stone followed by cement, construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel, iodine and gypsum. The Oklahoma Department of Mines (ODOM) reported that more than 343 mine operators produced nonfuel minerals from 405 mines in the state. However, 530 mining permitted sites were on file. The Oklahoma Miner Training Institute (OMTI) held 239 classes for 33,768 classroom hours of instruction, in which 84 coal miners and 4,587 metal/nonmetal miners were trained.

  8. Concepts, states, and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Karl Erich

    2000-05-01

    Mathematical System Theory is extended to Conceptual System Theory using Formal Concept Analysis (Wille 1982). States are defined as formal concepts and `points of time' are generalized to `time granules,' interpreted as `pieces' of time needed for the realization of measurements. As a generalization of classical time systems we define conceptual time systems, their state spaces and phase spaces. Time dependent relations among the parts of a conceptual time system are introduced in `relational conceptual time systems.' Applications in psychology and industry, including `conceptual films' are mentioned.

  9. Quantum chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems.

  10. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  11. Perceiving mental states.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This paper argues that our awareness of the mental states of other agents is often perceptual in character. It draws partly on recent experimental findings concerning perception of animacy and intentionality. But it also emphasizes the unencapsulated nature of perception generally, and argues that concepts (including mental-state concepts) can be bound into the contents of conscious perception. One of the main arguments used in support of this conclusion draws on recent work concerning the nature and contents of working memory. PMID:25935565

  12. Parameter estimating state reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

  13. GENIE final state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  14. Reform Through State Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scambio, Elena J.; Graber, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Concluding that the Jersey City Public Schools were educationally bankrupt and in total disarray, the New Jersey State Department of Education took over the district in October 1989 and completely reorganized its central office by reassigning, demoting, or terminating 117 administrators. The newly decentralized system features four school clusters…

  15. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  16. Keystone State of Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    When high school seniors begin searching for the best school to fit their higher education goals, they may need a road map, tour guide and interpreter to help them sort through Pennsylvania's higher education universe. For sure there are seemingly endless choices--public, private, large, small, urban and rural. The Keystone State boasts nearly 200…

  17. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  18. The Kent State Coverup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelner, Joseph; Munves, James

    A definitive account of the May 4, 1970 Kent State shootings and the trial that followed is presented by the lawyer who served as chief counsel for the 13 victims. Part One, "The Long Road to the Cleveland Courthouse," provides all the information on the victims, the shootings, and preparation for the trial. Part Two, "At Last, Our Day in Court,"…

  19. West Texas State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ed D.

    1988-01-01

    Threats in the external environment, the arrival of a planning-oriented new president, and new regional reaccreditation criteria prompted West Texas State University to undertake a successful strategic planning venture. Leadership must focus strategic planning in a manner that recognizes the decentralized and collegial elements present in higher…

  20. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ....C. 1391(c). II. Defendants and the Proposed Transaction 4. Defendant AMC is a Delaware corporation with its headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. It is the holding company of AMC Entertainment, Inc... in the United States. 5. Defendant Kerasotes is a Delaware corporation with its principal place...

  1. The State of Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    All 50 states are moving toward accountability systems that involve setting clear standards of learning, assessing student progress on those standards, and providing a variety of incentives and sanctions for performance. Many educators remain profoundly ambivalent; however, they recognize opportunities for positive change but worry that a narrow…

  2. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  3. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  4. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  5. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  6. Zooming into market states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetalova, Desislava; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the daily stock data of the Nasdaq Composite index in the 22 year period 1992-2013 and identify market states as clusters of correlation matrices with similar correlation structures. We investigate the stability of the correlation structure of each state by estimating the statistical fluctuations of true correlations due to their non-stationarity. Our study is based on a random matrix approach recently introduced to model the non-stationarity of correlations by an ensemble of random matrices. This approach reduces the complexity of the correlated market to two parameters, one of which measures the fluctuations of the correlations and can be determined directly from the empirical return distributions. This parameter characterizes the stability of the correlation structure of each market state as well as the dynamics of the correlation structure in the whole observation period. We find clear indications for correlation fluctuations within market states. The analysis reveals an intriguing relationship between average correlation and correlation fluctuations. The strongest fluctuations occur during periods of high average correlation which is the case particularly in times of crisis.

  7. Create Your State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  8. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  9. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  10. GIARDIASIS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to determine the potential for transmission of giardiasis through approved drinking water supplies in Washington State. The project consisted of five studies: the first was conducted during trapping seasons (1976-1979) and resulted in examining of 656 beaver sto...

  11. State Archaeological Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, William B., Ed.

    The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

  12. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  13. Mississippi: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  14. Florida: State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This brief is one in a series highlighting state policies, regulations, practices, laws, or other tools intended to create the necessary conditions for school and/or district turnaround. Each brief includes an overview of the relevant turnaround tool, its development process, its impact, and lessons learned that could assist other education…

  15. Arizona State University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory R.

    This report discusses how the Arizona Board of Regents, which has governing authority over the state's three public universities, dealt with the inability of the universities to respond to new societal needs in a timely manner; a major impediment was felt to be tenure. After a series of meetings of administrators and faculty leaders, the Board…

  16. States of Emergency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the stakes and the current economic climate, U.S. higher education officials across the country are stepping up their advocacy efforts, making their voices louder and more persistent than ever. They are vying for the attention of states struggling with increased demands for limited revenues, most choosing to divert dollars from higher…

  17. GENIE final state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-15

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  18. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  19. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  20. Energy States of Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenberg, J. Leland

    1970-01-01

    Discusses molecular spectroscopy arising from transitions within rotational, vibrational, and electronic energy states. Using quantum mechanical formuli, the author describes how these spectroscopic methods can be used to determine internuclear distances, bond energies, bond angles, dipole moments, and other details. Concludes with a selected…

  1. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  2. Protein states and proteinquakes.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, A; Berendzen, J; Bowne, S F; Frauenfelder, H; Iben, I E; Sauke, T B; Shyamsunder, E; Young, R D

    1985-01-01

    After photodissociation of carbon monoxide bound to myoglobin, the protein relaxes to the deoxy equilibrium structure in a quake-like motion. Investigation of the proteinquake and of related intramolecular equilibrium motions shows that states and motions have a hierarchical glass-like structure. PMID:3860839

  3. States Address Academic Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    State and local officials are slowly untangling complicated webs of accountability, testing, and graduation policies, hoping to give thousands of students displaced by Hurricane Katrina a better handle on their academic standing. While officials in Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama offered some guidance to such students, school leaders in…

  4. Toward Effective State Legislative Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    1982-01-01

    State legislative programs for community colleges are especially necessary in states where the colleges have no local tax base. The roles of the Washington State Board for Community College Education and the Joint Legislative Committee are described. (MSE)

  5. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  6. Quantumness of spin-1 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, Fabian; Braun, D.; Giraud, O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate quantumness of spin-1 states, defined as the Hilbert-Schmidt distance to the convex hull of spin coherent states. We derive its analytic expression in the case of pure states as a function of the smallest eigenvalue of the Bloch matrix and give explicitly the closest classical state for an arbitrary pure state. Numerical evidence is given that the exact formula for pure states provides an upper bound on the quantumness of mixed states. Due to the connection between quantumness and entanglement we obtain new insights into the geometry of symmetric entangled states.

  7. THE STATE TOBACCO ACTIVITIES TRACKING AND EVALUATION (STATE) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System is an electronic data warehouse containing up-to-date and historical state-level data on tobacco use prevention and control. The STATE System is designed to integrate many data sources to provide comprehensive su...

  8. Implementing the Common Core State Standards: State Spotlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    As of the 2012-2013 school year, over 20 states have formally moved to the Common Core State Standards being used as the learning expectations for all students across the state, and the remainder will be doing so in the 2014-2015 school year. This document highlights state initiatives that are supporting Common Core implementation in the following…

  9. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  10. Quantum State Transfer Using the Four-Ion Cluste State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianfei; Ge, Baojun; Wang, Dongxin

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that a four-ion cluster state can be used to realize the quantum state transfer in the ion-trap systems. The scheme does not involve Bell-state measurement and is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating.

  11. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  12. In the states.

    PubMed

    1994-02-25

    In Minnesota, the Hennepin County Medical Center will be the second State hospital to offer abortions and the eighth provider of the service. Approximately 25 residents from the University of Minnesota will receive abortion training at the Center each year. In legislative action taken during January and February 1994, an Alabama Judiciary Committee supported the requirement that a parent giving consent for a daughter's abortion present a picture identification and the patient's birth certificate. Other states considering parental notification rules are Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Virginia. In Arizona, a legislative committee approved a bill requiring one-parent notification 48 hours before a minor's abortion and approved requirement of a notice to be posted in abortion clinics warning that termination of a first pregnancy increases the risk of breast cancer. Committees in Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, and Kansas considered ways to limit the number of children born in families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children either by limiting benefits at a 2-child level or by providing financial incentives to mothers who accept the use of a long-acting contraceptive. Committees considered changes in state funding in Missouri (to allow abortion funding in cases of medical necessity, rape, or incest), New Mexico (a prohibition of the use of state funds for most abortions was tabled), and Utah (to allow state funding in cases of rape or incest). In Hawaii, a ban on most post-20-week abortions died. This bill would also have required biased counseling and a physician-reporting requirement. Indiana rejected a prohibition against blocking abortion clinics and mandatory 24-hour delay and biased counseling requirements. In Utah, a committee is considering prohibiting the delivery of mandatory information via the telephone and requiring that abortion-seekers be offered an ultrasound prior to the procedure. California is seeking to criminalize participation in an

  13. Superposition State Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Venkatnathan, Arun; Voth, Gregory A

    2005-01-01

    The ergodic sampling of rough energy landscapes is crucial for understanding phenomena like protein folding, peptide aggregation, polymer dynamics, and the glass transition. These rough energy landscapes are characterized by the presence of many local minima separated by high energy barriers, where Molecular Dynamics (MD) fails to satisfy ergodicity. To enhance ergodic behavior, we have developed the Superposition State Molecular Dynamics (SSMD) method, which uses a superposition of energy states to obtain an effective potential for the MD simulation. In turn, the dynamics on this effective potential can be used to sample the configurational free energy of the real potential. The effectiveness of the SSMD method for a one-dimensional rough potential energy landscape is presented as a test case. PMID:26641113

  14. Cortical State and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

  15. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  16. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    PubMed Central

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813

  17. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  18. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    PubMed

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813

  19. United States earthquakes, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The report contains information for eartthquakes in the 50 states and Puerto Rico and the area near their shorelines. The data consist of earthquake locations (date, time, geographic coordinates, depth, and magnitudes), intensities, macroseismic information, and isoseismal and seismicity maps. Also, included are sections detailing the activity of seismic networks operated by universities and other government agencies and a list of results form strong-motion seismograph records.

  20. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  1. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  2. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  3. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

  4. Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.; Carnes, K.; Needham, V.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has fabricated the niobium resonators and some other linac components required for the superconducting accel/decel linac now in operation at Kansas State University. Several staff members from KSU spent a substantial period of time at ANL during FY 1985 in order to learn the technology, and they return occasionally to assemble and test the resonators. There is a continuing interchange of technical information between ANL and KSU related to linac operations, tuning, and resonator maintenance.

  5. Models of multiquark states

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The success of simple constituent quark models in single-hardon physics and their failure in multiquark physics is discussed, emphasizing the relation between meson and baryon spectra, hidden color and the color matrix, breakup decay modes, coupled channels, and hadron-hadron interactions via flipping and tunneling of flux tubes. Model-independent predictions for possible multiquark bound states are considered and the most promising candidates suggested. A quark approach to baryon-baryon interactions is discussed.

  6. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhorter, Alan L.

    1995-02-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May through 31 July 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  7. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1994-11-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 August through 31 October 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  8. JWL Equation of State

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2015-12-15

    The JWL equation of state (EOS) is frequently used for the products (and sometimes reactants) of a high explosive (HE). Here we review and systematically derive important properties. The JWL EOS is of the Mie-Grueneisen form with a constant Grueneisen coefficient and a constants specific heat. It is thermodynamically consistent to specify the temperature at a reference state. However, increasing the reference state temperature restricts the EOS domain in the (V, e)-plane of phase space. The restrictions are due to the conditions that P ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, and the isothermal bulk modulus is positive. Typically, this limits the low temperature regime in expansion. The domain restrictions can result in the P-T equilibrium EOS of a partly burned HE failing to have a solution in some cases. For application to HE, the heat of detonation is discussed. Example JWL parameters for an HE, both products and reactions, are used to illustrate the restrictions on the domain of the EOS.

  9. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten

  10. The State and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    Although the federal influence on higher education is important, throughout the United States' history the state role in higher education has been a vital and changing one, and not always uniform. In 1976, two-thirds of the institutional revenue coming from government came from the states, making the state issue an important one. One of the most…

  11. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  12. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  13. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  14. A search for equilibrium states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    An efficient search algorithm is described for the location of equilibrium states in a search set of states which differ from one another only by the choice of pure phases. The algorithm has three important characteristics: (1) it ignores states which have little prospect for being an improved approximation to the true equilibrium state; (2) it avoids states which lead to singular iteration equations; (3) it furnishes a search history which can provide clues to alternative search paths.

  15. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  16. Gravitational coset models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Paul P.; Fleming, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The algebra A {/D - 3 + + +} dimensionally reduces to the E D-1 symmetry algebra of (12 - D)-dimensional supergravity. An infinite set of five-dimensional gravitational objects embedded in D-dimensions is constructed by identifying the null geodesic motion on cosets embedded in the generalised Kac-Moody algebra A {/D - 3 + + +}. By analogy with super-gravity these are bound states of dual gravitons. The metric interpolates continuously between exotic gravitational solutions generated by the action of an affine sub-group. We investigate mixed-symmetry fields in the brane sigma model, identify actions for the full interpolating bound state and investigate the dualisation of the bound state to a solution of the Einstein-Hilbert action via the Hodge dual on multiforms. We conclude that the Hodge dual is insufficient to reconstruct solutions to the Einstein-Hilbert action from mixed-symmetry tensors.

  17. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  18. State v. Olivas.

    PubMed

    1993-08-12

    The Supreme Court of Washington upheld the constitutionality of a state law requiring DNA testing of persons convicted of violent crimes or sex offenses in order to establish a DNA data bank for use in future prosecution of recidivist acts. The court allowed "the drawing of blood without a search warrant, probable cause or individualized suspicion." The court reasoned that it was preferable "to balance the general privacy right of persons to be free from unjustified governmental intrusion against the 'special needs beyond normal law enforcement' of the government" rather than "to balance the limited privacy rights of convicted persons against a compelling governmental interest." PMID:12041122

  19. Strongly correlated surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Victor A.

    Everything has an edge. However trivial, this phrase has dominated theoretical condensed matter in the past half a decade. Prior to that, questions involving the edge considered to be more of an engineering problem rather than a one of fundamental science: it seemed self-evident that every edge is different. However, recent advances proved that many surface properties enjoy a certain universality, and moreover, are 'topologically' protected. In this thesis I discuss a selected range of problems that bring together topological properties of surface states and strong interactions. Strong interactions alone can lead to a wide spectrum of emergent phenomena: from high temperature superconductivity to unconventional magnetic ordering; interactions can change the properties of particles, from heavy electrons to fractional charges. It is a unique challenge to bring these two topics together. The thesis begins by describing a family of methods and models with interactions so high that electrons effectively disappear as particles and new bound states arise. By invoking the AdS/CFT correspondence we can mimic the physical systems of interest as living on the surface of a higher dimensional universe with a black hole. In a specific example we investigate the properties of the surface states and find helical spin structure of emerged particles. The thesis proceeds from helical particles on the surface of black hole to a surface of samarium hexaboride: an f-electron material with localized magnetic moments at every site. Interactions between electrons in the bulk lead to insulating behavior, but the surfaces found to be conducting. This observation motivated an extensive research: weather the origin of conduction is of a topological nature. Among our main results, we confirm theoretically the topological properties of SmB6; introduce a new framework to address similar questions for this type of insulators, called Kondo insulators. Most notably we introduce the idea of Kondo

  20. Supersolid State of Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    We prove that the necessary condition for a solid to be also a superfluid is to have zero-point vacancies, or interstitial atoms, or both, as an integral part of the ground state. As a consequence, in the absence of symmetry between vacancies and interstitials, superfluidity has a zero probability to occur in commensurate solids which break continuous translation symmetry. We discuss recent 4He experiments by Kim and Chan in the context of this theorem, question its bulk supersolid interpretation, and offer an alternative explanation in terms of superfluid interfaces.

  1. Flordia State University

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Frawley, A.; Myers, E.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne fabricated the niobium resonators and some auxiliary devices for the superconducting-linac energy booster built at Florida State University. Personnel from FSU came to ANL to assemble and test the resonators. The main resonator fabrication work for FSU was completed during 1986, but we continue to interact with personnel concerning ongoing refinements in the technology. Topics in which we were most recently involved are (1) a change in the method of cooling the FSU resonators and (2) the transfer of information about fast tuner upgrades. During the past year there was very little interaction.

  2. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  3. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  4. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  5. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  6. Paraboson coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, R.; Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2010-02-15

    It is known that the defining relations of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1 | 2n) are equivalent to the defining (triple) relations of n pairs of paraboson operators b{sub i}{sup {+-}.} In particular, the 'parabosons of order p' correspond to a unitary irreducible (infinite-dimensional) lowest weight representation V(p) of osp(1 | 2n). Recently we constructed these representations V(p) giving the explicit actions of the osp(1 | 2n) generators. We apply these results for the n = 2 case in order to obtain 'coherent state' representations of the paraboson operators.

  7. Generalized states in SFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Giaccari, S.

    2013-12-01

    The search for analytic solutions in open string fields theory à la Witten often meets with singular expressions, which need an adequate mathematical formalism to be interpreted. In this paper we discuss this problem and propose a way to resolve the related ambiguities. Our claim is that a correct interpretation requires a formalism similar to distribution theory in functional analysis. To this end we concretely construct a locally convex space of test string states together with the dual space of functionals. We show that the above suspicious expressions can be identified with well defined elements of the dual.

  8. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  9. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  10. Differentiating among penal states.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    This review article assesses Loïc Wacquant's contribution to debates on penality, focusing on his most recent book, Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity (Wacquant 2009), while setting its argument in the context of his earlier Prisons of Poverty (1999). In particular, it draws on both historical and comparative methods to question whether Wacquant's conception of 'the penal state' is adequately differentiated for the purposes of building the explanatory account he proposes; about whether 'neo-liberalism' has, materially, the global influence which he ascribes to it; and about whether, therefore, the process of penal Americanization which he asserts in his recent writings is credible. PMID:21138432

  11. GLSEN's State of the States: How One Seattle Educator Gets an "A" in a Failing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina Elena

    2005-01-01

    The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network's (GLSEN) report "State of the States: A policy analysis of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) safer schools issues" presents a thorough and comprehensive analysis of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. State grading is based on five categories, which include the existence and…

  12. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  13. Whitner v. State.

    PubMed

    1997-11-19

    The Supreme Court of South Carolina held that a viable fetus is a child within the meaning of the state's child endangerment statute. The court defined a viable fetus as one that is capable of independent life apart from the mother. In this case, the mother had ingested crack cocaine during the third trimester of her pregnancy and was convicted of criminal child neglect by a lower court. Her petition for post-conviction relief was granted by the lower court. On appeal, the Supreme Court of South Carolina reversed the lower court's decision, rejecting, as without merit, the mother's arguments that her conviction had violated both her due process rights, and her right to privacy under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The court ruled that the state had a compelling interest to ensure the life and health of a viable fetus. Two justices dissented, one on the grounds that the term "child" in the child endangerment statute did not apply to fetuses, and one on the grounds that the statute does not regulate the conduct of a woman toward her unborn child. PMID:11995718

  14. Geometry of Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-05-01

    Quantum information theory is at the frontiers of physics, mathematics and information science, offering a variety of solutions that are impossible using classical theory. This book provides an introduction to the key concepts used in processing quantum information and reveals that quantum mechanics is a generalisation of classical probability theory. After a gentle introduction to the necessary mathematics the authors describe the geometry of quantum state spaces. Focusing on finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, they discuss the statistical distance measures and entropies used in quantum theory. The final part of the book is devoted to quantum entanglement - a non-intuitive phenomenon discovered by Schrödinger, which has become a key resource for quantum computation. This richly-illustrated book is useful to a broad audience of graduates and researchers interested in quantum information theory. Exercises follow each chapter, with hints and answers supplied. The first book to focus on the geometry of quantum states Stresses the similarities and differences between classical and quantum theory Uses a non-technical style and numerous figures to make the book accessible to non-specialists

  15. [Mixed states and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Cermolacce, M; Corréard, N; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:24359851

  16. Electronic energy states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    One-electron wave functions are reviewed and approximate solutions of two-electron systems are given in terms of these one-electron functions. The symmetry effects associated with electron spin are reviewed and the effects of electron exchange on energy levels of the two-electron system are given. The coupling of electronic orbital and spin angular momentum is considered next and the Lande interval rule for Russell-Saunders or LS coupling is derived. The configurations possible for various multi-electron LS couplings are enumerated (examples from the first two rows of the periodic table are given), and the meaning of the spectroscopic nomenclature is discussed, particularly with respect to the degeneracies of the electron states involved. Next the nomenclature, symmetries, and degeneracies for electron states of diatomic molecules are discussed, and some examples for N2, O2, and NO are presented. The electronic partition functions and derivative thermodynamic properties are expressed in terms of these energies and degeneracies, and examples are given for some of the simple gas species encountered in the earth's atmosphere.

  17. States that are far from being stabilizer states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, David; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Blanchfield, Kate; Bui Dang, Hoan

    2015-08-01

    Stabilizer states are eigenvectors of maximal commuting sets of operators in a finite Heisenberg group. States that are far from being stabilizer states include magic states in quantum computation, MUB-balanced states, and SIC vectors. In prime dimensions the latter two fall under the umbrella of minimum uncertainty states (MUSs) in the sense of Wootters and Sussman. We study the correlation between two ways in which the notion of ‘far from being a stabilizer state’ can be quantified. Two theorems valid for all prime dimensions are given, as well as detailed results for low dimensions. In dimension 7 we identify the MUB-balanced states as being antipodal to the SIC vectors within the set of MUS, in a sense that we make definite. In dimension 4 we show that the states that come closest to being MUS with respect to all of the six stabilizer MUBs are the fiducial vectors for Alltop MUBs.

  18. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  19. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, Sandra; Jennifer, Gangi

    2015-12-17

    This December 2015 report, the sixth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

  20. Quantum signatures of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastidas, V. M.; Omelchenko, I.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Brandes, T.

    2015-12-01

    Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns in networks of identical oscillators, characterized by the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized dynamics. Here we propose to extend the phenomenon of chimera states to the quantum regime, and uncover intriguing quantum signatures of these states. We calculate the quantum fluctuations about semiclassical trajectories and demonstrate that chimera states in the quantum regime can be characterized by bosonic squeezing, weighted quantum correlations, and measures of mutual information. Our findings reveal the relation of chimera states to quantum information theory, and give promising directions for experimental realization of chimera states in quantum systems.

  1. The State "of" State U.S. History Standards 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Sheldon M.; Stern, Jeremy A.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the Thomas B. Fordham Institute's first review of the quality of state U.S. history standards since 2003. Key findings include: (1) A majority of states' standards are mediocre-to-awful. The average grade across "all" states is barely a D. In twenty-eight jurisdictions--a majority of states--the history standards earn Ds or below.…

  2. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastin, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills eight one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  3. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  4. Evaluating State Principal Evaluation Plans across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Recent federal legislation has created strong incentives for states to adopt principal evaluation systems, many of which include new measures of principal effectiveness such as estimates of student growth and changes in school climate. Yet, there has been little research on principal evaluation systems and no state-by-state analysis of the…

  5. Governors' Top Education Issues: State of the States 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Education issues were again at the forefront when the leaders of 42 states and the District of Columbia outlined their priorities in their 2014 State of the State addresses. Governors outlined their plans for increasing the quality and availability of education--from preschool through postsecondary--to spur economic growth and enhance the quality…

  6. Education in the States. Volume I: State Education Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.

    This report represents the beginning of an effort by chief state school officers to compile information systematically on the states' educational programs and to report that information regularly to the public and their policymakers. This year, the report emphasizes demographic and fiscal background information bearing on the states' education…

  7. STATE SOIL GEOGRAPHIC (STATSGO) DATA BASE FOR THECOTERNIMOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USSOILS is an Arc 7.0 coverage containing hydrology-relevant information for 10,498 map units covering the entire conterminous United States. The coverage was compiled from individual State coverages contained in the October 1994 State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) Data Base produce...

  8. States' Progress and Challenges in Implementing Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentmer, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    Most states are participating in the initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers to develop and adopt voluntary common core state standards that will outline what elementary and secondary school students are expected to learn in English language arts and mathematics. Implementing these…

  9. State School Board Members and the State Education Policy System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald R.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the contrast between the clear legal mandate for State boards of education to determine education for the State on the one hand, and their peculiarly ill-defined and tenuous role in the State policy system on the other. (JF)

  10. NAEP 1994 Reading State Report for Hawaii. Trial State Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1994, TSA was expanded to include non-public school students. The 1994 reading assessment considered students' proficiency in situations that involved…