Note: This page contains sample records for the topic online signature verification from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

On-line signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for on-line handwritten signature verification. The signa-tures are acquired using a digitizing tablet which captures both dynamic and spatialinformation of the writing. After preprocessing the signature, several features are ex-tracted. The authenticity of a writer is determined by comparing an input signatureto a stored reference set (template) consisting of three signatures. The similaritybetween an input signature

Anil K. Jain; Friederike D. Griess; Scott D. Connell

2002-01-01

2

Online Payments Using Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making payments online is inherently insecure, especially those involving credit cards where a handwritten signature is normally required to be authenticated. This paper describes a system for enhancing the security of online payments using automated handwritten signature verification. Our system combines complementary statistical models to analyse both the static features of a signature (e.g., shape, slant, size), and its dynamic

Jarrod Trevathan; Alan McCabe; Wayne Read

2009-01-01

3

Reliable online human signature verification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online dynamic signature verification systems were designed and tested. A database of more than 10,000 signatures in (x(t), y(t))-form was acquired using a graphics tablet. We extracted a 42-parameter feature set at first, and advanced to a set of 49 normalized features that tolerate inconsistencies in genuine signatures while retaining the power to discriminate against forgeries. We studied algorithms for

Luan L. Lee; Toby Berger; Erez Aviczer

1996-01-01

4

Identity authentication using improved online signature verification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for online handwritten signature verification, approaching the problem as a two-class pattern recognition problem. A test signatures authenticity is established by first aligning it with each reference signature for the claimed user, using dynamic time warping. The distances of the test signature to the nearest, farthest and template reference signatures are normalized by the corresponding mean

Alisher Kholmatov; Berrin A. Yanikoglu

2005-01-01

5

Identity authentication using improved on-line signature verification method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for on-line handwritten signature verification. During enroll- ment, eight reference signatures are taken from each subject and statistics describ- ing the variation in the user's signatures are extracted from the cross alignment of these. A test signature's authenticity is established by first aligning it with each reference signature for the claimed user. Then, using the alignment

Alisher Kholmatov; Berrin Yanikoglu

6

Threshold Equalization for On-Line Signature Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In on-line signature verification, complexity of signature shape can influence the value of the optimal threshold for individual signatures. Writer-dependent threshold selection has been proposed but it requires forgery data. It is not easy to collect such forgery data in practical applications. Therefore, some threshold equalization method using only genuine data is needed. In this letter, we propose three different threshold equalization methods based on the complexity of signature. Their effectiveness is confirmed in experiments using a multi-matcher DWT on-line signature verification system.

Nakanishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Yoshio; Fukui, Yutaka

7

A Hidden Markov Model approach to online handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A method for the automatic verification of online handwritten signatures using both global and local features is described.\\u000a The global and local features capture various aspects of signature shape and dynamics of signature production. We demonstrate\\u000a that adding a local feature based on the signature likelihood obtained from Hidden Markov Models (HMM), to the global features\\u000a of a signature,

Ramanujan S. Kashi; Jianying Hu; W. L. Nelson; William Turin

1998-01-01

8

Improving DTW for Online Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Authentication by handwritten on-line signature is one of the most accepted authentication system. In a way, it is based on\\u000a biometrics. It is embedded in our cultural habits and easy to use. The aim of this paper is to study two possible improvements\\u000a in Dynamic Time Warping: matching process and distance computation. After applying a polygonal approximation on the signatures,

M. Wirotius; Jean-yves Ramel; Nicole Vincent

2004-01-01

9

Online Signature Verification Using Segment-to-Segment Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new online handwritten signature verification algo- rithm is proposed. The proposed method divide the time functions into several segments which describing regional properties. And then a exact segment-to-segment mapping is found by a modified DTW method. Thus the proposed method utilized the dynamic features of signatures, which ensured the high security of identification systems. Fur- thermore, the proposed algorithm

Jian Zhang; Sei-ichiro KAMATA

10

Global feature selection for on-line signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of features can be used to represent on-line handwritten signatures in verification tasks. Depending on the signature database and acquisition conditions, some features will not help in separating writers in the feature space so that an appropriate decision boundary will be hard to estimate. Other features will provide good separability between legitimate system users and their forgers.

Hamed Ketabdar; Jonas Richiardi; Andrzej Drygajlo

11

Online Handwritten Signature Verification for Electronic Commerce over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lot of potential in using on-line handwritten signature verification over the Internet. Banks and Government bodies\\u000a recognize signatures as a legal means of authentication. Compared with other electronic identification methods such as fingerprints\\u000a scanning and retinal vascular pattern screening, it is easier for people to migrate from using the popular pen-andpaper signature\\u000a to one where the handwritten

W. Sardha Wijesoma; K. W. Yue; K. L. Chien; T. K. Chow

2001-01-01

12

Automatic online signature verification: A prototype using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature verification is the process used to recognize an individual's handwritten signature to prevent fraud. In this paper pressure at the pen-tip together with the x, and y coordinates of the signature are measured and features extracted from these are used to verify the signature. A pressure pad was used to obtain signature samples. A signature verification system using SOM

Syed Khaleel Ahmed; Agileswari K. Ramasamy; A. Khairuddin; Jamaludin Omar

2009-01-01

13

The Algorithm of On-Line Handwritten Signature Verification Based on Hide Markov Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracting method of special points in signature is presented. The special points are used as signature segmented points, and the extraction and selection of each segment features are analyzed. The algorithm of on-line handwritten signature verification based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is presented and examined availably by the signature database from SVC 2004 (First International Signature Verification Competition).

Luan Fang-jun; Lin Lan; Cheng Hai

2009-01-01

14

A New On-Line Signature Verification Algorithm Using Variable Length Segmentation and Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new on-line handwritten signature verification system using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is presented. The proposed system segments each signature based on its perceptually important points and then computes for each segment a number of features that are scale and displacement invariant. The resulted sequence is then used for training an HMM to achieve signature verification. Our

Mohammad M. Shafiei; Hamid R. Rabiee

2003-01-01

15

Online Handwritten Signature Verification Using Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most people are used to signing documents and because of this, it is a trusted and natural method for user identity verification, reducing the cost of password maintenance and decreasing the risk of eBusiness fraud. In the proposed system, identity is securely verified and an authentic electronic signature is created using biometric dynamic signature verification. Shape, speed, stroke order, off-tablet

Juan J. Igarza; Iñaki Goirizelaia; Koldo Espinosa; Inmaculada Hernáez; Raúl Méndez; Jon Sánchez

2003-01-01

16

Online Signature Verification and Recognition: An Approach Based on Symbolic Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method of representing on-line signatures by interval valued symbolic features. Global features of on-line signatures are used to form an interval valued feature vectors. Methods for signature verification and recognition based on the symbolic representation are also proposed. We exploit the notions of writer dependent threshold and introduce the concept of feature dependent

D. S. Guru; H. N. Prakash

2009-01-01

17

On-line Handwritten Signature Verification using Hidden Markov Model Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the automatic verification of on-line handwritten signatures using both global and local features is described. The global and local features capture various aspects of signature shape and dynamics of signature production. We demonstrate that with the addition to the global features of a local feature based on the signature likelihood obtained from Hidden Markov Models (HMM), the

Ramanujan S. Kashi; Jianying Hu; W. L. Nelson; William Turin

1997-01-01

18

On-line Handwritten Signature Verification Using Wavelets and Back-propagation Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates dynamic handwritten signature verification (HSV) using the wavelet transform with verification by the backpropagation neural network (NN). It is yet another avenue in the approach to HSV that is found to produce excellent results when compared with other methods of dynamic, or on-line, HSV. Using a database of dynamic signatures collected from 41 Chinese writers and 7

Dariusz Z. Lejtman; Susan E. George

2001-01-01

19

Nonlinear time series analysis for on-line handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, an approach for online signature verification for person authentication from nonlinear time series analysis based on delay coordinate embedding has been presented. The proposed approach is found to be more effective compared to the most popular DTW based approach from the simulation experiments with the benchmark data set SVC 2004 of signature verification contest held in 2004.

Basabi Chakraborty

2009-01-01

20

ONLINE HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE VERIFICATION DISCRIMINATORS BASED ON GLOBAL FEATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporarily, the internet has been heavily used for the electronic commerce especially in the areas of finance and banking. The transactions of the finance and banking on the internet involve use of handwritten signature as a symbol for consent and authorization. Handwritten signature is one of the biometric techniques that are widely accepted as personal attribute for identity verification. Hence,

Nazaruddin Omar; Norbik Bashah Idris

2007-01-01

21

On-line Handwritten Signature Verification Based on Two Levels Back Propagation Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm for on-line handwriting signature verification is proposed. 15 statistic features is used for representing the signature, which extracted from the handwritten signature, at the same time, applied as the input of Back Propagation Neural Network. Via the Daubechies-6 wavelet transforming, 32 wavelet decomposition coefficients of X coordinate and Y coordinate are selected as wavelet features. The two

Zhan Enqi; Guo Jinxu; Zheng Jianbin; Ma Chan; Wang Linjuan

2009-01-01

22

Online MultiParameter 3D Signature Verification through Curve Fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Biometric based personal identification is a reliable and widely accepted method for authentication. Human 3D signature is distinct from other biometric authentication methods due to the presence of third dimensional hidden information. In this paper, a new model for on-line 3D signature verification using multiple parameters is proposed. The parameters considered from human signature namely, velocity, acceleration, pressure, direction,

P. M. Rubesh Anand; Gaurav Bajpai; Vidhyacharan Bhaskar

2009-01-01

23

A Flexible Architecture for Online Signature Verification Based on a Novel Biometric Pen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a flexible online signature verification architecture is presented. Signatures are recorded with a novel pen, the so-called biometric smart pen (BiSP). The dynamic of a signature is captured by sensors mounted inside the pen. Thus, no specific tablet is needed. The recorded signature signals (i.e., signature time series) are presented to the authentication system, where they are

Christian Gruber; Christian Hook; Georg Scharfenberg; Bernhard Sick

2006-01-01

24

On-line signature verification based on PCA feature reduction and statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel online signature verification method that uses PCA for dimensional-reduction of signature snapshot. The resulting vectors from PCA are submitted to a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with EBP and sigmoid activation function. In the other hand, Dynamic features such as x, y coordinates, pressure, velocity, acceleration, pen down time, distance, altitude, azimuth and inclination angles,

Kareem Ahmed; I. M. El-Henawy; M. Z. Rashad; O. Nomir

2010-01-01

25

Online Signature Verification With Support Vector Machines Based on LCSS Kernel Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new technique for online signature verification or identification is proposed. The technique integrates a longest common subsequences (LCSS) detection algorithm which measures the similarity of signature time series into a kernel function for support vector machines (SVM). LCSS offers the possibility to consider the local variability of signals such as the time series of pen-tip coordinates

Christian Gruber; Thiemo Gruber; Sebastian Krinninger; Bernhard Sick

2010-01-01

26

Reliable on-line human signature verification system for point-of-sales applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online dynamic signature verification systems were designed and tested. Data acquisition consisted of compiling a database of more than ten thousand signatures in (x(t), y(t))-form using a graphics tablet. For feature extraction we started with a 42-parameter feature set and advanced to a set of 49 normalized features. The normalized features tolerate inconsistencies in genuine signatures while retaining the power

Luan L. Lee; Toby Berger

1994-01-01

27

Pattern recognition techniques in on-line hand written signature verification - A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, in the field of secure communication and financial on-line applications, we have witnessed an explosive growth in biometric personal authentication systems which are covenant with a measurable physical characteristic or behavioral trait. On-line refers to making use of the time functions of the signing process. Verification of on-line signature as a biometric modality still is

K. R. Radhika; G. N. Sekhar; M. K. Venkatesha

2009-01-01

28

The State of the Art in On-line Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using on-line handwritten signature verification (HSV) for authentication is attractive because of the long-standing tradition of its use in many common authentication tasks. HSV may be considered superior to many other biometric authentication techniques, for example fingerprints or retinal patterns, which are more reliable but also more intrusive. Furthermore, they require special and relatively expensive hardware to capture the image.

G. K. Gupta

2006-01-01

29

On-line Handwritten Signature Verification Using Hidden Semi-Markov Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Handwritten signature has been extensively adopted as biometric for identity verification in daily life, as it is the most\\u000a widely accepted personal authentication method. Automatic signature recognition technologies can definitely facilitate the\\u000a verification process. Many research attempts and advances have occurred in this field, automatic signature verification still\\u000a is a challenging and important issue. This work presents a novel and

Daw-Tung Lin; Yu-Chia Liao

30

Machine verification of traced signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handwritten signature is the most widely employed source of secure identification in the United States, especially for cashing checks, and verifying credit card transactions. Currently, all signature verification is based on visual inspection by a teller or a store clerk. Previous successful techniques for forgery detection have primarily been on-line techniques. This research is an extension of the first

Ganapathy Krishnan; David E. Jones

1991-01-01

31

ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE VERIFICATION ALGORITHM BASED ON TIME SEQUENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line handwritten signature veriflcation is a topic in the fleld of biometric authentication now. Time sequence match and result judgement are the key to this problem. This paper presents a time sequence match al- gorithm for handwritten signature veriflcation. The algorithm is efiectual to be examined by signature data from SVC 2004(First International Signature Veriflcation Competition). The paper also introduces

FANGJUN LUAN; SHILIANG MA; KAIDONG CHENG; XIANFENG DONG

2005-01-01

32

Online Signature Verification System for Kaisyo Script Based on Structured Learning and Segmentation of HMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the online signature verification of oriental characters such as Japanese and Chinese. These oriental characters usually consist of many individual strokes such as dots and straight lines. Taking into account of this characteristic, a new HMM is proposed, which is composed of many sub-models each of which corresponds to an individual stroke. In addition, the ‘pen-up’ state which represents the movement between strokes is explicitly introduced. Then, a parameter re-estimation scheme for this special class of HMM is derived exploiting the structure of the proposed HMM. Thanks to the structured learning mechanism, the proposed HMM not only can drastically reduce the computational time necessary for the learning process but also shows higher recognition performance for the rejection of the skilled forgery. Finally, the usefulness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by comparing it with conventional models.

Zhang, Dapeng; Inagaki, Shinkichi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kanada, Naoki

33

On-line signature verification based on optimal feature representation and neural-network-driven fuzzy reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an innovative approach to on-line handwritten signature verification based on optimal feature representation (OFR) and neural-network-driven fuzzy reasoning (NND-FR); OFR is introduced here and is different from feature selection and generation. To create a reference signing model of a person, a set of shape features and dynamic features are extracted from a set of original

Julio Martínez-R

34

Using position extrema points to capture shape in on-line handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in authentication based on handwritten signature verification (HSV) because of the long-standing tradition of its use in many common authentication tasks. HSV may be considered superior to many other biometric authentication techniques, for example fingerprints or retinal patterns, which are more reliable but also more intrusive. Furthermore, they require special and relatively expensive hardware to capture

G. K. Gupta; R. C. Joyce

2007-01-01

35

Machine verification of traced signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The handwritten signature is the most widely employed source of secure identification in the United States, especially for cashing checks, and verifying credit card transactions. Currently, all signature verification is based on visual inspection by a teller or a store clerk. Previous successful techniques for forgery detection have primarily been on-line techniques. This research is an extension of the first author's work on forgery detection and describes an algorithm to detect forgeries perpetrated by using a tracing paper or a glass plate. This algorithm is very successful when used in conjunction with the algorithm developed earlier by the first author.

Krishnan, Ganapathy; Jones, David E.

1991-03-01

36

State-of-the-art in offline signature verification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometrics can be classified into two types Behavioral (signature verification, keystroke dynamics, etc.) and Physiological (iris characteristics, fingerprint, etc.). Handwritten signature is one of the first few biometrics used even before computers. Signature verification is widely studied and discussed using two approaches. On-line approach and offline approach. Offline systems are more applicable and easy to use in comparison with on-line

Yazan M. Al-Omari; Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah; Khairuddin Omar

2011-01-01

37

Handwritten Signature Verification by Multiple Reference Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for on-line handwritten signature verification, which exploits the potential of multiple reference sets. Preliminarily, system performance is estimated using different sets of reference signatures for each writer. Successively, reference sets leading to diverse system behaviors are enrolled into the personal knowledge-base and used in a multi-stage verification process. The experimental results show the effectiveness

D. Impedovo; R. Modugno; G. Pirlo; E. Stasolla

38

Neural approaches for human signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three neural network (NN) based approaches for on-line human signature verification: Bayes multilayer perceptrons (BMP), time-delay neural networks (TDNN), and input-oriented neural networks (IONN). The backpropagation algorithm was used for the network training. A signature is input as a sequence of instantaneous absolute velocity (|υ(t)|) extracted from a pair of spatial coordinate time functions (x(t), y(t)). The

L. L. Lee

1996-01-01

39

Neural approaches for human signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three neural network (NN) based approaches for on-line human signature verification: Bayes multilayer perceptrons (BMP), time-delay neural networks (TDNN), input-oriented neural networks (IONN). The backpropagation algorithm was used for the network training. A signature is input as a sequence of instantaneous absolute velocity (|v(t)|) extracted from a pair of spatial coordinate time functions (x(t), y(t)). The BMP

Luan Ling Lee

1995-01-01

40

Dynamic Handwritten Signature Verification Based on Statistical Quantization Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online handwritten signature has been widely used for identity verification. However, it suffers from large intra-class variation problem as individualpsilas signature may deviate from time to time due to variations in signing position, signature size, writing surface, and other factors. In addition, signatures are easier to forge than other biometrics and this leads to random and skilled forgeries issues. In

Thian Song Ong; A. Teoh

2009-01-01

41

Handwritten Signature Verification Using Image Invariants and Dynamic Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a development of automatic signature classification system is proposed. We have presented offline and online signature verification system, based on the signature invariants and its dynamic features. The proposed system segments each signature based on its perceptually important points and then, for each segment, computes a number of features that are scale, rotation and displacement invariant. The

Abdullah I. Al-shoshan

2006-01-01

42

Dynamic handwritten Chinese signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic handwritten Chinese signature verification system based upon a Bayesian neural network is presented. Due to a great deal of variability of handwritten Chinese signatures, the proposed Bayesian neural network is trained by an incremental learning vector quantization (ILVQ) algorithm, which endows this system with incremental learning ability, and outputs a posteriori probability to give a more reliable distance

Hong-De Chang; J.-F. Wang; H.-M. Suen

1993-01-01

43

Verification of Handwritten Signatures: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the information and communication personal verification is a crucial aspect. Among the different means for personal verification, handwritten signature plays a fundamental role since signature is the most diffuse means for personal verification in our daily life. In this paper a brief overview of the field of handwritten signature verification is presented and some of the most relevant perspectives

S. Impedovo; G. Pirlo

2007-01-01

44

Statistical Approach for Offline Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signatures were considered an important tool for authenticating the identity of human beings. So, signature verification was one of the biggest uses for that. We proposed an algorithmic approach for the verification of handwritten signatures by applying some statistical methods. The research work was based on the collection of set of signatures from which an average signature was obtained based

Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Poulami Das; Debashis Ganguly; Swarnendu Mukherjee

2008-01-01

45

Biometric Hash based on Statistical Features of Online Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to generate biometric hash values based on statistical features in online signature signals. Whilst the output of typical online signature verification systems are threshold-based true-false decisions, based on a comparison between test sample signals and sets of reference signals, our system responds to a signature input with a biometric hash vector, which is calculated

Claus Vielhauer; Ralf Steinrnetz; Astrid Mayerhöfer

2002-01-01

46

Mouse-based signature verification for secure Internet transactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most current on-line signature verification systems are pen-based, i.e., the signature is written by a pen on a digital tablet. To apply signature verification techniques to Internet applications, one desirable way is to use mouse as the input device. In this paper, a mouse based on-line signature verification system is presented. The signature data is represented in a compact and secure way. The enrollment is convenient for users and the verification can be real-time. The system architecture is a simple client-server structure that suits the common internet applications. The client side posts a sequence of X*Y to the server. That is, the raw signature sequence [X,Y] is represented by X+Y(dot sum of the X-, Y-coordinate sequences). Experimental results show that X+Yis effective for verification. Even if the sequence X+Y is intercepted during transmission over the Internet, original shape of signature [X, Y] can be recovered. To make the system easy to implement, the client side does nothing complex except posting X+Yto the server. The server side preprocesses the sequence and saves it to database during enrollment or match it against the claimed template during verification. The matching technique adopted here is the similarity measure ER2. Simulation results show that the mouse based verification system is reliable and secure for internet applications.

Lei, Hansheng; Palla, Srinivas; Govindaraju, Venu

2005-02-01

47

Real-Time Analysis and Verification of Handwritten Signatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-line system of signature verification is developed using a PDP-9 16K computer with a COMPUTEK tablet interfaced to it. Signature samples of a given user are treated as instances of a discrete time series rather than regarded as a sequence of individ...

R. Farag Y. T. Chien

1972-01-01

48

Signature Verification Using N-tuple Learning Machine.  

PubMed

This research presents new algorithm for signature verification using N-tuple learning machine. The features are taken from handwritten signature on Digital Tablet (On-line). This research develops recognition algorithm using four features extraction, namely horizontal and vertical pen tip position(x-y position), pen tip pressure, and pen altitude angles. Verification uses N-tuple technique with Gaussian thresholding. PMID:17282822

Maneechot, Thanin; Kitjaidure, Yuttana

2005-01-01

49

Handwritten signature verification based on code representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to obtain a code representation of handwritten signatures is described and an algorithm for signature verification\\u000a based on such representations is proposed. Results of tests to determine efficient methods of image compression for the purpose\\u000a of signature verification are presented.

K. V. Alekseev; S. D. Egorova

2007-01-01

50

New perspectives in automatic signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different biometrics have been proposed as a means of determining or verifying personal identity. Of these, the handwritten signature is well established and widely accepted, yet attempts to realize viable practical systems for automatic signature verification have not always been very successful. This paper reviews some fundamental aspects of signature verification and suggests some basic principles which might help

M. C. Fairhurst

1998-01-01

51

Online fingerprint verification.  

PubMed

As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications. PMID:17365425

Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

52

Signature Verification Based on Handwritten Text Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signatures continue to be an important biometric trait because it remains widely used primarily for authenticating the identity of human beings. This paper presents an efficient text-based directional signature recognition algorithm which verifies signatures, even when they are composed of special unconstrained cursive characters which are superimposed and embellished. This algorithm extends the character-based signature verification technique. The experiments carried out on the GPDS signature database and an additional database created from signatures captured using the ePadInk tablet, show that the approach is effective and efficient, with a positive verification rate of 94.95%.

Viriri, Serestina; Tapamo, Jules-R.

53

A Hybrid System for Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric authentication has become a popular research topic due to its wide applicability, including the prevention of fraud in financial transactions. Handwritten signature verification, in contrast with other biometric based authentication methods such as fingerprint and retinal scanning, has the advantage that it is already widely used to endorse financial transactions. However, very little verification on these signatures is done

T. Wessels; Christian W. Omlin

2000-01-01

54

A BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRIC APPROACH TO SIGNATURE VERIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature verification presents greater advantages over other biometric techniques such as face recognition, iris recognition, retina recognition, speech recognition etc from the point of view of adoption in the market place. It is a socially accepted identification method already in use in bank and credit card transactions. Here handwritten signatures are used for verification. This paper use static image as

Moniruzzaman Sarker; Shah Atiqur Rahman; S. M. Ashik

2004-01-01

55

A Contourlet-based Method for Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signature verification (HSV) is a discipline which aims to validate the identity of writers according to the handwriting styles. Compared with on-line HSV, off-line HSV is less limited in equipment involvement and can be applied in more fields. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to manipulate than on-line HSV due to the loss of dynamic information during the writing process,

Ming Yang; Zhongke Yin; Zhi Zhong; Shengshu Wang; Pei Chen; Yangsheng Xu

2007-01-01

56

Biometric security system based on signature verification using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signature verification is the behavioral parameter of biometrics and is used to authenticate a person. A typical signature verification system generally consists of four components: data acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction and verification. In this paper, Biometric Security System Based on Signature Verification Using Neural Networks (BSSV) is presented. The global and grid features are combined to generate new set

D. R. Shashikumar; K. B. Raja; R. K. Chhotaray; Sabyasachi Pattanaik

2010-01-01

57

AdaBoost-based on-line signature verifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authentication of individuals is rapidly becoming an important issue. The authors previously proposed a Pen-input online signature verification algorithm. The algorithm considers a writer"s signature as a trajectory of pen position, pen pressure, pen azimuth, and pen altitude that evolve over time, so that it is dynamic and biometric. Many algorithms have been proposed and reported to achieve accuracy for on-line signature verification, but setting the threshold value for these algorithms is a problem. In this paper, we introduce a user-generic model generated by AdaBoost, which resolves this problem. When user- specific models (one model for each user) are used for signature verification problems, we need to generate the models using only genuine signatures. Forged signatures are not available because imposters do not give forged signatures for training in advance. However, we can make use of another's forged signature in addition to the genuine signatures for learning by introducing a user generic model. And Adaboost is a well-known classification algorithm, making final decisions depending on the sign of the output value. Therefore, it is not necessary to set the threshold value. A preliminary experiment is performed on a database consisting of data from 50 individuals. This set consists of western-alphabet-based signatures provide by a European research group. In this experiment, our algorithm gives an FRR of 1.88% and an FAR of 1.60%. Since no fine-tuning was done, this preliminary result looks very promising.

Hongo, Yasunori; Muramatsu, Daigo; Matsumoto, Takashi

2005-03-01

58

Dynamic Signature Verification using Local and Global Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten Signature verification is a biometric technique that is use- ful because signatures are in many practices accepted as a means of identity verification. This work approaches signature verification using seprate filters with different approaches. In the first, global features of the signature, such as average velocity are considered using a Euclidian distance. In the second filter, local features are

Charles E. Pippin

2004-01-01

59

A Hybrid On\\/Off Line Handwritten Signature Verification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new hybrid handwritten signature verification system where the on-line reference data acquired through a digitizing tablet serves as the basis for the segmentation process of the corresponding scanned off-line data. Local foci of attention over the image are determined through a self-adjustable learning process in order to pinpoint the feature extraction process. Both local and global

Alessandro Zimmer; Luan Ling Lee

2003-01-01

60

Practical Short Signature Batch Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In many applications, it is desirable to work with signatures that are both short, and yet where many messages from dierent signers be veried,very quickly. RSA signatures satisfy the latter condition, but are generally thousands of bits in length. Recent developments in pairing- based cryptography produced a number of \\\\short\\

Anna Lisa Ferrara; Matthew Green; Susan Hohenberger; Michael Østergaard Pedersen

2009-01-01

61

Handwritten Signature Verification Using Complementary Statistical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for performing handwritten signature verification using complementary sta- tistical models. The system analyses both the static features of a signature (e.g., shape, slant, size), and its dynamic fea- tures (e.g., velocity, pen-tip pressure, timing) to form a judg- ment about the signer's identity. This approach's novelty lies in combining output from existing Neural Network and

Alan McCabe; Jarrod Trevathan

2009-01-01

62

Signature verification using radial basis function classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Mining is the use of algorithms to extract the information and patterns derived by the knowledge discovery in databases process. Classification maps data into predefined groups or classes. It is often referred to as supervised learning because the classes are determined before examining the data. The Verification of handwritten Signature, which is a behavioral biometric, can be classified into

M. Govindarajan; R M. Chandrasekaran

2011-01-01

63

Enhanced signature verification technique using data glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ameliorate the degree of trustiness and, high security, we have presented a new approach to hand signature verification applying data glove. Data glove is a new-fangled dimension in the field of virtual-reality environments, originally designed to satisfy the stringent requirements of modern motion capture and animation professionals. In our research, we attempt to change over the carrying

Shohel Sayeed; Rosli Besar; Nidal S. Kamel

2010-01-01

64

Sequence-matching-based feature extraction with applications to signature verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new sequence matching based feature extracting method is proposed, and the method is applied to on-line signature verification. The signature is first extracted as a point sequence in writing order. Then the sequence is matched with a model sequence that is extracted from the model signature, utilizing a modified DTW matching criterion. Based on the matching result, the sequence is divided into a fixed number of segments. Local shape features are extracted from each segment, making use of the direction and length information. Experiments show that this new feature extracting method is more discriminative than other commonly used feature extracting method. When applied to an on-line signature verification system, current feature extracting method shows benefit in verifying users with large variations in their genuine signatures.

Chen, Yan; Ding, Xiaoqing

2004-12-01

65

An off-line method for human signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an off-line human signature verification system. The following information was used to characterize a static signature for verification purpose: the slant directions of the signature strokes and those of the envelopes of the dilated signature images. The system employing a linear classifier provides an equal error rate of 14.6% for skilled forgeries, and 3.0% for simple forgeries

Luan Ling Lee; Miguel G. Lizarraga

1996-01-01

66

Identity verification using complex representations of the handwritten signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to a handwritten signature verification using the cross-correlation approach (adopted by the authors from telecommunications) and dynamic time warping. The following invariants of the handwritten signature: net signature, instantaneous complex frequency and complex cepstrum, are analyzed. The problem of setting the threshold for deciding whether the current signature is authentic or forged is discussed. The database

Michal Papaj; Ewa Hermanowicz

2010-01-01

67

Signature-in-Signature Verification via a Secure Simple Network Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signature is often used for verification of important documents. Attackers can fake someone's handwriting signature in a paper-based document, or deliberately attach someone's handwriting signature in binary image to an electronic document, which may print later, claiming the agreement of the signer. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel signature-in-signature verification system via a secure simple

Ming Su; Min Li; Tieniu Gao; Bin Dong

2010-01-01

68

Trace copy forgery detection for handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signature verification has been extensively studied in past decades. Its many applications include banking, credit card validation, security systems etc. We mainly deal with the trace copy forgery detection problem in a handwritten signature verification system. Based on one of our previously study [P. S. Deng et al. (1999)], we have proposed an efficient approach, called Deng's approach to

Peter Shaohua Deng; Li-Jing Jaw; Jau-Hwang Wang; Cheng-Tan Tung

2003-01-01

69

Dynamic Signature Verification Using Sensor Based Data Glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signature verification is a well-established and potential area of research with numerous applications such as commercial (e.g., credit card, bank check verification etc.), government (e.g., National ID card, Driver's license, passport control etc.) and forensic (e.g., corpse identification) application. In this paper, we propose a new approach to deal with the problem of handwritten signature verification and forgery detection

S. Sayee; Rosli Besar; Nidal S. Kamel

2006-01-01

70

Verification of handwritten signature using three-dimensional correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the verification of handwritten signatures based on the three-dimensional correlation is proposed. The input images to the algorithms of 3D correlation are those range images obtained from the 3D information formed by the signature path. An optic system based on the laser triangulation method, allows the extracting of 3D information. The method takes into account local characteristics that set shape and pressure of signatures together, discrimining characteristics for verification that have been traditionally used separately.

Molina, M. L.; Arias, N. A.; Meneses, J.

2003-11-01

71

A multiresolution approach to computer verification of handwritten signatures.  

PubMed

We took a multi-resolution approach to the signature verification problem. The top-level representation of signatures was the global geometric features. A multi-resolution representation of signatures was obtained using the wavelet transformation. We built VQ and network classifiers to demonstrate the advantages of the multi-resolution approach. High verification rates were achieved based on a limited database. PMID:18290039

Qi, Y; Hunt, B R

1995-01-01

72

Extraction of Features from Signature Image and Signature Verification Using Clustering Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans are comfortable with pen and papers for authentication and authorization in legal transactions. In this case it is very much essential that a person's Hand written signature to be identified uniquely. The development of efficient technique is to extract features from Handwritten Signature Image and verify the signature with higher accuracy. This paper presents a method for off line hand written signature verification with higher accuracy. In this paper we have introduced a procedure to extract features from Handwritten Signature Images. That computed feature is used for verification. Here we used a clustering technique for verification.

Biswas, Samit; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

73

Offline Handwritten Signature Identification and Verification Using Contourlet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new offline handwritten signature identification and verification system based on contourlet transform is proposed. Contourlet transform (CT) is used as feature extractor in proposed system. Signature image is enhanced by removing noise and then it is normalized by size. After preprocessing stage, by applying a special type of contourlet transform on signature image, related contourlet coefficients

Muhammad Reza Pourshahabi; Mohamad Hoseyn Sigari; Hamid Reza Pourreza

2009-01-01

74

Age dependency in handwritten dynamic signature verification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of age dependency of biometric dynamic signature verification systems is presented. A number of commonly used features are extracted from multiple signature sample donated by 274 signers. These features are examined for repeatability both within a single signature capture session and between multiple sessions with particular consideration for any performance variation between age groups. Alongside this analysis, an

Richard M. Guest

2006-01-01

75

Off-line handwritten signature verification with inflections feature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an off-line handwritten signature verification system is proposed. Different scale wavelet transforms are used in the curvature signature signals transformation. After analysis, proper scale is selected. We extract the zero-crossings points and take it as the inflections of the signature. Then the signature curves are divided into several parts, i.e. the strokes, according to these inflections. The

Xiufen Ye; Weiping Hou; Weixing Feng

2005-01-01

76

Offline Signature Verification Based on Pseudo-Cepstral Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features representing information about pressure distri- bution from a static image of a handwritten signature are analyzed for an offline verification system. From gray-scale images, its histogram is calculated and used as \\

Jesus F. Vargas; Miguel A. Ferrer; Carlos M. Travieso; Jesus B. Alonso

2009-01-01

77

Offline Signature Verification Based on Pseudo-Cepstral Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features representing information about pressure distribution from a static image of a handwritten signature are analyzed for an offline verification system. From gray-scale images, its histogram is calculated and used as \\

Jesus Francisco Vargas Bonilla; Miguel Angel Ferrer-ballester; Carlos Manuel Travieso Gonzalez; Jesus Bernandino Alonso Hernandez

2009-01-01

78

A Fuzzy Perception for Off-Line Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is the assessment of a family ofshape factors for off-line signature verification. The initial method, suggestedin [1], which extracts geometric features, is modified to assessthe performance of verification in the general case of forgery.Wecontributeto the information coded by adapting the coding method to theimage and byintegrating a spatial distance into the shape factor definition.

Christophe Simon; Eric Levrat; Robert Sabourin; Jacques Brémont

1997-01-01

79

On-Line Fingerprint Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We describe the design and implementation of an onlinefingerprint verification system which operates in twostages: (i) minutia extraction and (ii) minutia matching. Animproved minutia extraction algorithm that is much fasterand more accurate than our earlier algorithm [8] has beenimplemented. For minutia matching, an alignment-basedelastic matching algorithm has been developed. This algorithmis capable of finding the correspondences between inputminutiae and

Anil K. Jain; Lin Hong; Ruud M. Bolle

1997-01-01

80

Handwritten signature verification based on neural `gas' based vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper propose a vector quantization (VQ) technique to solve the problem of handwritten signature verification. A neural `gas' model is trained to establish a reference set for each registered person with handwritten signature samples. Then a test sample is compared with all the prototypes in the reference set and the system outputs the label of the writer of the

Bai-Ling Zhang; Min-Yue Fu; Hong Yan

1998-01-01

81

Off-line signature verification systems: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signatures are extensively used as a means of personal verification. Manual signature-based authentication of a large number of documents is a very difficult and time consuming task. Consequently for many years, in the field of protected communication and financial applications, we have observed an explosive growth in biometric personal authentication systems that are closely connected with measurable physical unique characteristics

S. Pal; M. Blumenstein; U. Pal

2011-01-01

82

SVC2004: First International Signature Verification Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signature is the most widely accepted biometric for identity verication. To facilitate objective evaluation and comparison of algorithms in the eld of automatic handwritten signature verication, we organized the First International Signature Verication Competition (SVC2004) recently as a step towards establishing common benchmark databases and benchmarking rules. For each of the two tasks of the com- petition, a signature

Dit-yan Yeung; Hong Chang; Yimin Xiong; Susan E. George; Ramanujan S. Kashi; Takashi Matsumoto; Gerhard Rigoll

2004-01-01

83

Analysis on the resolution of the different signals in an on-line handwritten signature verification system applied to portable devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the use of portable devices with touch screens has reached an extended use among the population. With this technology, it is possible to incorporate to such devices the possibility of using handwritten signature to authenticate the user. In order to study the possibilities to carry on this authentication, a previous analysis has been carried out in this paper to

Aitor Mendaza-Ormaza; Oscar Miguel-Hurtado; Raul Sánchez-Reillo; Jaime Uriarte-Antonio

2010-01-01

84

BIOMETRIC SIGNATURE VERIFICATION USING PEN POSITION, TIME, VELOCITY AND PRESSURE PARAMETERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the development of a handwritten signature verification system incorporating pen pressure of signature path, time duration of the signing procedure, velocity profile of signature and position of signature shape. The handwritten signals have been captured and digitized using a tablet. The main features of the proposed signature verification system are the dynamically update of handwritten signature, retries

MUSA MAILAH; LIM BOON HAN

85

Wavelet-Based Off-Line Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a wavelet-based off-line handwritten signature verification system is proposed. The proposed system can automatically identify useful and common features which consistently exist within different signatures of the same person and, based on these features, verify whether a signature is a forgery or not. The system starts with a closed-contour tracing algorithm. The curvature data of the traced

Peter Shaohua Deng; Hong-yuan Mark Liao; Chin Wen Ho; Hsiao-rong Tyan

1999-01-01

86

Neural network signature verification using Haar wavelet and Fourier transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of neural network's for handwritten signature verification using the Fourier and Haar wavelet transforms as methods of encoding signature images. Results will be presented that discuss a neural network's ability to generalize to unseen signatures using wavelet encoded training data. These results will be discussed with reference to both Backpropagation networks and Cascade-Correlation networks. Backpropagation and Cascade- Correlation networks are used to compare and contrast the generalization ability of Haar wavelet and Fourier transform encoded signature data.

McCormack, Daniel K.; Brown, B. M.; Pedersen, John F.

1993-08-01

87

A Human-Centric Off-Line Signature Verification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manual signature-based authentication of a large number of documents is a laborious and time-consuming task. Consequently many off-line signature verification systems were recently developed. In this paper we propose a human-centric system, which exploits the synergy between human and machine capabilities, and show that this combined system can perform better (than humans or a machine) for almost all operating

Hanno Coetzer; Robert Sabourin

2007-01-01

88

A Human-Centric Off-Line Signature Verification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manual signature-based authentication of a large number of documents is a laborious and time-consuming task. Consequently many off-line signature verification sys- tems were recently developed. In this paper we propose a human-centric system, which exploits the synergy between human and machine capabilities, and show that this com- bined system can perform better (than humans or a ma- chine) for

Hanno Coetzer; Robert Sabourin

2007-01-01

89

Parameterization of a forgery handwritten signature verification system using SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for off-line handwritten signature verification is described in this paper. It is compared with four different parameterization techniques using support vector machines (SVM) as a classification system. The results show which one is the most suitable parameterization technique for this system.

Luis E. Martinez; Carlos M. Travieso; Jesus B. Alonso; Miguel A. Ferrer

2004-01-01

90

A parallel approach to individually optimised handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a novel approach to automatic signature verification based on the optimisation of a descriptive feature vector for each individual signer. The nature of the optimisation process is such that user enrolment becomes highly computationally intensive and hence a parallel processing approach to system implementation is necessary for practical applications. The design approach is evaluated and practical results are presented

M. C. Fairhurst; P. Brittan

1992-01-01

91

Use of synthetic discriminant functions for handwritten-signature verification.  

PubMed

Handwritten-signature verification is treated as a two-class synthetic discriminant function (SDF) problem. Images of valid and casually forged signatures are collected and binarized, using an electronic digitizing camera. Performance of this approach with a small number of valid signatures in the training set is examined, and substantial improvement is demonstrated when forgeries are included in the set. In particular, the equal-error rate for the SDF classifier with forgeries included is shown to average approximately 4% across nine different subjects. The effects of image preprocessing on false acceptance and true rejection rates are examined. The use of alternatives to forged signatures in the training matrix is explored. Finally, SDF performance is shown to deteriorate when the tested forgeries are produced with some a priori knowledge of the target signature. PMID:20706399

Wilkinson, T S; Pender, D A; Goodman, J W

1991-08-10

92

Fuzzy Logic Based Off-line Signature Verification and Forgery Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic Signature Verification and Forgery Detection has numerous applications in various fields like Bank-Cheque processing, ATM access, Document Authentications etc. Handwritten Signatures have proved pivotal in Authentication of the identity of the person signing the document. This being very important area the problem of signature verification and forgery detection becomes crucial. Handwritten signatures differ largely in their shapes and sizes

S. Maheswaran; IIT Kharagpur

93

Markov Model-Based Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric security devices are now permeating all facets of modern society. All manner of items including passports, driver's licences and laptops now incorporate some form of biometric data and\\/or authentication device. As handwritten signatures have long been considered the most natural method of verifying one's identity, it makes sense that pervasive computing environments try to capitalise on the use of

Alan Mccabe; Jarrod Trevathan

2008-01-01

94

Off-line signature verification and forgery detection using fuzzy modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic signature verification is a well-established and an active area ofresearch with numerous applications such as bank check verification, ATM access, etc. This paper proposes a novel approach to the problem ofautomatic of f-line signature verification and forgery detection. The proposed approach is based on fuzzy modeling that employs the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) model. Signature verification and forgery detection are carried

Madasu Hanmandlua; Selangor Darul Ehsan

95

New Online\\/Offline Signature Schemes Without Random Oracles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new signature schemes provably secure under the strong RSA assumption in the standard model. Our proposals utilize Shamir-Tauman's generic construction for building EF- CMA secure online\\/o! ine signature schemes from trapdoor commit- ments and less secure basic signature schemes. We introduce a new natu- ral intractability assumption for hash functions, which can be interpreted as

Kaoru Kurosawa; Katja Schmidt-samoa

2006-01-01

96

Introducing Fuzziness on Snake Models for Off-Line Signature Verification: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental comparison of different hybrid snake-based algorithms for automatic off-line signature verification. Snakes are usually applied to different image analysis tasks, especially to segmentation. Off-line signature verification aims to establish the degree of genuineness between one given test signature and one reference signature. Due to the intrapersonal variability in human signatures, a system with tolerance to

J. F. Velez; A. Sanchez; A. B. Moreno; J. L. Esteban

2007-01-01

97

Handwritten static signature verification performed using wavelet transforms and neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the use of various wavelet transform as a method of performing data reduction on static signature images presented to be backpropagation neural network. It is shown that a particular subset of 64 Daubechies D4 wavelet transform coefficients act as an efficient representation of a static signature image when sued to train a backpropagation network to perform static signature verification. Results indicate a signature verification performance of at least 95 percent.

McCormack, Daniel K.; Pedersen, John F.

1998-03-01

98

A hybrid opto-electronic method for fast off-line handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid opto-electronic method for the fast automatic verification of handwritten signatures. This method combines several statistical classifiers and consists of three steps. The first step aims to transform the original signatures using the identity and four Gabor transforms. For each image transform, the second step is to intercorrelate the analysed signature with the similarly transformed signatures

Jean-baptiste Fasquel; Michel Bruynooghe

2004-01-01

99

Improved Online\\/Offline Signature Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of on-line\\/off-line signature schemes was introduced in 1990 by Even, Goldreich and Micali. They presented a general\\u000a method for converting any signature scheme into an on-line\\/off-line signature scheme, but their method is not very practical\\u000a as it increases the length of each signature by a quadratic factor. In this paper we use the recently introduced notion of\\u000a a

Adi Shamir; Yael Tauman

2001-01-01

100

Real-time signature verification using neural network algorithms to process optically extracted features  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for handwritten signature verification is proposed which combines the pattern recognition abilities of neural networks with the feature extraction capabilities of optics. This two-part technique enables real time signature verification based upon power spectrum features and stored linear least squares and Gaussian radial basis function neural network weights.

Ned F. O'Brien; Steven C. Gustafson

1994-01-01

101

Real-time signature verification using neural network algorithms to process optically extracted features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for handwritten signature verification is proposed which combines the pattern recognition abilities of neural networks with the feature extraction capabilities of optics. This two-part technique enables real time signature verification based upon power spectrum features and stored linear least squares and Gaussian radial basis function neural network weights.

O'Brien, Ned F.; Gustafson, Steven C.

1994-07-01

102

Antiforgery: a novel pseudo-outer product based fuzzy neural network driven signature verification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel pseudo-outer product based fuzzy neural network (POPFNN-TVR) driven signature verification system called the antiforgery system is presented in this paper. As Plamondon and Lorette have stated that the design of a signature verification system generally requires the solution of five types of problems: data acquisition, preprocessing, feature extraction, comparison process, and performance evaluation. However, unlike most existing automatic

Hiok Chai Quek; Ruowei Zhou

2002-01-01

103

Improved Identity Based Online\\/Offline Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online\\/offline signatures are used in many applications where the signer must respond quickly once the message to be signed is presented. The idea is to split the signing process into two phases: The first phase is performed offline before the message to be signed is available and the second phase is performed online after the message to be signed is

Yang Ming; Yumin Wang

2010-01-01

104

Handwritten Chinese signature verification based on attributed string matching of stroke linkage order  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an attributed string matching approach based on the writing sequences of an input signature for Chinese signature verification. It is impossible to find features of a signature that are invariant with respect to individual writing style. The aim of our research is to find a particular feature set that will exhibit small intraclass variance. A signer tends to

Nai-Jen Chengl; Chi-Jain Wen; Hon-Fai Yaul; Tsann-Shyong Liu; Kuei Liu; Kun-Chi Cheng; Bor-Shenn Jengl

1998-01-01

105

Off-line Signature Verification using the Enhanced Modified Direction Feature and Neural-based Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signatures continue to be an important biometric for authenticating the identity of human beings. This paper presents an effective method to perform off-line signature verification using unique structural features extracted from the signature's contour. A novel combination of the Modified Direction Feature (MDF) and additional distinguishing features such as the centroid, surface area, length and skew are used for classification.

Stephane Armand; Michael Blumenstein; Vallipuram Muthukkumarasamy

2006-01-01

106

Applications of a hologram watermarking protocol: aging-aware biometric signature verification and time validity check with personal documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our paper addresses two issues of a biometric authentication algorithm for ID cardholders previously presented namely the security of the embedded reference data and the aging process of the biometric data. We describe a protocol that allows two levels of verification, combining a biometric hash technique based on handwritten signature and hologram watermarks with cryptographic signatures in a verification infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of a Trusted Central Public Authority (TCPA), which serves numerous Enrollment Stations (ES) in a secure environment. Each individual performs an enrollment at an ES, which provides the TCPA with the full biometric reference data and a document hash. The TCPA then calculates the authentication record (AR) with the biometric hash, a validity timestamp, and a document hash provided by the ES. The AR is then signed with a cryptographic signature function, initialized with the TCPA's private key and embedded in the ID card as a watermark. Authentication is performed at Verification Stations (VS), where the ID card will be scanned and the signed AR is retrieved from the watermark. Due to the timestamp mechanism and a two level biometric verification technique based on offline and online features, the AR can deal with the aging process of the biometric feature by forcing a re-enrollment of the user after expiry, making use of the ES infrastructure. We describe some attack scenarios and we illustrate the watermarking embedding, retrieval and dispute protocols, analyzing their requisites, advantages and disadvantages in relation to security requirements.

Vielhauer, Claus; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

2003-06-01

107

Enhancing off-line biometric signature verification using a fingerprint assessment approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method designed for matching biometric fingerprint images is applied to the static\\/image-based ”off-line” human signature modality. Using a publically available signature dataset, the verification performance is compared against three existing static methods. Furthermore, verification is assessed using all four methods within a multi-classifier system. The results show the application of the fingerprint method leads to a comparable performance with

Richard Guest; Oscar Miguel-Hurtado

2011-01-01

108

Server (Prover\\/Signer)Aided Verification of Identity Proofs and Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Discrete log based identification and signature schemes arewell-suited to identity proof and signature generation, but not suitablefor verification, by smart cards, due to their highly asymmetric computationalload between the prover\\/signer and the verifier. In this paper,we present very efficient and practical protocols for fast verification inthese schemes, where the verifier with limited computing power performsits computation fast with the

Chae Hoon Lim; Pil Joong Lee

1995-01-01

109

Off-line signature verification using directional PDF and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage of a complete automatic handwritten signature verification system (AHSVS) is described in this paper. Since only random forgeries are taken into account in this first stage of decision, the directional probability density function (PDF) which is related to the overall shape of the handwritten signature has been taken into account as feature vector. Experimental results show that

Robert Sabourin; Jean-Pierre Drouhard

1992-01-01

110

Offline handwritten signature identification and verification using contourlet transform and Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method for signature identification and verification based on contourlet transform (CT) is proposed. This method uses contourlet coefficient as the feature extractor and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the classifier. In proposed method, first signature image is normalized based on size. After pre- processing, contourlet coefficients are computed on specified scale and direction. Next, all

Elaheh Soleymanpour; Boshra Rajae; Hamid Reza Pourreza

2010-01-01

111

Online identity management and identity verification  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A user identity verification apparatus and method comprising, via one or more processors, collecting in a computer database consolidated user data comprising information about a method user from a plurality of sources comprising credit bureau information, information from data vendors, and public information, generating a profile of the method user comprising a plurality of subsets of the consolidated user data corresponding to a plurality of access levels, receiving a validation request from a third party source at an unknown user's request; assigning an access level to the validation request; requesting information from the unknown user, matching returned information from the unknown user to that in the subset of the consolidated user data corresponding to the assigned access level, and verifying to the third party source that the unknown user is the method user.

Rhodes; Hue (New York, NY)

2012-08-21

112

A nonrepudiable threshold multi-proxy multi-signature scheme with shared verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we shall propose a threshold multi-proxy multi-signature scheme with shared verification. In the scheme allows the group of original signers to delegate the signing capability to the designated group of proxy signers. Furthermore, a subset of verifiers in the designated verifier group can authenticate the proxy signature. A threshold multi-proxy multi-signature scheme with the nonrepudiation property is

Shiang-feng Tzeng; Cheng-ying Yang; Min-shiang Hwang

2004-01-01

113

A different approach to off-line handwritten signature verification using the optimal dynamic time warping algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a method for the automatic handwritten signature verification (AHSV) is described. The method relies on global features that summarize different aspects of signature shape and dynamics of signature production. For designing the algorithm, we have tried to detect the signature without paying any attention to the thickness and size of it. The results have shown that the

Inan Güler; Majid Meghdadi

2008-01-01

114

An Online\\/Offline Signature Scheme Based on the Strong RSA Assumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an efficient digital signature scheme, which is proved secure under the strong RSA assumption, and can operate in an online\\/offline manner, doing most of its work in the offline precomputation phase. The online phase, which is performed after the message to be signed is known, is very efficient, requiring only a single modular multiplication. Online\\/offline signatures are useful

Ping Yu; Stephen R. Tate

2007-01-01

115

A Machine Learning Approach to Off-Line Signature Verification Using Bayesian Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A machine learning approach to off-line signature verification is presented. The prior distributions are determined from genuine and forged signatures of several individuals. The task of signature verification is a problem of determining genuine-class membership of a questioned (test) signature. We take a 3-step, writer independent approach: 1) Determine the prior parameter distributions for means of both “genuine vs. genuine” and “forgery vs. known” classes using a distance metric. 2) Enroll n genuine and m forgery signatures for a particular writer and calculate both the posterior class probabilities for both classes. 3) When evaluating a questioned signature, determine the probabilities for each class and choose the class with bigger probability. By using this approach, performance over other approaches to the same problem is dramatically improved, especially when the number of available signatures for enrollment is small. On the NISDCC dataset, when enrolling 4 genuine signatures, the new method yielded a 12.1% average error rate, a significant improvement over a previously described Bayesian method.

Pu, Danjun; Ball, Gregory R.; Srihari, Sargur N.

116

A neural network approach to off-line signature verification using directional PDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network approach is proposed to build the first stage of an Automatic Handwritten Signature Verification System. The directional Probability Density Function was used as a global shape factor and its discriminating power was enhanced by reducing its cardinality via filtering. Various experimental protocols were used to implement the backpropagation network (BPN) classifier. A comparison, on the same database

Jean-pierre Drouhard; Robert Sabourin; Mario Godbout

1996-01-01

117

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

118

Extraction of Features from Signature Image and Signature Verification Using Clustering Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Humans are comfortable with pen and papers for authentication and authorization in legal transactions. In this case it is\\u000a very much essential that a person’s Hand written signature to be identified uniquely. The development of efficient technique\\u000a is to extract features from Handwritten Signature Image and verify the signature with higher accuracy. This paper presents\\u000a a method for off line

Samit Biswas; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Tai-Hoon Kim; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

2010-01-01

119

Gated Treatment Delivery Verification With On-Line Megavoltage Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and clinically demonstrate the use of on-line real-time megavoltage (MV) fluoroscopy for gated treatment delivery verification. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage fluoroscopy (MVF) image sequences were acquired using a flat panel equipped for MV cone-beam CT in synchrony with the respiratory signal obtained from the Anzai gating device. The MVF images can be obtained immediately before or during gated treatment delivery. A prototype software tool (named RTReg4D) was developed to register MVF images with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiograph images generated from the treatment planning system based on four-dimensional CT. The image registration can be used to reposition the patient before or during treatment delivery. To demonstrate the reliability and clinical usefulness, the system was first tested using a thoracic phantom and then prospectively in actual patient treatments under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Results: The quality of the MVF images for lung tumors is adequate for image registration with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiographs. The MVF was found to be useful for monitoring inter- and intrafractional variations of tumor positions. With the planning target volume contour displayed on the MVF images, the system can verify whether the moving target stays within the planning target volume margin during gated delivery. Conclusions: The use of MVF images was found to be clinically effective in detecting discrepancies in tumor location before and during respiration-gated treatment delivery. The tools and process developed can be useful for gated treatment delivery verification.

Tai An, E-mail: atai@mcw.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Christensen, James D.; Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Khamene, Ali [Imaging and Visualization Department, Siemens AG, Princeton, NJ (United States); Boettger, Thomas [Oncology Care Systems, Siemens AG, Heidelberg (Germany); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2010-04-15

120

Fusion of features and classifiers for off-line handwritten signature verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for writer-independent off-line handwritten signature verification based on grey level feature extraction and Real Adaboost algorithm is proposed. Firstly, both global and local features are used simultaneously. The texture information such as co-occurrence matrix and local binary pattern are analyzed and used as features. Secondly, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and the squared Mahalanobis distance classifier are introduced. Finally,

Juan Hu; Youbin Chen

2011-01-01

121

On the pinned field image binarization for signature generation in image ownership verification method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of pinned field image binarization for signature generation in the ownership verification of the protected image is investigated. The pinned field explores the texture information of the protected image and can be employed to enhance the watermark robustness. In the proposed method, four optimization schemes are utilized to determine the threshold values for transforming the pinned field into a binary feature image, which is then utilized to generate an effective signature image. Experimental results show that the utilization of optimization schemes can significantly improve the signature robustness from the previous method (Lee and Chang, Opt. Eng. 49(9), 097005, 2010). While considering both the watermark retrieval rate and the computation speed, the genetic algorithm is strongly recommended. In addition, compared with Chang and Lin's scheme (J. Syst. Softw. 81(7), 1118-1129, 2008), the proposed scheme also has better performance.

Lee, Mn-Ta; Chang, Hsuan Ting

2011-12-01

122

Online\\/Offline Signature Schemes for Devices with Limited Computing Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a family of three efficient digital signature schemes, which are proved secure under the strong RSA assumption\\u000a without requiring a random oracle. The new signature schemes can operate in an online\\/offline manner, doing most of their\\u000a work in the offline precomputation phase. The online phase of even the least efficient variant is very fast, requiring only\\u000a a single

Ping Yu; Stephen R. Tate

2008-01-01

123

On-line verification of radiation treatment portals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital imaging system for verification of radiation therapy is described. The main components are a metal\\/phosphor detector screen which is viewed by a sensitive video camera, and a digital image processor. Enhanced images of the irradiated field are displayed while the treatment is in progress, so that corrections can be made if significant localization errors are detected.<>

S. Shalev; K. Leszczynski; S. Cosby; L. Reinstein; A. Meek

1988-01-01

124

Efficient online\\/offline identity-based signature for wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an online\\/offline identity-based signature scheme for the wireless sensor network (WSN). We argue that due to significant reduction in computational and storage costs, our scheme is particularly suitable for the WSN environment with severely constrained resources. One of the interesting features of our scheme is that it provides multi-time usage of the offline storage, which

Joseph K. Liu; Joonsang Baek; Jianying Zhou; Yanjiang Yang; Jun Wen Wong

2010-01-01

125

Eigen-Model Projections for Protected On-line Signature Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The protection of the templates stored in a biometric recognition system represents an issue of paramount importance for the\\u000a security and privacy of the enrolled users, and directly affects the successful deployment of the system itself. In this paper\\u000a we propose a protected on-line signature recognition system where the properties of Universal Background Models are exploited\\u000a to provide a small

Emanuele Maiorana; Enrique Argones Rúa; Jose Alba Castro; Patrizio Campisi

126

Remark on Yu et al.'s Online\\/Offline Signature Scheme in CT-RSA 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

In CT-RSA 2008, Yu et al. proposed a family of three efficient Online\\/Offline signature schemes, which are especially suitable for the devices with limited computing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a new security model of Online\\/Offline signature. We find that Yu et al.' basic scheme is insecure under our model. We repair Yu et al.'s loophole by proposing a

Xiao-long Ma; Zhi-wei Wang; Li-ze Gu; Yi-xian Yang

2009-01-01

127

Handwritten static signature verification performed using wavelet transforms and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of various wavelet transform as a method of performing data reduction on static signature images presented to be backpropagation neural network. It is shown that a particular subset of 64 Daubechies D4 wavelet transform coefficients act as an efficient representation of a static signature image when sued to train a backpropagation network to perform static

Daniel K. McCormack; John F. Pedersen

1998-01-01

128

Off-line Handwritten Signature Verification using Artificial Neural Network Classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handwritten signatures are used for major human identification procedures including money transfer dealings amongst other vitally important fields. Signatures can be perceived as a behavioral biometric and this paper evaluates the performance of an Error Back Propagation (EBP) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for authenticating these. The work done has provided encouraging results and has re-confirmed the ability of Artificial Neural

Kshitij Sisodia; S. Mahesh Anand

2009-01-01

129

Is Your Avatar Ethical? On-Line Course Tools that Are Methods for Student Identity and Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On-line college courses present a mandate for student identity verification for accreditation and funding sources. Student authentication requires course modification to detect fraud and misrepresentation of authorship in assignment submissions. The reality is that some college students cheat in face-to-face classrooms; however, the potential for…

Semple, Mid; Hatala, Jeffrey; Franks, Patricia; Rossi, Margherita A.

2011-01-01

130

Comparative study of the k nearest neighbour, threshold and neural network classifiers for handwritten signature verification using an enhanced directional PDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network approach is proposed to build the first stage of an automatic handwritten signature verification system that will eliminate random and simple forgeries rapidly. The directional probability density function was used as a global shape factor, and its discriminatory power was enhanced by reducing its cardinality. The choice of the best pretreatment was made by means of a

Jean-pierre Drouhard; Robert Sabourin; Mario Godbout

1995-01-01

131

VERIFICATION OF GRAPHEMES USING NEURAL NETWORKS IN AN HMM-BASED ON-LINE KOREAN HANDWRITING RECOGNITION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neural network based verification method in an HMM-based on-line Korean handwriting recognition system. It penalizes unreasonable grapheme hypotheses and complements global and structural i nformation to the HMM-based recognition system, which is intrinsically based on local information. In the proposed system, each grapheme has one neural network verifier as well as one HMM recognizer. The verifier

SUNG J. CHO; JAHWAN KIM; JIN H. KIM

2000-01-01

132

Performance comparison of DCT, FFT, WHT & Kekre's transform for on-line signature recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic signature is an important behavior based biometric. Dynamic features of human signature are available in case of on line signatures. Spatial Co-ordinates, pressure, azimuth, altitude variation w. r. t. time is analyzed in this paper. The signature feature vector is extracted from the captured feature points using transforms such as DCT, FFT, WHT & kekre's Transform. Derived features such

H. B. Kekre; V. A. Bharadi; S. Tauro; V. I. Singh; B. P. Nemade; P. P. Janrao; S. Gupta

2011-01-01

133

Statistical evaluation of the influence of writing postures on on-line signatures. Study of the impact of time.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of unusual writing positions on a person's signature, in comparison to a standard writing position. Ten writers were asked to sign their signature six times, in each of four different writing positions, including the standard one. In order to take into consideration the effect of the day-to-day variation, this same process was repeated over 12 sessions, giving a total of 288 signatures per subject. The signatures were collected simultaneously in an off-line and on-line acquisition mode, using an interactive tablet and a ballpoint pen. Unidimensional variables (height to width ratio; time with or without in air displacement) and time-dependent variables (pressure; X and Y coordinates; altitude and azimuth angles) were extracted from each signature. For the unidimensional variables, the position effect was assessed through ANOVA and Dunnett contrast tests. Concerning the time-dependent variables, the signatures were compared by using dynamic time warping, and the position effect was evaluated through classification by linear discriminant analysis. Both of these variables provided similar results: no general tendency regarding the position factor could be highlighted. The influence of the position factor varies according to the subject as well as the variable studied. The impact of the session factor was shown to cover the impact that could be ascribed to the writing position factor. Indeed, the day-to-day variation has a greater effect than the position factor on the studied signature variables. The results of this study suggest guidelines for best practice in the area of signature comparisons and demonstrate the importance of a signature collection procedure covering an adequate number of sampling sessions, with a sufficient number of samples per session. PMID:23153802

Thiéry, A; Marquis, R; Montani, I

2012-11-13

134

Online verification of human cell line identity by STR DNA typing.  

PubMed

The main prerequisition for any research, development, or production programs involving cell lines is whether a cell line is authentic or not. Microsatellites in the human genome harboring short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers allow the identification of individual cell lines at the DNA level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite STR loci and gender determination have been proven to be the best tools for screening the uniqueness of DNA profiles in an STR database. The main Biological Resource Centers (BRCs), ATCC, DSMZ, JCRB, and RIKEN, have generated large databases of STR cell line profiles for identity control. In cooperation with the Japanese BRCs, DSMZ has piloted the generation of the most comprehensive international reference database, which is linked to a simple search engine for interrogating STR cell line profiles. The tool of online -verification of cell line identities is available on the respective homepages of JCRB and DSMZ ( http://cellbank.nibio.go.jp/cellbank_e.html , http://www.dsmz.de/STRanalysis ). The following sections describe a rapid, practical, inexpensive, and reliable method available to students, technicians, and scientists. PMID:21516397

Dirks, Wilhelm G; Drexler, Hans G

2011-01-01

135

Measurement-based Monte Carlo dose calculation system for IMRT pretreatment and on-line transit dose verifications.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a dose simulation system based on portal dosimetry measurements and the BEAM Monte Carlo code for intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy dose verification. This measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) system can perform, within one systematic calculation, both pretreatment and on-line transit dose verifications. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc 2006 were used to simulate radiation transport from the treatment head, through the patient, to the plane of the aS500 electronic portal imaging device (EPID). In order to represent the nonuniform fluence distribution of an IM field within the MBMC simulation, an EPID-measured efficiency map was used to redistribute particle weightings of the simulated phase space distribution of an open field at a plane above a patient/phantom. This efficiency map was obtained by dividing the measured energy fluence distribution of an IM field to that of an open field at the EPID plane. The simulated dose distribution at the midplane of a homogeneous polystyrene phantom was compared to the corresponding distribution obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for pretreatment verification. It also generated a simulated transit dose distribution to serve as the on-line verification reference for comparison to that measured by the EPID. Two head-and-neck (NPC1 and NPC2) and one prostate cancer fields were tested in this study. To validate the accuracy of the MBMC system, film dosimetry was performed and served as the dosimetry reference. Excellent agreement between the film dosimetry and the MBMC simulation was obtained for pretreatment verification. For all three cases tested, gamma evaluation with 3%/3 mm criteria showed a high pass percentage (> 99.7%) within the area in which the dose was greater than 30% of the maximum dose. In contrast to the TPS, the MBMC system was able to preserve multileaf collimator delivery effects such as the tongue-and-groove effect and interleaf leakage. In the NPC1 field, the TPS showed 16.5% overdose due to the tongue-and-groove effect and 14.6% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. Similarly, in the NPC2 field, the TPS showed 14.1% overdose due to the tongue-and-groove effect and 8.9% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. In the prostate cancer field, the TPS showed 6.8% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. No tongue-and-groove effect was observed for this field. For transit dose verification, agreements among the EPID measurement, the film dosimetry, and the MBMC system were also excellent with a minimum gamma pass percentage of 99.6%. PMID:19472622

Lin, Mu-Han; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Lee, Chung-Chi; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Yeh, Chie-Yi; Hong, Ji-Hong

2009-04-01

136

Randomized Hashing for Digital Signatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NIST approved digital signature algorithms require the use of an approved cryptographic hash function in the generation and verification of signatures. Approved cryptographic hash functions and digital signature algorithms can be found in (FIPS 180-3) and...

Q. Dang

2009-01-01

137

Aging in Biometrics: An Experimental Analysis on On-Line Signature  

PubMed Central

The first consistent and reproducible evaluation of the effect of aging on dynamic signature is reported. Experiments are carried out on a database generated from two previous datasets which were acquired, under very similar conditions, in 6 sessions distributed in a 15-month time span. Three different systems, representing the current most popular approaches in signature recognition, are used in the experiments, proving the degradation suffered by this trait with the passing of time. Several template update strategies are also studied as possible measures to reduce the impact of aging on the system’s performance. Different results regarding the way in which signatures tend to change with time, and their most and least stable features, are also given.

Galbally, Javier; Martinez-Diaz, Marcos; Fierrez, Julian

2013-01-01

138

On-line control flow error detection using relationship signatures among basic blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer systems operating in space environment are subject to different radiation phenomena, whose effects may lead to a control flow fault occurring in software system, which can cause unpredictable behaviors of computer-based systems. According to the specialty of space environment, We propose a technique called RSCFC (Relationship Signatures for Control Flow Checking) which is based on the partition of programs

Aiguo Li; Bingrong Hong

2010-01-01

139

A Study of the User Interface in Biometric Verification Based on the Characteristics of Human Signature Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biometric-based access control, whether it be with respect to places, restricted information or personal data, is an increasingly\\u000a important consideration in many situations. The handwritten signature is a common biometric which has been regularly used,\\u000a but with authentication decisions traditionally made by human visual inspection. This paper investigates some important issues\\u000a relating to signature complexity and authentication decisions, and points

Michael C. Fairhurst; Elina Kaplani

2003-01-01

140

Modeling, verification and comparison of Zhang Neural Net and gradient neural net for online solution of time-varying linear matrix equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new recurrent neural network (or say, net), i.e., Zhang Neural Network (ZNN), is recently proposed by Zhang et al for online time-varying matrix equations solving. Theoretical analysis, blocks modeling and verification results of Zhang neural network are investigated in this paper, in addition to the neural-solver design method and its comparable gradient neural network (GNN). Towards the final purpose

Ning Tan; Ke Chen; Yanyan Shi; Yunong Zhang

2009-01-01

141

From Biometrics Technology to Applications Regarding Face, Voice, Signature and Fingerprint Recognition Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, several biometric recognition systems, based on voice, fingerprint, face and signature are presented. The\\u000a description of the state-of-the-art technologies regarding these biometric characteristics is widely faced. Minutiae extraction-based\\u000a fingerprint matching, GMM-based speaker verification, on-line HMM-based signature verification, and PCA- or LDA-based face\\u000a recognition are quoted. We will also focus on multimodality and data fusion in biometric systems;

Javier Ortega-Garcia; Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez; Danilo Simon-Zorita; Santiago Cruz-Llanas

142

Towards force standardisation for signature capture devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current focus within biometric technology research and development is the definition of international standards to enable interoperability of modality data collected on multiple devices and biometric processing engines. The human signature is a widely used form of biometric verification with widespread legal admissibility and acceptability for verification purposes. Within automatic signature verification systems the force of the pen exerted

Richard M. Guest

2009-01-01

143

Visualization of Dynamic Characteristics in Two-Dimensional Time Series Patterns: An Application to Online Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An analysis model for the dynamics information of two-dimensional time-series patterns is described. In the proposed model,\\u000a two novel transforms that visualize the dynamic characteristics are proposed. The first transform, referred to as speed equalization,\\u000a reproduces a time-series pattern assuming a constant linear velocity to effectively model the temporal characteristics of\\u000a the signing process. The second transform, referred to as

Suyoung Chi; Jaeyeon Lee; Jung Soh; Dohyung Kim; Oh Weongeun; Changhun Kim

2003-01-01

144

Content Extraction Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by emerging needs in online interactions, we dene a new type of digital signature called a 'Content Extraction Signature' (CES). A CES allows the owner, Bob, of a document signed by Alice, to produce an 'extracted signature' on selected extracted portions of the original document, which can be veried to originate from Alice by any third party Cathy, while

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Yuliang Zheng

2001-01-01

145

AS tudy of Shape in Dynamic Handwritten Signatur eV erification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in authentication based on handwritten signature verification because signature verification is superior to man yo ther biometric authentication techniques e.g. finger prints or retinal patterns, which are reliable but much more intrusive .A simple techniques for signature verification using seve nf eatures related to pen motion in signature writing (viz. total time, number of sign changes

Gopal K. Gupta; Rick C. Joyce

146

FITS Checksum Verification in the NOAO Archive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no standard procedure for verifying the integrity of FITS data files. While a FITS file may be subjected to the same checksum or digital signature calculation as any other data file, the resulting sum or signature must normally be carried separately from the FITS file since writing the value into the header will change the checksum. A simple method for embedding an ASCII coded 32 bit 1's complement checksum within a FITS header (or any ASCII text) is described that is quick to compute and has desirable features such as: the checksum of each FITS file or extension is set to zero; the checksum may be accumulated in any order; and the checksum is easily updated with simple arithmetic. On-line verification of tapes for the NOAO/IRAF Save the Bits archive is discussed as an example.

Seaman, R.

147

Quantum threshold group signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most situations, the signer is generally a single person. However, when the message is written on behalf of an organization, a valid message may require the approval or consent of several persons. Threshold signature is a solution to this problem. Generally speaking, as an authority which can be trusted by all members does not exist, a threshold signature scheme without a trusted party appears more attractive. Following some ideas of the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, a quantum threshold group signature one is proposed. In the proposed scheme, only t or more of n persons in the group can generate the group signature and any t - 1 or fewer ones cannot do that. In the verification phase, any t or more of n signature receivers can verify the message and any t - 1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the signature.

Yang, Yuguang; Wen, Qiaoyan

2008-10-01

148

Modeling and experimental verification of on-line PD detection in MV covered-conductor overhead networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The falling trees on covered-conductor (CC) overhead distribution lines produce partial discharges (PDs). The measurements have been taken in the laboratory and PD signal characteristics under various circumstances have been described. In this paper, an on-line single-phase PD monitoring system using Rogowski coil is simulated in EMTP-ATP. The simulation results are compared with those obtained from the laboratory measurements. The

Ghulam Murtaza Hashmi; Matti Lehtonen; Mikael Nordman

2010-01-01

149

Modeling and Verification of Zhang Neural Networks for Online Solution of Time-Varying Quadratic Minimization and Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, by following Zhang et al’s neural-dynamic method proposed formally since March 2001, two recurrent neural networks are generalized to solve online\\u000a the time-varying convex quadratic-minimization and quadratic-programming (QP) problems, of which the latter is subject to\\u000a a time-varying linear-equality constraint as an example. In comparison with conventional gradient-based neural networks or\\u000a gradient neural networks (GNN), the resultant

Yunong Zhang; Xuezhong Li; Zhan Li

2009-01-01

150

Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy.  

PubMed

A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes that fit into applicators such as standard needles or catheters. The system measures the absorbed dose rate (0.1 s time resolution) and total absorbed dose on the basis of radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from aluminum oxide crystals attached to optical fiber cables (1 mm outer diameter). The system was tested in the range from 0 to 4 Gy using a solid-water phantom, a Varian GammaMed Plus 192Ir PDR afterloader, and dosimetry probes inserted into stainless-steel brachytherapy needles. The calibrated system was found to be linear in the tested dose range. The reproducibility (one standard deviation) for RL and OSL measurements was 1.3%. The measured depth-dose profiles agreed well with the theoretical expectations computed with the EGSNRC Monte Carlo code, suggesting that the energy dependence for the dosimeter probes (relative to water) is less than 6% for source-to-probe distances in the range of 2-50 mm. Under certain conditions, the RL signal could be greatly disturbed by the so-called stem signal (i.e., unwanted light generated in the fiber cable upon irradiation). The OSL signal is not subject to this source of error. The tested system appears to be adequate for in vivo brachytherapy dosimetry. PMID:19378731

Andersen, Claus E; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Tanderup, Kari

2009-03-01

151

Signature Security System for E-Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of human signatures has a long history, but automatic signature verification is still a new and active topic in\\u000a the research and application fields of biometrics. This chapter starts with a detailed survey of recent research progress\\u000a and commercial products in automatic dynamic verification. Instead of applying new and popular approaches, such as those of\\u000a Artificial Neural Networks,

Bin Li; David Zhang

152

DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTAL MONITOR FOR UF6 CYLINDER VERIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s operations. As additional enrichment plans come online to support the expansion of nuclear power, reducing person-days of inspection will take on greater importance. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100% product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Automated Cylinder Enrichment Verification System (ACEVS) would be located at key measurement points and will positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. Given the potential for reduced inspector presence, the operational and manpower-reduction benefits of the portal concept are clear. However, it is necessary to assess whether the cylinder portal concept can meet, or potentially improve upon, today’s U-235 enrichment assay performance. PNNL’s ACEVS concept utilizes sensors that could be operated in an unattended mode: moderated He-3 neutron detectors and large NaI(Tl) scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy. The medium-resolution NaI(Tl) scintillators are a sacrifice in energy resolution but do provide high collection efficiency for signatures above 1 MeV. The He-3/NaI sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures than those currently utilized: Neutrons produced from F-19(?,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U-234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 10 MeV) induced by neutrons interacting in the steel cylinder. These signatures are indirect measures of U-235 that require a relatively stable U-234/U-235 ratio in the product material in order to be useful. The hypothesis of this work is that the U-234/U-235 ratio is sufficiently constant, for the specific facility where the automated system is installed, to rely on neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures for indirect measurement of U-235. Further, these highly penetrating signatures can be combined with a modified form of NaI-based 185-keV enrichment measurements to meet target uncertainties for the verification of product cylinders, with the additional benefits of full-volume assay of the cylinder and 100% product-cylinder verification (as opposed to today’s sampling-based approach). This paper focuses on the enrichment measurement aspects of the ACEVS concept: neutron and high-energy gamma-ray signatures, the radiation sensors designed to collect those signatures, and proof-of-principle cylinder measurements and analysis. Preliminary analysis indicates that an automated cylinder verification approach has the potential to meet target uncertainty values for 30B products cylinders (5%), assuming ore-based enrichment feed and a facility-specific calibration. Also described is the additional work needed to more definitively assess the concept’s viability, particularly through a better understanding of the U-234/U-235 ratio variability in modern enrichment plants.

Smith, Leon E.; Curtis, Michael M.; Shaver, Mark W.; Benz, Jacob M.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.; Jordan, David V.; Noss, Daniel; Ford, Herbert

2009-10-06

153

Signature control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of vehicle radar signature is accomplished by means of vehicle shaping, the use of microwave frequencies-absorbent materials, and either passive or active cancellation techniques; such techniques are also useful in the reduction of propulsion system-associated IR emissions. In some anticipated scenarios, the objective is not signature-reduction but signature control, for deception, via decoy vehicles that mimic the signature

Vittal P. Pyati

1991-01-01

154

PhiSiGns: an online tool to identify signature genes in phages and design PCR primers for examining phage diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Phages (viruses that infect bacteria) have gained significant attention because of their abundance, diversity and important ecological roles. However, the lack of a universal gene shared by all phages presents a challenge for phage identification and characterization, especially in environmental samples where it is difficult to culture phage-host systems. Homologous conserved genes (or "signature genes") present in groups of closely-related phages can be used to explore phage diversity and define evolutionary relationships amongst these phages. Bioinformatic approaches are needed to identify candidate signature genes and design PCR primers to amplify those genes from environmental samples; however, there is currently no existing computational tool that biologists can use for this purpose. Results Here we present PhiSiGns, a web-based and standalone application that performs a pairwise comparison of each gene present in user-selected phage genomes, identifies signature genes, generates alignments of these genes, and designs potential PCR primer pairs. PhiSiGns is available at (http://www.phantome.org/phisigns/; http://phisigns.sourceforge.net/) with a link to the source code. Here we describe the specifications of PhiSiGns and demonstrate its application with a case study. Conclusions PhiSiGns provides phage biologists with a user-friendly tool to identify signature genes and design PCR primers to amplify related genes from uncultured phages in environmental samples. This bioinformatics tool will facilitate the development of novel signature genes for use as molecular markers in studies of phage diversity, phylogeny, and evolution.

2012-01-01

155

On-line high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography–ultraviolet–nuclear magnetic resonance (LC–UV–NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC–UV–NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary

Avik Mazumder; Hemendra K. Gupta; Prabhat Garg; Rajeev Jain; Devendra K. Dubey

2009-01-01

156

Piezoelectric Sensor Pen for Dynamic Signature Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of using handwriting dynamics for electronic identification is discussed. A piezoelectric sensor pen for obtaining the pen point dynamics during writing is described. Design equations are derived and details of an operating device are presente...

E. P. EerNisse C. E. Land J. B. Snelling

1977-01-01

157

A Review of Dynamic Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in authentication based on handwritten signatureverification (HSV) because HSV is superior to many other biometricauthentication techniques e.g. finger prints or retinal patterns, which arereliable but much more intrusive and expensive.This paper presents a review of dynamic HSV techniques that have beenreported in the literature. The paper also discusses possible applications ofHSV, lists some commercial products that

Gopal Gupta; Alan Mccabe

1997-01-01

158

Handwritten Signature Verification by Independent Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study explores a method that learns about the image structure directly from the image en- semble in contrast to other methods where the relevant structure is determined in advance and extracted using hand-engineered techniques. In tasks involving the analysis of image ensembles, important information is often found in the higher-order relationships among the image pixels. Independent Component Analysis

Marco Desira; Kenneth P. Camilleri

159

Signature control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of vehicle radar signature is accomplished by means of vehicle shaping, the use of microwave frequencies-absorbent materials, and either passive or active cancellation techniques; such techniques are also useful in the reduction of propulsion system-associated IR emissions. In some anticipated scenarios, the objective is not signature-reduction but signature control, for deception, via decoy vehicles that mimic the signature characteristics of actual weapons systems. As the stealthiness of airframes and missiles increases, their propulsion systems' exhaust plumes assume a more important role in detection by an adversary.

Pyati, Vittal P.

160

Data fusion approach to verifying handwritten signatures on bank checks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static signature verification is a well researched problem that has not been completely solved to this date. To improve on current verification performance this research uses a pooling method which fuses together decisions of selected verification algorithms. To enhance this performance further, the decision from this method is fused with the decision of a neural network classifier. This neural network classifier offers a new approach to signature verification, since it is based on recognition techniques. The advantage of this classifier is that it incorporates different information into its decision and therefore allows the fused decision to be based on more diverse information. In contrast to other methods, this classifier requires only genuine signature samples to be trained. Experimental results show that the fusion of verification algorithms can produce better performance than any of the used methods individually.

Scott, D. J.; Basir, Otman A.; Hassanein, Khaled S.; Zelek, John S.

1999-01-01

161

Towards a Flexible Framework for Open Source Software for Handwritten Signature Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human signature is still the most widely used and accepted form of personal authorisation and verification applied to documents and transactions. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a flexible and highly configurable framework for the experimental construction and performance inves- tigation of biometric signature verification systems. We focus on a design approach which encompasses a

Richard M. Guest; Michael C. Fairhurst; Claus Vielhauer

2005-01-01

162

Generalization of Threshold Signature and Authenticated Encryption for Group Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper, we propose an idea of the gen- eralization of threshold signature and authenticated encryption for group communications. The concept of the (t, n) threshold signature with (k, l) shared verification is implemented in group- oriented cryptosystems. In the system, any t members can rep- resent a group to sign a message and any k verifiers can

Ching-Te WANG; Chin-Chen CHANG; Chu-Hsing LIN

2000-01-01

163

On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient. PMID:19481219

Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

2009-05-13

164

Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes that fit into applicators such as standard needles or catheters. The system measures the absorbed dose rate (0.1 s time resolution) and total absorbed dose on the basis of radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from aluminum oxide crystals attached to optical fiber cables (1 mm outer diameter). The system was tested in the range from 0 to 4 Gy using a solid-water phantom, a Varian GammaMed Plus {sup 192}Ir PDR afterloader, and dosimetry probes inserted into stainless-steel brachytherapy needles. The calibrated system was found to be linear in the tested dose range. The reproducibility (one standard deviation) for RL and OSL measurements was 1.3%. The measured depth-dose profiles agreed well with the theoretical expectations computed with the EGSNRC Monte Carlo code, suggesting that the energy dependence for the dosimeter probes (relative to water) is less than 6% for source-to-probe distances in the range of 2-50 mm. Under certain conditions, the RL signal could be greatly disturbed by the so-called stem signal (i.e., unwanted light generated in the fiber cable upon irradiation). The OSL signal is not subject to this source of error. The tested system appears to be adequate for in vivo brachytherapy dosimetry.

Andersen, Claus E.; Nielsen, Soeren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Tanderup, Kari [Department of Radiation Research, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Radiation Research, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2009-03-15

165

Optimal segmentation of handwritten Chinese signatures using wavelet transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new segmenting method for handwritten Chinese signatures based on the wavelet transform for signature verification. There are some differences in identifying a handwritten signature and in recognizing a handwritten character because there are meaningful features hidden in writing habits when an individual is signing his or her signature. These features exhibit themselves in the pen- down, pen-up, and in the corner of a stroke. Therefore the segmentation for identifying a signature and for recognizing a character should be different even though the same characters are involved. We propose to segment an input signature curve at the inflection points, and we locate the inflection points by detecting the zero-crossing points of the wavelet transforms of the input signature. Experimental results show that this new segmenting method has better segmentation capability than other methods that are usually used.

Wen, Chi-Jain; Yau, Hon-Fai; Jeng, Bor-Shenn

1996-09-01

166

Tomotherapeutic portal imaging for radiation treatment verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their tomotherapy concept Mackie and co-workers proposed not only a new technique for IMRT but also an appropriate and satisfactory method of treatment verification. This method allows both monitoring of the portal dose distribution and imaging of the patient anatomy during treatment by means of online CT. This would enable the detection of inaccuracies in dose delivery and patient

B. M. Hesse; L. Spies; B. A. Groh

1998-01-01

167

Signatures of Reputation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reputation systems have become an increasingly important tool for highlighting quality information and filtering spam within online forums. However, the dependence of a user's reputation on their history of activities seems to preclude any possibility of anonymity. We show that useful reputation information can, in fact, coexist with strong privacy guarantees. We introduce and formalize a novel cryptographic primitive we call signatures of reputation which supports monotonic measures of reputation in a completely anonymous setting. In our system, a user can express trust in others by voting for them, collect votes to build up her own reputation, and attach a proof of her reputation to any data she publishes, all while maintaining the unlinkability of her actions.

Bethencourt, John; Shi, Elaine; Song, Dawn

168

Wavelet Features Based Fingerprint Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work; we present a automatic fingerprint identification system based on Level 3 features. Systems based only on minutiae features do not perform well for poor quality images. In practice, we often encounter extremely dry, wet fingerprint images with cuts, warts, etc. Due to such fingerprints, minutiae based systems show poor performance for real time authentication applications. To alleviate the problem of poor quality fingerprints, and to improve overall performance of the system, this paper proposes fingerprint verification based on wavelet statistical features & co-occurrence matrix features. The features include mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy, contrast, local homogeneity, cluster shade, cluster prominence, Information measure of correlation. In this method, matching can be done between the input image and the stored template without exhaustive search using the extracted feature. The wavelet transform based approach is better than the existing minutiae based method and it takes less response time and hence suitable for on-line verification, with high accuracy.

Bagadi, Shweta U.; Thalange, Asha V.; Jain, Giridhar P.

2010-11-01

169

Robust Threshold DSS Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present threshold DSS (Digital Signature Standard) signatures where the power to sign is shared by players such that for a given parameter any subset of signers can collaborate to produce a valid DSS signature on any given message, but no subset of corrupted players can forge a signature (in particular, cannot learn the signature key). In addition, we present

Rosario Gennaro; Stanislaw Jarecki; Hugo Krawczyk; Tal Rabin

1996-01-01

170

Subliminal-free Authentication and Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simmons [17] introduced the notion of subliminal channel in 1983, by demonstrating how to “hide” secret information inside an authenticated\\u000a message. In this paper we propose a practical subliminal-free authentication system and extend our results to subliminal-free\\u000a signatures. The subliminal-freeness of our systems can be proven. We discuss applications in the context of verification of\\u000a treaty and international bank communications.

Yvo Desmedt

171

New Identity-Based Ring Signature Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identity-based (ID-based) cryptosystems avoid the necessity of certificates to authenticate public keys in a digital communications\\u000a system. This is desirable, specially for these applications which involve a large number of public keys in each execution.\\u000a For example, any computation and verification of a ring signature, where a user anonymously signs a message on behalf of a\\u000a set of users including

Javier Herranz; Germán Sáez

2004-01-01

172

Processor Control Flow Monitoring Using Signatured Instruction Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative approach, called signatured instruction streams (SIS), to the on-line detection of control flow errors caused by transient and intermittent faults. At compile time an application program is appropriately partitioned into smaller subprograms, and cyclic codes, or signatures, characterizing the control flow of each subprogram are generated and embedded in the object code. At runtime, special

Michael A. Schuette; John Paul Shen

1987-01-01

173

Biometric verification in dynamic writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pen-tablet devices capable of capturing the dynamics of writing record temporal and pressure information as well as the spatial pattern. This paper explores biometric verification based upon the dynamics of writing where writers are distinguished not on the basis of what they write (ie the signature), but how they write. We have collected samples of dynamic writing from 38 Chinese writers. Each writer was asked to provide 10 copies of a paragraph of text and the same number of signature samples. From the data we have extracted stroke-based primitives from the sentence data utilizing pen-up/down information and heuristic rules about the shape of the character. The x, y and pressure values of each primitive were interpolated into an even temporal range based upon a 20 msec sampling rate. We applied the Daubechies 1 wavelet transform to the x signal, y signal and pressure signal using the coefficients as inputs to a multi-layer perceptron trained with back-propagation on the sentence data. We found a sensitivity of 0.977 and specificity of 0.990 recognizing writers based on test primitives extracted from sentence data and measures of 0.916 and 0.961 respectively, from test primitives extracted from signature data.

George, Susan E.

2002-03-01

174

Video authentication for H.264\\/AVC using digital signature standard and secure hash algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia authentication techniques are required to prove the validity of legal multimedia content and establish the identity of the content creator. Digital signatures are one way of authenticating multimedia content. Typically digital signatures use cryptographic techniques to ensure the integrity of the multimedia bitstream. This paper proposes a hard video authentication and sender verification scheme for video sequences compressed using

Nandakishore Ramaswamy; K. R. Rao

2006-01-01

175

Short Group Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a short group signature scheme. Signatures in our scheme are approximately the size of a standard RSA signature with the same security. Security of our group signature is based on the Strong Die-Hellman assumption and a new assumption in bilinear groups called the Decision Linear assumption. We prove security of our system, in the random oracle model, using

Dan Boneh; Xavier Boyen; Hovav Shacham

2004-01-01

176

Support vector machines versus multi-layer perceptrons for efficient off-line signature recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automatic signature recognition has received little attention in comparison with the problem of signature verification despite its potential applications for accessing security-sensitive facilities and for processing certain legal and historical documents. This paper presents an efficient off-line human signature recognition system based on support vector machines (SVM) and compares its performance with a traditional classification technique, multi-layer

Enrique Frías-Martínez; A. Sanchez; J. Velez

2006-01-01

177

Variability study of Ka-band HRR polarimetric signatures on 11 T-72 tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to effectively understand signature verification requirements through the variability of a structure's RCS characteristics, the U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC), with technical support from STL, originated a signature project plan to obtain MMW signatures from multiple similar tanks. In implementing this plan NGIC\\/STL directed and sponsored turntable measurements performed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory

W. E. Nixon; H. J. Neilson; G. N. Szatkowski; Robert H. Giles; W. T. Kersey; L. C. Perkins; Jerry Waldman

1998-01-01

178

Verification of Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT); Vassev, Emil [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Hinchey, Mike [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Rouff, Christopher [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Buskens, Richard [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2012-01-01

179

Description of a Computerized, On-Line Interlibrary Loan System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the first two months of operation of the OCLC interlibrary loan system, an online system designed to increase speed and effectiveness in obtaining interlibrary loans. This system provides (1) bibliographic verification of interlibrary...

F. G. Kilgour

1979-01-01

180

Runtime Verification in Context : Can Optimizing Error Detection Improve Fault Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Runtime verification has primarily been developed and evaluated as a means of enriching the software testing process. While many researchers have pointed to its potential applicability in online approaches to software fault tolerance, there has been a dea...

M. B. Dwyer R. Purandare S. Person

2010-01-01

181

Exotic signatures from supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

Minor changes to the standard supersymmetric model, such as soft flavor violation and R parity violation, cause large changes in the signatures. The origin of these changes and the resulting signatures are discussed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hall, L.J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1989-08-01

182

Signatures support program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Signatures Support Program (SSP) leverages the full spectrum of signature-related activities (collections, processing, development, storage, maintenance, and dissemination) within the Department of Defense (DOD), the intelligence community (IC), other Federal agencies, and civil institutions. The Enterprise encompasses acoustic, seismic, radio frequency, infrared, radar, nuclear radiation, and electro-optical signatures. The SSP serves the war fighter, the IC, and civil institutions by supporting military operations, intelligence operations, homeland defense, disaster relief, acquisitions, and research and development. Data centers host and maintain signature holdings, collectively forming the national signatures pool. The geographically distributed organizations are the authoritative sources and repositories for signature data; the centers are responsible for data content and quality. The SSP proactively engages DOD, IC, other Federal entities, academia, and industry to locate signatures for inclusion in the distributed national signatures pool and provides world-wide 24/7 access via the SSP application.

Hawley, Chadwick T.

2009-05-01

183

Threshold Entrusted Undeniable Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Entrusted undeniable signatures are like undeniable signatures, except that the disavowal protocol can only be run by a court\\u000a in order to resolve a formal dispute. This paper introduces threshold entrusted undeniable signature scheme without trusted\\u000a center. It is shown how the power to run a disavowal protocol of entrusted undeniable signature can be distributed to n agents such that

Seungjoo Kim; Dongho Won

2004-01-01

184

Strong signature schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of digital signature based on trapdoor functions has been introduced by Diffie and Hellman[3]. Rivest, Shamir and Adleman[8] gave the first number theoretic implementation of a signature scheme based on a trapdoor function. If f is a trapdoor function and m a message, f?1(m) is the signature of m. The signature can be verified by computing f(f?1(m)) &equil;

Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali; Andrew Chi-Chih Yao

1983-01-01

185

Practical Threshold Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an RSA threshold signature scheme. The scheme enjoys the following properties: 1. it is unforgeable and robust in the random oracle model, assuming the RSA problem is hard; 2. signature share generation and veriflcation is completely non-inter- active; 3. the size of an individual signature share is bounded by a constant times the size of the RSA modulus.

Victor Shoup

2000-01-01

186

Improved digital signature algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this brief paper, a digital signature algorithm is developed which is an improved version of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) proposed by the NIST. The security of the improved version is the same as the original one while it benefits the signature signer and performs more efficiently.

Yen, Sung-Ming; Laih, Chi-Sung

1995-05-01

187

Online Fingerprint Template Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This work proposes,a technique,that improves,fingerprint templates,by merging,and averaging,minutiae,of multiple fingerprints. The weighted,averaging scheme,enables,the template to change,gradually with time in line with changes,of the skin and imaging,conditions. The recursive nature of the algorithm greatly reduces the storage and computation requirements of this technique. As a result, the proposed template improvement procedure can be performed,online during the fingerprint verification process. Extensive experimental,studies

Xudong Jiang; Wee Ser

2002-01-01

188

Verification of complex codes.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, verifying and validating complex codes at Sandia National Laboratories has become a major part of code development. These aspects tackle two important parts of simulation modeling: determining if the models have been correctly implemented - verification, and determining if the correct models have been selected - validation. In this talk, we will focus on verification and discuss the basics of code verification and its application to a few codes and problems at Sandia.

Ober, Curtis Curry

2009-03-01

189

Online Pharmacies  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Online Pharmacies Is it safe to buy medicines online? It can be safe to buy your medicines online, but you need to be very ... new or more serious health problems. Illegal online pharmacies might not be licensed; might send you medicines ...

190

Lessons Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The instructors of an Earth science course used WebCT, a multipurpose software package, to create an online supplement to their course. It included class e-mail, science hyperlinks, an online calendar, an online discussion board, and online handouts. The

Krockover, Gerald H.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Witham, Shelly A.; Zinsmeister, William J.

2002-12-01

191

Real Traceable Signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traceable signature scheme extends a group signature scheme with an enhanced anonymity management mechanism. The group manager can compute a tracing trapdoor which enables anyone to test if a signature is signed by a given misbehaving user, while the only way to do so for group signatures requires revealing the signer of all signatures. Nevertheless, it is not tracing in a strict sense. For all existing schemes, T tracing agents need to recollect all N' signatures ever produced and perform RN' “checks” for R revoked users. This involves a high volume of transfer and computations. Increasing T increases the degree of parallelism for tracing but also the probability of “missing” some signatures in case some of the agents are dishonest.

Chow, Sherman S. M.

192

OCLC AND THE PREORDER VERIFICATION OF NEW SERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of OCLC records which include complete order information for newly begun serials suggests the future potential of the online serials database for serving as a main pre-order verification tool in lieu of the various other sources presently used to verify new serials. Nearly all of the OCLC records for new serials indicate frequency and date of first

Tom D. Kilton

1979-01-01

193

Safety Assessment of Autonomous Cars using Verification Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common requirement for autonomous cars is a safe locomotion which is evaluated by the method of hybrid verification applied online. The approach checks avoidance of static obstacles and dynamic traffic participants, which are described by imprecise data on their positions and velocities. The nonlinear dynamics of the autonomous car and other traffic participants is conservatively abstracted to Markov chains,

Matthias Althoff; Olaf Stursberg; Martin Buss

2007-01-01

194

Why do members contribute knowledge to online communities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to better understand individuals' motives for contributing knowledge in an online community. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An integrated model is developed based on a motivational model and social cognitive theory. To validate the model two online communities: the Electronic Engineering Times in Taiwan and China were surveyed. Findings – It was found that both perceived identity verification

Shih-Wei Chou

2010-01-01

195

Description of a Computerized, On-Line Interlibrary Loan System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the first two months of operation of the OCLC interlibrary loan system, an online system designed to increase speed and effectiveness in obtaining interlibrary loans. This system provides (1) bibliographic verification of interlibrary loan records and location of materials by using online union catalog records, (2) automatic…

Kilgour, Frederick G.

196

A multiparty quantum proxy group signature scheme for the entangled-state message with quantum Fourier transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel multiparty quantum proxy group signature scheme is proposed based on the discrete quantum Fourier transform in order\\u000a to improve the efficiency and the security of quantum signature for an n-dimensional quantum message, in which the generation and verification of the signature can be successfully conducted only\\u000a if all the n participants cooperate with each other and with the

Jinjing Shi; Ronghua Shi; Ying Tang; Moon Ho Lee

2011-01-01

197

A Blind Quantum Signature Scheme with ?-type Entangled States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blind quantum signature scheme with ?-type entangled states is proposed, which can be applied to E-voting system. In this scheme, the particles in ?-type state sequence are used for quantum key distribution first, and then for quantum signature. Our scheme is characterized by its blindness, impossibility of forgery, impossibility of disavowal. In addition, our scheme can perform an audit program with respect to the validity of the verification process in the light of actual requirements. The security of the scheme is also analyzed.

Yin, Xun-Ru; Ma, Wen-Ping; Liu, Wei-Yan

2012-02-01

198

Universal Designated-Verifier Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by privacy issues associated with dissemination of signed digital certiflcates, we deflne a new type of signature scheme called a 'Universal Designated-Verifler Signature' (UDVS). A UDVS scheme can function as a standard publicly-veriflable digital signature but has additional functionality which allows any holder of a signature (not nec- essarily the signer) to designate the signature to any desired designated-

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Huaxiong Wang; Josef Pieprzyk

2003-01-01

199

Signature detection and matching for document image retrieval.  

PubMed

As one of the most pervasive methods of individual identification and document authentication, signatures present convincing evidence and provide an important form of indexing for effective document image processing and retrieval in a broad range of applications. However, detection and segmentation of free-form objects such as signatures from clustered background is currently an open document analysis problem. In this paper, we focus on two fundamental problems in signature-based document image retrieval. First, we propose a novel multiscale approach to jointly detecting and segmenting signatures from document images. Rather than focusing on local features that typically have large variations, our approach captures the structural saliency using a signature production model and computes the dynamic curvature of 2D contour fragments over multiple scales. This detection framework is general and computationally tractable. Second, we treat the problem of signature retrieval in the unconstrained setting of translation, scale, and rotation invariant nonrigid shape matching. We propose two novel measures of shape dissimilarity based on anisotropic scaling and registration residual error and present a supervised learning framework for combining complementary shape information from different dissimilarity metrics using LDA. We quantitatively study state-of-the-art shape representations, shape matching algorithms, measures of dissimilarity, and the use of multiple instances as query in document image retrieval. We further demonstrate our matching techniques in offline signature verification. Extensive experiments using large real-world collections of English and Arabic machine-printed and handwritten documents demonstrate the excellent performance of our approaches. PMID:19762928

Zhu, Guangyu; Zheng, Yefeng; Doermann, David; Jaeger, Stefan

2009-11-01

200

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

201

Online Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an

Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

2011-01-01

202

Controlling radar signature  

SciTech Connect

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke, K.W. (U.S. Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States))

1992-08-01

203

Recognition of human signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a digitizing tablet to collect handwritten signatures, with five quantities recorded, namely horizontal and vertical pen tip position, pen tip pressure, and pen azimuth and altitude angles. We divided the signature features into visible ones, namely those related to an “image on the paper” and hidden ones, i.e. those using time-related observations. Cluster analysis was applied to segment

Andrzej Pacut; Adam Czajka

2001-01-01

204

Digital Signature Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

1999-01-01

205

Automatic Verification of Serializers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is concerned with the problem of controlling concurrent access to shared data. A language construct is proposed to enforce such control; a specification language is defined to describe the formal requirements of such control; and verification ...

R. R. Atkinson

1980-01-01

206

Research on Speaker Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report advised the Judge Advocates General of the military services concern the relative merits of the three main methods of speaker verification and gives some indication of their absolute value as legal evidence. It then recommends concerning which ...

J. L. Flanagan F. R. Clarke F. S. Cooper D. L. Hogan K. N. Stevens

1971-01-01

207

Quantum Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme Using Genuinely Entangled Six Qubits State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum proxy multi-signature scheme is presented based on controlled teleportation. Genuinely entangled six qubits quantum state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. Quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme, which could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei

2013-04-01

208

PORTSIM verification summary report.  

SciTech Connect

This summary report is a compilation of six reports previously released on the verification efforts for the Port Simulation (PORTSIM) model, a discrete-event simulation model used for analyzing military seaport operations for embarkation. In addition to describing the PORTSIM verification efforts, the report also comments on the entire verification process, including an overview of the findings. The six verification reports correspond to the six combinations of cargo types-transportation modes modeled in PORTSIM. For each of the six studies, a simplified scenario and force file (i.e., cargo list) were created and implemented to facilitate verification of basic timing data. The patterns and logic used to compute the timing data were identified and quantified and are included for each of the six reports, along with details on scenario setup parameters. The verification efforts confirmed the accuracy of simulation output results and added greater levels of quality, confidence, and usefulness to PORTSIM. These efforts improved the model and user interface, uncovered and corrected numerous bugs and anomalies, and provided insights into model behaviors and relationships.

Davidson, R. S.; VanKuiken, J. C.

2002-08-29

209

An archaeal genomic signature  

PubMed Central

Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal “design fabric.” Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

Graham, David E.; Overbeek, Ross; Olsen, Gary J.; Woese, Carl R.

2000-01-01

210

Field Instructors and Online Training: An Exploratory Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite field placement being the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, little research exists regarding methods for training field instructors. This study captures their perceptions regarding the use of online training. An online survey of 642 field instructors from 4 universities produced 208 responses. Less than 4% rejected the idea…

Dedman, Denise E.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

2011-01-01

211

Cyanobacterial signature genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of 8 cyanobacterial genomes reveals that there are 181 shared genes that do not have obvious orthologs in other\\u000a bacteria. These signature genes define aspects of the genotype that are uniquely cyanobacterial. Approximately 25% of these\\u000a genes have been associated with some function. These signature genes may or may not be involved in photosynthesis but likely\\u000a they will

Kirt A. Martin; Janet L. Siefert; Sailaja Yerrapragada; Yue Lu; Thomas Z. McNeill; Pedro A. Moreno; George M. Weinstock; William R. Widger; George E. Fox

2003-01-01

212

Signature Identification using Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the human signature has been used for the identification of a person. With the modernisation of optical technology, it is now possible to electronically process human signatures and use neural network techniques to validate these signatures. The signature may involve visible parameters such an size, orientation, peaks and valleys. It may also involve invisible parameters such as depth, pressure

M. Palaniswarnil; Nagarajan Prabhakaran; S. Thacore; Wunnava Subbarao

1991-01-01

213

Verification and Validation of Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper surveys verification and validation of models, especially simulation models in operations research. For verification it discusses (1) general good programming practice (such as modular programming), (2) checking intermediate simulation outputs t...

J. P. C. Kleijnen

1993-01-01

214

Estimating the pen trajectories of static signatures using hidden Markov models.  

PubMed

Static signatures originate as handwritten images on documents and by definition do not contain any dynamic information. This lack of information makes static signature verification systems significantly less reliable than their dynamic counterparts. This study involves extracting dynamic information from static images, specifically the pen trajectory while the signature was created. We assume that a dynamic version of the static image is available (typically obtained during an earlier registration process). We then derive a hidden Markov model from the static image and match it to the dynamic version of the image. This match results in the estimated pen trajectory of the static image. PMID:16285373

Nel, Emli-Mari; du Preez, Johan A; Herbst, B M

2005-11-01

215

Variability study of Ka-band HRR polarimetric signatures on 11 T-72 tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to effectively understand signature verification requirements through the variability of a structure's RCS characteristics, the U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC), with technical support from STL, originated a signature project plan to obtain MMW signatures from multiple similar tanks. In implementing this plan NGIC/STL directed and sponsored turntable measurements performed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory Sensors and Electromagnetic Resource Directorate on eleven T-72 tanks using an HRR full-polarimetric Ka-band radar. The physical condition and configuration of these vehicles were documented by careful inspection and then photographed during the acquisition sequence at 45 degree(s) azimuth intervals. The turntable signature of one vehicle was acquired eight times over the three day signatures acquisition period for establishing measurement variability on any single target. At several intervals between target measurements, the turntable signature of a 30 m2 trihedral was also acquired as a calibration reference for the signature library. Through an RCS goodness-of-fit correlation and ISAR comparison study, the signature-to-signature variability was evaluated for the eighteen HRR turntable measurements of the T-72 tanks. This signature data is available from NGIC on request for Government Agencies and Government Contractors with an established need-to-know.

Nixon, W. E.; Neilson, H. J.; Szatkowski, G. N.; Giles, Robert H.; Kersey, W. T.; Perkins, L. C.; Waldman, Jerry

1998-09-01

216

Empathy online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of online support communities help each other by empathising about common problems and exchanging information about symptoms and treatments. Results from two studies indicate that: empathy occurs in most online textual communities; empathetic communication is influenced by the topic being discussed; the presence of women tends to encourage empathy; and the presence of moderators not only reduces hostility but

J. Preece

1999-01-01

217

Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Distance education, which began as correspondence courses in the nineteenth century and grew into educational television during the twentieth century, evolved into learning on the Web by the mid-1990s. Accompanying the rise in online learning has been a similar rise in organizations and publications dedicated to serving the needs of online

Perry, Edward H.; Pilati, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

218

Formal Verification of Ada Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penelope verification editor and its formal basis are described. Penelope is a prototype system for the interactive development and verification of programs that are written in a rich subset of sequential Ada. Because it generates verification conditions incrementally, Penelope can be used to develop a program and its correctness proof in concert. If an already-verified program is modified, one

David Guaspari; Carla Marceau; Wolfgang Polak

1990-01-01

219

Better Verification Through Symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the state explosion problem in automatic verification of finite-state systemsby exploiting symmetries in the system description.We make symmetries easy to detect by introducing a new data type scalarset, a finiteand unordered set, to our description language. The set of operations on scalarsets arerestricted so that states are guaranteed to have the same future behavior, up to permutationof the

C. Norris Ip

1993-01-01

220

Verification of Vortex Workflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vortex is a workflow language to support decision making activities. It centers around gathering and computing attributes of in- put objects. The semantics of Vortex is declarative, and the dependency graphs of Vortex programs are acyclic. This paper discusses the appli- cation of symbolic model checking techniques to verification of Vortex programs. As a case study we used a Vortex

Xiang Fu; Tevfik Bultan; Richard Hull; Jianwen Su

2001-01-01

221

The verification challenge  

SciTech Connect

This book draws on the guidance of experts to inform citizens about the prospects and problems of verification. It explains how intelligence monitoring and collection work, what is involved in verifying specific arms contro provisions, and the history of Soviet and U.S. compliance. Underlying principles as well as technical and operating details are discussed.

Scribner, R.A.; Ralston, T.; Metz, W.

1985-01-01

222

Consequence Verification of Flowcharts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common basis is presented, for Floyd's method of inductive assertions and for the subgoal induction method of Morris and Wegbreit. This basis is provided by consequence verification, a method for verifying logic programs. We connect flowcharts with logic programs by giving a recursive definition of the set of all computations of a flowchart. This definition can be given in

Keith L. Clark; Maarten H. Van Emden

1981-01-01

223

Hermes System Verification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hermes system, composed of a reusable space vehicle launched by Ariane 5 and its associated ground segment provides the transportation of men and supplies to and from space within the European In Orbit Infrastructure (IOI). The verification of the mul...

J. Herholz

1990-01-01

224

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was initiated in 1995 to speed implementation of new and innovative commercial-ready environemntal technologies by providing objective, 3rd pa...

225

Is flow verification necessary  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards test statistics are used in an attempt to detect diversion of special nuclear material. Under assumptions concerning possible manipulation (falsification) of safeguards accounting data, the effects on the statistics due to diversion and data manipulation are described algebraically. A comprehensive set of statistics that is capable of detecting any diversion of material is defined in terms of the algebraic properties of the effects. When the assumptions exclude collusion between persons in two material balance areas, then three sets of accounting statistics are shown to be comprehensive. Two of the sets contain widely known accountancy statistics. One of them does not require physical flow verification - comparisons of operator and inspector data for receipts and shipments. The third set contains a single statistic which does not require physical flow verification. In addition to not requiring technically difficult and expensive flow verification, this single statistic has several advantages over other comprehensive sets of statistics. This algebraic approach as an alternative to flow verification for safeguards accountancy is discussed in this paper.

Beetle, T.M.

1986-01-01

226

Threshold signature scheme with subliminal channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold signature is an important signature with additional property; it can achieve effective supervision on signature generating and signature verifying. This paper analyzed the basic principles of threshold cryptosystem and its superiority for application in threshold signature schemes. Considering the security threats and system flaws of present signature schemes, we present a threshold signature scheme based on elliptic curves cryptosystem.

Xuanwu Zhou; Ping Wei

2009-01-01

227

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

228

Learning Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To improve large lecture courses, the authors designed a hybrid instructional format that couples online homework with in-class, active learning exercises. They assessed student perceptions of a pilot version this hybrid class, and most students felt that

Sibley, Duncan H.; Riffell, Samuel K.

2003-03-01

229

Histology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Histology-online is a web-based, interactive histology textbook and atlas. It includes a computerized microscope to examine tissues and organs and provides a new way to teach histology that is preferred by students.

2011-08-01

230

Halloween Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scariest night of the year is almost upon us, and this site will help users get into the proper "spirit." Halloween Online is simply put a massive Halloween resource, with decorating and costume tips; a guide to carving and displaying your pumpkins; a selection of featured articles and interviews; Halloween recipes; downloadable graphics ("Scream Savers") and music files; e-cards; online games; and a large collection of links, among other offerings.

231

Optimization Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Optimization Online is one of the best sources for current research papers and reports on the topic of optimization. This repository receives numerous submissions each month, and papers can be browsed by data added or category. In addition to searching for articles on the site, visitors can also subscribe to the Optimization Online monthly digest and receive updates on all of the new titles and reports submitted during that month.

2008-05-19

232

An assessment of clinically optimal gold marker length and diameter for pelvic radiotherapy verification using an amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification of target organ position is essential for the accurate delivery of conformal radiotherapy. Megavoltage electronic portal imaging with flat panel amorphous silicon detectors delivers high quality images that can be used for verification of bony landmark position. Gold markers implanted into the target organ can be visualized and used as a surrogate of actual organ position. On-line compensation for

A M Henry; J STRATFORD; J DAVIES; R SWINDELL; J SYKES; C J MOORE; V S KHOO

2005-01-01

233

40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing process verification...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Pm Measurements § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process...

2010-07-01

234

40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 32 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing process verification...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Pm Measurements § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process...

2009-07-01

235

A Signature Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses Dr. Amalia Amaki and her approach to art as her signature style by turning everyday items into fine art. Amaki is an assistant professor of art, art history, and Black American studies at the University of Delaware. She loves taking unexpected an object and redefining it in the context of art--like a button, a fan, a faded…

Smiles, Robin V.

2005-01-01

236

A Certified Digital Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical digital signature system based on a conventional encryption function which is as secure as the conventional encryption\\u000a function is described. Since certified conventional systems are available it can be implemented quickly, without the several\\u000a years delay required for certification of an untested system.

Ralph C. Merkle; Coyote Hill Rotid

1989-01-01

237

Ballastic Signature Identification Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are described of an attempt to establish a uniform procedure for documenting (recording) expended bullet signatures as effortlessly as possible and to build a comprehensive library of these signatures in a form that will permit the automated c...

A. Reich T. L. Hine

1976-01-01

238

A reactor core on-line monitoring program - COMP  

SciTech Connect

A program named COMP is developed for on-line monitoring PWRs' in-core power distribution in this paper. Harmonics expansion method is used in COMP. The Unit 1 reactor of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Daya Bay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The numerical results show that the maximum relative error between measurement and reconstruction results from COMP is less than 5%, and the computing time is short, indicating that COMP is capable for online monitoring PWRs. (authors)

Wang, C. [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing, 100029 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Building 1, Compound No.29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100029 (China); Wu, H.; Cao, L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)

2012-07-01

239

Open Policies for Decentralized User Modeling in Online Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities can benefit from communication across their borders. However, any such inter-community collaboration requires\\u000a compatible policies for rights of access. Currently, the user models in online communities serve two main purposes: authentication\\u000a of users and verification of their access rights. These user models focus on exclusion rather than inclusion. This paper describes\\u000a how open (editable by users) polices can

Tariq Muhammad; Julita Vassileva

2009-01-01

240

Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks  

DOEpatents

A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

Foo Kune, Denis (Saint Paul, MN); Mahadevan, Karthikeyan (Mountain View, CA)

2011-01-25

241

College student Web use, perceptions of information credibility, and verification behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Concerns about,the potentially dubious,nature of online information,and users’ ability to evaluate it appropriately prompted this research on college students’ use of Web-based information, their perceptions of information credibility, and their online verification behaviors. Two studies were conducted to address these issues. Results of the first study show,that college students rely very heavily on the Web for both general and

Miriam J. Metzger; Andrew J. Flanagin; Lara Zwarun

2003-01-01

242

Declarative Network Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present our initial design and implementation of a declarative network verifier (DNV). DNV utilizes theorem proving, a well established verification technique where logic-based axioms that automatically capture network semantics are generated, and a user-driven proof process is used to establish network\\u000a correctness properties. DNV takes as input declarative networking specifications written in the Network Datalog (NDlog)

Anduo Wang; Prithwish Basu; Boon Thau Loo; Oleg Sokolsky

2009-01-01

243

Signature Molecular Descriptor: Advanced Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify nove...

D. P. Visco

2010-01-01

244

TFE Verification Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown on Fig. 1-1. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program;(3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-86; (5) and Thermionic Technology Program in 1986 and 1987. 18 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

245

76 FR 30542 - Adult Signature Services  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Adult Signature Services AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM...add a new extra service called Adult Signature. This new service has two available options: Adult Signature Required and Adult Signature...

2011-05-26

246

Assessment of On-Line Comprehension of Computer-Presented Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated multiple-choice and sentence verification technique items as on-line measures of comprehension while subjects (N=940 Air Force enlistees) read computer-presented text. Also evaluated was whether presentation of on-line questions had a positive impact on text learning. (IAH)|

Royer, James M.; And Others

1989-01-01

247

Program Verification and System Dependability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Formal verification of program correctness is a long-standing ambition, recently given added prominence by a “Grand Challenge”\\u000a project. Major emphases have been on the improvement of languages for program specification and program development, and on\\u000a the construction of verification tools. The emphasis on tools commands general assent, but while some researchers focus on\\u000a narrow verification aimed only at program correctness,

Michael Jackson

2010-01-01

248

Web-based interrogation of gene expression signatures using EXALT  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of high-throughput techniques such as microarrays to monitor gene expression levels has resulted in an explosive growth of data sets in public domains. Integration and exploration of these complex and heterogeneous data have become a major challenge. RESULTS: The EXALT (EXpression signature AnaLysis Tool) online program enables meta-analysis of gene expression profiles derived from publically accessible sources.

Jun Wu; Qingchao Qiu; Lu Xie; Joseph Fullerton; Jian Yu; Yu Shyr; Alfred L. George Jr.; Yajun Yi

2009-01-01

249

SD Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Foundation presents SD Online, a special feature of the Sustainable Development pages. SD Online is a full-text database of the Foundation's resources which "explore specific facets of the sustainability debate and take advantage of the Foundation's research in a variety of areas." Beginning in 1998, the databases have grown to include a Networks database, tools database, as well as databases on SME support initiatives and education and training. Each searchable and browseable database must be accessed separately using the sidebar menu on the right, and each offers a brief explanation of the information within the database, as well as fully cataloged records.

250

Religion Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Religion Online is an extensive digital library of over 250 book chapters, monographs, speeches, and articles on the socio-cultural aspects of Christianity. The texts, written by religious scholars, are arranged into twenty subject sections, such as Church and Society, Church History, Comparative Religion, and Sociology of Religion, among many others. Each section contains an annotated list of titles linking users to the full-text. All texts in the collection reside at the site. An author index provides users with an alternative method for document retrieval. Religion Online is compiled by William F. Fore, a retired professor of theology, communications, and cultural studies.

251

Quantum blind signature based on Two-State Vector Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF) including pre- and postselected states is a complete description of a system between two measurements. Consequently TSVF gives a perfect solution to the Mean King problem. In this paper, utilizing the dramatic correlation in the verification, we propose a quantum blind signature scheme based on TSVF. Compared with Wen's scheme, our scheme has 100% efficiency. Our scheme guarantees the unconditional security. Moreover, the proposed scheme, which is easy to implement, can be applied to E-payment system.

Qi, Su; Zheng, Huang; Qiaoyan, Wen; Wenmin, Li

2010-11-01

252

Hybrid baryon signatures  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark--gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in {psi} decay.

Page, P.

2000-04-01

253

Signatures of Wigner localization in epitaxially grown nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was predicted by Wigner in 1934 that an electron gas will undergo a transition to a crystallized state when its density is very low. Whereas significant progress has been made toward the detection of electronic Wigner states, their clear and direct experimental verification still remains a challenge. Here we address signatures of Wigner molecule formation in the transport properties of InSb nanowire quantum-dot systems, where a few electrons may form localized states depending on the size of the dot (i.e., the electron density). Using a configuration interaction approach combined with an appropriate transport formalism, we are able to predict the transport properties of these systems, in excellent agreement with experimental data. We identify specific signatures of Wigner state formation, such as the strong suppression of the antiferromagnetic coupling, and are able to detect the onset of Wigner localization, both experimentally and theoretically, by studying different dot sizes.

Kristinsdóttir, L. H.; Cremon, J. C.; Nilsson, H. A.; Xu, H. Q.; Samuelson, L.; Linke, H.; Wacker, A.; Reimann, S. M.

2011-01-01

254

Verification of the Completeness of Unification Algorithms à la Robinson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a general methodology for verification of the completeness of first-order unification algorithms à la Robinson developed in the higher-order proof assistant PVS. The methodology is based on a previously developed formalization of the theorem of existence of most general unifiers for unifiable terms over first-order signatures. Termination and soundness proofs of any unification algorithm are proved by reusing the formalization of this theorem and completeness should be proved according to the specific way in that non unifiable inputs are treated by the algorithm.

Avelar, Andréia B.; de Moura, Flávio L. C.; Galdino, André Luiz; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

255

Method and apparatus using geographical position and universal time determination means to provide authenticated, secure, on-line communication between remote gaming locations  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method and apparatus for providing authenticated, secure, on-line communication between remote locations including a user terminal adapted to enable a player in one location to remotely communicate via a communications medium such as the Internet with a gaming host in another location. Location of the remote user terminal, the host server and universal time are determined using means for accessing signals generated by geostationary navigational transmitters, such as in the global positioning satellite (GPS) system. Player authentication (identity verification) is determined by use of a personal identification number (PIN) and an electronic signature verification service. Security of communication is accomplished through use of a public-key/private-key encryption system. The remote user terminal may be comprised of one or more discreet components adapted to be used with a laptop or desktop personal computer (PC), or may be embodied in a stand alone or self-contained single unit that is portable and communicates via radio waves, telephone lines or the Internet to a host server.

Alcorn; Allan E. (Portola Valley, CA); Hale; Richard L. (Santa Barbara, CA)

2007-05-22

256

Forced Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online sexual behavior may be more completely explained by integrating a Pull Factor analysis, centering on the characteristics of the Internet that make it an appealing outlet for sexuality (e.g., “Triple A Engine”) and a Push Factor analysis, centering on characteristics of the offline world that disallow fulfillment of sexual desires. This new framework is utilized in explaining paraphilic (unconventional)

Amir Rosenmann; Marilyn P. Safir

2006-01-01

257

Anglicans Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anglicans Online! has grown to be a comprehensive source of information for the world's Episcopal/Anglican church on the Internet. Topics offered are the Newsroom, Canada, USA, World, and Resources including reference links, biblical study. Ecumenical partners, and a listing of Discussion mailing lists and newsgroups are also provided.

258

Astronomy Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Ricky Leon Murphy of Astronomy Online, is a collection of references, images, and information for general astronomy. This work covers topics from the basics of science and observation through the solar system, stars, cosmology, and astrobiology. The material is clearly organized by topic using links to reference materials on the web.

Murphy, Ricky L.

2010-01-19

259

Verification of LHS distributions.  

SciTech Connect

This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

Swiler, Laura Painton

2006-04-01

260

A signature analysis based method for elliptical shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level context image analysis regards many fields as face recognition, smile detection, automatic red eye removal, iris recognition, fingerprint verification, etc. Techniques involved in these fields need to be supported by more powerful and accurate routines. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to detect elliptical shapes from digital input images. It can be successfully applied in topics as signal detection or red eye removal, where the elliptical shape degree assessment can improve performances. The method has been designed to handle low resolution and partial occlusions. The algorithm is based on the signature contour analysis and exploits some geometrical properties of elliptical points. The proposed method is structured in two parts: firstly, the best ellipse which approximates the object shape is estimated; then, through the analysis and the comparison between the reference ellipse signature and the object signature, the algorithm establishes if the object is elliptical or not. The first part is based on symmetrical properties of the points belonging to the ellipse, while the second part is based on the signature operator which is a functional representation of a contour. A set of real images has been tested and results point out the effectiveness of the algorithm in terms of accuracy and in terms of execution time.

Guarneri, Ivana; Guarnera, Mirko; Messina, Giuseppe; Tomaselli, Valeria

2010-01-01

261

Continuous Verification Using Multimodal Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we

Terence Sim; Sheng Zhang; Rajkumar Janakiraman; Sandeep Kumar

2007-01-01

262

Automatic verification of textbook programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks on program verification make use of simple programs in mathematical domains as illustrative examples. Mechanical verification tools can give students a quicker way to learn, because the feedback cycle can be reduced from days (waiting for hand-proofs to be graded by the teaching assistant) to seconds or minutes (waiting for the tool's output). However, the mathematical domains that are

Rustan Leino; Rosemary Monahan

2007-01-01

263

Fingerprint verification using SIFT features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprints are being extensively used for person identification in a number of commercial, civil, and forensic applications. Most of the current fingerprint verification systems utilize features that are based on minutiae points and ridge patterns. While minutiae based fingerprint verification systems have shown fairly high accuracies, further improvements in their performance are needed for acceptable performance, especially in applications involving

Sharath Pankanti; A. K. Jain

2008-01-01

264

Functional verification of large ASICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functional verification effort during a specific hardware development program that included three of the largest ASICs designed at Nortel. These devices marked a transition point in methodology as verification took front and centre on the critical path of the ASIC schedule. Both the simulation and emulation strategies are presented. The simulation methodology introduced new techniques such

Adrian Evans; Allan Silburt; Gary Vrckovnik; Thane Brown; Mario Dufresne; Geoffrey Hall; Tung Ho; Ying Liu

1998-01-01

265

Online Training for Searching Online.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the casual user's needs and problems in learning to search online retrieval systems. Such users are inclined to infrequent use, and are unlikely to have much interest or knowledge about the complexities of the system. The TRAINER pro...

E. Caruso

1978-01-01

266

The LISA verification binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) guarantees the detection of gravitational waves by monitoring a handful of known nearby galactic binary systems, the so-called verification binaries. We consider the most updated information on the source parameters for the 30 more promising verification binaries. We investigate which of them are indeed guaranteed sources for LISA and estimate the accuracy of the additional information that can be extracted during the mission. Our analysis considers the two independent Michelson outputs that can be synthesized from the LISA constellation, and we model the LISA transfer function using the rigid adiabatic approximation. We carry out extensive Monte Carlo simulations to explore the dependency of our results on unknown or poorly constrained source parameters. We find that four sources—RXJ0806.3+1527, V407 Vul, ES Cet and AM CVn—are clearly detectable in one year of observation; RXJ0806.3+1527 should actually be observable in less than a week. For these sources LISA will also provide information on yet unknown parameters with an error between ap1% and ap10%. Four additional binary systems—HP Lib, 4U 1820-30, WZ Sge and KPD 1930+2752—might also be marginally detectable.

Stroeer, A.; Vecchio, A.

2006-10-01

267

Signature CERN-URSS  

ScienceCinema

Le DG W.Jentschke souhaite la bienvenue à l'assemblée et aux invités pour la signature du protocole entre le Cern et l'URSS qui est un événement important. C'est en 1955 que 55 visiteurs soviétiques ont visité le Cern pour la première fois. Le premier DG au Cern, F.Bloch, et Mons.Amaldi sont aussi présents. Tandis que le discours anglais de W.Jentschke est traduit en russe, le discours russe de Mons.Morozov est traduit en anglais.

268

ISSN Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is the internationally recognized unique numeric identifier for serial publications in any format. To date, the ISSN network, coordinated by the ISSN International Centre in Paris, has registered and assigned ISSNs for more than 900,000 serials, with approximately 4,000 new ISSNs added to the ISSN Register each month. Recently, this register has been made accessible through the Web at ISSN Online. ISSN Online is a subscription service, but it is available for free on a 30-day trial basis. Trial users must register an email address to obtain a temporary password. Then they may conduct 40 queries, view 400 records, and download 10 records during the test period.

269

Avion Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Aviation/Aerospace Newspaper to be available on the Internet via the World Wide Web is The Avion Online. Produced at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, this weekly college newspaper specializes in coverage of aerospace activity, such as the space shuttle, and aviation topics like the Lockheed/Martin merger. Get weekly reports from students who are studying the very stories they are reporting.

270

Online OCR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those with scanned documents that would be more useful in editable form, Online OCR offers a free, high-quality solution. Users can simply upload an image (JPG, JPEG, BMP, TIFF, GIF, and non-editable PDF are all accepted), then choose the language and preferred output format. At the free level, the service will convert 14 images per hour, but those who are satisfied with the service and require more frequent conversion may purchase a membership.

2013-01-01

271

Getting Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the i in iPhone implies, this is a device that is all about the Internet. In this chapter, you’ll learn about the different ways the iPhone\\u000a and iPod touch can connect to the Internet, and how to get online using each of them. You’ll also learn about how to securely\\u000a access a remote office network by configuring virtual private

Ryan J. Faas

272

Writers Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the National Year of Reading effort in the UK (spearheaded by the National Literacy Trust to promote reading and literacy), Writers Online is aimed at piquing younger readers' interests. The site features interviews with popular children's writers as well as "writer-in-residence" workshops. Visitors to the site can try their hand at creative writing, learn tricks of the trade, and get personal feedback from their favorite authors.

1998-01-01

273

Einstein Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Einstein Online provides the user with a simple, but meticulous, approach to Einstein's Theory of Relativity. In the section 'Elementary Einstein', the theories of Special and General Relativity are explained in detail, going through concepts like Relativity, Spacetime and Space Geometry. The following section, 'Spotlights on Relativity', contains applications of both theories, from the Relativity of Simultaneity, to Gravity and Gravitational Waves, to Black Holes and Cosmology, to the Quantum realm.

2007-06-18

274

Novel signatures of cancer-associated fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates the importance of the tumor microenvironment, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts, in cancer development and progression. In our study, we developed a novel, visually based method to identify new immunohistochemical signatures of these fibroblasts. The method employed a protein list based on 759 protein products of genes identified by RNA profiling from our previous study, comparing fibroblasts with differential growth-modulating effect on human cancers cells, and their first neighbors in the human protein interactome. These 2,654 proteins were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas online database by comparing their immunohistochemical expression patterns in normal versus tumor-associated fibroblasts. Twelve new proteins differentially expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts were identified (DLG1, BHLHE40, ROCK2, RAB31, AZI2, PKM2, ARHGAP31, ARHGAP26, ITCH, EGLN1, RNF19A and PLOD2), four of them can be connected to the Rho kinase signaling pathway. They were further analyzed in several additional tumor stromata and revealed that the majority showed congruence among the different tumors. Many of them were also positive in normal myofibroblast-like cells. The new signatures can be useful in immunohistochemical analysis of different tumor stromata and may also give us an insight into the pathways activated in them in their true in vivo context. The method itself could be used for other similar analysis to identify proteins expressed in other cell types in tumors and their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23319410

Bozóky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Dúl, Zoltán; Pontén, Fredrik; Székely, László; Klein, George

2013-02-12

275

Functional Verification of USB Mass Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a functional verification of USB2.0 Card Reader, which includes verification environment, functional coverage model design and course of debug. This system not only finds bugs in the DUT, but also verifies the compliance between hosts and device. The methods of the verification and coverage model design facilitate the verification of USB Mass Storage project which need to

Xiaobin Chu; Tiejun Lun; Yu Zong

2008-01-01

276

Verification of VENTSAR  

SciTech Connect

The VENTSAR code is an upgraded and improved version of the VENTX code, which estimates concentrations on or near a building from a release at a nearby location. The code calculates the concentrations either for a given meteorological exceedance probability or for a given stability and wind speed combination. A single building can be modeled which lies in the path of the plume, or a penthouse can be added to the top of the building. Plume rise may also be considered. Release types can be either chemical or radioactive. Downwind concentrations are determined at user-specified incremental distances. This verification report was prepared to demonstrate that VENTSAR is properly executing all algorithms and transferring data. Hand calculations were also performed to ensure proper application of methodologies.

Simpkins, A.A.

1995-01-01

277

Site Specific Verification Guidelines.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Northwest region have moved from energy surplus to a time when demand for energy is likely to exceed available supplies. The Northwest Power Planning Council is calling for a major push to acquire new resources.'' To meet anticipated loads in the next decade, BPA and the region must more than double that rate at which we acquire conservation resources. BPA hopes to achieve some of this doubling by programs independently designed and implemented by utilities and other parties without intensive BPA involvement. BPA will accept proposals for programs using performance-based payments, in which BPA bases its reimbursement to the sponsor on measured energy savings rather than program costs. To receive payment for conservation projects developed under performance-based programs, utilities and other project developers must propose verification plans to measure the amount of energy savings. BPA has traditionally used analysis of billing histories, before and after measure installation, adjusted by a comparison group on non-participating customers to measure conservation savings. This approach does not work well for all conversation projects. For large or unusual facilities the comparison group approach is not reliable due to the absence of enough comparable non-participants to allow appropriate statistical analysis. For these facilities, which include large commercial and institutional buildings, industrial projects, and complex combinations of building types served by a single utility meter, savings must be verified on a site-specific basis. These guidelines were written to help proposers understand what Bonneville considers the important issues in site specific verification of conservation performance. It also provides a toolbox of methods with guidance on their application and use. 15 refs.

Harding, Steve; Gordon, Frederick M.; Kennedy, Mike

1992-05-01

278

Model selection for prognostic time-to-event gene signature discovery with applications in early breast cancer data.  

PubMed

Abstract Model selection between competing models is a key consideration in the discovery of prognostic multigene signatures. The use of appropriate statistical performance measures as well as verification of biological significance of the signatures is imperative to maximise the chance of external validation of the generated signatures. Current approaches in time-to-event studies often use only a single measure of performance in model selection, such as logrank test p-values, or dichotomise the follow-up times at some phase of the study to facilitate signature discovery. In this study we improve the prognostic signature discovery process through the application of the multivariate partial Cox model combined with the concordance index, hazard ratio of predictions, independence from available clinical covariates and biological enrichment as measures of signature performance. The proposed framework was applied to discover prognostic multigene signatures from early breast cancer data. The partial Cox model combined with the multiple performance measures were used in both guiding the selection of the optimal panel of prognostic genes and prediction of risk within cross validation without dichotomising the follow-up times at any stage. The signatures were successfully externally cross validated in independent breast cancer datasets, yielding a hazard ratio of 2.55 [1.44, 4.51] for the top ranking signature. PMID:24077567

Ahdesmäki, Miika; Lancashire, Lee; Proutski, Vitali; Wilson, Claire; Davison, Timothy S; Harkin, D Paul; Kennedy, Richard D

2013-10-01

279

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

280

Negotiating Femininities Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much has been written about the potential for online learning (Fryer, 1997; www. ngfl.gov.uk/ngfl/index.html). However this literature typically emphasizes not online learning but online education. In this paper I focus on the potential for online learning, specifically learning about issues surrounding femininity in the presence of online peers,…

Davies, Julia

2004-01-01

281

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

282

University Student Online Plagiarism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d) What factors contribute to student online plagiarism? (e) What is student

Yu-mei Wang

2008-01-01

283

Definition of Human Gesture Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on progress towards designing and building a system that will recognise, and react to, a small vocabulary of human gestures in real time. using onl,y off-the-shelf hardware. in particular we discuss the fundamental issue of how zc design a signature for human gestures, and present our novei use of synergetic pattern recognition to construct .this signature.

T. Hogg; D. Rees

1996-01-01

284

Lightweight Email Signatures (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Lightweight Email Signatures (LES), a simple cryptographic architecture for authenticating email. LES is an extension of DKIM, the recent IETF eort to standardize domain-based email signatures. LES shares DKIM's ease of deployment: they both use the DNS to distribute a single public key for each domain. Importantly, LES supports common uses of email that DKIM jeopardizes: multiple email

Ben Adida; David Chau; Susan Hohenberger; Ronald L. Rivest

2006-01-01

285

Maths Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maths Online is a site operated at the University of Vienna in Austria. Its purpose is to provide an interactive multimedia learning environment for high school and college level mathematics students and teachers. Its main section is the Gallery. Here, users can choose from a large selection of over twenty topics; each one has Java applets or other activities that demonstrate the associated principles. Interactive tests are also given that cover areas such as sets, functions, limiting processes, differentiation, and integration. The material presented on this site can be downloaded for offline use.

286

Kidsource Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kidsource Online is an extensive collection of information about raising children from newborns to adolescents. A sampling of the publications they've pulled together at the site includes "Children and Bilingualism" from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; "Testing Your Child's Hearing" by Carol Knightly, Pediatric Audiologist; and the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) Provides Tips to Help Parents and Kids Cope with Allergy Season. Resources are organized under top-level categories of Newborns, Toddlers, Preschoolers, K-12, Education, Health, Recreation, Forums, Organizations, and Guide to Best Software, among others.

1997-01-01

287

Online Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need to convert joules to kilocalories? A rood to a square mile? 100 weight to stones? How about your age in dog years? You can do all of these conversions and over 8,000 more at Online Conversion. Conversions are organized by type (temperature, length, cooking, etc.), and each conversion page includes numerous options. Quick links to other conversions are also provided on each page so users don't have to return to the main page. Simply put, a very handy and easy-to-use site that belongs in the reference section of any user's bookmarks.

288

Bloomberg Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bloomberg Online provides the latest financial news and data. The site features three sections: Bloomberg News, World Markets and Bloomberg Energy. In the Bloomberg News section, visitors can read the latest financial news from the United States and around the world. They can also read articles written by Bloomberg columnists on various business and financial issues. The World Markets section provides stock market indices and currency rates from all over the world. The section also contains a yield curve on US and foreign bonds. Bloomberg Energy provides the latest information and news on energy prices. Some information at this site is available only to Boomberg Personal Finance Magazine subscribers.

1998-01-01

289

Online Writery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Writery at the University of Missouri, Columbia, is a student-oriented writing and learning environment that includes both communication and information resources: e-mail, access to two MOOs , writing resources, teaching resources, and paperless papers. It is a place to write and read and talk, a place to learn stuff. It is a resource you can use whether you are writing for a class or not. These pages are made of the stuff writers (of any kind) need: information about writing, and opportunities to talk with other writers.

290

Nondestructive verification with minimal movement of irradiated light-water-reactor fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive verification of irradiated light-water reactor fuel assemblies can be performed rapidly and precisely by measuring their gross gamma-ray and neutron signatures. A portable system measured fuel assemblies with exposures ranging from 18.4 to 40.6 GWd/tU and with cooling times ranging from 1575 to 2638 days. Differences in the measured results for side or corner measurements are discussed. 25 figures, 20 tables.

Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O.

1982-10-01

291

Structural Dynamics Verification Facility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a structural dynamics verification facility to support structures programs was studied. Most of the industry operated facilities are used for highly focused research, component development, and problem solving, and are not used for the generi...

L. J. Kiraly M. S. Hirchbein J. M. Mcaleese D. P. Fleming

1981-01-01

292

21 CFR 11.50 - Signature manifestations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Signature manifestations. 11...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records...associated with the signature. (b) The items...included as part of any human readable form of...

2010-04-01

293

42 CFR 424.36 - Signature requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Signature requirements. 424.36...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...for Payment § 424.36 Signature requirements. (a) General... The beneficiary's own signature is required on the...

2010-10-01

294

42 CFR 424.36 - Signature requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Signature requirements. 424.36...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...for Payment § 424.36 Signature requirements. (a) General... The beneficiary's own signature is required on the...

2009-10-01

295

42 CFR 424.36 - Signature requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Signature requirements. 424.36...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...for Payment § 424.36 Signature requirements. (a) General... The beneficiary's own signature is required on the...

2012-10-01

296

21 CFR 11.50 - Signature manifestations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Signature manifestations. 11...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records...associated with the signature. (b) The items...included as part of any human readable form of...

2009-04-01

297

Waste Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure enough, there is a good deal of "waste" online, so it's nice to learn about the Waste Online website which serves as a great repository for information about an entirely different set of waste-related matters. This British-based website has been funded by the New Opportunities Fund Digitise project. The project is overseen by Waste Watch, which is "the leading environmental charity dedicated to the reduction, reuse and recycling of household waste." First-time visitors can get started by clicking on "Wacky waste facts", which contains some basic facts about the nature of waste in the United Kingdom. In the same vicinity, visitors can dig deeper by looking into sections titled "The problem with waste", "Waste in the workplace", and "Waste at home". Moving on, the "Search our library" area allows guests to the site to look for specific items of interest related to dozens of topics, such as household recycling, office recycling, and metal recycling. Moving along, the "Information Sheets" area features almost two dozen fact sheets that can be used as guides to composting, battery recycling, and the history of waste.

2004-01-01

298

A model of online attack detection for computer forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With frequently network attacks, network security products are practically impossible to guard against the intrusion methods. A model of online attack detection for computer forensics is proposed to collect crime evidence of attack. In this model, an algorithm of association rules mining is used to mine the association rules of attack event and build the attack signature database. After gaining

Zhong Xiu-yu

2010-01-01

299

The Ideal Online Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses key issues facing designers of Web-based university courses. Topics include online courses; the technologies involved; online study guides; assignments; online examples; course communications; interactive skill building; theoretical bases; and constructivism and instructional design. (Author/LRW)|

Carr-Chellman, Alison; Duchastel, Philip

2001-01-01

300

Online Learning Grows Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes various American efforts to develop online schools and classes. Discusses attributes of successful online teachers and students. Lists 17 online learning support companies and their Web sites. (PKP)|

Vail, Kathleen

2001-01-01

301

Online Staff Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benefits for principals of online staff development for teachers. Sources of online courses and training include local and state departments of education, professional associations, colleges and universities, online universities, and commercial suppliers. (PKP)

Pease, Pamela S.; Magnuson, Peter

2003-01-01

302

Seidman's Online Insider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In, Around and Online" - A Weekly Summary of Consumer Online Services is a painless way to stay tuned to events in the worlds of Compuserve, Prodigy, America Online, etc. A weekly report, not too long, and an easy read.

Seidman, Robert.

1994-01-01

303

Outside Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring the great outdoors can be charming, exciting, and peaceful, and the Outside Online website can be quite helpful with planning such an adventure. Designed to complement the print magazine, the website contains blogs, videos, podcasts, photos, and an "Ask the Experts" section. Mind you, that's just the homepage, and there's much more to explore here. The main blog on the homepage offers up a potpourri of some of the highlights, including product reviews, outdoor writing contests, and information on a range of active sports. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can go ahead and "Ask the Experts" about anything from trail nutrition to survival tips. Visitors can also view select articles from the print magazine, including interviews and pieces on walking across the Amazon on foot.

304

Online Videogames in an Online History Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines use of an online history simulation videogame, Civilization, in an online college history class. Overall findings were that the game complements texts and lectures, aids speakers of English as a second language, creates empathy for past societies, encourages personal research, and creates a sense of community in the online class.

Vance S. Martin

2008-01-01

305

Online Instructors Must Be Online Students First.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes an online/hybrid course at Mt. San Antonio College (MSAC) (California) that gives faculty the experience of being a student in an online class. The course is 6 weeks long and the participating faculty members meet on campus only 3 times; the rest of the course work is conducted in an online mode. Each week's learning…

Beam, Terri; Zamora, Victor

306

UHECR: Signatures and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The signatures of Ultra High Energy (E ? 1 EeV) proton propagation through CMB radiation are pair-production dip and GZK cutoff. The visible characteristics of these two spectral features are ankle, which is intrinsic part of the dip, beginning of GZK cutoff in the differential spectrum and E1/2 in integral spectrum. Measured by HiRes and Telescope Array (TA) these characteristics agree with theoretical predictions. However, directly measured mass composition remains a puzzle. While HiRes and TA detectors observe the proton-dominated mass composition, the data of Auger detector strongly evidence for nuclei mass composition becoming progressively heavier at energy higher than 4 EeV and reaching Iron at energy about 35 EeV. The models based on the Auger and HiRes/TA data are considered independently and classified using the transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. The ankle cannot provide this transition. since data of all three detector at energy (1-3) EeV agree with pure proton composition (or at least not heavier than Helium). If produced in Galaxy these particles result in too high anisotropy. This argument excludes or strongly disfavours all ankle models with ankle energy Ea > 3 EeV. The calculation of elongation curves, Xmax(E), for different ankle models strengthens further this conclusion. Status of other models, the dip, mixed composition and Auger based models are discussed.

Berezinsky, V.

2013-06-01

307

Infrared Signature of Breaking Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to measure the strength, or scale, of wave breaking in the open ocean remains elusive. Recent measurements of the infrared signature of wave breaking suggest that quantitative information about the breaking process can be provided by infrared ...

A. T. Jessup

1993-01-01

308

Biological Convergence of Cancer Signatures  

PubMed Central

Gene expression profiling has identified cancer prognostic and predictive signatures with superior performance to conventional histopathological or clinical parameters. Consequently, signatures are being incorporated into clinical practice and will soon influence everyday decisions in oncology. However, the slight overlap in the gene identity between signatures for the same cancer type or condition raises questions about their biological and clinical implications. To clarify these issues, better understanding of the molecular properties and possible interactions underlying apparently dissimilar signatures is needed. Here, we evaluated whether the signatures of 24 independent studies are related at the genome, transcriptome or proteome levels. Significant associations were consistently observed across these molecular layers, which suggest the existence of a common cancer cell phenotype. Convergence on cell proliferation and death supports the pivotal involvement of these processes in prognosis, metastasis and treatment response. In addition, functional and molecular associations were identified with the immune response in different cancer types and conditions that complement the contribution of cell proliferation and death. Examination of additional, independent, cancer datasets corroborated our observations. This study proposes a comprehensive strategy for interpreting cancer signatures that reveals common design principles and systems-level properties.

Sole, Xavier; Bonifaci, Nuria; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Berenguer, Antoni; Hernandez, Pilar; Reina, Oscar; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Aguilar, Helena; Urruticoechea, Ander; de Sanjose, Silvia; Comellas, Francesc; Capella, Gabriel; Moreno, Victor; Pujana, Miguel Angel

2009-01-01

309

Lossless compression of human static signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a lossless compression method for static human signatures applicable to personal identification. The method consists of four sequential procedures: (1) the static signature image bounding; (2) the signature image partition; (3) the elimination of redundancies in the signature image patterns, and (4) the code optimization through the truncated Huffman coding. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method

Luan Ling Lee; M. G. Lizarraga

1996-01-01

310

Convertible undeniable signature with subliminal channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of subliminal channel was first proposed in 1983. After that, many subliminal channel schemes based on digital signatures are proposed. A convertible undeniable signature is an undeniable signature and can be converted to a general digital signature. In this paper, we combine both concepts to propose a new scheme which can embed subliminal channels into a convertible undeniable

Narn-yih Lee; Pei-hsiu Ho

2004-01-01

311

Handling signature purposes in workflow systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In paper-based workflow systems, signatures of individuals or groups of people have been used extensively for various purposes. Currently there are numerous studies on computerizing workflow systems. Also there are studies on implementing digital signatures in electronic media. But the diversified purposes of a signature in workflow makes a straight-forward implementa- tion of digital signature schemes inadequate. There are few

Karl R. P. H. Leung; Lucas Chi Kwong Hui

2001-01-01

312

Multiple Signature Handling in Workflow Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In paper based workflow systems, signatures by individual or groups of people have been used extensively for various purposes. Currently there are many studies on computerizing workflow systems. Also there are studies on implementing signatures in electronic media. But the diversified purposes of a signature in workflow makes a straightforward implementation of digital signature schemes inadequate to satisfy the needs

Karl R. P. H. Leung; Lucas Chi Kwong Hui

2000-01-01

313

Agronomy Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Agronomy has announced online availability of this journal, in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press. Online full-text content for the Agronomy Journal begins with the July-August 1999 issue, with online abstracts from January-February 1998. Note that the free trial period for the online journal ends May 1, 2001.

314

21 CFR 123.8 - Verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.8 Verification. (a) Overall verification. Every processor shall...

2013-04-01

315

Federal Approach to Formal Hardware Design Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to enable the solution of hard formal verification problems - and thereby reduce the cost and improve the quality of advanced hardware designs - by making it possible to combine different verification techniques in flexible wa...

D. L. Dill

2002-01-01

316

Technical challenges for dismantlement verification  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion.

Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

1997-11-01

317

Attitudes toward buying online.  

PubMed

A survey of 11 positive features and 10 discouraging features of online shopping was carried out on 180 students and identified certain behavioral patterns for online shoppers versus non-shoppers. It was found that online shoppers have consistently stronger positive feelings about online shopping than do non-shoppers. On the other hand, non-shoppers have more negative feelings about online shopping than do shoppers, but not consistently so. Online shoppers are aware of some of the discouraging features of online shopping, but these features do not deter them from shopping online. The implication for marketers is that they should focus on making the experience of online shopping more accommodating and more user-friendly since the positive features of online shopping ("convenience" and "efficiency") appear to be more important than the negative features ("effort/impersonality"). PMID:15006173

Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

2004-02-01

318

Improving multispectral mapping by spectral modeling with hyperspectral signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the 0.4 - 2.5 micrometer spectral range allow direct identification of materials using their fully resolved spectral signatures, however, spatial coverage is limited. Multispectral Imaging data (MSI) are spectrally undersampled and may not allow unique identification, but they do provide synoptic spatial coverage. This paper summarizes an approach that uses coincident HSI/MSI data to extend HSI results to cover larger areas. Airborne Visible/Infrared (AVIRIS)/Hyperion and multispectral ASTER/MASTER data supported by field spectral measurements are used to allow modeling and extension of hyperspectral signatures to multispectral data. Full-scene mapping using the modeled signatures allows subsequent mapping of extended areas using the multispectral data. Both the hyperspectral and multispectral data are atmospherically corrected using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric correction software. Hyperspectral data are then analyzed to determine spectral endmembers and their spatial distributions, and validated using the field spectral measurements. Spectral modeling is used to convert the hyperspectral spectral signatures to the multispectral data response. Reflectance calibrated multispectral data are then used to extend the hyperspectral mapping to the larger spatial coverage of the multispectral data. Field verification of mapping results is conducted and accuracy assessment performed. Additional sites are assessed with multispectral data using the modeling methodology based on scene-external HSI and/or field spectra (but without scene-specific a priori hyperspectral analysis or knowledge). These results are further compared to field measurements and subsequent hyperspectral analysis and mapping to validate the spectral modeling approach.

Kruse, Fred A.

2007-04-01

319

Verification of IMRT: Techniques and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) verification techniques are reviewed together with investigations demonstrating the intrinsic verification problems. Material and Methods: Different IMRT verification procedures for either class solutions or individual patients are demonstrated. Among the latter are techniques like fluence or three-dimensional (3-D) dose distribution verification within a transfer phantom. Different radiographic films and absolute dose probes are investigated for their

Ludwig Bogner; Josef Scherer; Marius Treutwein; Matthias Hartmann; Franz Gum; Axel Amediek

2004-01-01

320

Online Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear-reaction network codes are important to astronomers seeking to explore nucleosynthetic implications of astrophysical models and to nuclear physicists seeking to understand the role of nuclear properties or reaction rates in element formation. However, many users do not have the time or inclination to download and compile the codes, to manage the requisite input files, or to explore the often complex output with their own graphics programs. To help make nucleosynthesis calculations more readily available, we have placed the Clemson Nucleosynthesis code on the world-wide web at http://www.ces.clemson.edu/physics/nucleo/nuclearNetwork At this web site, any Internet user may set his or her own reaction network, nuclear properties and reaction rates, and thermodynamic trajectories. The user then submits the nucleosynthesis calculation, which runs on a dedicated server professionally maintained at Clemson University. Once the calculation is completed, the user may explore the results through dynamically produced and downloadable tables and graphs. Online help guides the user through the necessary steps. We hope this web site will prove a user-friendly and helpful tool for professional scientists as well as for students seeking to explore element formation.

Meyer Jordan, Bradley, IV; The, Lih-Sin; Robbins, Stuart

2004-05-01

321

Poynter Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1975, the Poynter Institute was created by Nelson Poynter, who served as chairman of the St. Petersburg Times and the Congressional Quarterly. Over the past three decades, the organization has worked to train new cadres of journalists through a variety of intensive seminars and educational formats. Poynter Online provides interested parties access to a wide range of articles and columns created by well-regarded members of their organization and other working journalists from around the United States. Visitors can view job postings in the field, look over career columns, and even submit questions to columnists. Along with this vocationally oriented material, there are sections such as ÂdiversityÂ, ÂphotojournalismÂ, and ÂethicsÂ, which contain insightful pieces on these subjects. As might be expected given the general trends in media, there are a number of helpful blogs here that address writing for general audiences, ethical considerations for journalists, and so on. For aspiring journalists and those currently working in the profession, this site is tremendously useful.

322

LD Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LD Online is a website focused on providing information on learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is geared towards parents, teachers, and professionals. The site is an educational service of public television station WETA, and also works with the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. Visitors will find that the site addresses both children and adults with LD and ADHD, and those who are unfamiliar with LD and ADHD will appreciate the site's "Getting Started" link, which has "LD Basics", "ADHD Basics", "Questions + Answers" and a "Glossary". The "Multimedia" link of videos, audio, and transcripts will give visitors the opportunity to listen to or watch experts in the field. They can also listen to the personal stories of families, teachers, and kids with LD or ADHD. Practical tips for parents are also offered in the Multimedia link. Users will be pleasantly surprised by the optimism and determination of some of these kids, when reading their personal stories in the "Your Stories" section.

323

Rainbow, a New Multivariable Polynomial Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Balanced Oil and Vinegar signature schemes and the unbalanced Oil and Vinegar signature schemes are public key signature schemes\\u000a based on multivariable polynomials. In this paper, we suggest a new signature scheme, which is a generalization of the Oil-Vinegar\\u000a construction to improve the efficiency of the unbalanced Oil and Vinegar signature scheme. The basic idea can be described\\u000a as a

Jintai Ding; Dieter Schmidt

2005-01-01

324

Verification and validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss verification and validation of si- mulation models. Four different approaches to deciding model validity are described; two different paradigms that relate verification and validation to the model development process are presented; various validation techniques are de- fined; conceptual model validity, model verification, op- erational validity, and data validity are discussed; a way to document results

Robert G. Sargent

1994-01-01

325

Verification and validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss verification and validation of simulation models. Four different approaches to deciding model validity are described; two different paradigms that relate verification and validation to the model development process are presented; various validation techniques are defined; conceptual model validity, model verification, operational validity, and data validity are discussed; a way to document results is given; a

Robert G. Sargent

2003-01-01

326

Verification, validation and accreditation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses verification, validation, and accreditation of simulation models. The different approaches to deciding model validity are presented; how model verification and validation relate to the model development process are discussed; various validation techniques are defined; conceptual model validity, model verification, operational validity, and data validity are described; ways to document results are given; a recommended procedure is presented;

Robert G. Sargent

2000-01-01

327

Sampling Uncertainties for Ensemble Forecast Verification Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification of forecasts is an essential first step for their operational use in decision-making. Forecast verification is carried out using a verification data set, which contains a record of forecasts and subsequent observations. A comparison of the forecasts with the observations is then made to assess forecast quality. For some forecasting systems, the archive of operational forecasts may be sufficient

A. Bradley; S. Schwartz

2004-01-01

328

Formal verification of practical MPI programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of formal verification of MPI programs operating under a fixed test harness for safety prop erties without building verification models. In our approach, we directly model-check the MPI\\/C source code, executing its interleavings with the help of a verification scheduler. Unfortunately, th e total feasible number of interleavings is exponential, and impractical to examine even

Anh Vo; Sarvani S. Vakkalanka; Michael Delisi; Ganesh Gopalakrishnan; Robert M. Kirby; Rajeev Thakur

2009-01-01

329

Formal verification of practical MPI programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of formal verification of MPI programs operating under a fixed test harness for safety properties without building verification models. In our approach, we directly model-check the MPI\\/C source code, executing its interleavings with the help of a verification scheduler. Unfortunately, the total feasible number of interleavings is exponential, and impractical to examine even for our

Anh Vo; Sarvani Vakkalanka; Michael DeLisi; Ganesh Gopalakrishnan; Robert M. Kirby; Rajeev Thakur

2009-01-01

330

Verification and transparency in future arms control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United

Pilat

1996-01-01

331

CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

332

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

333

DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Online measurement of the BEPC II background using RadFET dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To monitor the integral dose deposited in the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter whose performance degrades due to exposure to the BEPC II background, a 400 nm IMPL RadFET dosimeter-based integral dose online monitor system is built. After calibration with the 60Co source and verification with TLD in the pulse radiation fields, an experiment was arranged to measure the BEPC II background online. The results are presented.

Gong, Hui; Li, Jin; Gong, Guang-Hua; Li, Yu-Xiong; Hou, Lei; Shao, Bei-Bei

2009-09-01

334

Forecast verification: current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Research,and,development,of new,verification strategies and,reassessment,of traditional forecast verification methods,has received,a great deal of attention from,the scientific community,in the last decade. This scientific effort has,arisen from,the need,to respond,to changes,encompassing,several aspects of the verification process, such as the evolution of forecasting systems, or the desire for more meaningful verification approaches that address,specific forecast user requirements. Verification techniques,that account,for the spatial structure and

B. Casati; L. J. Wilson; D. B. Stephenson; P. Nurmi; A. Ghelli; M. Pocernich; U. Damrath; E. E. Ebert; B. G. Brown; S. Mason

2008-01-01

335

Tools for Traceable Security Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependable systems evolution has been identified by the UK Computing Research Committee (UKCRC) as one of the current grand challenges for computer science. We present work towards addressing this challenge which focusses on one facet of dependability, namely data security: We give an overview on an approach for model- based security verification which provides a traceability link to the implementation.

Jan Jürjens; Yijun Yu; Andreas Bauer

2008-01-01

336

Runtime verification methods for MPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gauss group at the University of Utah has researched and developed runtime verification tools for MPI programs. Our tool, in-situ partial order (ISP), is being applied to several MPI benchmarks. At the same time, we are embarked on research that ensures the completeness of ISP. Our work on specifying the formal semantics of MPI has also encompassed MPI 2.0.

Ganesh L. Gopalakrishnan; Robert M. Kirby

2008-01-01

337

The science verification of FLAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a new VLT instrument has been commissioned and thoroughly tested1, a series of scientific and technical checkups are scheduled in order to test the front-to-end operations chain before the official start of regular operations. Technically speaking, these are the socalled Dry Runs, part of which are usually devoted to the Science Verification (SV for short) of that specific instrument.

Francesca Primas

2003-01-01

338

State verification for synchronous circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the techniques of implicit traversing and state verification for sequential finite state machines (FSMs)\\u000a based of on the state collapsing of state transition graph(STG). The problems of state designing are described. In order to\\u000a achieve high state enumeration coverage, heuristic knowledge is proposed.

He Xinhua; Gong Yunzhan; Fu Qingling

1997-01-01

339

Holistic Verification of Handwritten Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system for rapid verification of unconstrained off-line handwritten phrases using perceptual holistic features of the handwritten phrase image. The system is used to verify handwritten street names automatically extracted from live U.S. mail against recognition results of analytical classifiers. Presented with a binary image of a street name and an ASCII street name, holistic

Sriganesh Madhvanath; Evelyn Kleinberg; Venu Govindaraju

1999-01-01

340

VERIFICATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The basic concepts of water quality models are reviewed and the need to recognize calibration and verification of models with observed data is stressed. Post auditing of models after environmental control procedures are implemented is necessary to determine true model prediction ...

341

LANL measurements verification acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Verification measurements are used to aid in the detection of SNM losses. The acceptance/rejection criteria for verification measurements are dependent on the facility-specific processes, the knowledge of the measured item, and the measurement technique applied. This paper will discuss some of the LANL measurement control steps and criteria applied for the acceptance of a verification measurement. The process involves interaction among the facility operations personnel, the subject matter experts of a specific instrument/technique, the process knowledge on the matrix of the measured item, and the measurement-specific precision and accuracy values. By providing an introduction to a site-specific application of measurement verification acceptance criteria, safeguards, material custodians, and SNM measurement professionals are assisted in understanding the acceptance/rejection process for measurements and their contribution of the process to the detection of SNM diversion.

Chavez, D. M. (David M.)

2001-01-01

342

Application of computer vision to automatic prescription verification in pharmaceutical mail order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In large volume pharmaceutical mail order, before shipping out prescriptions, licensed pharmacists ensure that the drug in the bottle matches the information provided in the patient prescription. Typically, the pharmacist has about 2 sec to complete the prescription verification process of one prescription. Performing about 1800 prescription verification per hour is tedious and can generate human errors as a result of visual and brain fatigue. Available automatic drug verification systems are limited to a single pill at a time. This is not suitable for large volume pharmaceutical mail order, where a prescription can have as many as 60 pills and where thousands of prescriptions are filled every day. In an attempt to reduce human fatigue, cost, and limit human error, the automatic prescription verification system (APVS) was invented to meet the need of large scale pharmaceutical mail order. This paper deals with the design and implementation of the first prototype online automatic prescription verification machine to perform the same task currently done by a pharmacist. The emphasis here is on the visual aspects of the machine. The system has been successfully tested on 43,000 prescriptions.

Alouani, Ali T.

2005-05-01

343

Signatures and Methods for the Automated Nondestructive Assay of UF6 Cylinders at Uranium Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These measurements are time-consuming, expensive, and assay only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume. An automated nondestructive assay system capable of providing enrichment measurements over the full volume of the cylinder could improve upon current verification practices in terms of manpower and assay accuracy. Such a station would use sensors that can be operated in an unattended mode at an industrial facility: medium-resolution scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy (e.g., NaI(Tl)) and moderated He-3 neutron detectors. This sensor combination allows the exploitation of additional, more-penetrating signatures beyond the traditional 185-keV emission from U-235: neutrons produced from F-19(?,n) reactions (spawned primarily from U 234 alpha emission) and high-energy gamma rays (extending up to 8 MeV) induced by neutrons interacting in the steel cylinder. This paper describes a study of these non-traditional signatures for the purposes of cylinder enrichment verification. The signatures and the radiation sensors designed to collect them are described, as are proof-of-principle cylinder measurements and analyses. Key sources of systematic uncertainty in the non-traditional signatures are discussed, and the potential benefits of utilizing these non-traditional signatures, in concert with an automated form of the traditional 185-keV-based assay, are discussed.

Smith, Leon E.; Mace, Emily K.; Misner, Alex C.; Shaver, Mark W.

2010-08-08

344

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Material Verification in Dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a well-established physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that can be exploited for isotopic detection and characterization of samples. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been investigating possible applications of NRF for national security. Of the investigated applications, the verification of material in the dismantlement process is the most promising. Through a combination of benchmarking measurements and radiation transport modeling, we have shown that NRF techniques with existing bremsstrahlung photon sources and a modest detection system can be used to detect highly enriched uranium in the quantities and time limits relevant to the dismantlement process. Issues such as orientation, placement and material geometry do not significantly impact the sensitivity of the technique. We have also investigated how shielding of the uranium would be observed through non-NRF processes to enable the accurate assay of the material. This paper will discuss our findings on how NRF and photon-interrogation techniques may be applied to the material verification in the dismantlement process.

Warren, Glen A.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.

2011-10-01

345

Online promise problems with online width metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we introduce a new program that applies ideas from parameterized complexity, and topological graph theory, to online problems. We focus on parameterized promise problems, where we are promised that the problem input obeys certain properties, or is presented in a certain fashion. We present some algorithmic ramifications of such problems in the online setting. We explore the

Rodney G. Downey; Catherine Mccartin

2007-01-01

346

Online Assessment Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Online assessment must measure both learning objectives and application of knowledge. Many current assessment techniques can be modified for online use. Multiple methods, including assessment of interaction and student self-assessment, should be used. (SK)|

Robles, Marcel; Braathen, Sandy

2002-01-01

347

Mechanical Verification of Total Correctness through Diversion Verification Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total correctness of programs with mutually recursive procedures is significantly more complex than their partial correctness.\\u000a Past methods of proving termination have suffered from being rigid, not general, non-intuitive, and ad hoc in structure, not suitable for mechanization. We have devised a new method for proving termination and mechanized it within\\u000a an automatic tool called a Verification Condition Generator.

Peter V. Homeier; David F. Martin

1998-01-01

348

Optical identity authentication scheme based on elliptic curve digital signature algorithm and phase retrieval algorithm.  

PubMed

An optical identity authentication scheme based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) and phase retrieval algorithm (PRA) is proposed. In this scheme, a user's certification image and the quick response code of the user identity's keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) with added noise, serving as the amplitude and phase restriction, respectively, are digitally encoded into two phase keys using a PRA in the Fresnel domain. During the authentication process, when the two phase keys are presented to the system and illuminated by a plane wave of correct wavelength, an output image is generated in the output plane. By identifying whether there is a match between the amplitude of the output image and all the certification images pre-stored in the database, the system can thus accomplish a first-level verification. After the confirmation of first-level verification, the ECDSA signature is decoded from the phase part of the output image and verified to allege whether the user's identity is legal or not. Moreover, the introduction of HMAC makes it almost impossible to forge the signature and hence the phase keys thanks to the HMAC's irreversible property. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both validate the feasibility of our proposed scheme. PMID:23938413

Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

2013-08-10

349

CV Surgery Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

1999-01-01

350

Graph Signatures for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

We present a visual analytics technique to explore graphs using the concept of a data signature. A data signature, in our context, is a multidimensional vector that captures the local topology information surrounding each graph node. Signature vectors extracted from a graph are projected onto a low-dimensional scatterplot through the use of scaling. The resultant scatterplot, which reflects the similarities of the vectors, allows analysts to examine the graph structures and their corresponding real-life interpretations through repeated use of brushing and linking between the two visualizations. The interpretation of the graph structures is based on the outcomes of multiple participatory analysis sessions with intelligence analysts conducted by the authors at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The paper first uses three public domain datasets with either well-known or obvious features to explain the rationale of our design and illustrate its results. More advanced examples are then used in a customized usability study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. The study results reveal not only the limitations and weaknesses of the traditional approach based solely on graph visualization but also the advantages and strengths of our signature-guided approach presented in the paper.

Wong, Pak C.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.

2006-11-17

351

Human Signatures for Personnel Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This MURI program continued into its final year; this report covers the eleven months from 1 August 2009 to 14 June 2010. The overall goal of this program is a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenology underlying the signatures generated by humans,...

J. M. Cathcart W. T. Rhodes

2010-01-01

352

Multimodal signature modeling of humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related

J. Michael Cathcart; Brian Kocher; Keith Prussing; Alan Thomas

2010-01-01

353

Dynamics of Human Thermal Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that thermal imagery is dynamic and sensitive to the physiological processes in the body, with heat transfer from physiological processes affecting the surface temperature of the skin. This paper describes a period of exploratory research in which thermal imagery was collected for analysis of human signatures to determine \\

Barbara L. O'Kane; Todd Shaw; Mike Cook

2004-01-01

354

Inversion-based genomic signatures  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstructing complete ancestral genomes (at least in terms of their gene inventory and arrangement) is attracting much interest due to the rapidly increasing availability of whole genome sequences. While modest successes have been reported for mammalian and even vertebrate genomes, more divergent groups continue to pose a stiff challenge, mostly because current models of genomic evolution support too many choices. Results We describe a novel type of genomic signature based on rearrangements that characterizes evolutionary changes that must be common to all minimal rearrangement scenarios; by focusing on global patterns of rearrangements, such signatures bypass individual variations and sharply restrict the search space. We present the results of extensive simulation studies demonstrating that these signatures can be used to reconstruct accurate ancestral genomes and phylogenies even for widely divergent collections. Conclusion Focusing on genome triples rather than genomes pairs unleashes the full power of evolutionary analysis. Our genomic signature captures shared evolutionary events and thus can form the basis of a robust analysis and reconstruction of evolutionary history.

Swenson, Krister M; Moret, Bernard ME

2009-01-01

355

Disaster relief through composite signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper builds on previous work developing innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral. For the composite signature approach to be successful it requires effective data fusion and visualization. This plays a key role in both preparedness and the response and recovery which are critical to saving lives. Visualization tools enhance the overall understanding of the crisis by pulling together and analyzing the data, and providing a clear and complete analysis of the information to the organizations/agencies dependant on it for a successful operation. An example of this, Freedom Web, is an easy-to-use data visualization and collaboration solution for use in homeland security, emergency preparedness, situational awareness, and event management. The solution provides a nationwide common operating picture for all levels of government through a web based, map interface. The tool was designed to be utilized by non-geospatial experts and is easily tailored to the specific needs of the users. Consisting of standard COTS and open source databases and a web server, users can view, edit, share, and highlight information easily and quickly through a standard internet browser.

Hawley, Chadwick T.; Hyde, Brian; Carpenter, Tom; Nichols, Steve

2012-05-01

356

Invisibly Sanitizable Digital Signature Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital signature does not allow any alteration of the document to which it is attached. Appropriate alteration of some signed documents, however, should be allowed because there are security requirements other than the integrity of the document. In the disclosure of official information, for example, sensitive information such as personal information or national secrets is masked when an official document is sanitized so that its nonsensitive information can be disclosed when it is requested by a citizen. If this disclosure is done digitally by using the current digital signature schemes, the citizen cannot verify the disclosed information because it has been altered to prevent the leakage of sensitive information. The confidentiality of official information is thus incompatible with the integrity of that information, and this is called the digital document sanitizing problem. Conventional solutions such as content extraction signatures and digitally signed document sanitizing schemes with disclosure condition control can either let the sanitizer assign disclosure conditions or hide the number of sanitized portions. The digitally signed document sanitizing scheme we propose here is based on the aggregate signature derived from bilinear maps and can do both. Moreover, the proposed scheme can sanitize a signed document invisibly, that is, no one can distinguish whether the signed document has been sanitized or not.

Miyazaki, Kunihiko; Hanaoka, Goichiro; Imai, Hideki

357

Graph signatures for visual analytics.  

PubMed

We present a visual analytics technique to explore graphs using the concept of a data signature. A data signature, in our context, is a multidimensional vector that captures the local topology information surrounding each graph node. Signature vectors extracted from a graph are projected onto a low-dimensional scatterplot through the use of scaling. The resultant scatterplot, which reflects the similarities of the vectors, allows analysts to examine the graph structures and their corresponding real-life interpretations through repeated use of brushing and linking between the two visualizations. The interpretation of the graph structures is based on the outcomes of multiple participatory analysis sessions with intelligence analysts conducted by the authors at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The paper first uses three public domain data sets with either well-known or obvious features to explain the rationale of our design and illustrate its results. More advanced examples are then used in a customized usability study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. The study results reveal not only the limitations and weaknesses of the traditional approach based solely on graph visualization, but also the advantages and strengths of our signature-guided approach presented in the paper. PMID:17073364

Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan; Chin, George; Mackey, Patrick; Perrine, Ken

358

Signatures of a Shadow Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as

Paul C. W. Davies; Steven A. Benner; Carol E. Cleland; Charles H. Lineweaver; Christopher P. McKay; Felisa Wolfe-Simon

2009-01-01

359

Radar signature extrapolation for FISC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a frequency extrapolation scheme to speed up the signature prediction procedure using FISC by avoiding exhaustive computations. We adopt a model-based approach to the frequency extrapolation problem. The key in the success of an extrapolation algorithm is a good model of the physical observable to be extrapolated. We propose a scheme that parameterizes the current on the target,

Yuanxun Wang; Hao Ling; Jiming Song; Weng Cho Chew

1998-01-01

360

The European Microwave Signature Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes in short a new research facility which has been installed at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities in Ispra, Italy. This unique measurement laboratory for signature research has been inaugurated and presented to the public in April 1992. At this occasion the JRC also distributed an announcement of research and experiment

A. J. Sieber

1992-01-01

361

Verification and transparency in future arms control  

SciTech Connect

Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

Pilat, J.F.

1996-09-01

362

Online Advertisement Campaign Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like any marketing campaigns, online advertisement campaigns need to be monitored, analyzed and optimized. It is more so for online campaigns because online advertisements are usually sold in auction style. Prices can change very dynamically; the creatives, the landing pages and the targeting profiles can all be changed frequently to improve the effectiveness of a campaign. Also, the effectiveness can

Weiguo Liu; Shi Zhong; Mayank Chaudhary; Shyam Kapur

2007-01-01

363

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

364

Assessing Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in traditional as well as online classrooms need more than grades from their instructors--they also need meaningful feedback to help bridge their academic knowledge and skills with their daily lives. With the increasing number of online learning classrooms, the question of how to consistently assess online learning has become increasingly…

Comeaux, Patricia, Ed.

2004-01-01

365

Implementing Online Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Online physical education, although seemingly an oxymoron, appears to be the wave of the future at least for some students. The purpose of this article is to explore research and options for online learning in physical education and to examine a curriculum, assessment, and instructional model for online learning. The article examines how physical…

Mohnsen, Bonnie

2012-01-01

366

Online Higher Education Commodity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online

Chau, Paule

2010-01-01

367

Teaching Astronomy Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and

Mary L. Radnofsky; Matthew Bobrowsky

2004-01-01

368

Differentially Private Online Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of preserving privacy in the online learning setting. We study the problem in the online convex programming (OCP) framework---a popular online learning setting with several interesting theoretical and practical implications---while using differential privacy as the formal privacy measure. For this problem, we distill two critical attributes that a private OCP algorithm should have

Prateek Jain; Pravesh Kothari; Abhradeep Thakurta

2011-01-01

369

5 CFR 850.106 - Electronic signatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FERS, FEGLI, FEHB or RFEHB that an individual submit a signed writing to OPM; (3) An electronic signature of a witness to...Public/private key (asymmetric) cryptography, also known as digital signatures; (3) Any combination of methods...

2013-01-01

370

Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

2008-08-01

371

Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These enrichment assay methods interrogate only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume, and are time-consuming and expensive to execute for inspectors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended measurement system capable of automated enrichment measurements over the full volume of Type 30B and Type 48 cylinders. This Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The focus of this paper is the development of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods that combine “traditional” enrichment signatures (e.g. 185-keV emission from U-235) and more-penetrating “non-traditional” signatures (e.g. high-energy neutron-induced gamma rays spawned primarily from U-234 alpha emission) collected by medium-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers (i.e. sodium iodide or lanthanum bromide). The potential of these NDA methods for the automated assay of feed, tail and product cylinders is explored through MCNP modeling and with field measurements on a cylinder population ranging from 0.2% to 5% in U-235 enrichment.

Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.; Orton, Christopher R.

2010-11-30

372

Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification  

PubMed Central

ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.

2009-01-01

373

A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a weak blind signature scheme based on a genuinely entangled six qubits state. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum weak blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Our scheme has the characteristics of classical security and quantum security.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Li, Peng-Fei

2013-09-01

374

Deductive verification of alternating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternating systems are models of computer programs whose behavior is governed by the actions of multiple agents with, potentially,\\u000a different goals. Examples include control systems, resource schedulers, security protocols, auctions and election mechanisms.\\u000a Proving properties about such systems has emerged as an important new area of study in formal verification, with the development\\u000a of logical frameworks such as the alternating

Matteo Slanina; Henny B. Sipma; Zohar Manna

2008-01-01

375

Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) Program directs the development, demonstration and deployment of physics simulation codes. The defensible utilization of these codes for high-consequence decisions requires rigorous verification and validation of the simulation software. The physics and engineering codes used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are arguably among the most complex utilized in computational science. Verification represents an important aspect of the development, assessment and application of simulation software for physics and engineering. The purpose of this note is to formally document the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by LANL, LLNL, and SNL, i.e., the Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite. Verification is often referred to as ensuring that ''the [discrete] equations are solved [numerically] correctly''. More precisely, verification develops evidence of mathematical consistency between continuum partial differential equations (PDEs) and their discrete analogues, and provides an approach by which to estimate discretization errors. There are two variants of verification: (1) code verification, which compares simulation results to known analytical solutions, and (2) calculation verification, which estimates convergence rates and discretization errors without knowledge of a known solution. Together, these verification analyses support defensible verification and validation (V&V) of physics and engineering codes that are used to simulate complex problems that do not possess analytical solutions. Discretization errors (e.g., spatial and temporal errors) are embedded in the numerical solutions of the PDEs that model the relevant governing equations. Quantifying discretization errors, which comprise only a portion of the total numerical simulation error, is possible through code and calculation verification. Code verification computes the absolute value of discretization errors relative to an exact solution of the governing equations. In contrast, calculation verification, which does not utilize a reference solution, combines an assessment of stable self-convergence and exact solution prediction to quantitatively estimate discretization errors. In FY01, representatives of the V&V programs at LANL, LLNL, and SNL identified a set of verification test problems for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program. Specifically, a set of code verification test problems that exercise relevant single- and multiple-physics packages was agreed upon. The verification test suite problems can be evaluated in multidimensional geometry and span both smooth and non-smooth behavior.

Brock, J S; Kamm, J R; Rider, W J; Brandon, S; Woodward, C; Knupp, P; Trucano, T G

2006-12-21

376

New Extensions of Pairing-based Signatures into Universal (Multi) Designated Verifier Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of universal designated verier signatures was introduced by Steinfeld, Bull, Wang and Pieprzyk at Asiacrypt 2003. These signatures can be used as standard publicly veriable digital signatures but have an additional functionality which allows any holder of a sig- nature to designate the signature to any desired verier. This designated verier can check that the message was indeed

Damien Vergnaud

2008-01-01

377

Attribute-based signature and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attribute-based signature (ABS), users sign messages with any predicate of their attributes issued from an attribute authority. Under this notion, a signature attests not to the identity of the individual who signed a message, but a claim regarding the attributes the underlying signer possesses. In ABS, users cannot forge signatures with attributes they do not possess even through

Jin Li; Man Ho Au; Willy Susilo; Dongqing Xie; Kui Ren

2010-01-01

378

Provably secure proxy signature scheme from factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proxy signature is a cryptographic primitive used for delegating the signing rights. The security of most existing proxy signature schemes is based on the complexity assumptions of discrete logarithms and the intractable problems of elliptic curves. While several proxy signature schemes from integer factorization were proposed, unfortunately they cannot resist against the attacks lunched by a malicious original signer or

Yong Yu; Yi Mu; Willy Susilo; Ying Sun; Yafu Ji

379

AGIS: Towards Automatic Generation of Infection Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important yet largely uncharted problem in malware defense is how to automate generation of infection signatures for detecting compromised systems, i.e., signatures that characterize the behavior of malware residing on a system. To this end, we develop AGIS, the first host-based technique that detects infections by novel malware and automatically generates an infection signature of the malware. AGIS monitors

Zhuowei Li; XiaoFeng Wang; Zhenkai Liang; Michael K. Reiter

380

ID-Based Restrictive Partially Blind Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restrictive blind signatures allow a recipient to receive a blind signature on a message not know to the signer but the choice of message is restricted and must conform to certain rules. Partially blind signatures allow a signer to explicitly include necessary information (ex- piration date, collateral conditions, or whatever) in the resulting sig- natures under some agreement with receiver.

Xiaofeng Chen; Fangguo Zhang; Shengli Liu

2005-01-01

381

A Novel ID-based Group Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group signatures, first introduced by Chaum and Heyst at Eurocrypt'91, allow individual members of a group to make signatures on behalf of the group while providing the signer's anonymity. Most of the previously proposed group signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem, the public keys of users are not identity information, except for the ID-based scheme proposed by

Yuh-min Tseng; Jinn-ke Jan

1999-01-01

382

Fingerprint verification using SIFT features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fingerprints are being extensively used for person identification in a number of commercial, civil, and forensic applications. Most of the current fingerprint verification systems utilize features that are based on minutiae points and ridge patterns. While minutiae based fingerprint verification systems have shown fairly high accuracies, further improvements in their performance are needed for acceptable performance, especially in applications involving very large scale databases. In an effort to extend the existing technology for fingerprint verification, we propose a new representation and matching scheme for fingerprint using Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT). We extract characteristic SIFT feature points in scale space and perform matching based on the texture information around the feature points using the SIFT operator. A systematic strategy of applying SIFT to fingerprint images is proposed. Using a public domain fingerprint database (FVC 2002), we demonstrate that the proposed approach complements the minutiae based fingerprint representation. Further, the combination of SIFT and conventional minutiae based system achieves significantly better performance than either of the individual schemes.

Park, Unsang; Pankanti, Sharath; Jain, A. K.

2008-03-01

383

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP): LIQUID COATINGS--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a generic verification protocol or GVP which provides standards for testing liquid coatings for their enviornmental impacts under the Environmental Technology Verification program. It provides generic guidelines for product specific testing and quality assurance p...

384

PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF STORMWATER TREATMENT DEVICES UNDER EPA�S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The program�s goal is to further environmental protection by a...

385

A new method for the synthesis of signature data with natural variability.  

PubMed

The collection of human biometric test data for system development and evaluation within any chosen modality generally requires significant time and effort if data are to be obtained in workable quantities. To overcome this problem, techniques to generate synthetic data have been developed. This paper describes a novel technique for the automatic synthesis of human handwritten-signature images, which introduces modeled variability within the generated output based on positional variation that is naturally found within genuine source data. The synthesized data were found to generate similar verification rates to those obtained using genuine data with the use of a commercial verification engine, thereby indicating the suitability of the data synthesized by using this method for a wide range of application scenarios. PMID:18558534

Rabasse, Cedric; Guest, Richard M; Fairhurst, Michael C

2008-06-01

386

Combining Gene Signatures Improves Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n?=?123) and test set (n?=?81), respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. Principal Findings To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p?=?0.005; breast cancer death: p?=?0.014). Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p?=?0.003; breast cancer death: p?=?0.001). The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. Conclusion Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival. The presented methodology is broadly applicable to breast cancer risk assessment using any new identified gene set.

Zhao, Xi; Naume, Bj?rn; Langer?d, Anita; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; B?rresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian

2011-01-01

387

Gender verification in competitive sports.  

PubMed

The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All these problems remain with the current laboratory based gender verification test, polymerase chain reaction based testing of the SRY gene, the main candidate for male sex determination. Thus, this 'advance' in fact still fails to address the fundamental inequities of laboratory based gender verification tests. The IAAF considered the issue in 1991 and 1992, and concluded that gender verification testing was not needed. This was thought to be especially true because of the current use of urine testing to exclude doping: voiding is observed by an official in order to verify that a sample from a given athlete has actually come from his or her urethra. That males could masquerade as females in these circumstances seems extraordinarily unlikely. Screening for gender is no longer undertaken at IAAF competitions. PMID:8272686

Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E

1993-11-01

388

Guide to good practices for independent verification  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Independent Verification, Chapter X of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing independent verification activities. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Independent Verification is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for coordinated independent verification activities to promote safe and efficient operations.

NONE

1998-12-01

389

24 CFR 5.512 - Verification of eligible immigration status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Verification of eligible immigration status. 5.512 Section 5.512...5.512 Verification of eligible immigration status. (a) General. Except...system. Primary verification of the immigration status of the person is...

2013-04-01

390

46 CFR 61.40-3 - Design verification testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design verification testing. 61.40-3...ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-3 Design verification testing....

2011-10-01

391

40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS calibrations and verifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PEMS calibrations and verifications. 1065.920 Section...Measurement Systems § 1065.920 PEMS calibrations and verifications. (a) Subsystem calibrations and verifications. Use all the...

2013-07-01

392

Online Courses: NSTA Online Short Course: Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers inte

1900-01-01

393

Rotational-invariant wavelet target signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research paper investigates the use of the wavelet transform to extract spatially-invariant wavelet-based shape signatures for automatic target recognition (ATR). Target signatures based on shape information can be generally categorized as either contour-based or region-based. The wavelet-based shape signatures facilitate detection and localization of important edge and texture information aiding in discrimination between targets. To demonstrate the advantages of both edge and region information, we present an approach that combines region-based shape methods and the wavelet transform for generating target signatures. Our approach generates a rotationally invariant class of wavelet signatures based on the spatial ground pixel coverage of the target is determined from the region-of-interest (ROI) in the wavelet domain. This process results in a multiresolution representation of the target, and provides a hierarchical approach to target signature-matching. We demonstrate this methodology using signatures from aircraft targets utilizing the Angular Radial Transform (ART) as the region-based shape signature. Region-based signatures are shown more robust than contourbased signatures in the presence of noise and disconnected target regions providing greater confidence in target identification. Our research results show the value of combining the rotational invariance of the ART signatures with the localization and edge discrimination properties of the wavelet transform.

Reynolds, William D., Jr.; Campbell, Derrick S.

2010-04-01

394

Square-Vinegar Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore ideas for speeding up HFE-based signature schemes. In particular, we propose an HFEv? system with odd characteristic and a secret map of degree 2. Changing the characteristic of the system has a profound effect,\\u000a which we attempt to explain and also demonstrate through experiment. We discuss known attacks which could possibly topple\\u000a such systems, especially algebraic attacks. After

John Baena; Crystal Clough; Jintai Ding

2008-01-01

395

Saturation Physics: Probes and Signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hadron wavefunction at high energy contains many gluons which carry a small fraction x of the valence quark energy. At fixed impact parameters as one increases the hadron energy, the gluon occupation number in the wavefunction eventually saturates and becomes of order of 1/?s, the maximum allowed by QCD. The resulting hadron state at high energy is then called a Color Glass Condensate (CGC). Signatures and predictions of the formalism are reviewed and compared with the experimental data at RHIC.

Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

2011-09-01

396

Geomorphological signatures of varying climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LONG-STANDING question in geomorphology1,2 is whether the topography of a particular landscape is in balance with current climate-driven processes, or contains relict signatures of past climates. For the glaciated landscapes of the Northern Hemisphere, the latter obviously applies but the situation is far from clear in regions where climate-driven processes have changed only in intensity, rather than character. We

Andrea Rinaldo; William E. Dietrich; Riccardo Rigon; Gregor K. Vogel; Ignacio Rodrlguez-Lturbe

1995-01-01

397

Signature995 9.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a way to securely transmit and digitally sign PDFs, look no further than this application. Using Microsoft Cryptographic technology, Signature995 features a multi-tabbed interface that is easy to use. Visitors can also encrypt other file types (such as doc and zip files), and they can also limit file access to certain users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

398

Estimating Attributes of Nuclear Weapon and Other Fissile Material Configuration Using Features Of Nuclear Materials Identification Signatures  

SciTech Connect

This brief describes a strategy that, when implemented, will allow the attributes, i.e., the physical properties, of nuclear weapon and other configurations of fissile material to be estimated from Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) signatures for arms control, treaty verification, and transparency purposes. Attributes are estimated by condensing measured NMIS signatures into ''features'' that approximately represent physical characteristics of the measurement such as gamma-ray transmission, induced fission, etc. The features are obtained from NMIS signatures to estimate quantities related to gamma and neutron transmission through the inspected item and gamma and neutron scattering and production via induced fission within the inspected item. Multivariate, i.e., multiple-feature, linear models have been successfully employed to estimate attributes, and multivariate nonlinear models are currently under investigation. Attributes estimated employing this strategy can then be examined to test the supposition that the inspected item is in fact a nuclear weapon.

mattingly, j.k.; mihalczo, j.t.; mullens, j.a.; perez, r.b.; valentine, t.e.

1999-08-24

399

Microbial lifestyle and genome signatures.  

PubMed

Microbes are known for their unique ability to adapt to varying lifestyle and environment, even to the extreme or adverse ones. The genomic architecture of a microbe may bear the signatures not only of its phylogenetic position, but also of the kind of lifestyle to which it is adapted. The present review aims to provide an account of the specific genome signatures observed in microbes acclimatized to distinct lifestyles or ecological niches. Niche-specific signatures identified at different levels of microbial genome organization like base composition, GC-skew, purine-pyrimidine ratio, dinucleotide abundance, codon bias, oligonucleotide composition etc. have been discussed. Among the specific cases highlighted in the review are the phenomena of genome shrinkage in obligatory host-restricted microbes, genome expansion in strictly intra-amoebal pathogens, strand-specific codon usage in intracellular species, acquisition of genome islands in pathogenic or symbiotic organisms, discriminatory genomic traits of marine microbes with distinct trophic strategies, and conspicuous sequence features of certain extremophiles like those adapted to high temperature or high salinity. PMID:23024607

Dutta, Chitra; Paul, Sandip

2012-04-01

400

Implementation of secure speaker verification at web login page using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient-Gaussian Mixture Model (MFCC-GMM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need of security for web page was increased as the development of online activity especially trading or banking. Speaker recognition can be used to secure the web page which need high security level. In this research, the speaker recognition system at web page was successfully built for login authentication security. For enrollment and verification need, speech signal from clients

B. Putra; Suyanto

2011-01-01

401

GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ROW AND FIELD CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This ETV program generic verification protocol was prepared and reviewed for the Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies project. The protocol provides a detailed methodology for conducting and reporting results from a verification test of pesticide drift reductio...

402

Virtual Voices: Online Teachers' Perceptions of Online Teaching Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Online teachers' perceptions of online teaching standards published in 2006 by the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) and the National Education Association (NEA). Interviews with two teachers from each of the four online schools were studied following an online survey of 49 online teachers from these schools. Overall, participants reported…

Smith, Robin Davidson

2009-01-01

403

ONLINE SELLERS' TRUST AND USE OF ONLINE AUCTION MARKETPLACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more people sell things online and trust is an important factor in online selling. This research is aimed at understanding the roles of trust in online sellers' continued use of online auction marketplaces. Given the uniqueness of online auction practice, we identify the need for differentiating sellers' trust in the intermediary and in buyers. A balanced view of

Heshan Sun

404

Experimental procedures for entanglement verification  

SciTech Connect

We give an overview of different types of entanglement that can be generated in experiments, as well as of various protocols that can be used to verify or quantify entanglement. We propose several criteria that, we argue, should be applied to experimental entanglement verification procedures. Explicit examples demonstrate that not following these criteria will tend to result in overestimating the amount of entanglement generated in an experiment or in inferring entanglement when there is none. We distinguish protocols meant to refute or eliminate hidden-variable models from those meant to verify entanglement.

Enk, S. J. van [Department of Physics, Oregon Center for Optics and Institute for Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute of Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kimble, H. J. [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics 12-33, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2007-05-15

405

Online Learning in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter will explore the implications of courseware design and use in online learning environments for not only individual\\u000a learner expectations but also expectations of the learning community as a whole. The concept of context density and its importance\\u000a in formal online learning environments will be stressed. It will be argued that the lack of adumbrations in online communication\\u000a necessitates

Diana Stirling

406

Online higher education commodity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications\\u000a it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and\\u000a institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online education more appealing to other

Paule Chau

2010-01-01

407

Combining evidence in personal identity verification systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for fusing multiple instances of biometric data to improve the performance of a personal identity verification system is developed. The fusion problem is formulated in the framework of the Bayesian estimation theory. The effect of different fusion strategies on the error probability is analysed theoretically. The proposed methodology is then demonstrated on the problem of personal identity verification

Josef Kittler; Jiri Matas; Kenneth Jonsson; M. U. Ramos Sánchez

1997-01-01

408

Formal Verification of CPU in Laboratory Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the quality between CPUs designed by a conventional testing method and those designed by a formal verification method, on the practical designing processes in CPU designing laboratory work for undergraduate students. About eighty students were divided into two groups; GROUP V (by a formal verification method) and GROUP T (by a conventional testing method). Students in GROUP

Kozo Okano; Yuko Kitahama; Akira Kitajima; Teruo Higashino; Kenichi Taniguchi

2001-01-01

409

Face verification through tracking facial features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an algorithm for face verification through tracking facial features by using sequential importance sampling. Specifically, we first formulate tracking as a Bayesian inference problem and propose to use Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques for obtaining an empirical solution. A reparameterization is introduced under parametric motion assumption, which facilitates the empirical estimation and also allows verification to be addressed

Baoxin Li; Rama Chellappa

2001-01-01

410

Modular verification of software components in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

2003-01-01

411

Runtime Verification for LTL and TLTL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies runtime verification of properties expressed either in lineartime temporal logic (LTL) or timed lineartime temporal logic (TLTL). It classifies runtime verification in identifying its distinguishing features to model checking and testing, respectively. It introduces a three-valued semantics (with truth values true, false, inconclusive) as an adequate interpretation as to whether a partial observation of a running system

Andreas Bauer; Martin Leucker; Christian Schallhart

2011-01-01

412

Verification Decidability of Presburger Array Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program annotated with inductive assertions is said to be verification decidable If all of the verification conditions generated from the program and assertions are formulas In a decidable theory A theory is defined, which is called Presburger array theory, containing two logical sorts integer and array of integer Addltmn, subtraction, and comparisons are permztted for integers Array access and

Norihisa Suzuki; David Jefferson

1980-01-01

413

Verification and validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys verification and validation of models, especially simulation models in operations research. For verification it discusses 1) general good programming practice (such as modular programming), 2) checking intermediate simulation outputs through tracing and statistical testing per module, 3) statistical testing of final simulation outputs against analytical results, and 4) animation. For validation it discusses 1) obtaining real-worl data,

Jack P. C. Kleijnen

1995-01-01

414

Automatic verbal information verification for user authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional speaker authentication focuses on speaker verification (SV) and speaker identification, which is accomplished by matching the speaker's voice with his or her registered speech patterns. In this paper, we propose a new technique, verbal information verification (VIV), in which spoken utterances of a claimed speaker are verified against the key (usually confidential) information in the speaker's registered profile automatically;

Qi Li; Biing-Hwang Juang; Chin-Hui Lee

2000-01-01

415

Using composite correlation filters for biometric verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric verification refers to the process of matching an input biometric to stored biometric information. In particular, biometric verification refers to matching the live biometric input from an individual to the stored biometric template of that individual. Examples of biometrics include face images, fingerprint images, iris images, retinal scans, etc. Thus, image processing techniques prove useful in biometric recognition. In

Bhagavatula V. K. Vijaya Kumar; Marios Savvides; Chunyan Xie; Krithika Venkataramani; Jason Thornton

2003-01-01

416

Verification testing of advanced environmental monitoring systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) pilot project, one of 12 pilots comprising the US EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The aim of ETV is to promote the acceptance of environmental technologies in the marketplace, through objective third-party verification of technology performance.

Kelly, T.J.; Riggs, K.B.; Fuerst, R.G.

1999-03-01

417

Effective Program Verification for Relaxed Memory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program verification for relaxed memory models is hard. The high degree of nondeterminism in such models challenges standard veri- fication techniques. This paper proposes a new verification technique for the most common relaxation, store buers. Crucial to this technique is the observation that all programmers, including those who use low-lock techniques for performance, expect their programs to be sequentially con-

Sebastian Burckhardt; Madanlal Musuvathi

2008-01-01

418

Automating customs verification process using RFID technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customs administrations are beginning to embrace intelligent technologies so as to address the challenge of security, speed and efficiency in trade facilitation. Use of the supply chain by crooks and terrorists has led to employment of intelligent risk management techniques for identification and subsequent verification of cargo. Manual verification processes have however been susceptible to corrupt practices and have often

Joseph K. Siror; Sheng Huanye; Wang Dong

2010-01-01

419

Secret Distribution for Secure Fingerprint Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, in the smart-card based authentication system, there is an increasing trend of using fingerprint for the card holder verification, instead of passwords. However, the security of the fingerprint data is particularly important as the possible compromise of the data will be permanent. In this paper, we propose an approach for secure fingerprint verification by distributing both the secret and

Hanna Choi; Sungju Lee; Daesung Moon; Yongwha Chung; Sungbum Pan

2008-01-01

420

Autoassociator-based models for speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an autoassociator-based connectionist model thatturns out to be very useful for problems of pattern verification. The model isbased on feedforward networks acting as autoassociators trained to reproducepatterns presented at the input to the output layer. The verification is establishedon the basis of the distance between the input and the output vectors. We giveexperimental results for

Marco Gori; Luca Lastrucci; Giovanni Soda

1996-01-01

421

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

422

Compositional Verification of Secure Applet Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in mobile code and embedded systems have lead to an increased interest in open platforms, i.e. platforms which enable different applications to interact in a dynamic environment. However, the flexibility of open platforms presents major difficulties for the (formal) verification of secure interaction between the different applications. To overcome these difficulties, compositional verification techniques are required. This paper

Gilles Barthe; Dilian Gurov; Marieke Huisman

2002-01-01

423

Physical description of nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with a new correlation processor (capability up to 1GHz sampling rates and up to five input data channels) for three input channels: (1) the 252Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel. An intuitive and physical description of the various measured quantities is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five-channel capability is used, the number of measured quantities increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures and their related frequency analysis signatures. The time analysis signatures include the number of time /m pulses occurs in a time interval, that is triggered randomly, upon a detection event, or upon a source fission event triggered. From the number of pulses in a time interval, the moments, factorial moments, and Feynmann variance can be obtained. Recent implementations of third- and fourth-order time and frequency analysis signatures in this processor are also briefly described. Thus, this processor used with a timed source of input neutrons contains all of the information from a pulsed neutron measurement, one and two detector Rossi-/? measurements, multiplicity measurements, and third- and fourth-order correlation functions. This processor, although originally designed for active measurements with a 252Cf interrogating source, has been successfully used passively (without 252Cf source) for systems with inherent neutron sources such as fissile systems of plutonium. Data from active measurements with an 18.75kg highly enriched uranium (93.2wt%, 235U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate some of the various time and frequency analysis parameters. This processor, which is a five-channel time correlation analyzer with time channel widths as small as 1ns, was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant where it is in use for verification and confirmation of weapons components and other fissile materials in storage and for receipts from other Department of Energy and Department of Defense Facilities.

Mihalczo, J. T.; Mullens, J. A.; Mattingly, J. K.; Valentine, T. E.

2000-08-01

424

Asia Times Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the world's news flows increasingly from Asian nations, those people looking for a credible online source that concentrates on this region will find it in Asia Times Online. The site's front page features top stories from Asia Times journalists as well as from other online dailies and reports, including the South China Morning Post, Business Times Online, and the Australian Financial Review. The site offers separate sections for China, Southeast Asia, Japan, the Koreas, India/ Pakistan, Central Asia, and Oceania as well as departments devoted to Business Briefs, Global Economy, and Media and Industrial Technology. The entire site, including archives, is searchable.

425

Online organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

Janowicz, Philip A.

426

Climate Research Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inter-Research, a German-based scientific publisher, offers Climate Research (CR) Online, a scientific journal detailing the interactions of climate with organisms, ecosystems, and human societies. Currently, CR Online offers free access to the full text and graphics for all issues starting with Vol. 10 (1998). Articles (.pdf format) may be browsed online or downloaded at the site. Tables of Contents and abstracts are available for most issues before 1998. The CR Online site offers search capabilities for all CR articles since 1995. In addition, author instructions, a list of forthcoming articles, and a full listing of CR's special issues are accessible through the site.

427

A prospective evaluation of a breast cancer prognosis signature in the observational RASTER study  

PubMed Central

The 70-gene signature (MammaPrint™) has been developed on retrospective series of breast cancer patients to predict the risk of breast cancer distant metastases. The microarRAy-prognoSTics-in-breast-cancER (RASTER) study was the first study designed to prospectively evaluate the performance of the 70-gene signature, which result was available for 427 patients (cT1–3N0M0). Adjuvant systemic treatment decisions were based on the Dutch CBO 2004 guidelines, the 70-gene signature and doctors' and patients' preferences. Five-year distant-recurrence-free-interval (DRFI) probabilities were compared between subgroups based on the 70-gene signature and Adjuvant! Online (AOL) (10-year survival probability <90% was defined as high-risk). Median follow-up was 61.6 months. Fifteen percent (33/219) of the 70-gene signature low-risk patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus 81% (169/208) of the 70-gene signature high-risk patients. The 5-year DRFI probabilities for 70-gene signature low-risk (n = 219) and high-risk (n = 208) patients were 97.0% and 91.7%. The 5-year DRFI probabilities for AOL low-risk (n = 132) and high-risk (n = 295) patients were 96.7% and 93.4%. For 70-gene signature low-risk–AOL high-risk patients (n = 124), of whom 76% (n = 94) had not received ACT, 5-year DRFI was 98.4%. In the AOL high-risk group, 32% (94/295) less patients would be eligible to receive ACT if the 70-gene signature was used. In this prospective community-based observational study, the 5-year DRFI probabilities confirmed the additional prognostic value of the 70-gene signature to clinicopathological risk estimations such as AOL. Omission of adjuvant chemotherapy as judged appropriate by doctors and patients and instigated by a low-risk 70-gene signature result, appeared not to compromise outcome.

Drukker, CA; Bueno-de-Mesquita, JM; Retel, VP; van Harten, WH; van Tinteren, H; Wesseling, J; Roumen, RMH; Knauer, M; van 't Veer, LJ; Sonke, GS; Rutgers, EJT; van de Vijver, MJ; Linn, SC

2013-01-01

428

A Verification Method for MASOES.  

PubMed

MASOES is a 3agent architecture for designing and modeling self-organizing and emergent systems. This architecture describes the elements, relationships, and mechanisms, both at the individual and the collective levels, that favor the analysis of the self-organizing and emergent phenomenon without mathematically modeling the system. In this paper, a method is proposed for verifying MASOES from the point of view of design in order to study the self-organizing and emergent behaviors of the modeled systems. The verification criteria are set according to what is proposed in MASOES for modeling self-organizing and emerging systems and the principles of the wisdom of crowd paradigm and the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) theory. The verification method for MASOES has been implemented in a tool called FCM Designer and has been tested to model a community of free software developers that works under the bazaar style as well as a Wikipedia community in order to study their behavior and determine their self-organizing and emergent capacities. PMID:22692924

Perozo, N; Aguilar, J; Terán, O; Molina, H

2012-06-04

429

Perceptual simulation in property verification.  

PubMed

If people represent concepts with perceptual simulations, two predictions follow in the property verification task (e.g., Is face a property of GORILLA?). First, perceptual variables such as property size should predict the performance of neutral subjects, because these variables determine the ease of processing properties in perceptual simulations (i.e., perceptual effort). Second, uninstructed neutral subjects should spontaneously construct simulations to verify properties and therefore perform similarly to imagery subjects asked explicitly to use images (i.e., instructional equivalence). As predicted, neutral subjects exhibited both perceptual effort and instructional equivalence, consistent with the assumption that they construct perceptual simulations spontaneously to verify properties. Notably, however, this pattern occurred only when highly associated false properties prevented the use of a word association strategy. In other conditions that used unassociated false properties, the associative strength between concept and property words became a diagnostic cue for true versus false responses, so that associative strength became a better predictor of verification than simulation. This pattern indicates that conceptual tasks engender mixtures of simulation and word association, and that researchers must deter word association strategies when the goal is to assess conceptual knowledge. PMID:15190717

Solomon, Karen Olseth; Barsalou, Lawrence W

2004-03-01

430

RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons  

SciTech Connect

This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

1997-08-01

431

Detecting intrusions through attack signature analysis  

SciTech Connect

Intrusion detection has generally been based on defining normal user behavior through profiles and rule-based systems and on identifying significant deviations from such behavior as anomalous. An alternative, or a supplementary, strategy for detecting intrusions is based on attack signature analysis, whose objective is to define and recognize events or sequences of events as attack-type behavior. Such event sequences, which may constitute part of a larger attack, may be employed to exploit certain system flaws or known vulnerabilities. This paper concentrates on attack signature analysis in general, and on a preliminary version of the signature analysis module of the distributed intrusion detection system (DIDS) in particular. A signature representation is developed, a number of attack scenarios and their corresponding signatures are outlined, and mechanisms to detect the signatures are discussed.

Snapp, S.R. (Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (United States)); Mukherjee, B.; Levitt, K.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-10-11

432

Signature of anisotropic bubble collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension--the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation--which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. When in this scenario our bubble universe collides with other ones like it, the collision geometry is constrained by the reduced symmetry of the tunneling instanton. While the regions affected by such bubble collisions still appear (to leading order) as disks in an observer's sky, the centers of these disks all lie on a single great circle, providing a distinct signature of anisotropic bubble nucleation.

Salem, Michael P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2010-09-15

433

Integrated passive electronic signature modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been observed that electronic devices emit unintentional electromagnetic energy. These emissions can create a passive radio frequency signature that can be used to characterize and eventually detect and identify the device. In support of this concept, the authors have integrated high fidelity models and simulations into a framework used to perform collection feasibility studies of unintentional electronic emissions in relevant detection scenarios. This paper will discuss the elements involved in simulating realistic electronic emissions in a complex environment, including near earth propagation, terrain model effects, and visualization techniques.

Bole, M. Kate; McGraw, Jim; Ryan, Frank; Hawley, Todd; Davis, Mike; van, Toan

2009-05-01

434

Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

2012-06-01

435

On-line monitoring system development for single-phase flow accelerated corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aged nuclear piping has been reported to undergo corrosion-induced accelerated failures, often without giving signatures to current inspection campaigns. Therefore, we need diverse sensors which can cover a wide area in an on-line application. We suggest an integrated approach to monitor the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) susceptible piping. Since FAC is a combined phenomenon, we need to monitor as many

Na Young Lee; Seung Gi Lee; Kyung Ha Ryu; Il Soon Hwang

2007-01-01

436

Online Advertising in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

437

AGIS: Towards automatic generation of infection signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract An important yet largely uncharted problem in malware defense is how to automate generation of infection signatures for detecting compromised systems, i.e., signatures that characterize the behavior of malware residing on a system. To this end, we develop AGIS, the first host-based technique that detects infections by novel malware,and automatically generates an infection signature of the malware. AGIS monitors

Zhuowei Lit; XiaoFeng Wangt; Zhenkai Liang; Michael K. Reiter

2008-01-01

438

Exploring Signature Schemes with Subliminal Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subliminal channel in a cryptographic protocol such as an authentication system or a signature scheme provides an additional channel from the sender to an authorized receiver and can't be read by any unauthorized receiver. In this paper, we rstly show that Hess's ID-Based signature scheme in SAC'02 can provide digital signature with the broadband and narrowband subliminal channels. Secondly,

Fangguo Zhang; Byoungcheon Lee; Kwangjo Kim

2003-01-01

439

On the preservation of polarimetric signatures and polarimetric texture signatures by fully polarimetric MAP filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluate how fully polarimetric maximum a posteriori (MAP) speckle filters preserve the polarimetric power and texture signatures of textured targets. To this aim, such signatures are quantitatively compared to their counterparts in the MAP filtered polarimetric data

Edmond NEZRY; Francis YAKAM-SIMEN

1999-01-01

440

ALICAT. The Online Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for users of the Adelphi University Libraries provides instructions for accessing the bibliographic records of the libraries' holdings, which have been stored online since 1968. The steps necessary to search the Adelphi Libraries Catalog Online (ALICAT) by author, title, subject, or call number are explained using text and…

Ok Park, Hye, Ed.; And Others

441

Vegetable MD Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University provides this online guide to vegetable diseases. A compilation of vegetable disease fact sheets, the site is organized by crop and offers photographic images and a description of each vegetable crop in healthy and diseased states. The site also includes an Online Glossary of Technical Terms in Plant Pathology and links to additional resources.

Mcgrath, Margaret.; Zitter, T. A. (Thomas Andrew), 1941-

2001-01-01

442

Online Videoconferencing Products: Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software allowing real-time online video connectivity is rapidly evolving. The ability to connect students, staff, and guest speakers instantaneously carries great benefits for the online distance education classroom. This evaluation report compares four software applications at opposite ends of the cost spectrum: "DimDim", "Elluminate VCS",…

Burton, Douglas; Kitchen, Tim

2011-01-01

443

My Life Online!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares her experience in using online teaching and learning with students. She describes her journey that has continued from hesitant beginnings into what has almost become a life online. As a lecturer in Arts, the author was often faced with the threat of units being slashed because of low numbers. One such unit was an…

Connell, Lorraine

2002-01-01

444

Authoritative Online Editions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses how it is now very easy for anyone to find formerly hard-to-find books such as the works of Walt Whitman with the help of online booksellers. The author also describes the efforts made by various institutions to produce online editions of the works of major writers. One such prominent project is the archive…

Benton, Thomas H.

2007-01-01

445

Online personals: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online personal advertisements have recently become an easy, socially acceptable way to meet partners for dates or relationships. Because popular personals systems not only reflect but also have the potential to reshape how people attract one another, date, and fall in love, the design of these systems merits careful consideration. We present a survey of current styles of online personals,

Andrew T. Fiore; Judith S. Donath

2004-01-01

446

What's Next Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's Next Online is a free online newsletter which focuses on business marketing tips and discussion. Written and edited by B.L. Ochman, each issue contains several short articles about current issues in marketing as well as a list of annotated, notable links. Past issues are archived, and interested users may subscribe to the email version of the newsletter.

447

Improved Online Hypercube Packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study online multidimensional bin packing problem when all items are hypercubes. Based on the techniques in one dimensional bin packing algorithm Super Harmonic by Seiden, we give a framework for online hypercube packing problem and obtain new upper bounds of asymptotic competitive ratios. For square packing, we get an upper bound of 2.1439, which is better

Xin Han; Deshi Ye; Yong Zhou

2006-01-01

448

Teaching Astronomy Online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swinburne Astronomy Online (SAO) is a fully online graduate astronomy program with students and instructors located in over 30 countries around the globe. SAO uses a hybrid online form of delivery with image and animation-rich course content provided on CD-ROMs and the Internet used for communication research and assessment purposes. Now in its nineth semester and continuing to grow SAO can be considered a 'success story' in new teaching methods and used as an example for online education programs. One of the key distinguishing features of online education as compared to other forms of distance education is the opportunity for instructors and students to interact via online asynchronous discussion forums. Asynchronous discussion forums are used to a varying degree in different online academic programs and in widely different ways. In this paper we will give a historical overview of SAO and how it operates what astronomy we teach online and why specifically focusing on the use of asynchronous discussion forums - which are a central feature of the SAO program - as a learning and teaching tool

Maddison, Sarah T.; Mazzolini, Margaret M.

449

Facilitating online discussions effectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric. Additionally, instructors need to provide discussion forums for socio-emotional discussions that

Alfred P. Rovai

2007-01-01

450

CHILDREN AND ONLINE RISK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the risks associated with children's use of the internet often aims to inform policies of risk prevention. Yet paralleling the effort to map the nature and extent of online risk is a growing unease that the goal of risk prevention tends to support an over-protective, risk-averse culture that restricts the freedom of online exploration that society encourages for

Elisabeth Staksrud; Sonia Livingstone

2009-01-01

451

Serving the Online Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing expectations…

Boettcher, Judith V.

2007-01-01

452

Evaluating Online Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews recent evaluation studies of online learning communities to provide a systematic understanding of how such communities are evaluated. Forty-two representative studies were selected and categorized into a newly developed taxonomy of online learning community evaluations. This taxonomy is divided into four components: evaluation…

Ke, Fengfeng; Hoadley, Christopher

2009-01-01

453

On-Line Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

Kongshem, Lars

1995-01-01

454

Usability of Online maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maps have been in paper based format for many centuries. With the great invention of internet, map, has been developed and evolved into digitalized online GIS (Geographic Information System). Many online map websites are getting much easier to use for common users, even the users do not have strong computer and geographic knowledge. When travelling to an unfamiliar place, even

ZHANPENG HUO

455

Visualizing Online Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online auctions have been the subject of many empirical research efforts in the fields of economics and information systems. These research efforts are often based on analyzing data from Web sites such as eBay.com which provide public information about sequences of bids in closed auctions, typically in the form of tables on HTML pages. The existing literature on online auctions

Galit Shmueli; Wolfgang Jank

2005-01-01

456

Practical online retrieval evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online evaluation is amongst the few evaluation techniques available to the information retrieval community that is guaranteed to reflect how users actually respond to improvements developed by the community. Broadly speaking, online evaluation refers to any evaluation of retrieval quality conducted while observing user behavior in a natural context. However, it is rarely employed outside of large commercial search engines

Filip Radlinski; Yisong Yue

2011-01-01

457

Economic of online music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel online file sharing technologies have created new market dynamics for the online distribution of digital goods. But the new potential benefits for consumers are juxtaposed against challenges and opportunities for sellers of such goods. Here we investigate one type of digital experience good, music, whose markets include the presence of piracy options. We present five different pricing models running

Sudip Bhattacharjee; Ram D. Gopal; Kaveepan Lertwachara; James R. Marsden

2003-01-01

458

Competitive Online Multicommodity Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study online multicommodity routing prob- lems in networks, in which commodities have to be routed sequentially. The flow of each commodity can be split on several paths. Arcs are equipped with load dependent price functions defining routing costs, which have to be minimized. We discuss a greedy online algorithm that routes each commodity by minimizing a

Tobias Harks; Stefan Heinz; Marc E. Pfetsch

2006-01-01

459

Online Phase Detection Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's virtual machines (VMs) dynamically optimize an application as it is executing, often employing optimiza- tions that are specialized for the current execution profile. An online phase detector determines when an executing program is in a stable period of program execution (a phase) or is in transition. A VM using an online phase detector can apply specialized optimizations during a

Priya Nagpurkar; Michael Hind; Chandra Krintz; Peter F. Sweeney; V. T. Rajan

460

Accessible Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of online courses offered at the postsecondary level is increasing at a rate greater than the increase in overall higher education enrollment, with approximately one of every four higher education students taking at least one course online (Allen and Seaman, 2009). In 2008, students with disabilities represented nearly 11% of all…

Case, D. Elizabeth; Davidson, Roseanna C.

2011-01-01

461

Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…

Aidman, Amy

2000-01-01

462

ALICAT. The Online Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for users of the Adelphi University Libraries provides instructions for accessing the bibliographic records of the libraries' holdings, which have been stored online since 1968. The steps necessary to search the Adelphi Libraries Catalog Online (ALICAT) by author, title, subject, or call number are explained using text and…

Ok Park, Hye, Ed.; And Others

463

Online First publication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The editors of Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology and Springer-Verlag are pleased to announce a new service for authors and readers: Online First, the immediate online publication of all accepted papers as soon as the authors have returned the corrected proofs. Whereas the fully electronic versions of Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology used to appear at the same time as

Gerhard A. Holzapfel; Jay D. Humphrey

2003-01-01

464

5 CFR 850.106 - Electronic signatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Smart card; (iii) Digitized signature; or (iv) Biometrics, such as fingerprints, retinal patterns, and voice recognition; (2) Cryptographic control methods, includingâ (i) Shared symmetric key cryptography; (ii)...

2009-01-01

465

Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors  

PubMed Central

Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer)—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.

Larkin, Spencer; Kyprianou, Natasha

2013-01-01

466

HSIS: a BDD-based environment for formal verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and timing verification are currently the bottlenecks in many design efforts. Simulation and emulation are extensively used for verification. Formal verification is now gaining acceptance in advanced design groups. This has been facilitated by the use of binary decision diagrams (BDDs). This paper describes the essential features of HSIS, a BDD-based environment for formal verification: 1. Open language design,

Adnan Aziz; Felice Balarin; Szu-Tsung Cheng; Ramin Hojati; Timothy Kam; Sriram C. Krishnan; Rajeev K. Ranjan; Thomas R. Shiple; Vigyan Singhal; Serdar Tasiran; Huey-Yih Wang; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1994-01-01

467

Large HTGR steam generator design verification and support programs. Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the HTGR steam generator design verification and support ; programs is presented under the following headings: HTGR steam generation system; ; steam generator design; heat transfer and fluid flow verification and support ; programs; materials verification and support programs; and vibrations ; verification and support programs. (DCC);

Schultz

1973-01-01

468

Mobile Qualified Electronic Signatures and Certification on Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a legal framework being in place for several years, the market share of qualified electronic signatures is disappointingly low. Mobile Signatures provide a new and promising opportunity for the de- ployment of an infrastructure for qualified electronic signatures. We analyzed two possible signing approaches (server based and client based signatures) and conclude that SIM-based signatures are the most secure

Heiko Rossnagel; Johann Wolfgang

2004-01-01

469

21 CFR 11.70 - Signature/record linking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Signature/record linking. 11.70 Section 11.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.70 Signature/record linking. Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures...

2009-04-01

470

21 CFR 11.70 - Signature/record linking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature/record linking. 11.70 Section 11.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.70 Signature/record linking. Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures...

2010-04-01

471

MCFC power plant system verification  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of commercialization, efforts are underway to: (1) advance the technology base by enhancing performance and demonstrating endurance, (2) scale up stack to the full area and height, (3) acquire stack manufacturing capability and experience, (4) establish capability as well as gain experience for power plant system testing of the full-height carbonate fuel cell stack, (5) and define power plant design and develop critical subsystem components. All the major project objectives have already been attained. Over the last year, significant progress has been achieved in establishing the full-height stack design, gaining stack manufacturing and system integrated testing experience, and verifying the major equipment design in power plant system tests. In this paper, recent progresses on stack scaleup, demonstration testing, BOP verification, and stack endurance are presented.

Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.

1993-11-01

472

MFTF sensor verification computer program  

SciTech Connect

The design, requirements document and implementation of the MFE Sensor Verification System were accomplished by the Measurement Engineering Section (MES), a group which provides instrumentation for the MFTF magnet diagnostics. The sensors, installed on and around the magnets and solenoids, housed in a vacuum chamber, will supply information about the temperature, strain, pressure, liquid helium level and magnet voltage to the facility operator for evaluation. As the sensors are installed, records must be maintained as to their initial resistance values. Also, as the work progresses, monthly checks will be made to insure continued sensor health. Finally, after the MFTF-B demonstration, yearly checks will be performed as well as checks of sensors as problem develops. The software to acquire and store the data was written by Harry Chow, Computations Department. The acquired data will be transferred to the MFE data base computer system.

Chow, H.K.

1984-11-09

473

Task-specific style verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programming antipatterns are commonly used patterns that make the code unnecessary complex and unmaintainable. However, beginner programmers such as students, often use them. Usage of antipatterns should be eliminated from source code. Many antipatterns can be detected at compilation-time with an appropriate parser tool. In this paper we argue for a new lint-like tool that does detect typical programming antipatterns, and it is extensible to task-specific verifications. This tool mainly developed to evaluate students' programs, however it can be used in industrial projects as well. Our approach based on pattern matching on abstract syntax tree provided by Clang parser. We present our description language that specifies the antipatterns.

Pataki, Norbert; Cséri, Tamás; Szügyi, Zalán

2012-09-01

474

Using composite correlation filters for biometric verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biometric verification refers to the process of matching an input biometric to stored biometric information. In particular, biometric verification refers to matching the live biometric input from an individual to the stored biometric template of that individual. Examples of biometrics include face images, fingerprint images, iris images, retinal scans, etc. Thus, image processing techniques prove useful in biometric recognition. In particular, composite correlation filters have proven to be effective. In this paper, we will discuss the application of composite correlation filters to biometric verification.

Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason

2003-08-01

475

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

476

A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

Hindriks, K. V.

477

Online Training in an Online World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses electronic learning in the corporate world and other training settings. Reports results of a Web-based survey that addressed training methods; interest in Web-based learning; organizational support for Web-based courses; types of online training; in-house training development versus outsourcing; assessment; pedagogical practices;…

Bonk, Curtis J.

2002-01-01

478

Talking Online: Reflecting on Online Communication Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the value and constraints of varied online communication tools from web 2.0 to e-mail in a higher education (HE) teaching and learning context, where these tools are used to support or be the main focus of learning. Design/methodology/approach: A structured reflection is produced with the aid of…

Greener, Susan

2009-01-01

479

Passive sonar signature estimation using bispectral techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important task in underwater passive sonar signal processing is the determination of target signatures based on the narrow-band signal content in the received signal. To achieve good classification performance it is important to be able to separate the different sources (e.g. engine, hull and drive) present in the signature, and to determine the distinct frequency coupling pattern of each

R. K. Lennartsson; J. W. C. Robinson; L. Persson; M. J. Hinich; S. McLaughlin

2000-01-01

480

Group Signatures with Efficient Concurrent Join  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group signature is a basic privacy mechanism. The group joining operation is a critical component of such a scheme. To date all secure group signature schemes either employed a trusted- party aided join operation or a complex joining protocol requiring many interactions between the prospective user and the Group Manager (GM). In addition no efficient scheme employed a join

Aggelos Kiayias; Moti Yung

2005-01-01

481

Cryptanalysis of the Revised NTRU Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a three-stage attack against Re- vised NSS, an NTRU-based signature scheme proposed at the Eurocrypt 2001 conference as an enhancement of the (broken) proceedings version of the scheme. The rst stage, which typically uses a transcript of only 4 signatures, eectiv ely cuts the key length in half while completely avoiding the intended hard lattice

Craig Gentry; Michael Szydlo

2002-01-01

482

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special

John B. Cliff; Helen W. Kreuzer; Christopher J. Ehrhardt; David S. Wunschel

2012-01-01

483

A Forward-Secure Digital Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a digital signature scheme in which the public key is fixed but the secret signing key is updated at regular intervals so as to provide a forward security property: compromise of the current secret key does not enable an adversary to forge signatures pertaining to the past. This can be useful to mitigate the damage caused by key

Mihir Bellare; Sara K. Miner

1999-01-01

484

Composite signature based watermarking for fingerprint authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital watermarking is a technology to hide information in digital media. We extend the digital watermarking technique Phasemark™, originally developed solely for image authentication, to biometrics to assist in forensic analysis. Using a signature extracted from the Fourier phase of the original image, we hide an encoded signature back into the original image forming a watermarked image. The hiding occurs

Farid Ahmed; Ira S. Moskowitz

2005-01-01

485

Comprehensive DNA signature discovery and validation.  

PubMed

DNA signatures are nucleotide sequences that can be used to detect the presence of an organism and to distinguish that organism from all other species. Here we describe Insignia, a new, comprehensive system for the rapid identification of signatures in the genomes of bacteria and viruses. With the availability of hundreds of complete bacterial and viral genome sequences, it is now possible to use computational methods to identify signature sequences in all of these species, and to use these signatures as the basis for diagnostic assays to detect and genotype microbes in both environmental and clinical samples. The success of such assays critically depends on the methods used to identify signatures that properly differentiate between the target genomes and the sample background. We have used Insignia to compute accurate signatures for most bacterial genomes and made them available through our Web site. A sample of these signatures has been successfully tested on a set of 46 Vibrio cholerae strains, and the results indicate that the signatures are highly sensitive for detection as well as specific for discrimination between these strains and their near relatives. Our approach, whereby the entire genomic complement of organisms are compared to identify probe targets, is a promising method for diagnostic assay development, and it provides assay designers with the flexibility to choose probes from the most relevant genes or genomic regions. The Insignia system is freely accessible via a Web interface and has been released as open source software at: http://insignia.cbcb.umd.edu. PMID:17511514

Phillippy, Adam M; Mason, Jacquline A; Ayanbule, Kunmi; Sommer, Daniel D; Taviani, Elisa; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Knight, Ivor T; Salzberg, Steven L

2007-04-20

486

The Online Books Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Pennsylvania Library, the Online Books Page Web site "facilitates access to books that are freely readable over the Internet...and aims to encourage the development of such online books, for the benefit and edification of all." The over 18,000 listings can be searched or browsed by author, title, and subject, of which every major physical science subject is represented. Each listing is linked to an outside Web site, making its availability unpredictable, but the shear number of books that are accessible make the Online Books Page a great resource.

1993-01-01

487

SUSY multilepton signatures at Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

One of the most striking signature of supersymmetric models with electroweak symmetry breaking is the presence of multilepton event topologies in the decay products. In this paper searches are presented for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) in final states containing charged leptons from proton-antiproton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, collected with Run II CDF and D0 Detectors in 2002-2006, and corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 1.1 fb{sup -1}. In any of the searches no excess of candidates was observed with respect to the SM predictions and limits on masses and production cross-sections are set at the 95% CL.

Titov, Maxim; /Freiburg U.

2007-02-01

488

Spectroscopic Signature of Radiative Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative Shocks (RS) are shock strong enough that x-ray emitted by the compressed region launch a radiative precursor wave in the uncompressed region. RS can be found in SuperNovae atmospheres, accretion shocks, as well as in laboratory ( > 100 J laser,..) created strong shock. We use state-of-the art opacities and emissivities, to analyze spectral x-ray emission of strong shocks, and to study signatures of the onset of radiative precursor. Departure from a pure Marshak wave is found. Tentative of analysis of experiment on a laser driven radiative shock [1] will be presented. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, F. Thais, E. Audit, M. Gonz'alez, J. Appl. Phys. 107 (2010) 083302 and references therein; ibid, arXiv:1005.1745vl

Busquet, Michel

2011-11-01

489

Real time gamma-ray signature identifier  

SciTech Connect

A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

2012-05-15

490

Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.  

PubMed

All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy. PMID:23945592

Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C; Aparicio, Samuel A J R; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V; Bignell, Graham R; Bolli, Niccolò; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T W; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V; Puente, Xose S; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N; Span, Paul N; Teague, Jon W; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N J; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M; van 't Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R

2013-08-14

491

Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium  

EPA Science Inventory

The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

492

24 CFR 257.112 - Mortgagee verifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING...income. (b) Mortgage fraud verification. The mortgagor...federal or state law for fraud during the 10-year period ending upon the insurance of the H4H program...

2013-04-01

493

42 CFR 457.380 - Eligibility verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...verification. (a) General requirements. Except where law requires other procedures (such as for citizenship and immigration status information), the State may accept attestation of information needed to determine the eligibility of an...

2012-10-01

494

VERIFICATION OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a continuation of independent performance evaluations of environmental technologies under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Emissions of some greenhouse gases, most notably methane. can be controlled profitably now, even in the absence of regulations. ...

495

29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are...in the abatement of violations of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970...forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure...to the nature of the violation and the...

2010-07-01

496

29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are...in the abatement of violations of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970...forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure...to the nature of the violation and the...

2009-07-01

497

Verification of Multidisciplinary Models for Turbomachines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate prediction of the temperature distribution in rotating blades is an important and difficult task. An approach for the verification of hydraulic and thermal models in real blades is discussed in the lecture. For static conditions, predicted local ...

V. K. Kostege

1994-01-01

498

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: FUEL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

499

ETV PILOTS (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was instituted to verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that threaten human health or the environment and was created to substantially accelerate the entrance of new environmental technologies ...

500

29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are...in the abatement of violations of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970...forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure...to the nature of the violation and the...

2012-07-01