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1

Enhanced Cancelable Biometrics for Online Signature Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. In this paper, we propose a scheme to improve the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification. Our scheme generates two cancelable dataset from one raw dataset and uses them for verification. Preliminary experiments were performed using a distance-based online signature verification algorithm. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme is promising.

Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

2

Fusion strategies for boosting cancelable online signature verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. As one solution, we proposed a scheme to enhance the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification by combining scores calculated from two transformed datasets generated using two keys. Generally, the same verification algorithm is used for transformed data as for raw (non-transformed) data in cancelable approaches, and, in our previous work, a verification system developed for a non-transformed dataset was used to calculate the scores from transformed data. In this paper, we modify the verification system by using transformed data for training. Several experiments were performed by using public databases, and the experimental results show that the modification of the verification system improved the performances. Our cancelable system combines two scores to make a decision. Several fusion strategies are also considered, and the experimental results are reported here.

Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

2010-04-01

3

On-Line Signature Verification Based on Wavelet Transform to Extract Characteristic Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line signature verification is one of the most accepted means for personal verification. This paper proposes an on-line\\u000a signature verification method based on Wavelet Transform (WT). Firstly, the method uses wavelet transform to exact characteristic\\u000a points of 3-axis force and 2-dimension coordinate of signature obtained by the F-Tablet. And then it builds 5-dimension feature\\u000a sequences and dynamically creates multi-templates using

LiPing Zhang; ZhongCheng Wu

4

A systematic comparison between on-line and off-line methods for signature verification with hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extensive investigation of various HMM-based techniques for signature verification Different feature extraction methods and HMM topologies are compared in order to obtain an optimized high performance signature verification system. Furthermore, this paper may be the first systematic comparison of online and off-line methods for signature verification using exactly the same database, and leading to the surprising

G. Rigoll; A. Kosmala

1998-01-01

5

On-line signature verification method by Laplacian spectral analysis and dynamic time warping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As smartphones and touch screens are more and more popular, on-line signature verification technology can be used as one of personal identification means for mobile computing. In this paper, a novel Laplacian Spectral Analysis (LSA) based on-line signature verification method is presented and an integration framework of LSA and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based methods for practical application is proposed. In LSA based method, a Laplacian matrix is constructed by regarding the on-line signature as a graph. The signature's writing speed information is utilized in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix is analyzed and used for signature verification. The framework to integrate LSA and DTW methods is further proposed. DTW is integrated at two stages. First, it is used to provide stroke matching results for the LSA method to construct the corresponding graph better. Second, the on-line signature verification results by DTW are fused with that of the LSA method. Experimental results on public signature database and practical signature data on mobile phones proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Li, Changting; Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing

2013-12-01

6

Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

Muramatsu, Daigo

7

Improvement of On-line Signature Verification Based on Gradient Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new on-line signature verification technique which employs gradient features and a pooled within-covariance matrix of training samples not only of the user but also of the others. Gradient features are extracted from a signature image reflecting the velocity of pen movement as the grayscale so that both on-line and off-line features are exploited. All training samples of different signatures collected in design stage are pooled together with the user's samples and used for learning within-individual variation matrix to reduce required sample size of the user to minimum number. The result of evaluation test shows that the proposed technique improves the verification accuracy by 4.9% when user's sample of size three is pooled with samples with others. This result shows that the samples of different signatures are useful for training within-individual variation of a specific user.

Kawazoe, Yumiko; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

8

Personal authentication in video surveillance systems using an on-line signature verification approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel on-line signature verification approach is proposed for personal authentication in video surveillance systems. As we know, digit password-based authentication is the most popular manner in many network-based applications. However, if the passwords were leaked, the monitoring data are easily falsified. Biometric-based authentication using signature features is a natural and friendly approach to remedy this problem. In this study, a signature-based authentication is proposed to identify the individuals by using the template matching strategy. Some experimental results were conducted to show the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

Lien, Cheng-Chang; Han, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Su-Ming

2005-03-01

9

Between On-Line and Off-Line Methods for Signature Verification with Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extensive investigation of various HMM-based techniques for signature verification. Different feature extraction methods and HMM topologies are compared in order to obtain an optimized high performance signature verification system. Furthermore, this paper may be the first systematic comparison of on- line and off-line methods for signature verification using exactly the same database, and leading to the

G. Rigoll; A. Kosmala

10

On-line Signature Verification Using Most Discriminating Features and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we employ a combination of strategies for partitioning and detecting abnormal fluctuations in the horizontal and vertical trajectories of an on-line generated signature profile. Alternative partitions of these spatial trajectories are generated by splitting each of the related angle, velocity and pressure profiles into two regions representing both high and low activity. The overall process can be

Muhammad Talal Ibrahim; Matthew J. Kyan; Ling Guan

2008-01-01

11

Biometric Hash based on Statistical Features of Online Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to generate biometric hash values based on statistical features in online signature signals. Whilst the output of typical online signature verification systems are threshold-based true-false decisions, based on a comparison between test sample signals and sets of reference signals, our system responds to a signature input with a biometric hash vector, which is calculated

Claus Vielhauer; Ralf Steinrnetz; Astrid Mayerhöfer

2002-01-01

12

Retail applications of signature verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

2004-08-01

13

Signature Verification Using Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a novel on-line handwritten signature verification method. Firstly, the pen-position parameters\\u000a of the on-line signature are decomposed into multiscale signals by wavelet transform technique. For each signal at different\\u000a scales, we can get a corresponding zero-crossing representation. Then the distances between the input signature and the reference\\u000a signature of the corresponding zero-crossing representations are computed

Hong-wei Ji; Zhong-hua Quan

2005-01-01

14

New online signature acquisition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nonconstraining and low-cost online signature acquisition system that has been developed to enhance the performances of an existing multimodal biometric authentication system (based initially on both voice and image modalities). A laboratory prototype has been developed and validated for an online signature acquisition.

Oulefki, Adel; Mostefai, Messaoud; Abbadi, Belkacem; Djebrani, Samira; Bouziane, Abderraouf; Chahir, Youssef

2013-01-01

15

Offline Signature Verification Using Graph Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a simple and effective signature verification method that depends only on the raw binary pixel intensities and avoids using complex sets of features. The method looks at the signature verification problem as a graph matching problem. The method is tested using genuine and forgery signatures produced by five subjects. An equal error rate of 26.7%

Ibrahim S. I. ABUHAIBA

2007-01-01

16

Generic Verification Protocol for Verification of Online Turbidimeters  

EPA Science Inventory

This protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of online turbidimeters. The verification tests described in this document will be conducted under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Verification tests will...

17

Online fingerprint verification.  

PubMed

As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications. PMID:17365425

Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

2007-01-01

18

Signature Verification Based on Handwritten Text Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signatures continue to be an important biometric trait because it remains widely used primarily for authenticating the identity of human beings. This paper presents an efficient text-based directional signature recognition algorithm which verifies signatures, even when they are composed of special unconstrained cursive characters which are superimposed and embellished. This algorithm extends the character-based signature verification technique. The experiments carried out on the GPDS signature database and an additional database created from signatures captured using the ePadInk tablet, show that the approach is effective and efficient, with a positive verification rate of 94.95%.

Viriri, Serestina; Tapamo, Jules-R.

19

17 CFR 1.4 - Electronic signatures, acknowledgments and verifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic signatures, acknowledgments and verifications...EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Electronic signatures, acknowledgments and verifications...dealer or major swap participant, an electronic signature executed by the...

2013-04-01

20

An individuality model for online signatures using global Fourier descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discriminative capability of a biometric is based on its individuality/uniqueness and is an important factor in choosing a biometric for a large-scale deployment. Individuality studies have been carried out rigorously for only certain biometrics, in particular fingerprint and iris, while work on establishing handwriting and signature individuality has been mainly on feature level. In this study, we present a preliminary individuality model for online signatures using the Fourier domain representation of the signature. Using the normalized Fourier coefficients as global features describing the signature, we derive a formula for the probability of coincidentally matching a given signature. Estimating model parameters from a large database and making certain simplifying assumptions, the probability of two arbitrary signatures to match in 13 of the coefficients is calculated as 4.7x10-4. When compared with the results of a verification algorithm that parallels the theoretical model, the results show that the theoretical model fits the random forgery test results fairly well. While online signatures are sometimes dismissed as not very secure, our results show that the probability of successfully guessing an online signature is very low. Combined with the fact that signature is a behavioral biometric with adjustable complexity, these results support the use of online signatures for biometric authentication.

Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin

2008-03-01

21

Classification Approaches in Off-Line Handwritten Signature Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of off-line signature verification is to decide, whether a signature originates from a given signer based on the scanned image of the signature and a few images of the original signatures of the signer. Although the verification process can be thought to as a monolith component, it is recommended to divide it into loosely coupled phases (like preprocessing,

BENCE KOVARI; BENEDEK TOTH; HASSAN CHARAF

2009-01-01

22

Video-Based Signature Verification by Tracking Pen Tip Using Particle Filter Combined with Template Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A signature verification system based on video is proposed in this paper.The signature information is obtained from video of camera which is different from traditional online or offline method.First,we set the camera in upper front of the white written paper,so that we can get the signatures have the most identifiability for human recognition. We locate the pen tip position using

JunLin Chen; Jing Wen; Bin Fang

2010-01-01

23

Off-line Signature Verification Using Writer-Independent Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a strategy for off-line signature verification. It takes into account a writer-independent model which reduces the pattern recognition problem to a 2- class problem, hence, makes it possible to build robust signature verification systems even when few signatures per writer are available. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are used to improve the performance of the

Luiz S. Oliveira; Edson J. R. Justino; Robert Sabourin

2007-01-01

24

Offline signature verification using local binary pattern and octave pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification holds a significant place in today's world as most of the bank transactions, stock trading etc. are validated via signatures. Signatures are considered as one of the most effective biometric identity but unfortunately signature forgery attempts are quite rampant. To prevent this, a robust signature verification mechanism is essential. In this paper, a new method has been proposed which uses Local Binary Pattern and geometrical features. A new geometric property has been devised i.e. Octave Pattern. Performance is analyzed by comparing random, semi-skilled and skilled forgeries with the genuine signature.

Ahlawat, Sahil; Goel, Anubhav; Prasad, Surabhi; Singh, Preety

2014-01-01

25

Offline Signature Verification Using Local Interest Points and Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a new approach to offline signature verification, based on a general-purpose wide baseline matching methodology,\\u000a is proposed. Instead of detecting and matching geometric, signature-dependent features, as it is usually done, in the proposed\\u000a approach local interest points are detected in the signature images, then local descriptors are computed in the neighborhood\\u000a of these points, and afterwards these

Javier Ruiz-del-solar; Christ Devia; Patricio Loncomilla; Felipe Concha

2008-01-01

26

Robustness of Offline Signature Verification Based on Gray Level Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers have recently appeared in the literature which propose pseudo-dynamic features for automatic static handwritten signature verification based on the use of gray level values from signature stroke pixels. Good results have been obtained using rotation invariant uniform local binary patterns ${\\\\hbox{LBP}}^{{\\\\rm riu}2}_{8,1}$ plus ${\\\\hbox{LBP}}^{{\\\\rm riu}2}_{16,2}$ and statistical measures from gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) with MCYT and GPDS

Miguel A. Ferrer; J. Francisco Vargas; Aythami Morales; Aarón Ordonez

2012-01-01

27

New Online\\/Offline Signature Schemes Without Random Oracles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose new signature schemes provably secure under the strong RSA assumption in the standard model. Our proposals utilize Shamir-Tauman's generic construction for building EF- CMA secure online\\/o! ine signature schemes from trapdoor commit- ments and less secure basic signature schemes. We introduce a new natu- ral intractability assumption for hash functions, which can be interpreted as

Kaoru Kurosawa; Katja Schmidt-samoa

2006-01-01

28

On-Line Signature Verifier Incorporating Pen Position, Pen Pressure, and Pen Inclination Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new algorithm PPI (pen-position\\/penpressure\\/pen-inclination) for on-line pen input signature verification.\\u000a The algorithm considers writer’s signature as a trajectory of pen-position, penpressure and pen-inclination which evolves\\u000a over time, so that it is dynamic and biometric. Since the algorithm uses pen-trajectory information, it naturally needs to\\u000a incorporate stroke number (number of pen-ups\\/pen-downs) variations as well as shape variations.

Hikaru Morita; D. Sakamoto; Tetsu Ohishi; Yoshimitsu Komiya; Takashi Matsumoto

2001-01-01

29

Off-line Signature Verification using the Enhanced Modified Direction Feature and Neural-based Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signatures continue to be an important biometric for authenticating the identity of human beings. This paper presents an effective method to perform off-line signature verification using unique structural features extracted from the signature's contour. A novel combination of the Modified Direction Feature (MDF) and additional distinguishing features such as the centroid, surface area, length and skew are used for classification.

Stephane Armand; Michael Blumenstein; Vallipuram Muthukkumarasamy

2006-01-01

30

Analyzing Personalized Policies for Online Biometric Verification  

PubMed Central

Motivated by India’s nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident’s biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India’s program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India’s biometric program. The mean delay is sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32–41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M.

2014-01-01

31

Off-line signature verification using directional PDF and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage of a complete automatic handwritten signature verification system (AHSVS) is described in this paper. Since only random forgeries are taken into account in this first stage of decision, the directional probability density function (PDF) which is related to the overall shape of the handwritten signature has been taken into account as feature vector. Experimental results show that

Robert Sabourin; Jean-Pierre Drouhard

1992-01-01

32

A neural network approach to off-line signature verification using directional PDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural network approach is proposed to build the first stage of an Automatic Handwritten Signature Verification System. The directional Probability Density Function was used as a global shape factor and its discriminating power was enhanced by reducing its cardinality via filtering. Various experimental protocols were used to implement the backpropagation network (BPN) classifier. A comparison, on the same database

Jean-pierre Drouhard; Robert Sabourin; Mario Godbout

1996-01-01

33

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

34

Fast Batch Verification for Modular Exponentiation and Digital Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many tasks in cryptography (e.g., digital signature veriflcation) call for veriflcation of a basic operation like modular exponentiation in some group: given (g; x; y) check that gDepartment of Computer Science & Engineering, Mail Code 0114, University of California at San Diego,

Mihir Bellare; Juan A. Garay; Tal Rabin

1998-01-01

35

Gated Treatment Delivery Verification With On-Line Megavoltage Fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and clinically demonstrate the use of on-line real-time megavoltage (MV) fluoroscopy for gated treatment delivery verification. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage fluoroscopy (MVF) image sequences were acquired using a flat panel equipped for MV cone-beam CT in synchrony with the respiratory signal obtained from the Anzai gating device. The MVF images can be obtained immediately before or during gated treatment delivery. A prototype software tool (named RTReg4D) was developed to register MVF images with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiograph images generated from the treatment planning system based on four-dimensional CT. The image registration can be used to reposition the patient before or during treatment delivery. To demonstrate the reliability and clinical usefulness, the system was first tested using a thoracic phantom and then prospectively in actual patient treatments under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Results: The quality of the MVF images for lung tumors is adequate for image registration with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiographs. The MVF was found to be useful for monitoring inter- and intrafractional variations of tumor positions. With the planning target volume contour displayed on the MVF images, the system can verify whether the moving target stays within the planning target volume margin during gated delivery. Conclusions: The use of MVF images was found to be clinically effective in detecting discrepancies in tumor location before and during respiration-gated treatment delivery. The tools and process developed can be useful for gated treatment delivery verification.

Tai An, E-mail: atai@mcw.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Christensen, James D.; Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Khamene, Ali [Imaging and Visualization Department, Siemens AG, Princeton, NJ (United States); Boettger, Thomas [Oncology Care Systems, Siemens AG, Heidelberg (Germany); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2010-04-15

36

Towards On-line Treatment Verification Using cine EPID for Hypofractionated Lung Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for on-line treatment verification using cine EPID (electronic portal imaging device) images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy based on a machine learning algorithm. Hypofractionated lung radiotherapy has high precision requirement, and it is essential to effectively monitor the target making sure the tumor is within beam aperture. We model the treatment verification problem as a two-class

Xiaoli Tang; Tong Lin; Steve Jiang

2008-01-01

37

On the pinned field image binarization for signature generation in image ownership verification method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of pinned field image binarization for signature generation in the ownership verification of the protected image is investigated. The pinned field explores the texture information of the protected image and can be employed to enhance the watermark robustness. In the proposed method, four optimization schemes are utilized to determine the threshold values for transforming the pinned field into a binary feature image, which is then utilized to generate an effective signature image. Experimental results show that the utilization of optimization schemes can significantly improve the signature robustness from the previous method (Lee and Chang, Opt. Eng. 49(9), 097005, 2010). While considering both the watermark retrieval rate and the computation speed, the genetic algorithm is strongly recommended. In addition, compared with Chang and Lin's scheme (J. Syst. Softw. 81(7), 1118-1129, 2008), the proposed scheme also has better performance.

Lee, Mn-Ta; Chang, Hsuan Ting

2011-12-01

38

GRAZING-ANGLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ONLINE SURFACE CLEANLINESS VERIFICATION. YEAR 1  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the Online Surface Cleanliness Project, the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) conducted a study of grazing-angle reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy as a tool for online cleanliness verification at Department of Defense (DoD) cl...

39

On-line failure detection and damping measurement of aerospace structures by random decrement signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Random decrement signatures of structures vibrating in a random environment are studied through use of computer-generated and experimental data. Statistical properties obtained indicate that these signatures are stable in form and scale and hence, should have wide application in one-line failure detection and damping measurement. On-line procedures are described and equations for estimating record-length requirements to obtain signatures of a prescribed precision are given.

Cole, H. A., Jr.

1973-01-01

40

Online Writer Verification Using Feature Parameters Basedonthe Document Examiners' Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates writer verification using feature parameters based on the knowledge of document examiners, which are automatically extracted from handwritten kanji characters on a digitizing tablet. Criteria of feature selection using the evaluation measure that is obtained by modifying the measure of decidability, d-prime, is established and the criteria are applied to the evaluation measures that are calculated from learning samples. Then two classifiers based on the frequency distribution of deviations of the selected features are proposed and its design method using learning samples is showed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by verification experiments with the database including skilled forgeries. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are effective in writer verification.

Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kidode, Masatsugu

41

Online signature recognition and writer identification by spatial-temporal neural processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we attempt online person identification by signature recognition and also from the natural writing of a person. The basic interest is in the novelty of the technique and the methodology utilized. Our system is based on a newly developed spatio-temporal artificial neuron (STAN), which is well adapted for the recognition of spatio-temporal patterns. This neuron has the

A. Rauf Baig; Masroor Hussain

2004-01-01

42

On-line garbage modeling with discriminant analysis for utterance verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out-of-vocabulary (OOV) utterance detection and rejection are specially important and difficult problems in large-vocabulary and continuous speech recognition. C de la Torre et al. (1996) proposed an utterance verification procedure based on the use of frame-by-frame best acoustic state scores instead of using explicit garbage models. This procedure is usually referred to as online garbage modeling. In this paper, we

J. Caminero; D. De La Torre; L. Villarrubia; C. Martin; L. Hernandez

1996-01-01

43

Efficient online\\/offline identity-based signature for wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an online\\/offline identity-based signature scheme for the wireless sensor network (WSN). We argue that due to significant reduction in computational and storage costs, our scheme is particularly suitable for the WSN environment with severely constrained resources. One of the interesting features of our scheme is that it provides multi-time usage of the offline storage, which

Joseph K. Liu; Joonsang Baek; Jianying Zhou; Yanjiang Yang; Jun Wen Wong

2010-01-01

44

An Optimized Online Verification Imaging Procedure for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of a kilovoltage (kV) on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerator in the setting of on-line verification imaging for external-beam partial breast irradiation. Available imaging techniques were optimized and assessed for image quality using a modified anthropomorphic phantom. Imaging dose was also assessed. Imaging techniques were assessed for physical clearance between patient and treatment machine using a volunteer. Nonorthogonal kV image pairs were identified as optimal in terms of image quality, clearance, and dose. After institutional review board approval, this approach was used for 17 patients receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation. Imaging was performed before every fraction verification with online correction of setup deviations >5 mm (total image sessions = 170). Treatment staff rated risk of collision and visibility of tumor bed surgical clips where present. Image session duration and detected setup deviations were recorded. For all cases, both image projections (n = 34) had low collision risk. Surgical clips were rated as well as visualized in all cases where they were present (n = 5). The average imaging session time was 6 min, 16 sec, and a reduction in duration was observed as staff became familiar with the technique. Setup deviations of up to 1.3 cm were detected before treatment and subsequently confirmed offline. Nonorthogonal kV image pairs allowed effective and efficient online verification for partial breast irradiation. It has yet to be tested in a multicenter study to determine whether it is dependent on skilled treatment staff.

Willis, David J., E-mail: David.Willis@petermac.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) and Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas; Chua, Boon [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) and Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2011-07-01

45

Is Your Avatar Ethical? On-Line Course Tools that Are Methods for Student Identity and Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On-line college courses present a mandate for student identity verification for accreditation and funding sources. Student authentication requires course modification to detect fraud and misrepresentation of authorship in assignment submissions. The reality is that some college students cheat in face-to-face classrooms; however, the potential for…

Semple, Mid; Hatala, Jeffrey; Franks, Patricia; Rossi, Margherita A.

2011-01-01

46

Efficient cost-sensitive human-machine collaboration for offline signature verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel strategy for the optimal combination of human and machine decisions in a cost-sensitive environment. The proposed algorithm should be especially beneficial to financial institutions where off-line signatures, each associated with a specific transaction value, require authentication. When presented with a collection of genuine and fraudulent training signatures, produced by so-called guinea pig writers, the proficiency of a workforce of human employees and a score-generating machine can be estimated and represented in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space. Using a set of Boolean fusion functions, the majority vote decision of the human workforce is combined with each threshold-specific machine-generated decision. The performance of the candidate ensembles is estimated and represented in ROC space, after which only the optimal ensembles and associated decision trees are retained. When presented with a questioned signature linked to an arbitrary writer, the system first uses the ROC-based cost gradient associated with the transaction value to select the ensemble that minimises the expected cost, and then uses the corresponding decision tree to authenticate the signature in question. We show that, when utilising the entire human workforce, the incorporation of a machine streamlines the authentication process and decreases the expected cost for all operating conditions.

Coetzer, Johannes; Swanepoel, Jacques; Sabourin, Robert

2012-01-01

47

Online verification of human cell line identity by STR DNA typing.  

PubMed

The main prerequisition for any research, development, or production programs involving cell lines is whether a cell line is authentic or not. Microsatellites in the human genome harboring short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers allow the identification of individual cell lines at the DNA level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite STR loci and gender determination have been proven to be the best tools for screening the uniqueness of DNA profiles in an STR database. The main Biological Resource Centers (BRCs), ATCC, DSMZ, JCRB, and RIKEN, have generated large databases of STR cell line profiles for identity control. In cooperation with the Japanese BRCs, DSMZ has piloted the generation of the most comprehensive international reference database, which is linked to a simple search engine for interrogating STR cell line profiles. The tool of online -verification of cell line identities is available on the respective homepages of JCRB and DSMZ ( http://cellbank.nibio.go.jp/cellbank_e.html , http://www.dsmz.de/STRanalysis ). The following sections describe a rapid, practical, inexpensive, and reliable method available to students, technicians, and scientists. PMID:21516397

Dirks, Wilhelm G; Drexler, Hans G

2011-01-01

48

Online\\/Offline Signatures and Multisignatures for AODV and DSR Routing Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecient authentication is one of important security requirements in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) routing systems. The techniques of digital signatures are generally considered as the best candidates to achieve strong authentication. However, using normal digital signature schemes is too costly to MANET due to the computation overheads. Considering the feasibility of incorporating digital signatures in MANET, we incorporate the

Shidi Xu; Yi Mu; Willy Susilo

2006-01-01

49

A Novel Off-Line Signature Verification Based on Adaptive Multi-resolution Wavelet Zero-Crossing and One-Class-One-Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel off-line signature verification method based on adaptive multi-resolution wavelet zero-crossing\\u000a and one-class-one-network classification. First, the horizontal, vertical, 45 degree direction and the 135 degree direction\\u000a projections of the binarizated signature images are calculated, respectively. The curvature data of the projections are decomposed\\u000a into multi-resolution signals using wavelet transforms. Then the zero-crossings corresponding to the curvature

Zhiqiang Ma; Xiaoyun Zeng; Lei Zhang; Meng Li; Chunguang Zhou

2007-01-01

50

Measurement-based Monte Carlo dose calculation system for IMRT pretreatment and on-line transit dose verifications.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a dose simulation system based on portal dosimetry measurements and the BEAM Monte Carlo code for intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy dose verification. This measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) system can perform, within one systematic calculation, both pretreatment and on-line transit dose verifications. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc 2006 were used to simulate radiation transport from the treatment head, through the patient, to the plane of the aS500 electronic portal imaging device (EPID). In order to represent the nonuniform fluence distribution of an IM field within the MBMC simulation, an EPID-measured efficiency map was used to redistribute particle weightings of the simulated phase space distribution of an open field at a plane above a patient/phantom. This efficiency map was obtained by dividing the measured energy fluence distribution of an IM field to that of an open field at the EPID plane. The simulated dose distribution at the midplane of a homogeneous polystyrene phantom was compared to the corresponding distribution obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for pretreatment verification. It also generated a simulated transit dose distribution to serve as the on-line verification reference for comparison to that measured by the EPID. Two head-and-neck (NPC1 and NPC2) and one prostate cancer fields were tested in this study. To validate the accuracy of the MBMC system, film dosimetry was performed and served as the dosimetry reference. Excellent agreement between the film dosimetry and the MBMC simulation was obtained for pretreatment verification. For all three cases tested, gamma evaluation with 3%/3 mm criteria showed a high pass percentage (> 99.7%) within the area in which the dose was greater than 30% of the maximum dose. In contrast to the TPS, the MBMC system was able to preserve multileaf collimator delivery effects such as the tongue-and-groove effect and interleaf leakage. In the NPC1 field, the TPS showed 16.5% overdose due to the tongue-and-groove effect and 14.6% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. Similarly, in the NPC2 field, the TPS showed 14.1% overdose due to the tongue-and-groove effect and 8.9% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. In the prostate cancer field, the TPS showed 6.8% overdose due to improper leaf stepping. No tongue-and-groove effect was observed for this field. For transit dose verification, agreements among the EPID measurement, the film dosimetry, and the MBMC system were also excellent with a minimum gamma pass percentage of 99.6%. PMID:19472622

Lin, Mu-Han; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Lee, Chung-Chi; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Yeh, Chie-Yi; Hong, Ji-Hong

2009-04-01

51

Aging in Biometrics: An Experimental Analysis on On-Line Signature  

PubMed Central

The first consistent and reproducible evaluation of the effect of aging on dynamic signature is reported. Experiments are carried out on a database generated from two previous datasets which were acquired, under very similar conditions, in 6 sessions distributed in a 15-month time span. Three different systems, representing the current most popular approaches in signature recognition, are used in the experiments, proving the degradation suffered by this trait with the passing of time. Several template update strategies are also studied as possible measures to reduce the impact of aging on the system’s performance. Different results regarding the way in which signatures tend to change with time, and their most and least stable features, are also given.

Galbally, Javier; Martinez-Diaz, Marcos; Fierrez, Julian

2013-01-01

52

A dynamic on-line parameter identification and full-scale system experimental verification for large synchronous machines  

SciTech Connect

An on-line parameter identification and full-scale experimental verification for large synchronous machines (>50 MVA) is presented in this paper. A step change of excitation is imposed to a generator when the machine is in normal operation. The transient voltages, currents and the power angle are recorded. Based on the large disturbance equations and using the measured power angle as an observation argument in an identification algorithm, the synchronous machine electrical parameters (x{sub d}, x{prime}{sub d}, x{double_prime}{sub d}, T{prime}{sub do}, T{double_prime}{sub do}, x{sub q}, x{double_prime}{sub q}, T{double_prime}{sub qo}) and mechanical parameters (H, D) are obtained. In addition, the system parameters (equivalent infinite bus voltage V{sub bus} and line reactance x{sub e}) are identified as well. The proposed method has been repetitively applied to turbogenerators and hydrogenerators with capacities up to 300 MVA. In particular, a field test has been conducted on a system with a capacity of 15,000 MVA. The experimental results from all of the full-scale tests are consistent and the effectiveness of the proposed on-line identification method is verified. The plant experiences indicate that by adopting the identified parameters, the stability margin of the generator can be improved up to 5%, resulting in 30--50 MVA more power generation.

Zhao, Z.; Zheng, F.; Gao, J. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Xu, L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-09-01

53

On-Line Detection of the Breakage of Small Diameter Drills Using Current Signature Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents on-line tool breakage detection of small diameter drills by monitoring the AC servomotor current. The continuous wavelet transform was used to decompose the spindle AC servo motorcurrent signal and the discrete wavelet transform was used to decompose the feed AC servo motor currentsignal in time--frequency domain. The tool breakage features were extracted from the decomposed signals.Experimental results

Xiaoli Li

1999-01-01

54

Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity  

PubMed Central

With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively.

Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

2013-01-01

55

Patient-Specific 3D Pretreatment and Potential 3D Online Dose Verification of Monte Carlo-Calculated IMRT Prostate Treatment Plans  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Fast and reliable comprehensive quality assurance tools are required to validate the safety and accuracy of complex intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for prostate treatment. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the COMPASS system for both off-line and potential online procedures for the verification of IMRT treatment plans. Methods and Materials: COMPASS has a dedicated beam model and dose engine, it can reconstruct three-dimensional dose distributions on the patient anatomy based on measured fluences using either the MatriXX two-dimensional (2D) array (offline) or a 2D transmission detector (T2D) (online). For benchmarking the COMPASS dose calculation, various dose-volume indices were compared against Monte Carlo-calculated dose distributions for five prostate patient treatment plans. Gamma index evaluation and absolute point dose measurements were also performed in an inhomogeneous pelvis phantom using extended dose range films and ion chamber for five additional treatment plans. Results: MatriXX-based dose reconstruction showed excellent agreement with the ion chamber (<0.5%, except for one treatment plan, which showed 1.5%), film ({approx}100% pixels passing gamma criteria 3%/3 mm) and mean dose-volume indices (<2%). The T2D based dose reconstruction showed good agreement as well with ion chamber (<2%), film ({approx}99% pixels passing gamma criteria 3%/3 mm), and mean dose-volume indices (<5.5%). Conclusion: The COMPASS system qualifies for routine prostate IMRT pretreatment verification with the MatriXX detector and has the potential for on-line verification of treatment delivery using T2D.

Boggula, Ramesh, E-mail: ramesh.boggula@umm.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Jahnke, Lennart; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

2011-11-15

56

Creation of a Reference Image with Monte Carlo Simulations for Online EPID Verification of Daily Patient Setup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Patient positioning accuracy remains an issue for external beam radiotherapy. Currently, kilovoltage verification images are used as reference by clinicians to compare the actual patient treatment position with the planned position. These images are quali...

M. A. Descalle C. F. Chuang J. Pouliot

2002-01-01

57

Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability  

SciTech Connect

The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

Willis, David J. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)], E-mail: David.Willis@petermac.org; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2009-01-01

58

Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al2O3:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during 192Ir brachytherapy.  

PubMed

A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes that fit into applicators such as standard needles or catheters. The system measures the absorbed dose rate (0.1 s time resolution) and total absorbed dose on the basis of radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from aluminum oxide crystals attached to optical fiber cables (1 mm outer diameter). The system was tested in the range from 0 to 4 Gy using a solid-water phantom, a Varian GammaMed Plus 192Ir PDR afterloader, and dosimetry probes inserted into stainless-steel brachytherapy needles. The calibrated system was found to be linear in the tested dose range. The reproducibility (one standard deviation) for RL and OSL measurements was 1.3%. The measured depth-dose profiles agreed well with the theoretical expectations computed with the EGSNRC Monte Carlo code, suggesting that the energy dependence for the dosimeter probes (relative to water) is less than 6% for source-to-probe distances in the range of 2-50 mm. Under certain conditions, the RL signal could be greatly disturbed by the so-called stem signal (i.e., unwanted light generated in the fiber cable upon irradiation). The OSL signal is not subject to this source of error. The tested system appears to be adequate for in vivo brachytherapy dosimetry. PMID:19378731

Andersen, Claus E; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Tanderup, Kari

2009-03-01

59

Optimal segmentation of handwritten Chinese signatures using wavelet transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new segmenting method for handwritten Chinese signatures based on the wavelet transform for signature verification. There are some differences in identifying a handwritten signature and in recognizing a handwritten character because there are meaningful features hidden in writing habits when an individual is signing his or her signature. These features exhibit themselves in the pen- down, pen-up,

Chi-Jain Wen; Hon-Fai Yau; Bor-Shenn Jeng

1996-01-01

60

Medical image tamper approximation based on an image moment signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a medical image integrity verification system that not only allows detecting and localizing one alteration, but also provides an approximation of this latter. For that purpose, we suggest the embedding of an image signature or digest derived from Geometric moments of image pixel blocks. Image integrity verification is then conducted by comparing this embedded signature

H. Huang; G. Coatrieux; H. Z. Shu; L. M. Luo; C. Roux

2010-01-01

61

Actively Promoting Student Engagement within an Online Environment: Developing and Implementing a Signature Subject on "Contemporary Issues in Sex and Sexuality"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

La Trobe University is committed to improving the first year experience, and to developing its online teaching portfolio in response to increasing student demand. This article will acknowledge that these two objectives will remain contradictory if online learning systems are used predominantly as repositories of information with little thought…

Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Austin, Lilian

2012-01-01

62

International Verification Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International Verification Organizations: An Introduction; Verification Regimes and the Comprehensive Test Ban: An Assessment; Chemical Weapons; International Verification Organizations: The Case of Conventional Arms Control; International Verif...

E. Morris

1991-01-01

63

78 FR 43145 - Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing Standard 186-4, Digital Signature Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This notice announces the Secretary of Commerce's approval of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 186-4, Digital Signature Standard (DSS). FIPS 186-4 specifies three techniques for the generation and verification of digital signatures that can be used for the protection of data: The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) and the......

2013-07-19

64

Public-key data authentication for treaty verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A public-key Treaty Data Authentication Module (TDAM) based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Digital Signature Standard (DSS) has been developed to support treaty verification systems. The TDAM utilizes the Motorola DSP56001 Di...

T. J. Draelos S. Y. Goldsmith

1992-01-01

65

Signature Evaluation Tool (SET): a Java-based tool to evaluate and visualize the sample discrimination abilities of gene expression signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification of specific gene expression signature for distinguishing sample groups is a dominant field in cancer research. Although a number of tools have been developed to identify optimal gene expression signatures, the number of signature genes obtained is often overly large to be applied clinically. Furthermore, experimental verification is sometimes limited by the availability of wet-lab materials such

Chih-hung Jen; Tsun-po Yang; Chien-yi Tung; Shu-han Su; Chi-hung Lin; Ming-ta Hsu; Hsei-wei Wang

2008-01-01

66

Interrupt Verification via Thread Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research effort towards verification of concurrent software has focused on multithreaded code. On the other hand, concurrency in low-end embedded systems is predominantly based on interrupts. Low-end embedded systems are ubiquitous in safety-critical applications such as those supporting transportation and medical automation; their verification is important. Although interrupts are superficially similar to threads, there are subtle semantic

John Regehr; Nathan Cooprider

2007-01-01

67

Online Classification of Network Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Online classification of network traffic is very challenging and still an issue to be solved due to the increase of new applications and traffic encryption. In this paper, we propose a hybrid mechanism for online classification of network traffic, in which we apply a signature-based method at the first level, and then we take advantage of

Mahbod Tavallaee; Wei Lu; Ali A. Ghorbani

2009-01-01

68

Redactable signatures for signed CDA Documents.  

PubMed

The Clinical Document Architecture, introduced by Health Level Seven, is a XML-based standard intending to specify the encoding, structure, and semantics of clinical documents for exchange. Since the clinical document is in XML form, its authenticity and integrity could be guaranteed by the use of the XML signature published by W3C. While a clinical document wants to conceal some personal or private information, the document needs to be redacted. It makes the signed signature of the original clinical document not be verified. The redactable signature is thus proposed to enable verification for the redacted document. Only a little research does the implementation of the redactable signature, and there still not exists an appropriate scheme for the clinical document. This paper will investigate the existing web-technologies and find a compact and applicable model to implement a suitable redactable signature for the clinical document viewer. PMID:21181244

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Hsueh, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lai, Feipei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang

2012-06-01

69

Characterization of a fiber-coupled Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C luminescence dosimetry system for online in vivo dose verification during {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of a new dose-verification system has been developed to facilitate prevention and identification of dose delivery errors in remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The system allows for automatic online in vivo dosimetry directly in the tumor region using small passive detector probes that fit into applicators such as standard needles or catheters. The system measures the absorbed dose rate (0.1 s time resolution) and total absorbed dose on the basis of radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from aluminum oxide crystals attached to optical fiber cables (1 mm outer diameter). The system was tested in the range from 0 to 4 Gy using a solid-water phantom, a Varian GammaMed Plus {sup 192}Ir PDR afterloader, and dosimetry probes inserted into stainless-steel brachytherapy needles. The calibrated system was found to be linear in the tested dose range. The reproducibility (one standard deviation) for RL and OSL measurements was 1.3%. The measured depth-dose profiles agreed well with the theoretical expectations computed with the EGSNRC Monte Carlo code, suggesting that the energy dependence for the dosimeter probes (relative to water) is less than 6% for source-to-probe distances in the range of 2-50 mm. Under certain conditions, the RL signal could be greatly disturbed by the so-called stem signal (i.e., unwanted light generated in the fiber cable upon irradiation). The OSL signal is not subject to this source of error. The tested system appears to be adequate for in vivo brachytherapy dosimetry.

Andersen, Claus E.; Nielsen, Soeren Kynde; Greilich, Steffen; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Tanderup, Kari [Department of Radiation Research, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Radiation Research, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2009-03-15

70

Signatures of Reputation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reputation systems have become an increasingly important tool for highlighting quality information and filtering spam within online forums. However, the dependence of a user's reputation on their history of activities seems to preclude any possibility of anonymity. We show that useful reputation information can, in fact, coexist with strong privacy guarantees. We introduce and formalize a novel cryptographic primitive we call signatures of reputation which supports monotonic measures of reputation in a completely anonymous setting. In our system, a user can express trust in others by voting for them, collect votes to build up her own reputation, and attach a proof of her reputation to any data she publishes, all while maintaining the unlinkability of her actions.

Bethencourt, John; Shi, Elaine; Song, Dawn

71

ETV - VERIFICATION TESTING (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing is a major component of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The ETV Program was instituted to verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that threaten human health or the environment and was created to substantia...

72

On-Line Spectrum Loading Accuracy Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight laboratories carrying out variable-amplitude load tests using the FALSTAFF spectrum were visited by one of the coordinators (P.R. Edwards) and measurements taken to assess the accuracy with which the loading sequences were being applied. The measure...

P. R. Edwards

1988-01-01

73

Integrating Verification Components?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, a number of impressive verification tools and techniques have been developed for verifying limited classes of systems and properties. These verification methods include test case generation, static analysis, type checking, model checking, decision pro- cedures, and interactive theorem provers. Eective large-scale verification requires the careful integration of these verification tools so that deeper properties of

Leonardo de Moura; Sam Owre; John Rushby; Natarajan Shankar

74

Discriminative power of online handwritten words for writer recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at exploring the potential of online words to perform biometric writer recognition. Most of the scientific literature dealing with online writer recognition has focused on signature and somehow disregarded handwritten text. Using a novel recognition system based on stroke categorization and dynamic time warping, it is shown that short sequences of online text (words and combinations

Enric Sesa-Nogueras

2011-01-01

75

Online Pharmacies  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Online Pharmacies Is it safe to buy medicines online? It can be safe to buy your medicines online, but you need to be very ... new or more serious health problems. Illegal online pharmacies might not be licensed; might send you medicines ...

76

Online, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online, Inc. site contains selections from four magazines including Online, Database, CD-ROM Professional, and MultiMedia Schools. Tables of contents, selected articles, columns, and indexes are available for these Online, Inc. magazines. General information about subscribing to and writing for these magazines is also included. Registration and program information for the Online CD-ROM Conference and Exposition, and other events sponsored by Online, Inc., is also available.

77

Verification of Secure Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper surveys techniques for verifying security kernels. It begins with a tutorial description of two established methods for performing this task: these are 'access control verification' and 'verification by information flow analysis'. Both of these...

J. M. Rushby

1982-01-01

78

Verification of VLSI designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we explore the specification and verification of VLSI designs. The paper focuses on abstract specification and verification of functionality using mathematical logic as opposed to low-level boolean equivalence verification such as that done using BDD's and Model Checking. Specification and verification, sometimes called formal methods, is one tool for increasing computer dependability in the face of an exponentially increasing testing effort.

Windley, P. J.

1991-01-01

79

Verification of Medical Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has resulted in a general framework for the verification of medical guideline with respect to properties following from medical background knowledge. The framework has been applied to guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and breast cancer and has been found suitable for the verification of specified quality criteria. We were able to automate many steps of the verification

Perry Groot; Marko van Eekelen; Peter Lucas

2007-01-01

80

Baghouse filtration products verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces EPA`s Air Pollution Control Technology Verification (APCT) program and then focuses on the immediate objective of the program: laboratory performance verification of cleanable filter media intended for the control of fine particulate emissions. Data collected during the laboratory verification testing, which simulates operation in full-scale fabric filters, will be used to show expected performance for collection of

J. C. Mycock; J. H. Turner; D. W. VanOsdell; J. R. Farmer; T. G. Brna

1998-01-01

81

Verification, Testing and Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though formal verification is the holy grail of software validation, practical applications of verification run into two major challenges. The first challenge is in writing detailed specifications, and the second challenge is in scaling verification algorithms to large software. In this talk, we present possible approaches to address these problems:

Rajamani, Sriram K.

82

Signatures support program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Signatures Support Program (SSP) leverages the full spectrum of signature-related activities (collections, processing, development, storage, maintenance, and dissemination) within the Department of Defense (DOD), the intelligence community (IC), other Federal agencies, and civil institutions. The Enterprise encompasses acoustic, seismic, radio frequency, infrared, radar, nuclear radiation, and electro-optical signatures. The SSP serves the war fighter, the IC, and civil institutions by supporting military operations, intelligence operations, homeland defense, disaster relief, acquisitions, and research and development. Data centers host and maintain signature holdings, collectively forming the national signatures pool. The geographically distributed organizations are the authoritative sources and repositories for signature data; the centers are responsible for data content and quality. The SSP proactively engages DOD, IC, other Federal entities, academia, and industry to locate signatures for inclusion in the distributed national signatures pool and provides world-wide 24/7 access via the SSP application.

Hawley, Chadwick T.

2009-05-01

83

Holographic Signature Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the patent application a signature is holographically recorded for correlation and parallel processing against a large library of signatures. A transient electrical signal produces a pressure wave in an optical wavefront modulator where it is frozen in...

H. L. Simpson

1976-01-01

84

Strong signature schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of digital signature based on trapdoor functions has been introduced by Diffie and Hellman[3]. Rivest, Shamir and Adleman[8] gave the first number theoretic implementation of a signature scheme based on a trapdoor function. If f is a trapdoor function and m a message, f?1(m) is the signature of m. The signature can be verified by computing f(f?1(m)) &equil;

Shafi Goldwasser; Silvio Micali; Andrew Chi-Chih Yao

1983-01-01

85

Proxy Blind Signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blind signature is the concept to ensure anonymity of e-coins. Untracebility and unlinkability are two main properties of real coins, which require mimicking electronically. Whenever a user is permitted to spend an e-coin, he is in need to fulfill above requirements of blind signature. This paper proposes a proxy blind signature scheme with which a proxy is able to make

Sunder Lal; Amit Kumar Awasthi

2003-01-01

86

Verification of Adaptive Systems  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Cui, Xiaohui [New York Institute of Technology (NYIT); Vassev, Emil [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Hinchey, Mike [Lero – The Irish Software Engineering Research Centre; Rouff, Christopher [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Buskens, Richard [Lockheed Martin Corporation

2012-01-01

87

A feasibility study of treatment verification using EPID cine images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for potential online treatment verification using cine EPID (electronic portal imaging device) images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy based on a machine learning algorithm. Hypofractionated radiotherapy requires high precision. It is essential to effectively monitor the target to ensure that the tumor is within the beam aperture. We modeled the treatment verification problem as a two-class

Xiaoli Tang; Tong Lin; Steve Jiang

2009-01-01

88

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

89

Scientists Using TCGA Data Identify 21 Mutational Signatures in Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Many mutations have been implicated in human cancer, but the biological mechanisms that produce them remain largely unknown. In a study published online in Nature on August 14, 2013, researchers identified 21 signatures of mutational processes underlying 30 types of cancer. Characterizing mutational signatures may provide a greater understanding of the mechanistic basis of cancer and potentially lead to better treatments that target its root causes.

90

Trends in software verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

steady increase in computational power of general purpose computers, our ability to analyze routine software artifacts is also steadily increasing. As a result, we are witnessing a shift in emphasis from the verification of abstract hand-built models of code, towards the direct verification of implementation level code. This change in emphasis poses a new set of challenges in software verification. We explore some of them in this paper.

Holzmann, G. J.

2003-01-01

91

Software verification and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

1985-01-01

92

An Arbitrated Quantum Signature with Bell States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement is the main resource in quantum communication. The main aims of the arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) scheme are to present an application of the entanglement in cryptology and to prove the possibility of the quantum signature. More specifically, the main function of quantum entangled states in the existing AQS schemes is to assist the signatory to transfer quantum states to the receiver. However, teleportation and the Leung quantum one-time pad (L-QOTP) algorithm are not enough to design a secure AQS scheme. For example, Pauli operations commute or anticommute with each other, which makes the implementation of attacks easily from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an improved AQS scheme using a new QOTP algorithm. This scheme has three advantages: it randomly uses the Hadamard operation in the new QOTP to resist attacks by using the anticommutativity of nontrivial Pauli operators and it preserves almost all merits in the existing AQS schemes; even in the process of handling disputes, no party has chance to change the message and its signature without being discovered; the receiver can verify the integrity of the signature and discover the disavow of the signatory even in the last step of verification.

Liu, Feng; Qin, Su-Juan; Huang, Wei

2014-05-01

93

Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Aeroelastic Systems Utilizing Randomdec Signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of utilizing the random decrement method in conjunction with a signature analysis procedure to determine the dynamic characteristics of an aeroelastic system for the purpose of on-line prediction of potential on-set of flutter was examined. Digital computer programs were developed to simulate sampled response signals of a two-mode aeroelastic system. Simulated response data were used to test the random decrement method. A special curve-fit approach was developed for analyzing the resulting signatures. A number of numerical 'experiments' were conducted on the combined processes. The method is capable of determining frequency and damping values accurately from randomdec signatures of carefully selected lengths.

Chang, C. S.

1975-01-01

94

Unifying Two Formula Rewriting Techniques for Circuit Verification and Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study two dissimilar techniques, one online and one offlin e, for improving boolean formula assessment in two formal verifica tion domains, cir- cuit verification and risk assessment. We establish, despit e their differences, that the key advantages of these two techniques come from formula rewriting, re- gardless of whether it is online or offline. We formalize a uni fied

Macha Nikolska; Poul Frederick Williams; David James Sherman

95

A General Quality Classification System for eIDs and e-Signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. Interoperability of electronic signatures across borders is identified as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL suggests specify-ing signature acceptance criteria in the form of signature policies that must be transparent and non-discriminatory. Validation solutions must then not only assess signature correctness but also signature policy adherence. This paper addresses perhaps the most important topic of a signature policy: Quality of eIDs and e-signatures. Discrete levels are suggested for: eID quality, assurance level for this quality, and for cryptographic quality of signatures.

Ølnes, Jon; Buene, Leif; Andresen, Anette; Grindheim, Håvard; Apitzsch, Jörg; Rossi, Adriano

96

Online Investing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Wall Street Journal, this site provides a collection of articles offering information and advice on several aspects of online investing. Stemming from a newly published book, Online Investing, by the editors and reporters of the online version of the Wall Street Journal, the site is divided into five "chapters" covering types of online investing, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, futures and options, and tools of the trade. The articles are well written and offer very basic information for novices looking for sound information and advice on this kind of investing.

97

A Blind Quantum Signature Scheme with ?-type Entangled States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blind quantum signature scheme with ?-type entangled states is proposed, which can be applied to E-voting system. In this scheme, the particles in ?-type state sequence are used for quantum key distribution first, and then for quantum signature. Our scheme is characterized by its blindness, impossibility of forgery, impossibility of disavowal. In addition, our scheme can perform an audit program with respect to the validity of the verification process in the light of actual requirements. The security of the scheme is also analyzed.

Yin, Xun-Ru; Ma, Wen-Ping; Liu, Wei-Yan

2012-02-01

98

Electronic health records: what does your signature signify?  

PubMed Central

Electronic health records serve multiple purposes, including clinical communication, legal documentation, financial transaction capture, research and analytics. Electronic signatures attached to entries in EHRs have different logical and legal meanings for different users. Some of these are vestiges from historic paper formats that require reconsideration. Traditionally accepted functions of signatures, such as identity verification, attestation, consent, authorization and non-repudiation can become ambiguous in the context of computer-assisted workflow processes that incorporate functions like logins, auto-fill and audit trails. This article exposes the incompatibility of expectations among typical users of electronically signed information.

2012-01-01

99

Controlling radar signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection\\/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke

1992-01-01

100

Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education, which began as correspondence courses in the nineteenth century and grew into educational television during the twentieth century, evolved into learning on the Web by the mid-1990s. Accompanying the rise in online learning has been a similar rise in organizations and publications dedicated to serving the needs of online

Perry, Edward H.; Pilati, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

101

Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities  

SciTech Connect

A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

2013-07-01

102

An archaeal genomic signature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal "design fabric." Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

Graham, D. E.; Overbeek, R.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

2000-01-01

103

Automatic speaker verification: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of speaker verification to other pattern-recognition problems in speech is discussed, especially the distinction between speaker verification and speaker identification. The prospects for automatic speaker verification, its settings and applications are outlined. The techniques, evaluations, and implementations of various proposed speaker recognition systems are reviewed with special emphasis on issues peculiar to speaker verification. Two large-scale operating systems

A. E. Rosenberg; L. R. Rabiner; K. N. Stevens; C. E. Williams; J. R. Carbonell; B. Woods

1976-01-01

104

Reverberation compensation for speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverberation effects introduce a great challenge for speaker verification systems. However, only few studies considered reverberation with speaker verification. These studies did not exploit some of the advanced techniques for channel mismatch in the speaker verification literature. Contemporary techniques for channel and microphones mismatch in speaker verification are based on session variability modeling. One such method is the compensation of

Itai Peer; Boaz Rafaely; Yaniv Zigel

2008-01-01

105

Verification, Testing and Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal verification is the holy grail of software validation. Practical applications of verification run into two major challenges. The first challenge is in writing detailed specifications, and the second challenge is in scaling verification algorithms to large software. In this talk, we present possible approaches to address these problems: We propose using statistical techniques to raise the level of abstraction, and automate the tedium in writing detailed specifications. We present our experience with the Merlin project [4], where we have used probabilistic inference to infer specifications for secure information flow, and discovered several vulnerabilities in web applications.

Rajamani, Sriram K.

106

Signature extension studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of specific spectral regions to signature extension is explored. In the recent past, the signature extension task was focused on the development of new techniques. Tested techniques are now used to investigate this spectral aspect of the large area survey. Sets of channels were sought which, for a given technique, were the least affected by several sources of variation over four data sets and yet provided good object class separation on each individual data set. Using sets of channels determined as part of this study, signature extension was accomplished between data sets collected over a six-day period and over a range of about 400 kilometers.

Vincent, R. K.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

1974-01-01

107

Effect of scanner illumination and lens transmittance signatures on OPC accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantify the OPC accuracy improvement obtained by including the stepper signatures in the OPC model. The analysis takes into account the complete cycle of OPC model calibration, OPC execution, and image verification of the OPCed photomask. We use the Nikon Scanner Signature File (NSSF) version 1.5 for the NSR-S610C immersion scanner; and an OPC model that accounts for vectorial

Hsu-Ting Huang; Apo Sezginer; Jacek K. Tyminski

2009-01-01

108

A Quantum Proxy Signature Scheme Based on Genuine Five-qubit Entangled State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a very efficient and secure proxy signature scheme is proposed. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Genuine five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. Quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme, which could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Huang, Jun; Yu, Yao-Feng; Jiang, Xiu-Li

2014-04-01

109

SMAWT Signature Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field tests conducted to obtain descriptions and comparisons, and evaluate tactical usefulness of antitank systems firing signatures. Two standard issue systems (the M72 LAW rocket and the M67 recoilless rifle), a proposed 81mm recoilless rifle system wit...

O. Zubal J. P. Torre

1974-01-01

110

DES Science Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last summer, the DES Collaboration installed DECam, a new 570 Megapixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view, on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. A two month long commissioning period for the instrument and the new telescope control system was followed by three weeks of science verification. Science verification was a special observing program designed to verify that the camera and the telescope meet the requirements imposed by the DES science program. In a series of tests we evaluated both image quality and operational readiness. The 23 science verification nights were split between DES and a number of community observing programs selected by NOAO to explore the wide range of science opportunities made possible by the new instrument. In this presentation we will introduce the DECam science verification program, outlines the tests that were performed and present our initial results.

Honscheid, Klaus

2013-01-01

111

Voltage verification unit  

DOEpatents

A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA) [Virginia Beach, VA

2008-01-15

112

Verification of RADTRAN  

SciTech Connect

This document presents details of the verification process of the RADTRAN computer code which was established for the calculation of risk estimates for radioactive materials transportation by highway, rail, air, and waterborne modes.

Kanipe, F.L.; Neuhauser, K.S.

1995-12-31

113

Research on Speaker Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report advised the Judge Advocates General of the military services concern the relative merits of the three main methods of speaker verification and gives some indication of their absolute value as legal evidence. It then recommends concerning which ...

J. L. Flanagan F. R. Clarke F. S. Cooper D. L. Hogan K. N. Stevens

1971-01-01

114

Meteor signature interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Meteor signatures contain information about the constituents of space debris and present potential false alarms to early warnings systems. Better models could both extract the maximum scientific information possible and reduce their danger. Accurate predictions can be produced by models of modest complexity, which can be inverted to predict the sizes, compositions, and trajectories of object from their signatures for most objects of interest and concern.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-01-01

115

Cyanobacterial signature genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of 8 cyanobacterial genomes reveals that there are 181 shared genes that do not have obvious orthologs in other\\u000a bacteria. These signature genes define aspects of the genotype that are uniquely cyanobacterial. Approximately 25% of these\\u000a genes have been associated with some function. These signature genes may or may not be involved in photosynthesis but likely\\u000a they will

Kirt A. Martin; Janet L. Siefert; Sailaja Yerrapragada; Yue Lu; Thomas Z. McNeill; Pedro A. Moreno; George M. Weinstock; William R. Widger; George E. Fox

2003-01-01

116

Managing the verification trajectory  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we take a closer look at the automated analysis of designs, in particular of verification by model checking.\\u000a Model checking tools are increasingly being used for the verification of real-life systems in an industrial context. In addition\\u000a to ongoing research aimed at curbing the complexity of dealing with the inherent state space explosion problem – which

Theo C. Ruys; Ed Brinksma

2003-01-01

117

Software Verification with BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction. Blast (the Berkeley Lazy Abstraction Software verificationTool) is a verification system for checking safety properties of C programs usingautomatic property-driven construction and model checking of software abstractions. Blast implements an abstract-model check-refine loop to check forreachability of a specified label in the program. The abstract model is built onthe fly using predicate abstraction. This model is then checked

Thomas A. Henzinger; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar; Grégoire Sutre

2003-01-01

118

Temporal Verification Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Most formal approaches to the verification of temporal propertiesof reactive programs infer temporal conclusions from verificationconditions that are state formulas, i.e., contain no temporal operators.These proofs can often be effectively presented by the use of verification diagrams. In this paper, we present a self-contained presentation ofverification diagrams for proving various temporal properties.Beginning with safety properties, we present WAIT-FOR and

Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1994-01-01

119

Histology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Histology-online is a web-based, interactive histology textbook and atlas. It includes a computerized microscope to examine tissues and organs and provides a new way to teach histology that is preferred by students.

2011-08-01

120

Learning Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To improve large lecture courses, the authors designed a hybrid instructional format that couples online homework with in-class, active learning exercises. They assessed student perceptions of a pilot version this hybrid class, and most students felt that

Sibley, Duncan H.; Riffell, Samuel K.

2003-03-01

121

Optimization Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Optimization Online is one of the best sources for current research papers and reports on the topic of optimization. This repository receives numerous submissions each month, and papers can be browsed by data added or category. In addition to searching for articles on the site, visitors can also subscribe to the Optimization Online monthly digest and receive updates on all of the new titles and reports submitted during that month.

2008-05-19

122

Halloween Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The scariest night of the year is almost upon us, and this site will help users get into the proper "spirit." Halloween Online is simply put a massive Halloween resource, with decorating and costume tips; a guide to carving and displaying your pumpkins; a selection of featured articles and interviews; Halloween recipes; downloadable graphics ("Scream Savers") and music files; e-cards; online games; and a large collection of links, among other offerings.

123

Verification in Referral-Based Crowdsourcing  

PubMed Central

Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through “referral-based crowdsourcing”: the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge.

Naroditskiy, Victor; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Jennings, Nicholas R.

2012-01-01

124

Signature Change by Gup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the issue of continuous signature transition from Euclidean to Lorentzian metrics in a cosmological model described by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric minimally coupled with a self-interacting massive scalar field. Then, using a noncommutative (NC) phase space of dynamical variables deformed by generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), we show that the signature transition occurs even for a model described by the FRW metric minimally coupled with a free massless scalar field accompanied by a cosmological constant. This indicates that the continuous signature transition might have been easily occurred at early universe just by a free massless scalar field, a cosmological constant and a NC phase space deformed by GUP, without resorting to a massive scalar field having an ad hoc complicate potential. We also study the quantum cosmology of the model and obtain a solution of Wheeler-DeWitt (WD) equation which shows a good correspondence with the classical path.

Ghaneh, T.; Darabi, F.; Motavalli, H.

2013-04-01

125

The Exact Security of Digital Signatures -- How to Sign with RSA and Rabin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an RSA-based signing scheme called PSS which combines essentially optimal efficiency with attractive security properties. Signing takes one RSA decryption plus some hashing, verification takes one RSA encryption plus some hashing, and the size of the signature is the size of the modulus. Assuming the underlying hash functions are ideal, our schemes are not only provably secure, but

Mihir Bellare; Phillip Rogaway

1996-01-01

126

Hoover's Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hoover's Online features an accurate and comprehensive database of company information free on the Web. Called Hoover's MasterList Plus, the database of more than 8,500 of the largest public and private U.S. companies provides company name, key personnel, address, sales, number of employees, ticker symbol and other information for companies meeting the user's designated search criteria. Hoover's Online also includes the week's top business news stories, a directory of more than 1,000 corporate Web sites, a synopsis of the 25 top-selling business books and links to other business information resources on the Web, including stock quotes and SEC filings. The new List of Lists has dozens of rankings indicating which companies are the largest, which CEOs made the most money, which companies are the best employers, and more. Almost all of Hoover's Online is free, including the content mentioned here.

1998-01-01

127

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

128

Current signature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

129

Current Signature Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Mario (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

130

Nuclear disarmament verification  

SciTech Connect

Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

DeVolpi, A.

1993-12-31

131

Explaining Verification Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hoare approach to program verification relies on the construction and discharge of verification conditions (VCs) but offers no support to trace, analyze, and understand the VCs themselves. We describe a systematic extension of the Hoare rules by labels so that the calculus itself can be used to build up explanations of the VCs. The labels are maintained through the different processing steps and rendered as natural language explanations. The explanations can easily be customized and can capture different aspects of the VCs; here, we focus on their structure and purpose. The approach is fully declarative and the generated explanations are based only on an analysis of the labels rather than directly on the logical meaning of the underlying VCs or their proofs. Keywords: program verification, Hoare calculus, traceability.

Deney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2006-01-01

132

Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

Alexander, Michael G.

2011-01-01

133

Techniques in Hydrologic Forecast Verification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module demonstrates techniques for developing a hydrologic forecast verification effort. Although it can be taken as stand-alone training, the module on Introduction to Verification of Hydrologic Forecasts is intended a useful prerequisite. Through the use of rich illustrations, case study examples, and review questions, this module provides an example of developing a verification effort using NWS verification tools. Two case studies will be highlighted that both look at the primary question of whether QPF input to hydrologic models improves the hydrologic forecasts. Related questions of QPF's impact on hydrologic forecasts are explored that include considerations of basin characteristics, forecast lead time, and event magnitude. One case will look at verification of deterministic stage height forecasts using the Interactive Verification Program (IVP) at the Ohio River Forecast Center (OHRFC). The other case will look at the verification of ensemble flow forecasts using the Ensemble Verification System (EVS) at the Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center (MARFC).

Kelsch, Matt

2010-01-01

134

Preservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has received a number of awards for its magazine, Preservation, and their online version is well worth a look. The site is quite nice, and it contains brief profiles of current preservation stories written especially for this website. Recent stories have included profiles of neon signs in Los Angeles, brewery renovations in Milwaukee, and a list of the ten most endangered Civil War battlefields. The site is rounded out by an online archive which allows visitors to search back issues from 1992 to 2006.

135

Religion Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Religion Online is an extensive digital library of over 250 book chapters, monographs, speeches, and articles on the socio-cultural aspects of Christianity. The texts, written by religious scholars, are arranged into twenty subject sections, such as Church and Society, Church History, Comparative Religion, and Sociology of Religion, among many others. Each section contains an annotated list of titles linking users to the full-text. All texts in the collection reside at the site. An author index provides users with an alternative method for document retrieval. Religion Online is compiled by William F. Fore, a retired professor of theology, communications, and cultural studies.

136

General Environmental Verification Specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s General Environmental Verification Specification (GEVS) for STS and ELV Payloads, Subsystems, and Components is currently being revised based on lessons learned from GSFC engineering and flight assurance. The GEVS has been used by Goddard flight projects for the past 17 years as a baseline from which to tailor their environmental test programs. A summary of the requirements and updates are presented along with the rationale behind the changes. The major test areas covered by the GEVS include mechanical, thermal, and EMC, as well as more general requirements for planning, tracking of the verification programs.

Milne, J. Scott, Jr.; Kaufman, Daniel S.

2003-01-01

137

A reactor core on-line monitoring program - COMP  

SciTech Connect

A program named COMP is developed for on-line monitoring PWRs' in-core power distribution in this paper. Harmonics expansion method is used in COMP. The Unit 1 reactor of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Daya Bay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The numerical results show that the maximum relative error between measurement and reconstruction results from COMP is less than 5%, and the computing time is short, indicating that COMP is capable for online monitoring PWRs. (authors)

Wang, C. [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing, 100029 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Building 1, Compound No.29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100029 (China); Wu, H.; Cao, L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)

2012-07-01

138

Software Testability: The New Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software verification encompasses a wide range of techniques and activities that are geared towardsdemonstrating that software is reliable. Verification techniques such as testing provide a way toassess the likelihood that software will fail during use. This paper introduces a different type of verificationthat shows how likely it is that an incorrect program will not fail. Our verification appliesfault-injection methods to

Jeffrey M. Voas; Keith W. Miller

1995-01-01

139

An Approach to Systems Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term systems verification refers to the specification and verification of the components of a computing system, including compilers, assemblers, operating systems and hardware. We outline our approach to systems verification, and summarize the application of this approach to several systems components. These components consist of a code generator for a simple high-level language, an assembler and linking loader, a

William R. Bevier; Warren A. Hunt Jr.; J. Strother Moore; William D. Young

1989-01-01

140

Anglicans Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anglicans Online! has grown to be a comprehensive source of information for the world's Episcopal/Anglican church on the Internet. Topics offered are the Newsroom, Canada, USA, World, and Resources including reference links, biblical study. Ecumenical partners, and a listing of Discussion mailing lists and newsgroups are also provided.

141

Biology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biology Online provides a dictionary of biological terms, tutorials, and biology-related links categorized into dozens of subfields. The tutorials cover the following topics: adaptation, cell biology, developmental biology, freshwater ecology, genetics and evolution, neurology, regulation in biological systems, and the origin and evolution of life.

Lees, Richard

142

Online 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the co-existence of online and CD-ROM technologies in terms of their existing pricing structures, marketing strategies, functionality, and future roles. "Fixed Price Unlimited Usage" (FPUU) pricing and flat-rate pricing are discussed as viable alternatives to current pricing practices. In addition, it is argued that the…

Goldstein, Morris

143

Teaching Creative Writing Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses experiences of teaching a Masters degree in Creative Writing online with WebCT Software. Discussion is set out as follows: course structure, how the course runs online, initial concerns when adapting the course to run online, Salmon's five-stage model for teaching and learning online, disadvantages of teaching online and advantages of teaching online. The paper concludes with further

Heather Beck

2004-01-01

144

Hermes System Verification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hermes system, composed of a reusable space vehicle launched by Ariane 5 and its associated ground segment provides the transportation of men and supplies to and from space within the European In Orbit Infrastructure (IOI). The verification of the mul...

J. Herholz

1990-01-01

145

Computer Graphics Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Video processing creates technical animation sequences using studio quality equipment to realistically represent fluid flow over space shuttle surfaces, helicopter rotors, and turbine blades.Computer systems Co-op, Tim Weatherford, performing computer graphics verification. Part of Co-op brochure.

1992-01-01

146

Lightweight Bytecode Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java Bytecode Verification ensures that bytecode can be trus ted to avoid var- ious dynamic runtime errors, but it requires an analysis whi ch is currently unrealistic to implement on systems with very sparse resources such as Sun's Java Cards featuring a reduced Java virtual machine embedded on a smart- card (credit card with an integrated microprocessor). Commonly it is

Eva Rose

2003-01-01

147

Better Verification Through Symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the state explosion problem in automatic verification of finite-state systemsby exploiting symmetries in the system description.We make symmetries easy to detect by introducing a new data type scalarset, a finiteand unordered set, to our description language. The set of operations on scalarsets arerestricted so that states are guaranteed to have the same future behavior, up to permutationof the

C. Norris Ip; David L. Dill

1996-01-01

148

CVT (Customisation Verification Tool)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support the ATV Flight software target integration phase, EADS Launch Vehicles has developed the so-called "Customization Verification Tool" particularly adapted to detect the problems of customization and basic software services use in the embedded flight software. This paper briefly addresses the CVT environment, architecture and functionalities.

Gourdon, L.

149

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was initiated in 1995 to speed implementation of new and innovative commercial-ready environemntal technologies by providing objective, 3rd pa...

150

Data Review and Verification  

Cancer.gov

Trials must be reviewed for accuracy twice each year. The trial review date is calculated using the last verification date. Automated email reminders will be sent to trial owners, submitters and site administrators 30 days prior and 15 days prior to the trial review due date.

151

Palmprint Verification with Moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palmprint verification is an approach for verifying a palmprint input by matching the input to the claimed identity template stored in a database. If the dissimilarity measure between the input and the claimed template is below the predefined threshold value, the palmprint input is verified possessing same identity as the claimed identity template. This paper introduces an experimental evaluation of

Ying-han Pang; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin; David Ngo Chek Ling; Fu San Hiew

2004-01-01

152

Exomars Mission Verification Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests between the different levels (system, modules, subsystems, etc) and giving an overview of the main test defined at Spacecraft level. The paper is mainly focused on the verification aspects of the EDL Demonstrator Module and the Rover Module, for which an intense testing activity without previous heritage in Europe is foreseen. In particular the Descent Module has to survive to the Mars atmospheric entry and landing, its surface platform has to stay operational for 8 sols on Martian surface, transmitting scientific data to the Orbiter. The Rover Module has to perform 180 sols mission in Mars surface environment. These operative conditions cannot be verified only by analysis; consequently a test campaign is defined including mechanical tests to simulate the entry loads, thermal test in Mars environment and the simulation of Rover operations on a 'Mars like' terrain. Finally, the paper present an overview of the documentation flow defined to ensure the correct translation of the mission requirements in verification activities (test, analysis, review of design) until the final verification close-out of the above requirements with the final verification reports.

Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

153

Multibody modeling and verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of a ten week project on flexible multibody modeling, verification and control is presented. Emphasis was on the need for experimental verification. A literature survey was conducted for gathering information on the existence of experimental work related to flexible multibody systems. The first portion of the assigned task encompassed the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies that can undergo large angular displacements. Research in the area of modeling aspects were also surveyed, with special attention given to the component mode approach. Resulting from this is a research plan on various modeling aspects to be investigated over the next year. The relationship between the large angular displacements, boundary conditions, mode selection, and system modes is of particular interest. The other portion of the assigned task was the generation of a test plan for experimental verification of analytical and/or computer analysis techniques used for flexible multibody systems. Based on current and expected frequency ranges of flexible multibody systems to be used in space applications, an initial test article was selected and designed. A preliminary TREETOPS computer analysis was run to ensure frequency content in the low frequency range, 0.1 to 50 Hz. The initial specifications of experimental measurement and instrumentation components were also generated. Resulting from this effort is the initial multi-phase plan for a Ground Test Facility of Flexible Multibody Systems for Modeling Verification and Control. The plan focusses on the Multibody Modeling and Verification (MMV) Laboratory. General requirements of the Unobtrusive Sensor and Effector (USE) and the Robot Enhancement (RE) laboratories were considered during the laboratory development.

Wiens, Gloria J.

1989-01-01

154

Online Training for Searching Online.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the casual user's needs and problems in learning to search online retrieval systems. Such users are inclined to infrequent use, and are unlikely to have much interest or knowledge about the complexities of the system. The TRAINER pro...

E. Caruso

1978-01-01

155

Identification of host response signatures of infection.  

SciTech Connect

Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for large-scale, highly-efficient efforts to identify and verify infection-specific host NA signatures in human populations.

Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

2013-02-01

156

Digital Signature on Mobile Devices based on Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapid growing of wireless and mobile technologies, mobile devices are part and parcel of our lives. Nowadays GPS (Global Positioning Service) technology is combined with mobile devices. People use some Internet applications, e.g. mobile fund transfer, e-commerce, game online and theatre booking. These applications should support digital signature service for more security. Because mobile device is low-computation capability and

Santi Jarusombat; Surin Kittitornkun

2006-01-01

157

ISSN Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is the internationally recognized unique numeric identifier for serial publications in any format. To date, the ISSN network, coordinated by the ISSN International Centre in Paris, has registered and assigned ISSNs for more than 900,000 serials, with approximately 4,000 new ISSNs added to the ISSN Register each month. Recently, this register has been made accessible through the Web at ISSN Online. ISSN Online is a subscription service, but it is available for free on a 30-day trial basis. Trial users must register an email address to obtain a temporary password. Then they may conduct 40 queries, view 400 records, and download 10 records during the test period.

158

KFOR Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the official online presence of KFOR, the NATO-led international force responsible for establishing security in Kosovo. At the KFOR site, users can read the latest (and archived) news from Kosovo and the KFOR Chronicle; learn about KFOR's structure and objectives; read detailed background information, biographies, and original documents; and access audio and video selections and a searchable database of photographs in the Multimedia Gallery. Additional resources include press/ media information, related links, and an internal search engine.

1999-01-01

159

Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

1994-01-01

160

Writers Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the National Year of Reading effort in the UK (spearheaded by the National Literacy Trust to promote reading and literacy), Writers Online is aimed at piquing younger readers' interests. The site features interviews with popular children's writers as well as "writer-in-residence" workshops. Visitors to the site can try their hand at creative writing, learn tricks of the trade, and get personal feedback from their favorite authors.

1998-01-01

161

Outside Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outside Online is one of the premier outdoors oriented sites on the Web, covering fitness, biking, hiking, water sports, snow sports, travel, and mountaineering, among others. The site contains news and views, a travel section, reviews of outdoor products, coverage of outdoor activities such as the Tour DuPont, the World Cup Whitewater Slalom and skiing in South America, and selected full text, as well as special buyer's and family vacation guides from "Outside Magazine."

1996-01-01

162

Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status.

Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L. [and others

1997-10-01

163

Knowledge Signatures for Information Integration  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces the notion of a knowledge signature: a concise, ontologically-driven representation of the semantic characteristics of data. Knowledge signatures provide programmatic access to data semantics while allowing comparisons to be made across different types of data such as text, images or video, enabling efficient, automated information integration. Through observation, which determines the degree of association between data and ontological concepts, and refinement, which uses the axioms and structure of the domain ontology to place the signature more accurately within the context of the domain, knowledge signatures can be created. A comparison of such signatures for two different pieces of data results in a measure of their semantic separation. This paper discusses the definition of knowledge signatures along with the design and prototype implementation of a knowledge signature generator.

Thomson, Judi; Cowell, Andrew J.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Mark A.

2003-10-25

164

40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 32 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing process verification...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Pm Measurements § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process...

2009-07-01

165

40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing process verification...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Pm Measurements § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process...

2010-07-01

166

Internal FUV Wavelength Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program will be executed after the uplink of the OSM1 position updates derived from the determination of the wavelength-scale zero points and desired spectral ranges for each grating in activity COS29 {program 11487 - COS FUV Internal/External Wavelength Scales}. This program will verify that the operational spectral ranges for each grating, central wavelength, and FP-POS are those desired. Subsequent to a successful verification, COS FUV ERO observations and FUV science can be enabled. An internal wavelength calibration spectrum using the default PtNe lamp {lamp 1} with each FUV grating at each central wavelength setting and each FP-POS position will be obtained for the verification. Additional exposures and waits between certain exposures will be required to avoid - and to evaluate - mechanism drifts.;

Keyes, Charles

2008-07-01

167

Verification of numerical algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following strategy is suggested for specification and proof: (1) Defer the construction of a formal program specification with respect to I/O assertions unit the correctness of the program with respect to an abstract mathematical model of program intent is demonstrated. (2) Prove that an abstract machine (using infinite precision arithmetic) would compute that object exactly. (3) Prove that the computational sequences of arithmetic operations that occur in the abstract machine must be precisely the same at every step as those occurring on an actual machine (with finite precision arithmetic), executing the same program. (4) Use a Verification Conditions VC-generator that knows about the semantics of arithmetic operations to annotate the program with assertions that bound (or in some circumstances estimate) the difference between the actual machine state variables and the corresponding ones of the abstract machine. Construct the formal program specification by combining the verification conditions into theorems about computational error that can be proved with mechanical assistance.

1983-01-01

168

Neural network method based on a new damage signature for structural health monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting wide-band Lamb wave based active monitoring technology, this study focuses on a neural network method based on a new damage signature for on-line damage detection applied to thin-walled composite structures. Honeycomb sandwich and carbon fiber composite structures are studied. Two kinds of damage are considered: delamination and impact damage. A new damage signature is introduced to determine the presence

Shenfang Yuan; Lei Wang; Ge Peng

2005-01-01

169

Method and computer product to increase accuracy of time-based software verification for sensor networks  

DOEpatents

A recursive verification protocol to reduce the time variance due to delays in the network by putting the subject node at most one hop from the verifier node provides for an efficient manner to test wireless sensor nodes. Since the software signatures are time based, recursive testing will give a much cleaner signal for positive verification of the software running on any one node in the sensor network. In this protocol, the main verifier checks its neighbor, who in turn checks its neighbor, and continuing this process until all nodes have been verified. This ensures minimum time delays for the software verification. Should a node fail the test, the software verification downstream is halted until an alternative path (one not including the failed node) is found. Utilizing techniques well known in the art, having a node tested twice, or not at all, can be avoided.

Foo Kune, Denis (Saint Paul, MN); Mahadevan, Karthikeyan (Mountain View, CA)

2011-01-25

170

Online organic chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective,

Philip A. Janowicz

2010-01-01

171

Online Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online

Janowicz, Philip A.

2010-01-01

172

Kidsource Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kidsource Online is an extensive collection of information about raising children from newborns to adolescents. A sampling of the publications they've pulled together at the site includes "Children and Bilingualism" from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; "Testing Your Child's Hearing" by Carol Knightly, Pediatric Audiologist; and the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) Provides Tips to Help Parents and Kids Cope with Allergy Season. Resources are organized under top-level categories of Newborns, Toddlers, Preschoolers, K-12, Education, Health, Recreation, Forums, Organizations, and Guide to Best Software, among others.

1997-01-01

173

Workforce Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Workforce Online is a Webzine that focuses on human resource issues and concepts. The site includes weekly articles, daily tips, and advice, as well as networking opportunities, polls, and case studies. Free registration is required to use the research section, which features a database of HR-related materials, searchable by keyword and topic. The site also includes solid information on legal issues and analysis, basic HR information in the HR 101 section, and a community center of networks and forums on assorted topics. Interested parties may subscribe to a free e-newsletter with site updates and more.

2007-05-29

174

Online Conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need to convert joules to kilocalories? A rood to a square mile? 100 weight to stones? How about your age in dog years? You can do all of these conversions and over 8,000 more at Online Conversion. Conversions are organized by type (temperature, length, cooking, etc.), and each conversion page includes numerous options. Quick links to other conversions are also provided on each page so users don't have to return to the main page. Simply put, a very handy and easy-to-use site that belongs in the reference section of any user's bookmarks.

175

Maths Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maths Online is a site operated at the University of Vienna in Austria. Its purpose is to provide an interactive multimedia learning environment for high school and college level mathematics students and teachers. Its main section is the Gallery. Here, users can choose from a large selection of over twenty topics; each one has Java applets or other activities that demonstrate the associated principles. Interactive tests are also given that cover areas such as sets, functions, limiting processes, differentiation, and integration. The material presented on this site can be downloaded for offline use.

176

Online Writery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Writery at the University of Missouri, Columbia, is a student-oriented writing and learning environment that includes both communication and information resources: e-mail, access to two MOOs , writing resources, teaching resources, and paperless papers. It is a place to write and read and talk, a place to learn stuff. It is a resource you can use whether you are writing for a class or not. These pages are made of the stuff writers (of any kind) need: information about writing, and opportunities to talk with other writers.

177

ADA Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ADA Online, from the American Dental Association (ADA), includes resources for professionals, patients, and students. The site contains membership information, ADA publications and position papers, research and recommendations on clinical issues, a catalog of handouts and posters for patient education, information for new dentists, factsheets on dental careers, licensing information, directories of accredited education programs, listings of continuing education courses, and more. The section for patients and consumers includes answers to frequently asked questions; information on oral health, disease prevention, and how to deal with dental emergencies; and special sections for parents, children, and teens. A small portion of the site is for ADA members only.

1998-01-01

178

Signature-based authentication system using watermarking in the ridgelet and Radon-DCT domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a signature-based biometric system, where watermarking is applied to signature images in order to hide and keep secret some signature features in a static representation of the signature itself. Being a behavioral biometric, signatures are intrinsically different from other commonly used biometric data, possessing dynamic properties which can not be extracted from a single signature image. The marked images can be used for user authentication, letting their static characteristics being analyzed by automatic algorithms or security attendants. When a higher security is needed, the embedded features can be extracted and used, thus realizing a multi-level decision procedure. The proposed watermarking techniques are tailored to images with sharpened edges, just like a signature picture. In order to obtain a robust method, able to hide relevant data while keeping intact the original structure of the host, the mark is embedded as close as possible to the lines that constitute the signature, using the properties of the Radon transform. An extensive set of experimental results, obtained varying the system's parameters and concerning both the mark extraction and the verification performances, show the effectiveness of our approach.

Maiorana, Emanuele; Campisi, Patrizio; Neri, Alessandro

2007-10-01

179

Signature Evaluation Tool (SET): a Java-based tool to evaluate and visualize the sample discrimination abilities of gene expression signatures  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of specific gene expression signature for distinguishing sample groups is a dominant field in cancer research. Although a number of tools have been developed to identify optimal gene expression signatures, the number of signature genes obtained is often overly large to be applied clinically. Furthermore, experimental verification is sometimes limited by the availability of wet-lab materials such as antibodies and reagents. A tool to evaluate the discrimination power of candidate genes is therefore in high demand by clinical researchers. Results Signature Evaluation Tool (SET) is a Java-based tool adopting the Golub's weighted voting algorithm as well as incorporating the visual presentation of prediction strength for each array sample. SET provides a flexible and easy-to-follow platform to evaluate the discrimination power of a gene signature. Here, we demonstrated the application of SET for several purposes: (1) for signatures consisting of a large number of genes, SET offers the ability to rapidly narrow down the number of genes; (2) for a given signature (from third party analyses or user-defined), SET can re-evaluate and re-adjust its discrimination power by selecting/de-selecting genes repeatedly; (3) for multiple microarray datasets, SET can evaluate the classification capability of a signature among datasets; and (4) by providing a module to visualize the prediction strength for each sample, SET allows users to re-evaluate the discrimination power on mis-grouped or less-certain samples. Information obtained from the above applications could be useful in prognostic analyses or clinical management decisions. Conclusion Here we present SET to evaluate and visualize the sample-discrimination ability of a given gene expression signature. This tool provides a filtration function for signature identification and lies between clinical analyses and class prediction (or feature selection) tools. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of SET could make it an invaluable tool for marker identification in clinical research.

Jen, Chih-Hung; Yang, Tsun-Po; Tung, Chien-Yi; Su, Shu-Han; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Wang, Hsei-Wei

2008-01-01

180

Statistical and adaptive approach for verification of a neural-based flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a combined statistical and adaptive approach for the verification of an adaptive, online learning, sigma-pi neural network that is used for aircraft damage adaptive flight control. Adaptive flight control systems must have the ability to sense its environment, process flight dynamics, and execute control actions. This project was completed for a class in complex adaptive systems at

Ronald L. Broderick

2004-01-01

181

Signature CERN-URSS  

ScienceCinema

Le DG W.Jentschke souhaite la bienvenue à l'assemblée et aux invités pour la signature du protocole entre le Cern et l'URSS qui est un événement important. C'est en 1955 que 55 visiteurs soviétiques ont visité le Cern pour la première fois. Le premier DG au Cern, F.Bloch, et Mons.Amaldi sont aussi présents. Tandis que le discours anglais de W.Jentschke est traduit en russe, le discours russe de Mons.Morozov est traduit en anglais.

None

2011-04-25

182

A signature analysis based method for elliptical shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high level context image analysis regards many fields as face recognition, smile detection, automatic red eye removal, iris recognition, fingerprint verification, etc. Techniques involved in these fields need to be supported by more powerful and accurate routines. The aim of the proposed algorithm is to detect elliptical shapes from digital input images. It can be successfully applied in topics as signal detection or red eye removal, where the elliptical shape degree assessment can improve performances. The method has been designed to handle low resolution and partial occlusions. The algorithm is based on the signature contour analysis and exploits some geometrical properties of elliptical points. The proposed method is structured in two parts: firstly, the best ellipse which approximates the object shape is estimated; then, through the analysis and the comparison between the reference ellipse signature and the object signature, the algorithm establishes if the object is elliptical or not. The first part is based on symmetrical properties of the points belonging to the ellipse, while the second part is based on the signature operator which is a functional representation of a contour. A set of real images has been tested and results point out the effectiveness of the algorithm in terms of accuracy and in terms of execution time.

Guarneri, Ivana; Guarnera, Mirko; Messina, Giuseppe; Tomaselli, Valeria

2010-01-01

183

Seidman's Online Insider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In, Around and Online" - A Weekly Summary of Consumer Online Services is a painless way to stay tuned to events in the worlds of Compuserve, Prodigy, America Online, etc. A weekly report, not too long, and an easy read.

Seidman, Robert.

1994-01-01

184

NCI Visuals Online  

Cancer.gov

NCI Visuals Online contains images from the collections of the Office of Communications and Education, National Cancer Institute. For more information about Visuals Online, including reuse and contact information, see About Visuals Online.

185

Advanced spectral signature discrimination algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach to the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Hyperspectral signature analysis has been studied a lot in literature and there has been a lot of different algorithms developed which endeavors to discriminate between hyperspectral signatures. There are many approaches for performing the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Binary coding approaches like SPAM and SFBC use basic statistical thresholding operations to binarize a signature which are then compared using Hamming distance. This framework has been extended to techniques like SDFC wherein a set of primate structures are used to characterize local variations in a signature together with the overall statistical measures like mean. As we see such structures harness only local variations and do not exploit any covariation of spectrally distinct parts of the signature. The approach of this research is to harvest such information by the use of a technique similar to circular convolution. In the approach we consider the signature as cyclic by appending the two ends of it. We then create two copies of the spectral signature. These three signatures can be placed next to each other like the rotating discs of a combination lock. We then find local structures at different circular shifts between the three cyclic spectral signatures. Texture features like in SDFC can be used to study the local structural variation for each circular shift. We can then create different measure by creating histogram from the shifts and thereafter using different techniques for information extraction from the histograms. Depending on the technique used different variant of the proposed algorithm are obtained. Experiments using the proposed technique show the viability of the proposed methods and their performances as compared to current binary signature coding techniques.

Chakravarty, Sumit; Cao, Wenjie; Samat, Alim

2013-05-01

186

Clustering signatures classify directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

2008-09-01

187

Novel signatures of cancer-associated fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates the importance of the tumor microenvironment, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts, in cancer development and progression. In our study, we developed a novel, visually based method to identify new immunohistochemical signatures of these fibroblasts. The method employed a protein list based on 759 protein products of genes identified by RNA profiling from our previous study, comparing fibroblasts with differential growth-modulating effect on human cancers cells, and their first neighbors in the human protein interactome. These 2,654 proteins were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas online database by comparing their immunohistochemical expression patterns in normal versus tumor-associated fibroblasts. Twelve new proteins differentially expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts were identified (DLG1, BHLHE40, ROCK2, RAB31, AZI2, PKM2, ARHGAP31, ARHGAP26, ITCH, EGLN1, RNF19A and PLOD2), four of them can be connected to the Rho kinase signaling pathway. They were further analyzed in several additional tumor stromata and revealed that the majority showed congruence among the different tumors. Many of them were also positive in normal myofibroblast-like cells. The new signatures can be useful in immunohistochemical analysis of different tumor stromata and may also give us an insight into the pathways activated in them in their true in vivo context. The method itself could be used for other similar analysis to identify proteins expressed in other cell types in tumors and their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23319410

Bozóky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Dúl, Zoltán; Pontén, Fredrik; Székely, László; Klein, George

2013-07-15

188

Software Testing and Verification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The current issue of the IBM Systems Journal examines many aspects of software testing and verification. This new material contains ten articles written by workers in the IBM Research Division. Some of the papers, such as Testing z/OS, might be specific to IBM operations; however, most can be useful to individuals or companies implementing similar testing strategies. One article in particular discusses three case studies of Orthogonal Defect Classification and how it can be used "to improve software testing." Although the issue cannot be downloaded as a whole, individual papers can be viewed or downloaded in various formats.

2002-01-01

189

Verification of LHS distributions.  

SciTech Connect

This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

Swiler, Laura Painton

2006-04-01

190

On constructing certificateless proxy signature from certificateless signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In proxy signature schemes, an original signer A delegates its signing capability to a proxy signer B, in such a way that B can sign message on behalf of A. The recipient of the final message verifies at the same time that B computes the signature and that A has delegated its signing capability to B. Recently many identity-based (ID-based)

Zhong-mei Wan; Xue-jia Lai; Jian Weng; Xuan Hong; Yu Long; Wei-wei Jia

2008-01-01

191

Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime  

SciTech Connect

The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

2012-08-01

192

Functional verification of large ASICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the functional verification effort during a specific hardware development program that included three of the largest ASICs designed at Nortel. These devices marked a transition point in methodology as verification took front and centre on the critical path of the ASIC schedule. Both the simulation and emulation strategies are presented. The simulation methodology introduced new techniques such

Adrian Evans; Allan Silburt; Gary Vrckovnik; Thane Brown; Mario Dufresne; Geoffrey Hall; Tung Ho; Ying Liu

1998-01-01

193

Model-driven software verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we explore a different approach to software verification. With this approach, a software application can be included, without substantial change, into a verification test-harness and then verified directly, while presearving the ability to apply data abstraction techniques. Only the test-harness is written in the language of the model checker.

Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev

2003-01-01

194

Biometric verification with correlation filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive

B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar; Marios Savvides; Chunyan Xie; Krithika Venkataramani; Jason Thornton; Abhijit Mahalanobis

2004-01-01

195

Pose-oblivious shape signature.  

PubMed

A 3D shape signature is a compact representation for some essence of a shape. Shape signatures are commonly utilized as a fast indexing mechanism for shape retrieval. Effective shape signatures capture some global geometric properties which are scale, translation, and rotation invariant. In this paper, we introduce an effective shape signature which is also pose-oblivious. This means that the signature is also insensitive to transformations which change the pose of a 3D shape such as skeletal articulations. Although some topology-based matching methods can be considered pose-oblivious as well, our new signature retains the simplicity and speed of signature indexing. Moreover, contrary to topology-based methods, the new signature is also insensitive to the topology change of the shape, allowing us to match similar shapes with different genus. Our shape signature is a 2D histogram which is a combination of the distribution of two scalar functions defined on the boundary surface of the 3D shape. The first is a definition of a novel function called the local-diameter function. This function measures the diameter of the 3D shape in the neighborhood of each vertex. The histogram of this function is an informative measure of the shape which is insensitive to pose changes. The second is the centricity function that measures the average geodesic distance from one vertex to all other vertices on the mesh. We evaluate and compare a number of methods for measuring the similarity between two signatures, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our pose-oblivious shape signature within a 3D search engine application for different databases containing hundreds of models. PMID:17218743

Gal, Ran; Shamir, Ariel; Cohen-Or, Daniel

2007-01-01

196

TFE Verification Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TFE Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and early 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive features of thermionic power conversion technology were recognized but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern.

Not Available

1993-05-01

197

Signatures of dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that most of the mass in the universe remains unobserved save for its gravitational effect on luminous matter. The nature of this ``dark matter'' remains a mystery. From measurements of the primordial deuterium abundance, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis predicts that there are not enough baryons to account for the amount of dark matter observed, thus the missing mass must take an exotic form. Several promising candidates have been proposed. In this work I will describe my research along two main lines of inquiry into the dark matter puzzle. The first possibility is that the dark matter is exotic massive particles, such as those predicted by supersymmetric extensions to the standard model of particle physics. Such particles are generically called WIMPs, for weakly interacting massive particles. Focusing on the so-called neutralino in supersymmetric models, I discuss the possible signatures of such particles, including their direct detection via nuclear recoil experiments and their indirect detection via annihilations in the halos of galaxies, producing high energy antiprotons, positrons and gamma rays. I also discuss signatures of the possible slow decays of such particles. The second possibility is that there is a population of black holes formed in the early universe. Any dark objects in galactic halos, black holes included, are called MACHOs, for massive compact halo objects. Such objects can be detected by their gravitational microlensing effects. Several possibilities for sources of baryonic dark matter are also interesting for gravitational microlensing. These include brown dwarf stars and old, cool white dwarf stars. I discuss the theory of gravitational microlensing, focusing on the technique of pixel microlensing. I make predictions for several planned microlensing experiments with ground based and space based telescopes. Furthermore, I discuss binary lenses in the context of pixel microlensing. Finally, I develop a new technique for extracting the masses of the lenses from a pixel microlensing survey.

Baltz, Edward Anthony

198

On Rabin-Type Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper specializes the signature forgery by Coron, Nac- cache and Stern (1999) to Rabin-type systems. We present a variation in which the adversary may derive the private keys and thereby forge the signature on any chosen message. Further, we demonstrate that, con- trary to the RSA, the use of larger (even) public exponents does not reduce the complexity of

Marc Joye; Jean-jacques Quisquater

2001-01-01

199

Signatures of the Immune Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compendium of global gene expression measurements from DNA microarray analysis of immune cells identifies gene expression signatures defining various lineages, differentiation stages, and signaling pathways. Germinal center (GC) B cells represent a discrete stage of differentiation with a unique gene expression signature. This includes genes involved in proliferation, as evidenced by high expression of G2\\/M phase regulators and low

A. L Shaffer; Andreas Rosenwald; Elaine M Hurt; Jena M Giltnane; Lloyd T Lam; Oxana K Pickeral; Louis M Staudt

2001-01-01

200

A ( t, n)-Threshold Scheme of Multi-party Quantum Group Signature with Irregular Quantum Fourier Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ( t, n)-threshold scheme for the multi-party quantum group signature is proposed based on the irregular quantum Fourier transform, in which every t-qubit quantum message needs n participants to generate the quantum group signature. All the quantum operation gates in the quantum circuit can be distributed and arranged randomly in the irregular QFT algorithm, which can increase the von Neumann entropy of the signed quantum message and the randomicity of the quantum signature generation significantly. The generation and verification of the quantum group signature can be both performed in quantum circuits with the parallel algorithm. Security analysis shows that an available and legal quantum ( t, n)-threshold group signature can be achieved.

Shi, Jinjing; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying; Peng, Xiaoqi; Lee, Moon Ho; Park, Dongsun

2012-04-01

201

Verification of dynamic multileaf collimation using an electronic portal imaging device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High standards of treatment verification are necessary where complex new delivery techniques, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy using dynamic multileaf collimation, are being developed. This paper describes the use of a fluoroscopic electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to provide real-time qualitative verification of leaf position during delivery of a dynamic MLC prescription in addition to off-line quantitative verification. A custom-built circuit triggers the EPID to capture a series of snap-shot images at equally spaced dose points during a dynamic MLC prescription. Real-time verification is achieved by overlaying a template of expected leaf positions onto the images as they are acquired. Quantitative off-line verification is achieved using a maximum gradient edge detection algorithm to measure individual leaf positions for comparison with required leaf positions. Investigations have been undertaken to optimize image acquisition and assess the edge detection algorithm for variations in machine dose rate, leaf velocity and beam attenuation. On-line verification enables the operator to monitor the progress of a dynamic delivery and has been used for independent confirmation of accurate dynamic delivery during intensity modulated treatments. Off-line verification allows measurement of leaf position with a precision of 1 mm although image acquisition times must be less than or equal to 140 ms to ensure coincidence of the maximum gradient in the image with the 50% dose level.

James, H. V.; Atherton, S.; Budgell, G. J.; Kirby, M. C.; Williams, P. C.

2000-02-01

202

Agronomy Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Agronomy has announced online availability of this journal, in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press. Online full-text content for the Agronomy Journal begins with the July-August 1999 issue, with online abstracts from January-February 1998. Note that the free trial period for the online journal ends May 1, 2001.

203

Strategies for Online Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a variety of reasons, online education is an increasingly viable option for many students seeking to further their education. Because of this, the demand for online instructors continues to increase. Instructors transitioning to the online environment from the traditional classroom may find teaching online overwhelming. While some practices…

Motte, Kristy

2013-01-01

204

High frequency piezoelectric signatures for diagnosis of seismic\\/blast induced structural damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last three decades have witnessed the construction of vast infrastructural facilities, especially from reinforced concrete (RC), in many parts of the world. This has necessitated the development of automated, real-time and online structural health monitoring systems, which can provide a cost-effective alternative to the traditional visual inspection. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing mechatronic conductance signatures of surface

Suresh Bhalla; Chee Kiong Soh

2004-01-01

205

LD Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LD Online is a website focused on providing information on learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is geared towards parents, teachers, and professionals. The site is an educational service of public television station WETA, and also works with the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. Visitors will find that the site addresses both children and adults with LD and ADHD, and those who are unfamiliar with LD and ADHD will appreciate the site's "Getting Started" link, which has "LD Basics", "ADHD Basics", "Questions + Answers" and a "Glossary". The "Multimedia" link of videos, audio, and transcripts will give visitors the opportunity to listen to or watch experts in the field. They can also listen to the personal stories of families, teachers, and kids with LD or ADHD. Practical tips for parents are also offered in the Multimedia link. Users will be pleasantly surprised by the optimism and determination of some of these kids, when reading their personal stories in the "Your Stories" section.

206

Analyzing Online Behaviors, Roles, and Learning Communities via Online Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning communities are an important means of sharing and creating knowledge. Online behaviors and online roles can reveal how online learning communities function. However, no study has elucidated the relationships among online behaviors, online roles, and online learning communities. In this study, 32 preservice teachers participated in…

Yeh, Yu-Chu

2010-01-01

207

Verification of VENTSAR  

SciTech Connect

The VENTSAR code is an upgraded and improved version of the VENTX code, which estimates concentrations on or near a building from a release at a nearby location. The code calculates the concentrations either for a given meteorological exceedance probability or for a given stability and wind speed combination. A single building can be modeled which lies in the path of the plume, or a penthouse can be added to the top of the building. Plume rise may also be considered. Release types can be either chemical or radioactive. Downwind concentrations are determined at user-specified incremental distances. This verification report was prepared to demonstrate that VENTSAR is properly executing all algorithms and transferring data. Hand calculations were also performed to ensure proper application of methodologies.

Simpkins, A.A.

1995-01-01

208

Hierarchical formal verification using a hybrid tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We describe a hybrid formal hardware verification tool that links the HOL interactive proof system and the MDG automated hardware\\u000a verification tool. It supports a hierarchical verification approach that mirrors the hierarchical structure of designs. We\\u000a obtain the advantages of both verification paradigms. We illustrate its use by considering a component of a communications\\u000a chip. Verification with the hybrid

Skander Kort; Sofiène Tahar; Paul Curzon

2003-01-01

209

Anechoic Chamber Simulation and Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project considers an electromagnetic field simulation of an anechoic chamber with verification measurements. The simulation is a Geometric Optics (Ray Tracing) mathematical model of the direct path between two antennae and interfering scattering. The...

R. M. Taylor

1993-01-01

210

ALMA array element astronomical verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. The ALMA System Integration Science Team (SIST) is a group of scientists and data analysts whose primary task is to verify and characterize the astronomical performance of array elements as single dish and interferometric systems. The full set of tasks is required for the initial construction phase verification of every array element, and these can be divided roughly into fundamental antenna performance tests (verification of antenna surface accuracy, basic tracking, switching, and on-the-fly rastering) and astronomical radio verification tasks (radio pointing, focus, basic interferometry, and end-to-end spectroscopic verification). These activities occur both at the Operations Support Facility (just below 3000 m elevation) and at the Array Operations Site at 5000 m.

Asayama, S.; Knee, L. B. G.; Calisse, P. G.; Cortés, P. C.; Jager, R.; López, B.; López, C.; Nakos, T.; Phillips, N.; Radiszcz, M.; Simon, R.; Toledo, I.; Whyborn, N.; Yatagai, H.; McMullin, J. P.; Planesas, P.

2012-09-01

211

High stakes in INF verification  

SciTech Connect

The stakes involved in negotiating INF verification arrangements are high. While these proposals deal only with intermediate-range ground-launched cruise and mobile missiles, if properly devised they could help pave the way for comprehensive limits on other cruise missiles and strategic mobile missiles. In contrast, poorly drafted monitoring provisions could compromise national industrial security and generate numerous compliance controversies. Any verification regime will require new openness on both sides, but that means significant risks as well as opportunities. US and Soviet negotiators could spend weeks, months, and even years working out in painstaking detail verification provisions for medium-range missiles. Alternatively, if the two sides wished to conclude an INF agreement quickly, they could defer most of the difficult verification issues to the strategic arms negotiations.

Krepon, M.

1987-06-01

212

Bytecode Verification by Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java bytecode verification is traditionally performed using dataflow anal- ysis. We investigate an alternative based on reducing bytecode verification to model checking. First, we analyze the complexity and scalability of this approach. We show experimentally that, despite an exponential worst-case time complexity, model checking type-correct bytecode using an explicit-state on-the-fly model checker is feasible in practice, and we give a

David A. Basin; Stefan Friedrich; Marek Gawkowski

2003-01-01

213

Configuration spaces and signature formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that nontrivial topological and geometric information about configuration spaces of linkages and tensegrities can\\u000a be obtained using the signature formulas for the mapping degree and Euler characteristic. In particular, we prove that the\\u000a Euler characteristics of such configuration spaces can be effectively calculated using signature formulas. We also investigate\\u000a the critical points of signed area function on the

G. Khimshiashvili

2009-01-01

214

Ballastic signature identification systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are described of an attempt to establish a uniform procedure for documenting (recording) expended bullet signatures as effortlessly as possible and to build a comprehensive library of these signatures in a form that will permit the automated comparison of a new suspect bullet with the prestored library. The ultimate objective is to achieve a standardized format that will permit nationwide interaction between police departments, crime laboratories, and other interested law enforcement agencies.

Reich, A.; Hine, T. L.

1976-01-01

215

Expressiveness Considerations of XML Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML Signatures are used to protect XML-based Web Service communication against a broad range of attacks related to man-in-the-middle scenarios. However, due to the complexity of the Web Services specification landscape, the task of applying XML Signatures in a robust and reliable manner becomes more and more challenging. In this paper, we investigate this issue, describing how an attacker can

Meiko Jensen; Christopher Meyer

2011-01-01

216

Creating Vulnerability Signatures Using Weakest Preconditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature-based tools such as network intrusion detec- tion systems are widely used to protect critical systems. Au- tomatic signature generation techniques are needed to en- able these tools due to the speed at which new vulnera- bilities are discovered. In particular, we need automatic techniques which generate sound signaturessignatures which will not mistakenly block legitimate traffic or raise

David Brumley; Hao Wang; Somesh Jha; Dawn Xiaodong Song

2007-01-01

217

Cold fusion verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work to verify and reproduce experimental observations of Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The method was to start with the original report and add such additional information as became available to build a set of operational electrolytic CNF cells. Verification was to be achieved by first observing cells for neutron production, and for those cells that demonstrated a nuclear effect, careful calorimetric measurements were planned. The authors concluded, after laboratory experience, reading published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater. The neutron detector used for these tests was a completely packaged unit built into a metal suitcase that afforded electrostatic shielding for the detectors and self-contained electronics. It was battery-powered, although it was on charge for most of the long tests. The sensor element consists of He detectors arranged in three independent layers in a solid moderating block. The count from each of the three layers as well as the sum of all the detectors were brought out and recorded separately. The neutron measurements were made with both the neutron detector and the sample tested in a cave made of thick moderating material that surrounded the two units on the sides and bottom.

North, M. H.; Mastny, G. F.; Wesley, E. J.

1991-03-01

218

Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

March, Paul

2004-02-01

219

Digital Signatures for Flows and Multicasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present chaining techniques for signing\\/verifying multiple packets using a single signing\\/verification opera- tion. We then present flow signing and verification proce- dures based upon a tree chaining technique. Since a sin- gle signing\\/verification operation is amortized over many packets, these procedures improve signing and verification rates by one to two orders of magnitude compared to the ap- proach of

Chung Kei Wong; Simon S. Lam

1998-01-01

220

Earth Science Online Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources are designed to accompany the textbook 'Earth Science' by Pearson Prentice Hall. Materials include quizzes, online field trips, Powerpoint presentations, study guides, animations, and links to online resources.

221

The Online Underworld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the misuses of telecommunicating using school computers, including online piracy, hacking, phreaking, online crime, and destruction boards. Suggests ways that schools can deal with these problems. (TW)

Scrogan, Len

1988-01-01

222

Kids and Socializing Online  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids About What They’re Doing Online Remind Kids that Online Actions Have Consequences The words kids ... and the images they post have consequences offline. Kids should post only what they’re comfortable with ...

223

TOXLINE (TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION ONLINE)  

EPA Science Inventory

TOXLINE? (TOXicology information onLINE) are the National Library of Medicines extensive collection of online bibliographic information covering the pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals. TOXLINE and TOXLINE65 together...

224

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets.

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

225

CV Surgery Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

1999-01-01

226

Teaching Astronomy Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and

Mary L. Radnofsky; Matthew Bobrowsky

2004-01-01

227

Implementing Online Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online physical education, although seemingly an oxymoron, appears to be the wave of the future at least for some students. The purpose of this article is to explore research and options for online learning in physical education and to examine a curriculum, assessment, and instructional model for online learning. The article examines how physical…

Mohnsen, Bonnie

2012-01-01

228

Facilitating Deepened Online Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful online learning depends on instructors facilitating learner collaboration in text-based asynchronous dialogue. Focusing and deepening online dialogue among learners is challenging. Many e-moderators are satisfied to stop at active brainstorming. The potential for deepened learning using online tools is largely untapped. Clear guidelines are needed for using voice (conceptual facilitator, personal muse, mediator) and critical thinking strategies (identifying a

Sarah Haavind

2005-01-01

229

Online Learning. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers from a symposium on online learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "An Instructional Strategy Framework for Online Learning Environments" (Scott D. Johnson, Steven R. Aragon) discusses the pitfalls of modeling online courses after traditional instruction instead…

2002

230

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

231

Hard and Soft Safety Verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

2012-01-01

232

Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery  

SciTech Connect

Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

2013-06-01

233

Review of chemical signature databases.  

PubMed

This review assesses the current state of chemical signature databases, the primary characteristics that determine their applicability, characterization of their capability to support spectral identifications, and the target audience to which they are directed. Database file formats, spectrometer operating conditions, and spectral matching tools are found to be primary characteristics that determine the applicability of databases and their ability to support spectral identifications. Chemical signature databases have evolved in two very different directions. One movement offers a single portal for chemical signature determinations by multiple analytical techniques. The other movement is toward highly specialized databases that address narrow scientific disciplines. Both movements are necessary, and serve distinctly different needs in the analytical community. PMID:20229004

Borland, Laura; Brickhouse, Mark; Thomas, Tracey; Fountain, Augustus W

2010-06-01

234

Technical challenges for dismantlement verification  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion.

Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

1997-11-01

235

Federal Approach to Formal Hardware Design Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to enable the solution of hard formal verification problems - and thereby reduce the cost and improve the quality of advanced hardware designs - by making it possible to combine different verification techniques in flexible wa...

D. L. Dill

2002-01-01

236

Built-in-Test Verification Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the effort to develop practical verification methodologies for the accurate and economical test and demonstration of Built-In-Test (BIT) subsystems and circuitry. These methodologies are to be applicable to both formal verification o...

J. H. Albert M. J. Partridge R. J. Spillman

1987-01-01

237

Ballistic Signature Identification System Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first phase of a research project directed toward development of a high speed automatic process to be used to match gun barrel signatures imparted to fired bullets was documented. An optical projection technique has been devised to produce and photograph a planar image of the entire signature, and the phototransparency produced is subjected to analysis using digital Fourier transform techniques. The success of this approach appears to be limited primarily by the accuracy of the photographic step since no significant processing limitations have been encountered.

1976-01-01

238

Runtime Verification in Context: Can Optimizing Error Detection Improve Fault Diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Runtime verification has primarily been developed and evaluated as a means of enriching the software testing process. While\\u000a many researchers have pointed to its potential applicability in online approaches to software fault tolerance, there has been\\u000a a dearth of work exploring the details of how that might be accomplished.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper, we describe how a component-oriented approach to software

Matthew B. Dwyer; Rahul Purandare; Suzette Person

2010-01-01

239

Design and implementation of remote online examination system based on integration framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online examination system was designed by using B\\/S mode multi-tier architecture based on Struts, Spring and Hibernate integration framework, which combined the education examination system with advanced network technology. The verification shows, this system can achieve the standardization and paperless of exam. Not only can it reflect the fairness of the examination, but save the resource and improve the

Jia qiaojie; Li juanli; Wang yuanyuan; Liao kaihua; Yun liqing

2011-01-01

240

Formal analysis of an online stock trading system by temporal Petri nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal Petri nets greatly enhance the modeling and analyzing power of Petri nets. The dynamic behavior of a given system and causality in events can be elegantly described by formulas containing temporal operators. We show how temporal Petri nets can be used for formal specification and verification of an online stock trading system. The functional correctness of the modeled system

Y. Y. Du; C. J. Jiang

2001-01-01

241

ETV TECHNOLOGIES UNDERGOING VERIFICATION (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

There are 109 technologies undergoing verification in the following categories: Air, Water, Monitoring, Pollution Prevention and Independent. For the air category there are 12 in the Air Pollution Control Technology Pilot and 6 in the Greenhouse Gas Technology Pilot. In the water...

242

CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

243

Verification and validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss verification and validation of si- mulation models. Four different approaches to deciding model validity are described; two different paradigms that relate verification and validation to the model development process are presented; various validation techniques are de- fined; conceptual model validity, model verification, op- erational validity, and data validity are discussed; a way to document results

Robert G. Sargent

1994-01-01

244

Verification, validation and accreditation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses verification, validation, and accreditation of simulation models. The different approaches to deciding model validity are presented; how model verification and validation relate to the model development process are discussed; various validation techniques are defined; conceptual model validity, model verification, operational validity, and data validity are described; ways to document results are given; a recommended procedure is presented;

Robert G. Sargent

2000-01-01

245

System modeling and verification with UCLID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal verification has had a significant impact on the semiconductor industry, particularly for companies that can devote significant resources to creating and deploying inter- nally developed verification tools. If we look more closely, however, we see that the major industrial applications of formal verification have been either in verifying individ- ual blocks, such as floating-point units and memories, or in

Randal E. Bryant

2004-01-01

246

Biometrics verification in a real environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the biometrics verification applications developed within the project ACTS-102 M2VTS: multimodal verification for teleservices and applications. These prototypes provide identity authentication in two of the most promising application areas of biometrics: Secured access to financial services (ATM and Internet Teleservices) and building security applications. The verification modalities implemented into the prototypes are face and speech

BelCn Ruiz-Mezcua; Dolores Garcia-Plaza; Cristina Fernandez; Paloma Domingo-Garcia; Fernando Fernandez

1999-01-01

247

The Transaction-Based Verification Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a transaction-based verification methodology (TBV) that makes functional verification of RTL descriptions using simulation more effective By raising the verification effort to a higher level of abstraction, an engineer can develop and diagnose tests from a system level perspective. This capability enhances the reusability of each component in the test benches. It improves the debugging and coverage

Dhananjay S. Brahme; Steven Cox; Jim Gallo; Mark Glasser; William Grundmann; C. Norris Ip; William Paulsen; John L. Pierce; John Rose; Dean Shea; Karl Whiting

248

VLIW: a case study of parallelism verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallelism in processor architecture and design imposes a verification challenge as the exponential growth in the number of execution combinations becomes unwieldy. In this paper we report on the verification of a Very Large Instruction Word processor. The verification team used a sophisticated test program generator that modeled the parallel aspects as sequential constraints, and augmented the tool with manually

Allon Adir; Yaron Arbetman; Bella Dubrov; Yossi Lichtenstein; Michal Rimon; Michael Vinov; Massimo A. Calligaro; Andrew Cofler; Gabriel Duffy

2005-01-01

249

VLIW - a case study of parallelism verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallelism in processor architecture and design imposes a verification challenge as the exponential growth in the number of execution combinations becomes unwieldy. In this paper we report on the verification of a very large instruction word processor. The verification team used a sophisticated test program generator that modeled the parallel aspects as sequential constraints, and augmented the tool with manually

Allon Adir; Yaron Arbetman; Bella Dubrov; Michal Rimon; Michael Vinov; Massimo A Calligaro; Andrew Cofler; Gabriel Duffy

2005-01-01

250

Online Courses: NSTA Online Short Course: Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Confounded by kinetic and potential energy? Intimidated by thermal energy and heat? Mystified by the concepts of conduction, convection, and radiation? You are not alone. The NSTA Online Short Course: Energy is the perfect course for science teachers inte

1900-01-01

251

Signatures of a Shadow Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as

Paul C. W. Davies; Steven A. Benner; Carol E. Cleland; Charles H. Lineweaver; Christopher P. McKay; Felisa Wolfe-Simon

2009-01-01

252

Target identification from radar signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high resolution radar techniques and real time digital signal processing advances indicate the feasibility of extracting characteristic features of aircraft targets from their radar signatures. Two basic approaches have been suggested. The low frequency approach utilizes harmonically related radar frequencies with wavelengths comparable to the target dimensions. The microwave approach utilizes spread spectrum techniques to achieve high range resolution.

R. Strattan

1978-01-01

253

Acoustic signature of an AUV  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation further results from an experimental analysis of the acoustic signature of an Ocean Explorer class AUV are presented. The results to be presented include, data collected in an open water environment with the AUV operating at cruising speed, measurements performed in a reverberant test tank on an AUV model, and measurements in the reverberant test tank of

Joe Cuschieri; Susan Frandsen

2003-01-01

254

Disaster relief through composite signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite signature is a group of signatures that are related in such a way to more completely or further define a target or operational endeavor at a higher fidelity. This paper builds on previous work developing innovative composite signatures associated with civil disasters, including physical, chemical and pattern/behavioral. For the composite signature approach to be successful it requires effective data fusion and visualization. This plays a key role in both preparedness and the response and recovery which are critical to saving lives. Visualization tools enhance the overall understanding of the crisis by pulling together and analyzing the data, and providing a clear and complete analysis of the information to the organizations/agencies dependant on it for a successful operation. An example of this, Freedom Web, is an easy-to-use data visualization and collaboration solution for use in homeland security, emergency preparedness, situational awareness, and event management. The solution provides a nationwide common operating picture for all levels of government through a web based, map interface. The tool was designed to be utilized by non-geospatial experts and is easily tailored to the specific needs of the users. Consisting of standard COTS and open source databases and a web server, users can view, edit, share, and highlight information easily and quickly through a standard internet browser.

Hawley, Chadwick T.; Hyde, Brian; Carpenter, Tom; Nichols, Steve

2012-05-01

255

Geometric tolerance verification using superquadrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards for Geometric Tolerance Verification such as ANSI Y14.5 have been in practice for many years. These standards were developed for hard gage technology, and provide little guidance for how tolerances should be verified for flexible technologies such as coordinate measuring machines or laser scanners. As a result, most techniques used in practice do not make use of proper statistical

C. CAROLINA BÁRCENAS; PAUL M. GRIFFIN

2001-01-01

256

Prosodic features for speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the effectiveness of prosodic features for speaker verification. We hypothesize that prosody is linked to linguistic units such as syllables and prosodic features can be better represented with reference to the syllabic sequence. For extracting prosodic features, speech is segmented into syllable- like regions using the knowledge of vowel onset points (VOP). We use a

Leena Mary; B. Yegnanarayana

2006-01-01

257

Invisible watermarking for image verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new method for invisibly watermarking high-quality color and gray-scale images. This method is intended for use in image verification applications to determine whether the content of an image has been altered, due perhaps, to the act of a malicious party. It consists of both a watermarking process which stamps a watermark into a source

Minerva M. Yeung; Frederick C. Mintzer

1998-01-01

258

Verification of Multiprocess Probabilistic Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we demonstrate the utility of temporal logic to the formal verification of probabilistic distributed programs. The approach taken is to represent the quantitative notion of probabilistic computations by the qualitative abstraction ofextreme fairness. The method is illustrated first on the dining philosophers problem [3] and then on a new probabilistic symmetric solution to then-processes mutual exclusion problem.

Amir Pnueli; Lenore D. Zuck

1986-01-01

259

ATPG Aspects of FSM Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms are presented for finite state machine (FSM) verification and image computation which improve on the results of O. Coudert et al (1989), giving 1-4 orders of magnitude speedup. Novel features include primary input splitting-this PODEM feature enlarges the search space but shortens the search due to implications. Another new feature, identical subtree recombination, is shown to be effective for

Hyunwoo Cho; Gary D. Hachtel; Seh-woong Jeong; Bernard Plessier; Eric M. Schwarz; Fabio Somenzi

1990-01-01

260

VERIFICATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The basic concepts of water quality models are reviewed and the need to recognize calibration and verification of models with observed data is stressed. Post auditing of models after environmental control procedures are implemented is necessary to determine true model prediction ...

261

Automated verification system user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descriptions of the operational requirements for all of the programs of the Automated Verification System (AVS) are provided. The AVS programs are: (1) FORTRAN code analysis and instrumentation program (QAMOD); (2) Test Effectiveness Evaluation Program (QAPROC); (3) Transfer Control Variable Tracking Program (QATRAK); (4) Program Anatomy Table Generator (TABGEN); and (5) Network Path Analysis Program (RAMBLE).

Hoffman, R. H.

1972-01-01

262

Model Checking and Modular Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a framework for compositional verification of finite state processes. Theframework is based on two ideas: a subset of the logic CTL for which satisfaction ispreserved under composition; and a preorder on structures which captures the relationbetween a component and a system containing the component. Satisfaction of a formulain the logic corresponds to being below a particular structure (a

Orna Grumberg; David E. Long

1991-01-01

263

Model checking and modular verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a framework for compositional verification of finite-state processes. The framework is based on two ideas: a subset of the logic CTL for which satisfaction is preserved under composition, and a preorder on structures which captures the relation between a component and a system containing the component. Satisfaction of a formula in the logic corresponds to being below a

Orna Grumberg; David E. Long

1994-01-01

264

Fingerprint Verification Using Perturbation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, powerful technique of fin- gerprint verification based on a perturbation method. The proposed method consists of four parts. The first part performs local FFT band-pass filtering to enhance the cyclic ridge structure in respective local areas. The second part is optimal block-wise shift for preliminary matching. Then, the third part is application of GAT cor-

Satoshi Otaka; Yoshihisa Nishiyama; Takahiro Hatano; Toru Wakahara

2007-01-01

265

SFT monitoring and design verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Submerged Floating Tunnel (SFT) is still a prototype structure. To change this, SFTs have to be built and we have to learn from this process. This involves comparing the structure’s real behaviour with its design and transferring this knowledge to the engineering community. Monitoring and design verification is a step in this direction. The paper discusses various aspects that

Ian Markey

2010-01-01

266

Regression Verification Using Impact Summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regression verification techniques are used to prove equivalence of syntactically similar programs. Checking equivalence of large programs, however, can be computationally expensive. Existing regression verification techniques rely on abstraction and decomposition techniques to reduce the computational effort of checking equivalence of the entire program. These techniques are sound but not complete. In this work, we propose a novel approach to improve scalability of regression verification by classifying the program behaviors generated during symbolic execution as either impacted or unimpacted. Our technique uses a combination of static analysis and symbolic execution to generate summaries of impacted program behaviors. The impact summaries are then checked for equivalence using an o-the-shelf decision procedure. We prove that our approach is both sound and complete for sequential programs, with respect to the depth bound of symbolic execution. Our evaluation on a set of sequential C artifacts shows that reducing the size of the summaries can help reduce the cost of software equivalence checking. Various reduction, abstraction, and compositional techniques have been developed to help scale software verification techniques to industrial-sized systems. Although such techniques have greatly increased the size and complexity of systems that can be checked, analysis of large software systems remains costly. Regression analysis techniques, e.g., regression testing [16], regression model checking [22], and regression verification [19], restrict the scope of the analysis by leveraging the differences between program versions. These techniques are based on the idea that if code is checked early in development, then subsequent versions can be checked against a prior (checked) version, leveraging the results of the previous analysis to reduce analysis cost of the current version. Regression verification addresses the problem of proving equivalence of closely related program versions [19]. These techniques compare two programs with a large degree of syntactic similarity to prove that portions of one program version are equivalent to the other. Regression verification can be used for guaranteeing backward compatibility, and for showing behavioral equivalence in programs with syntactic differences, e.g., when a program is refactored to improve its performance, maintainability, or readability. Existing regression verification techniques leverage similarities between program versions by using abstraction and decomposition techniques to improve scalability of the analysis [10, 12, 19]. The abstractions and decomposition in the these techniques, e.g., summaries of unchanged code [12] or semantically equivalent methods [19], compute an over-approximation of the program behaviors. The equivalence checking results of these techniques are sound but not complete-they may characterize programs as not functionally equivalent when, in fact, they are equivalent. In this work we describe a novel approach that leverages the impact of the differences between two programs for scaling regression verification. We partition program behaviors of each version into (a) behaviors impacted by the changes and (b) behaviors not impacted (unimpacted) by the changes. Only the impacted program behaviors are used during equivalence checking. We then prove that checking equivalence of the impacted program behaviors is equivalent to checking equivalence of all program behaviors for a given depth bound. In this work we use symbolic execution to generate the program behaviors and leverage control- and data-dependence information to facilitate the partitioning of program behaviors. The impacted program behaviors are termed as impact summaries. The dependence analyses that facilitate the generation of the impact summaries, we believe, could be used in conjunction with other abstraction and decomposition based approaches, [10, 12], as a complementary reduction technique. An evaluation of our regression verification technique shows that our approach is capable of leveragin

Backes, John; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Thachuk, Oksana

2013-01-01

267

Undervattenssignaturer: Laegesrapport (Underwater Signatures -Progress Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ship or submarine has a number of signatures-active and passive acoustic, pressure, wake, static electric (UEP), static magnetic, extreme low-frequency electromagnetic (ELFE)-and other signatures like internal waves and changed biological activity and s...

N. Alin H. Claesson S. Ivansson C. Fureby I. Karasalo

2002-01-01

268

Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

2008-08-01

269

Online Monitoring of Plant Assets in the Nuclear Industry  

SciTech Connect

Today’s online monitoring technologies provide opportunities to perform predictive and proactive health management of assets within many different industries, in particular the defense and aerospace industries. The nuclear industry can leverage these technologies to enhance safety, productivity, and reliability of the aging fleet of existing nuclear power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is collaborating with the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Long-Term Operations program to implement online monitoring in existing nuclear power plants. Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using EPRI’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software, a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures used to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. Fault signatures are developed based on the results of detailed technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The Diagnostic Advisor of the FW-PHM Suite software matches developed fault signatures with operational data to provide early identification of critical faults and troubleshooting advice that could be used to distinguish between faults with similar symptoms. This research is important as it will support the automation of predictive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

Nancy Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh Pham; Richard Rusaw; Randy Bickford

2013-10-01

270

Quantum group blind signature scheme without entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a quantum group blind signature scheme designed for distributed e-voting system. Our scheme combines the properties of group signature and blind signature to provide anonymity of voters in an e-voting system. The unconditional security of our scheme is ensured by quantum mechanics. Without employing entanglement, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized comparing with other quantum signature schemes.

Xu, Rui; Huang, Liusheng; Yang, Wei; He, Libao

2011-07-01

271

The Internet and clinical trials: background, online resources, examples and issues. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The Internet is increasingly being used to improve clinical trial knowledge and awareness and facilitate participant recruitment. Online clinical trial registries connect potential clinical trial participants with research teams. Individual clinical trial Web sites provide easy-to-understand information to the public. Potential participants can be screened using online questionnaires, and enrollment and consent forms can be made available for download or digital signature.

272

Cryptanalysis of Two Group Signature Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group signature schemes allow a group member to anony- mously sign on group's behalf. Moreover, in case of anonymity misuse, a group authority can recover the issuer of a signature. This paper ana- lyzes the security of two group signature schemes recently proposed by Tseng and Jan. We show that both schemes are universally forgeable, that is, anyone (not necessarily

Marc Joye; Seungjoo Kim; Narn-yih Lee

1999-01-01

273

Improving the interleaved signature instruction stream technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control flow monitoring using a watchdog processor is a well-known technique to increase the dependability of a microprocessor system. Most approaches embed reference signatures for the watchdog processor into the processor instruction stream creating noticeable memory and performance overheads. A novel embedding signatures technique called interleaved signatures instruction stream has been recently presented. Targeted to processors included into field-programmable devices,

F. Rodriguez; Jost C. Campelo; Juan J. Serrano

2003-01-01

274

Hyperspectral signature modeling for terrain backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our efforts to develop a digital hyperspectral signature model for terrain features. The infrared signature model development was conducted in conjunction with a parallel spectral phenomenology research program devoted to understanding and exploiting spectral data for landmine detection. That effort identified a need for a dynamic hyperspectral signature model to support target

J. Michael Cathcart; Robert V. Worrall; Daniel P. Cash

2006-01-01

275

Online organic chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

Janowicz, Philip A.

276

Asia Times Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the world's news flows increasingly from Asian nations, those people looking for a credible online source that concentrates on this region will find it in Asia Times Online. The site's front page features top stories from Asia Times journalists as well as from other online dailies and reports, including the South China Morning Post, Business Times Online, and the Australian Financial Review. The site offers separate sections for China, Southeast Asia, Japan, the Koreas, India/ Pakistan, Central Asia, and Oceania as well as departments devoted to Business Briefs, Global Economy, and Media and Industrial Technology. The entire site, including archives, is searchable.

277

A Description of the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) Web Site.  

PubMed

Annotated lists of genes help researchers to prioritize their own lists of candidate genes and to plan follow-up studies. The Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) is one of the most widely used knowledge base repositories of annotated sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways, signaling cascades, expression profiles from research publications, and other biological concepts. Here we provide an overview of MSigDB and its online analytical tools. PMID:24743996

Liberzon, Arthur

2014-01-01

278

Polarization signatures of airborne particulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

2013-07-01

279

Lattice-Based Blind Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Blind signatures (BS), introduced by Chaum, have become a cornerstone in privacy-oriented cryptography. Using hard lattice\\u000a problems, such as the shortest vector problem, as the basis of security has advantages over using the factoring or discrete\\u000a logarithm problems. For instance, lattice operations are more efficient than modular exponentiation and lattice problems remain\\u000a hard for quantum and subexponential-time adversaries. Generally speaking,

Markus Rückert

2010-01-01

280

A Web-based open-source database for the distribution of hyperspectral signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the coming of age of field spectroscopy as a non-destructive means to collect information on the physiology of vegetation, there is a need for storage of signatures, and, more importantly, their metadata. Without the proper organisation of metadata, the signatures itself become limited. In order to facilitate re-distribution of data, a database for the storage & distribution of hyperspectral signatures and their metadata was designed. The database was built using open-source software, and can be used by the hyperspectral community to share their data. Data is uploaded through a simple web-based interface. The database recognizes major file-formats by ASD, GER and International Spectronics. The database source code is available for download through the hyperspectral.info web domain, and we happily invite suggestion for additions & modification for the database to be submitted through the online forums on the same website.

Ferwerda, J. G.; Jones, S. D.; Du, Pei-Jun

2006-10-01

281

Rotational-invariant wavelet target signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research paper investigates the use of the wavelet transform to extract spatially-invariant wavelet-based shape signatures for automatic target recognition (ATR). Target signatures based on shape information can be generally categorized as either contour-based or region-based. The wavelet-based shape signatures facilitate detection and localization of important edge and texture information aiding in discrimination between targets. To demonstrate the advantages of both edge and region information, we present an approach that combines region-based shape methods and the wavelet transform for generating target signatures. Our approach generates a rotationally invariant class of wavelet signatures based on the spatial ground pixel coverage of the target is determined from the region-of-interest (ROI) in the wavelet domain. This process results in a multiresolution representation of the target, and provides a hierarchical approach to target signature-matching. We demonstrate this methodology using signatures from aircraft targets utilizing the Angular Radial Transform (ART) as the region-based shape signature. Region-based signatures are shown more robust than contourbased signatures in the presence of noise and disconnected target regions providing greater confidence in target identification. Our research results show the value of combining the rotational invariance of the ART signatures with the localization and edge discrimination properties of the wavelet transform.

Reynolds, William D., Jr.; Campbell, Derrick S.

2010-04-01

282

Online Collaboration: Curriculum Unbound!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freed from the nuisances of paper-based methods, districts are making creative use of digital tools to move their curricular documents online, where educators can collaborate on course development and lesson planning. Back in 2003, Amarillo Independent School District (Texas) had begun using the Blackboard Content System to provide lessons online.…

Waters, John K.

2007-01-01

283

Online Videoconferencing Products: Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software allowing real-time online video connectivity is rapidly evolving. The ability to connect students, staff, and guest speakers instantaneously carries great benefits for the online distance education classroom. This evaluation report compares four software applications at opposite ends of the cost spectrum: "DimDim", "Elluminate VCS",…

Burton, Douglas; Kitchen, Tim

2011-01-01

284

Authoritative Online Editions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how it is now very easy for anyone to find formerly hard-to-find books such as the works of Walt Whitman with the help of online booksellers. The author also describes the efforts made by various institutions to produce online editions of the works of major writers. One such prominent project is the archive…

Benton, Thomas H.

2007-01-01

285

Online Search Interface Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of interfaces for online systems and suggests requirements that must be met to offer maximum aid to inexperienced users. Highlights include the online search process, user data, query processing, database descriptors, semantic links, multilingual processing, search strategies, and distributed systems. A 20-page bibliography…

Vickery, Brian; Vickery, Alina

1993-01-01

286

Learning & Memory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press has placed online the journal Learning & Memory, an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to research on the neurobiology of learning and memory. Online full-text content begins with the May/June 1998 issue; abstracts begin with the September/October, 1995 issue. The journal is produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1998-01-01

287

Adolescent Online Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online victimization is a concern among many who work with youth. This article reviews the latest research on online victimization then promotes honest dialogue, personal responsibility of the youth, and proper reporting actions as strategies to reduce this type of victimization. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

Young, Adena; Young, Atrisha; Fullwood, Harry

2007-01-01

288

Techtalk: Online Developmental Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current status of online developmental courses. Features descriptions of programs at several colleges, including the names and e-mail addresses of individuals to contact for further information. Describes the hardware requirements for offering online courses as well as how such courses typically operate. (MAB)

Broderick, Bill; Caverly, David C.

1996-01-01

289

Online Help Supports Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of online help for performance support systems focuses on how online help has expanded to allow the design of more effective support systems. Explains embedded help, interactive help, intelligent agents, bubble help (tool tips), "What's This?" help, and expanded help content. (LRW)

Miller, Bill; McCandless, Pat

1999-01-01

290

Physical Geology Lecture Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Dr. Pamela J. W. Gore of Georgia Perimeter College, the Physical Geology Lecture Online is a complete online interactive course. Through descriptions, photographs, and illustrations, students can learn the basics of minerals, rocks, volcanoes, soils, earthquakes, erosion, mass wasting, and more. Although the site was created for a specific college course, any student can browse and learn about the many topics covered.

Gore, Pamela J.

1994-01-01

291

Online medical information services.  

PubMed

The author provides a comprehensive overview of online medical information services that can be accessed by personal computer users over telephone lines. The article encompasses the reasons for online database access, equipment considerations, and structure and sources of database information. Tips on search strategy and resources for increasing database search proficiency are also included. PMID:3906725

Bickers, R G

1985-09-01

292

Online Knowledge Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the concept of online knowledge communities. The concept is defined, and six qualities of online communities are identified: members (user roles are clearly defined); mission (generally accepted goal-statement, ideas, beliefs, etc.); commitment (members give their loyalty to the mission); social interaction (frequent…

de Vries, Sjoerd; Bloemen, Paul; Roossink, Lonneke

293

Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…

Aidman, Amy

2000-01-01

294

Nonbibliographic Databases Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A directory of 246 nonbibliographic data bases, which are also known as data banks and numeric data bases. Entries are arranged alphabetically by name of data base, followed by name of data base producer, subject content, and online vendor. This directory updates the listing published in Vol. 1, No. 4 of On-Line Review. (JPF)

Online Review, 1978

1978-01-01

295

Serving the Online Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systems and services for recruiting, advising, and support of online students have seldom been at the top of the list when planning online and distance learning programs. That is now changing: Forces pushing advising and support services into the foreground include recognition of the student learner as "customer" and the increasing expectations…

Boettcher, Judith V.

2007-01-01

296

COSEE West Online Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features online professional development courses offered by the COSEE (Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence) West and College of Exploration. The site features workshop information, as well as access to online presentations and the College of Exploration's virtual campus. Registration is required to access the education information, but is free of charge.

297

Online Comes of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the historical development of online information in libraries, including computers, software, and networks. Highlights include quotes from leaders in the field; the end-user movement; commercial products from vendors; the spread of the Internet and its effects on online companies and searchers; options on the World Wide Web; and future…

O'Leary, Mick

1997-01-01

298

Facilitating Online Discussions Effectively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a synthesis of the theoretical and research literature on facilitating asynchronous online discussions effectively. Online courses need to be designed so that they provide motivation for students to engage in productive discussions and clearly describe what is expected, perhaps in the form of a discussion rubric.…

Rovai, Alfred P.

2007-01-01

299

Online Dynamic Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, This paper presents an algorithm for drawing a sequence of graphs online. The algorithm strives to maintain the global structure of the graph and, thus, the user's mental map while allowing arbitrary modifications between consecutive layouts. The algorithm works online and uses various execution culling methods in order to reduce the layout time and handle large dynamic graphs. Techniques

Yaniv Frishman; Ayellet Tal

2008-01-01

300

NEXT Thruster Component Verification Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Component testing is a critical part of thruster life validation activities under NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project testing. The high voltage propellant isolators were selected for design verification testing. Even though they are based on a heritage design, design changes were made because the isolators will be operated under different environmental conditions including temperature, voltage, and pressure. The life test of two NEXT isolators was therefore initiated and has accumulated more than 10,000 hr of operation. Measurements to date indicate only a negligibly small increase in leakage current. The cathode heaters were also selected for verification testing. The technology to fabricate these heaters, developed for the International Space Station plasma contactor hollow cathode assembly, was transferred to Aerojet for the fabrication of the NEXT prototype model ion thrusters. Testing the contractor-fabricated heaters is necessary to validate fabrication processes for high reliability heaters. This paper documents the status of the propellant isolator and cathode heater tests.

Pinero, Luis R.; Sovey, James S.

2007-01-01

301

COS Internal NUV Wavelength Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program will be executed after the uplink of the OSM1 position updates derived from the determination of the wavelength-scale zero points and desired spectral ranges for each grating in activity COS14 {program 11474 - COS NUV Internal/External Wavelength Scales}. This program will verify that the operational spectral ranges for each grating, central wavelength, and FP-POS are those desired. Subsequent to a successful verification, COS NUV ERO observations and NUV science can be enabled. An internal wavelength calibration spectrum using the default PtNe lamp {lamp 1} with each NUV grating at each central wavelength setting and each FP-POS position will be obtained for the verification. Additional exposures and waits between certain exposures will be required to avoid - and to evaluate - mechanism drifts.;

Keyes, Charles

2008-07-01

302

Verification & Validation in Medi SPICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effective verification and validation are central to medical device software development and are essential for regulatory\\u000a approval. Although guidance is available in multiple standards in the medical device software domain, it is difficult for\\u000a the manufacturer to implement as there is no consolidated view of this information. Likewise, the standards and guidance documents\\u000a do not consider process improvement initiatives. This

M. S. Sivakumar; Valentine Casey; Fergal McCaffery; Gerry Coleman

303

Formal verification of AI software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

1989-01-01

304

Teaching Astronomy Online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is intended to provide an overview of the practical, pedagogical, and philosophical considerations in designing a Web-based astronomy course, and to demonstrate the educational benefits that such online courses can afford students. Because online students need to take more responsibility for their learning, faculty must make course expectations extremely clear. Online education allows for increased student participation and equal access to college by such groups as the military, the handicapped, full-time employees, and rural and senior citizens. Teaching the sciences online--especially astronomy--gives students more time to think critically about new information. This article also includes tools, checklists, and resources helpful for introducing faculty to online course development in astronomy.

Radnofsky, Mary L.; Bobrowsky, Matthew

305

Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

2011-10-01

306

Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) Program directs the development, demonstration and deployment of physics simulation codes. The defensible utilization of these codes for high-consequence decisions requires rigorous verification and validation of the simulation software. The physics and engineering codes used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are arguably among the most complex utilized in computational science. Verification represents an important aspect of the development, assessment and application of simulation software for physics and engineering. The purpose of this note is to formally document the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by LANL, LLNL, and SNL, i.e., the Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite. Verification is often referred to as ensuring that ''the [discrete] equations are solved [numerically] correctly''. More precisely, verification develops evidence of mathematical consistency between continuum partial differential equations (PDEs) and their discrete analogues, and provides an approach by which to estimate discretization errors. There are two variants of verification: (1) code verification, which compares simulation results to known analytical solutions, and (2) calculation verification, which estimates convergence rates and discretization errors without knowledge of a known solution. Together, these verification analyses support defensible verification and validation (V&V) of physics and engineering codes that are used to simulate complex problems that do not possess analytical solutions. Discretization errors (e.g., spatial and temporal errors) are embedded in the numerical solutions of the PDEs that model the relevant governing equations. Quantifying discretization errors, which comprise only a portion of the total numerical simulation error, is possible through code and calculation verification. Code verification computes the absolute value of discretization errors relative to an exact solution of the governing equations. In contrast, calculation verification, which does not utilize a reference solution, combines an assessment of stable self-convergence and exact solution prediction to quantitatively estimate discretization errors. In FY01, representatives of the V&V programs at LANL, LLNL, and SNL identified a set of verification test problems for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program. Specifically, a set of code verification test problems that exercise relevant single- and multiple-physics packages was agreed upon. The verification test suite problems can be evaluated in multidimensional geometry and span both smooth and non-smooth behavior.

Brock, J S; Kamm, J R; Rider, W J; Brandon, S; Woodward, C; Knupp, P; Trucano, T G

2006-12-21

307

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

308

PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF STORMWATER TREATMENT DEVICES UNDER EPA¿S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The program¿s goal is to further environmental protection by a...

309

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP): LIQUID COATINGS--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a generic verification protocol or GVP which provides standards for testing liquid coatings for their enviornmental impacts under the Environmental Technology Verification program. It provides generic guidelines for product specific testing and quality assurance p...

310

PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF ANIMAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to further environmental protection by accelerating the commercialization of new and innovative technology through independent performance verification and dissemination of in...

311

Chaos concepts as diagnostic tools for assessing rotating machinery vibration signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos content in measured vibration signals is of some practical importance in rotordynamical systems. Of particular interest is the relationship between the occurrence of determinsite chaos and the diagnosis of mechanical failures in rotating machinery. Two nonlinear rotordynamical systems were studied using simulation and various forms of subharmonic, quasiperiodic and chaotic vibrations were observed. Different routes into and out of chaos show important signs for wear assessment and failure prediction. Experimental test facilities are currently under development and the next steps involve experimental verification of the simulation results and the development of signal processing techniques for extracting the dynamical features of the vibration signatures from measured time series data.

Adams, Maurice L.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

1996-06-01

312

Magnetic cleanliness verification approach on tethered satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic cleanliness testing was performed on the Tethered Satellite as the last step of an articulated verification campaign aimed at demonstrating the capability of the satellite to support its TEMAG (TEthered MAgnetometer) experiment. Tests at unit level and analytical predictions/correlations using a dedicated mathematical model (GANEW program) are also part of the verification activities. Details of the tests are presented, and the results of the verification are described together with recommendations for later programs.

Messidoro, Piero; Braghin, Massimo; Grande, Maurizio

1990-01-01

313

Formal verification at higher levels of abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most formal verification tools on the market convert a high-level register transfer level (RTL) design into a bit-level model. Algorithms that operate at the bit-level are unable to exploit the structure provided by the higher abstraction levels, and thus, are less scalable. This tutorial surveys recent advances in formal verification using high-level models. We present word-level verification with predicate abstraction

Daniel Kroening; Sanjit A. Seshia

2007-01-01

314

Estimating Attributes of Nuclear Weapon and Other Fissile Material Configuration Using Features Of Nuclear Materials Identification Signatures  

SciTech Connect

This brief describes a strategy that, when implemented, will allow the attributes, i.e., the physical properties, of nuclear weapon and other configurations of fissile material to be estimated from Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) signatures for arms control, treaty verification, and transparency purposes. Attributes are estimated by condensing measured NMIS signatures into ''features'' that approximately represent physical characteristics of the measurement such as gamma-ray transmission, induced fission, etc. The features are obtained from NMIS signatures to estimate quantities related to gamma and neutron transmission through the inspected item and gamma and neutron scattering and production via induced fission within the inspected item. Multivariate, i.e., multiple-feature, linear models have been successfully employed to estimate attributes, and multivariate nonlinear models are currently under investigation. Attributes estimated employing this strategy can then be examined to test the supposition that the inspected item is in fact a nuclear weapon.

mattingly, j.k.; mihalczo, j.t.; mullens, j.a.; perez, r.b.; valentine, t.e.

1999-08-24

315

Implementation of secure speaker verification at web login page using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient-Gaussian Mixture Model (MFCC-GMM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need of security for web page was increased as the development of online activity especially trading or banking. Speaker recognition can be used to secure the web page which need high security level. In this research, the speaker recognition system at web page was successfully built for login authentication security. For enrollment and verification need, speech signal from clients

B. Putra; Suyanto

2011-01-01

316

Hydrologic data-verification management program plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data verification refers to the performance of quality control on hydrologic data that have been retrieved from the field and are being prepared for dissemination to water-data users. Water-data users now have access to computerized data files containing unpublished, unverified hydrologic data. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques and systems whereby the computer can perform some data-verification functions before the data are stored in user-accessible files. Computerized data-verification routines can be developed for this purpose. A single, unified concept describing master data-verification program using multiple special-purpose subroutines, and a screen file containing verification criteria, can probably be adapted to any type and size of computer-processing system. Some traditional manual-verification procedures can be adapted for computerized verification, but new procedures can also be developed that would take advantage of the powerful statistical tools and data-handling procedures available to the computer. Prototype data-verification systems should be developed for all three data-processing environments as soon as possible. The WATSTORE system probably affords the greatest opportunity for long-range research and testing of new verification subroutines. (USGS)

Alexander, C. W.

1982-01-01

317

Contract Disputes in Travel and Tourism: When the Online Deal Goes Bad  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores e-commerce contract liability and its impact on the travel and tourism industry. Topics such as, what constitutes a legally-binding contract, and the various methods of accepting contracts online, such as click wrap and electronic signatures, are discussed. Jurisdiction issues particularly pertinent when considering liability related to travel and tourism products are addressed. Numerous tourism related liability cases

Joseph A. Ismail; Juline E. Mills

2002-01-01

318

Infrared signatures for remote sensing  

SciTech Connect

PNL`s capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1} at <10-MHz bandwidth; a Bruker Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the near- to far-infrared at 50-MHz resolution; and a stable line-tunable, 12-w cw CO{sub 2} laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at {approximately}10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl{sub 4} at 770--800 cm{sup {minus}1}. This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO{sub 2} laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks.

McDowell, R.S.; Sharpe, S.W.; Kelly, J.F.

1994-04-01

319

The Online Books Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Pennsylvania Library, the Online Books Page Web site "facilitates access to books that are freely readable over the Internet...and aims to encourage the development of such online books, for the benefit and edification of all." The over 18,000 listings can be searched or browsed by author, title, and subject, of which every major physical science subject is represented. Each listing is linked to an outside Web site, making its availability unpredictable, but the shear number of books that are accessible make the Online Books Page a great resource.

1993-01-01

320

The EMBO Journal Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EMBO and Oxford University Press are offering the full content of each issue online, including all figures and tables, for a free trial period running through 1997. After that, it will be available to subscribers. Currently, full-text versions are only available from January 1997, but these archived issues will expand with each new issue of the Journal. Tables of contents and abstracts of the 1996 issues are also currently available online. The full text is searchable by author and keyword, and references include hypertext links to Medline and to other online journals.

1996-01-01

321

Physical description of nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with a new correlation processor (capability up to 1 GHz sampling rates and up to five input data channels) for three input channels: (1) the 252Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel. An intuitive and physical description of the various measured quantities is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five-channel capability is used, the number of measured quantities increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures and their related frequency analysis signatures. The time analysis signatures include the number of time m pulses occurs in a time interval, that is triggered randomly, upon a detection event, or upon a source fission event triggered. From the number of pulses in a time interval, the moments, factorial moments, and Feynmann variance can be obtained. Recent implementations of third- and fourth-order time and frequency analysis signatures in this processor are also briefly described. Thus, this processor used with a timed source of input neutrons contains all of the information from a pulsed neutron measurement, one and two detector Rossi- ? measurements, multiplicity measurements, and third- and fourth-order correlation functions. This processor, although originally designed for active measurements with a 252Cf interrogating source, has been successfully used passively (without 252Cf source) for systems with inherent neutron sources such as fissile systems of plutonium. Data from active measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt%, 235U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate some of the various time and frequency analysis parameters. This processor, which is a five-channel time correlation analyzer with time channel widths as small as 1 ns, was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant where it is in use for verification and confirmation of weapons components and other fissile materials in storage and for receipts from other Department of Energy and Department of Defense Facilities.

Mihalczo, J. T.; Mullens, J. A.; Mattingly, J. K.; Valentine, T. E.

2000-08-01

322

Signature of anisotropic bubble collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our universe may have formed via bubble nucleation in an eternally inflating background. Furthermore, the background may have a compact dimension--the modulus of which tunnels out of a metastable minimum during bubble nucleation--which subsequently grows to become one of our three large spatial dimensions. When in this scenario our bubble universe collides with other ones like it, the collision geometry is constrained by the reduced symmetry of the tunneling instanton. While the regions affected by such bubble collisions still appear (to leading order) as disks in an observer's sky, the centers of these disks all lie on a single great circle, providing a distinct signature of anisotropic bubble nucleation.

Salem, Michael P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2010-09-15

323

Computer Checked Algebraic Verification of a Distributed Summation Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present an algebraic verification of Segall's Propagation of Information with Feedback (PIF) algorithm and we report on the verification of the proof using the PVS system. This algorithm serves as a nice benchmark for verification exercises. The verifi...

J. F. Groote F. Monin J. Springintveld

1997-01-01

324

Deductive Approach to the Debugging, Verification, and Modification of Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes research activities concentrated on the following topics; (1) Verification of Concurrent Programs: The Temporal Framework; (2) Verification of Concurrent Programs: Temporal Proof Principles; (3) Verification of Sequential Programs: ...

Z. Manna

1982-01-01

325

Optimized outcome prediction in breast cancer by combining the 70-gene signature with clinical risk prediction algorithms.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines for breast cancer treatment differ in their selection of patients at a high risk of recurrence who are eligible to receive adjuvant systemic treatment (AST). The 70-gene signature is a molecular tool to better guide AST decisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adding the 70-gene signature to clinical risk prediction algorithms can optimize outcome prediction and consequently treatment decisions in early stage, node-negative breast cancer patients. A 70-gene signature was available for 427 patients participating in the RASTER study (cT1-3N0M0). Median follow-up was 61.6 months. Based on 5-year distant-recurrence free interval (DRFI) probabilities survival areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated and compared for risk estimations based on the six clinical risk prediction algorithms: Adjuvant! Online (AOL), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), St. Gallen (2003), the Dutch National guidelines (CBO 2004 and NABON 2012), and PREDICT plus. Also, survival AUC were calculated after adding the 70-gene signature to these clinical risk estimations. Systemically untreated patients with a high clinical risk estimation but a low risk 70-gene signature had an excellent 5-year DRFI varying between 97.1 and 100 %, depending on the clinical risk prediction algorithms used in the comparison. The best risk estimation was obtained in this cohort by adding the 70-gene signature to CBO 2012 (AUC: 0.644) and PREDICT (AUC: 0.662). Clinical risk estimations by all clinical algorithms improved by adding the 70-gene signature. Patients with a low risk 70-gene signature have an excellent survival, independent of their clinical risk estimation. Adding the 70-gene signature to clinical risk prediction algorithms improves risk estimations and therefore might improve the identification of early stage node-negative breast cancer patients for whom AST has limited value. In this cohort, the PREDICT plus tool in combination with the 70-gene signature provided the best risk prediction. PMID:24760482

Drukker, C A; Nijenhuis, M V; Bueno-de-Mesquita, J M; Retèl, V P; van Harten, W H; van Tinteren, H; Wesseling, J; Schmidt, M K; Van't Veer, L J; Sonke, G S; Rutgers, E J T; van de Vijver, M J; Linn, S C

2014-06-01

326

Online TESL/TEFL Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses distance learning with a focus on online learning, which is growing in popularity at a faster rate than other types of programs. Looks at the advantages and disadvantages of online learning, the future of online learning, and specifically TESOL training online. (Author/VWL)

Nixon, Thomas

2003-01-01

327

The Online Learning Definitions Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. "The Online Learning Definitions Project" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other…

International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2011

2011-01-01

328

Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important steps in the process. Verification insures that the CFD code is solving the equations as intended (no errors in the implementation). This is typically done either through the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) or through careful step-by-step comparisons with other verified codes. After the verification step is concluded, validation is performed to document the ability of the turbulence model to represent different types of flow physics. Validation can involve a large number of test case comparisons with experiments, theory, or DNS. Organized workshops have proved to be valuable resources for the turbulence modeling community in its pursuit of turbulence modeling verification and validation. Workshop contributors using different CFD codes run the same cases, often according to strict guidelines, and compare results. Through these comparisons, it is often possible to (1) identify codes that have likely implementation errors, and (2) gain insight into the capabilities and shortcomings of different turbulence models to predict the flow physics associated with particular types of flows. These are valuable lessons because they help bring consistency to CFD codes by encouraging the correction of faulty programming and facilitating the adoption of better models. They also sometimes point to specific areas needed for improvement in the models. In this paper, several recent workshops are summarized primarily from the point of view of turbulence modeling verification and validation. Furthermore, the NASA Langley Turbulence Modeling Resource website is described. The purpose of this site is to provide a central location where RANS turbulence models are documented, and test cases, grids, and data are provided. The goal of this paper is to provide an abbreviated survey of turbulence modeling verification and validation efforts, summarize some of the outcomes, and give some ideas for future endeavors in this area.

Rumsey, Christopher L.

2014-01-01

329

Optimistic fair exchange of digital signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new protocol that allows two players to exchange digital signatures over the Internet in a fair way, so that\\u000a either each player gets the other's signature, or neither player does. The obvious application is where the signatures represent\\u000a items of value, for example, an electronic check or airline ticket. The protocol can also be adapted to exchange

N. Asokan; Victor Shoup; Michael Waidner

2000-01-01

330

Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that the extraordinary waves in indefinite metamaterials experience an (--++) effective metric signature. During a metric signature change transition in such a metamaterial, a Minkowski space-time is created together with a large number of particles populating the space-time. Such metamaterial models provide a tabletop realization of metric signature change events suggested to occur in Bose-Einstein condensates and quantum gravity theories. PMID:20868010

Smolyaninov, Igor I; Narimanov, Evgenii E

2010-08-01

331

Research towards a systematic signature discovery process  

SciTech Connect

In its most general form, a signature is a unique or distinguishing measurement, pattern, or collection of data that identifies a phenomenon (object, action, or behavior) of interest. The discovery of signatures is an important aspect of a wide range of disciplines from basic science to national security for the rapid and efficient detection and/or prediction of phenomena. Current practice in signature discovery is typically accomplished by asking domain experts to characterize and/or model individual phenomena to identify what might compose a useful signature. What is lacking is an approach that can be applied across a broad spectrum of domains and information sources to efficiently and robustly construct candidate signatures, validate their reliability, measure their quality, and overcome the challenge of detection -- all in the face of dynamic conditions, measurement obfuscation and noisy data environments. Our research has focused on the identification of common elements of signature discovery across application domains and the synthesis of those elements into a systematic process for more robust and efficient signature development. In this way, a systematic signature discovery process lays the groundwork for leveraging knowledge obtained from signatures to a particular domain or problem area, and, more generally, to problems outside that domain. This paper presents the initial results of this research by discussing a mathematical framework for representing signatures and placing that framework in the context of a systematic signature discovery process. Additionally, the basic steps of this process are described with details about the methods available to support the different stages of signature discovery, development, and deployment.

Baker, Nathan A.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Bonheyo, George T.; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Oxley, Mark; Quadrel, Richard W.; Sego, Landon H.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Wynne, Adam S.

2013-06-04

332

Signature-Based Document Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the most pervasive method of individual identification and document authentication, signatures present convincing evidence\\u000a and provide an important form of indexing for effective document image processing and retrieval in a broad range of applications.\\u000a In this work, we developed a fully automatic signature-based document image retrieval system that handles: 1) Automatic detection\\u000a and segmentation of signatures from document images

Guangyu Zhu; Yefeng Zheng; David S. Doermann

2008-01-01

333

75 FR 42575 - Electronic Signature and Storage of Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...systems that permit the storage of all data but do not produce a facsimile of...authorizing use of ``reasonable data compression or formatting technologies...which the employer and employee enter data. Only the pages of the Form...

2010-07-22

334

Online Statistical Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of online analysis tools allows users to compute probabilities from various distributions and to generate random numbers. Other tools include probability and Bayes' rule calculators and an event counter. Each tool provides instructions and review materials.

Berman, Harvey

2009-08-07

335

LINK: Online First  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The newest addition to Springer-Verlag's evolving Journals Preview Service, LINK Alert (discussed in the January 9, 1998 Scout Report), now offers Online First, a series of full-text articles (.pdf format) slated for print publication in the coming months. Currently, Online First offers articles from the following journals: Applied Physics A, Applied Physics B, European Physical Journal C (EPJ C), Inventiones mathematicae, Mathematical Programming, neurogenetics, Supportive Care in Cancer, and Theoretical Chemistry Accounts: Theory, Computation, and Modeling. Articles are placed online as they are accepted. This is an incredible service for academics wishing to follow the cutting edge of science, as these publications appear online well before they appear in print.

336

Protecting Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

Kresses, Mamie

2001-01-01

337

Variable star data online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.

Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary

2012-06-01

338

In Focus Online  

MedlinePLUS

... P rofessionals & Researchers Funded Grants Applications and Forms Foundation Written Articles Clinical Trials Eye Conditions Resources R ... Releases In Focus in focus Online Multimedia Conferences Foundation News J oin the Fight Donate Other Ways ...

339

Otolaryngology online resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A home for free online otolaryngology learning resources. Features of this site: manuscripts, sugrical videos, case records, examination topics, surgical tips, tutorials, CME quiz, presentations, and others. Topics cover otology, rhinology, and laryngology.

340

Free online medical books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Freebookcentre.net's medical section contains links to many technical books offered free online, either as html pages or downloadable pdfs. Books are arranged by subject: cardiology, nutrition, oncology, microbiology, anatomy, neurology, infectious disease, allergy and immunology, and others.

341

GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ROW AND FIELD CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This ETV program generic verification protocol was prepared and reviewed for the Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies project. The protocol provides a detailed methodology for conducting and reporting results from a verification test of pesticide drift reductio...

342

Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors  

PubMed Central

Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer)—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.

Larkin, Spencer; Kyprianou, Natasha

2013-01-01

343

Acoustic signature of an AUV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation further results from an experimental analysis of the acoustic signature of an Ocean Explorer class AUV are presented. The results to be presented include, data collected in an open water environment with the AUV operating at cruising speed, measurements performed in a reverberant test tank on an AUV model, and measurements in the reverberant test tank of an AUV under typical operating conditions. Different operating conditions and different mountings for the main propulsion and control module (podule) inside the AUV are considered. Inside the podule are the propulsion motor and the motors for the control surfaces with penetrations for the main propulsion shaft and the shafts for the control surfaces. Considered in the measurements is the influence of the propeller, the mounting of the podule, and the covering the podule with a compliant layer. It is shown that for the type of AUV considered here, the type of mounting of the podule is not very significant and that significant energy is transferred through the water trapped in between the podule and the AUV hull. Furthermore, the propeller has a significant influence on the acoustic signature.

Cuschieri, Joe; Frandsen, Susan

2003-10-01

344

Wisc-Online: Online Learning Object Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on a wide range of subject expertise, the Wisconsin Online Resource Center (Wisc-Online) is a digital library of web-based learning resources known as "learning objects". "Learning objects" are essentially self-contained small chunks of learning that can be embedded in a learning activity, lesson, unit or course. The site includes over 2170 of these objects, and new objects are being developed continuously. Visitors will need to complete a short registration form before they are allowed to access all of the materials on the site, but they can certainly get a sense of what the site includes by checking out the "New Learning Objects" area. Here they will find everything from animated presentations showing how the pH level of a cleaning solution is controlled to an interactive activity on industrial automation. Also, visitors are also encouraged to sign up to receive their RSS feed.

345

Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

Fu, Xiang

346

Approaches to wind resource verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verification of the regional wind energy resource assessments produced by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory addresses the question: Is the magnitude of the resource given in the assessments truly representative of the area of interest? Approaches using qualitative indicators of wind speed (tree deformation, eolian features), old and new data of opportunity not at sites specifically chosen for their exposure to the wind, and data by design from locations specifically selected to be good wind sites are described. Data requirements and evaluation procedures for verifying the resource are discussed.

Barchet, W. R.

1982-01-01

347

Imaging radar polarization signatures - Theory and observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar polarimetry theory is reviewed, and comparison between theory and experimental results obtained with an imaging radar polarimeter employing two orthogonally polarized antennas is made. Knowledge of the scattering matrix permits calculation of the scattering cross section of a scatterer for any transmit and receive polarization combination, and a new way of displaying the resulting scattering cross section as a function of polarization is introduced. Examples of polarization signatures are presented for several theoretical models of surface scattering, and these signatures are compared with experimentally measured polarization signatures. The coefficient of variation, derived from the polarization signature, may provide information regarding the amount of variation in scattering properties for a given area.

Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Zebker, Howard A.; Elachi, Charles

1987-01-01

348

OnGuard Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the OnGuard website "provides practical tips from the federal government and the technology industry to help you be on guard against Internet fraud, secure your computer, and protect your personal information." Visitors can learn how to avoid online scams, secure their computers, protect kids online and more. On the homepage, users can find useful information divided into subpages for educators, parents, techies, small business owners, the military and kids.

349

NCI Visuals Online: About  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Visuals Online provides a range of photographs and illustrations that may help communicators of medical and public health convey meaning, describe concepts, and tell stories. The collection spans everything from biomedical, science, and patient-care related illustrations and images to portraits of present and past directors and the staff of the National Cancer Institute. Visuals Online currently provides public access to 2,819 images.

350

Geologic Time: Online Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.

1997-10-09

351

IMPROVING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 as a means of working with the private sector to establish a market-based verification process available to all environmental technologies. Under EPA's Office of R...

352

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

353

Advance statistical modeling for speaker verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speaker verification deals with the problem of verifying whether a given utterance has been pronounced by a claimed authorized speaker. This problem is important because an accurate speaker verification system can be applied to many security applications. Fundamental frequency is the rate of vocal folds vibration during speech. It is considered to be one of the most important prosodic features

Rupali K. Waghmare; Vinayak G. Asutkar

2008-01-01

354

Robust Speaker Verification in Colored Noise Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise robustness of automatic speaker verification systems is crucial in real life applications. A study on the perfor- mance of several spectral subtraction-based speech enhancement techniques shows the poor performance of these algorithms when used as a preprocessing stage of the speaker verification system in the presence of colored noise. In this paper, a new technique based on the addition

A. Medina; Jose A. Apolin ´ ario Jr; Abraham Alcaim; Rogerio G. Alves

355

Verification and validation of simulation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys verification and validation of models, especially simulation models in operations research. For verification it discusses 1) general good programming practice (such as modular programming), 2) checking intermediate simulation outputs through tracing and statistical testing per module, 3) statistical testing of final simulation outputs against analytical results, and 4) animation. For validation it discusses 1) obtaining real-worl data,

Jack P. C. Kleijnen

1995-01-01

356

Design for Verification with Dynamic Assertions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completed design and implementation are often regarded as prerequisites of any verification. While recent development methods establish testability as a design criterion, there is no corresponding design support for other verification methods like model checking and static analysis. Since these methods have inherent scalability problems, their application becomes more difficult where it is most needed - for complex systems. Our

Peter C. Mehlitz; John Penix

2005-01-01

357

Modular verification of software components in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new methodology for automatic verification of C programs against finite state machine specifications. Our approach is compositional, naturally enabling us to decompose the verification of large software system into subproblems of manageable complexity. The decomposition reflects the modularity in the software design. We use weak simulation as the notion of conformance between the program and its specification.

Sagar Chaki; Edmund M. Clarke; Alex Groce; Somesh Jha; Helmut Veith

2003-01-01

358

The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

Garwin, Richard L.

2014-05-01

359

Automatic Symbolic Verification of Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model checking procedure and its implementation for the automatic verification of embedded systems. Systems are represented by hybrid automata - machines with finite control and real-valued variables modeling continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature. System properties are specified in a real-time temporal logic and verified by symbolic computation. The verification procedure, implemented in Mathematica,

Rajeev Alurt; Thomas A. Henzinger; Pei-hsin Ho

1993-01-01

360

Towards IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having sketched the different techniques enabling to check properties of discrete event systems control software, we present in this article a formal method for IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification. This method is based on a formal representation of the behaviour of function blocks diagrams and takes benefit of verification tools developed from the SIGNAL synchronous language.

C. Schnakenbourg; J.-M. Faure; J.-J. Lesage

2002-01-01

361

Verification of an international climate convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries parties to a climate convention will have to commit themselves not to exceed a certain level of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The Convention should have to be explicit about the need to survey each party's observance of the obligations agreed upon (verification of compliance). This paper reports that in order to evaluate an international verification system for GHG

W. Fischer; J. C. di Primio; G. Stein

1991-01-01

362

Verification of Cryptographic Protocols: Tagging Enforces Termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments with a resolution-based verification method for cryptographic protocols, we could enforce its termination by tagging, a syntactic transformation of messages that leaves attack-free executions invariant. In this paper, we generalize the experimental evidence: we prove that the verification method always terminates for tagged protocols.

Bruno Blanchet; Andreas Podelski

2003-01-01

363

Guidelines for qualifying cleaning and verification materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is intended to provide guidance in identifying technical issues which must be addressed in a comprehensive qualification plan for materials used in cleaning and cleanliness verification processes. Information presented herein is intended to facilitate development of a definitive checklist that should address all pertinent materials issues when down selecting a cleaning/verification media.

Webb, D.

1995-01-01

364

Model Reduction for VLSI Physical Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will first introduce physical verification of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits and put the challenges in perspective from a computational electro-magnetics point of view. We argue that any models obtained from electromagnetic (electrostatic) analysis should be as simple as possible for a given accuracy. We will then focus on two aspects of VLSI physical verification,

N. P. van der Meijs

365

Video-based fingerprint verification.  

PubMed

Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, "inside similarity" and "outside similarity" are defined and calculated to take advantage of both dynamic and static information contained in fingerprint videos. Match scores between two matching fingerprint videos are then calculated by combining the two kinds of similarity. Experimental results show that the proposed video-based method leads to a relative reduction of 60 percent in the equal error rate (EER) in comparison to the conventional single impression-based method. We also analyze the time complexity of our method when different combinations of strategies are used. Our method still outperforms the conventional method, even if both methods have the same time complexity. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed video-based method can lead to better accuracy than the multiple impressions fusion method, and the proposed method has a much lower false acceptance rate (FAR) when the false rejection rate (FRR) is quite low. PMID:24008283

Qin, Wei; Yin, Yilong; Liu, Lili

2013-01-01

366

Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

Larson, Steve

2012-01-01

367

RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons  

SciTech Connect

This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

1997-08-01

368

A Verification Method for MASOES.  

PubMed

MASOES is a 3agent architecture for designing and modeling self-organizing and emergent systems. This architecture describes the elements, relationships, and mechanisms, both at the individual and the collective levels, that favor the analysis of the self-organizing and emergent phenomenon without mathematically modeling the system. In this paper, a method is proposed for verifying MASOES from the point of view of design in order to study the self-organizing and emergent behaviors of the modeled systems. The verification criteria are set according to what is proposed in MASOES for modeling self-organizing and emerging systems and the principles of the wisdom of crowd paradigm and the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) theory. The verification method for MASOES has been implemented in a tool called FCM Designer and has been tested to model a community of free software developers that works under the bazaar style as well as a Wikipedia community in order to study their behavior and determine their self-organizing and emergent capacities. PMID:22692924

Perozo, N; Aguilar, J; Terán, O; Molina, H

2012-06-01

369

Evaluation of infrared-signature suppression of ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of the infrared signature of warships helps to increase their survivability. Two methods to reduce the infrared signature are discussed: the cooling of exhaust gases and the application of low emissivity paint. The infrared signature of a generic frigate has been calculated with and without signature reduction. The signature values are used to determine the lock-on range of four

H. M. Schleijpen

1996-01-01

370

SUSY multilepton signatures at Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

One of the most striking signature of supersymmetric models with electroweak symmetry breaking is the presence of multilepton event topologies in the decay products. In this paper searches are presented for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) in final states containing charged leptons from proton-antiproton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, collected with Run II CDF and D0 Detectors in 2002-2006, and corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 1.1 fb{sup -1}. In any of the searches no excess of candidates was observed with respect to the SM predictions and limits on masses and production cross-sections are set at the 95% CL.

Titov, Maxim; /Freiburg U.

2007-02-01

371

Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and superstructure are cooled with dedicated spray systems, in addition to special paint systems that are

Filip Neele

2005-01-01

372

Robust signatures for kernel data structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel-mode rootkits hide objects such as processes and threads using a technique known as Direct Kernel Object Manipulation (DKOM). Many forensic analysis tools attempt to detect these hid- den objects by scanning kernel memory with handmade signatures; however, such signatures are brittle and rely on non-essential fea- tures of these data structures, making them easy to evade. In this paper,

Brendan Dolan-gavitt; Abhinav Srivastava; Patrick Traynor; Jonathon T. Giffin

2009-01-01

373

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special

John B. Cliff; Helen W. Kreuzer; Christopher J. Ehrhardt; David S. Wunschel

2012-01-01

374

Optimistic Fair Exchange with Transparent Signature Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new protocol allowing the exchange of an item against a signature while assuring fairness. The proposed proto- col, based on the Girault-Poupard-Stern signature scheme (a variation of the Schnorr scheme), assumes the existence of a trusted third party that, except in the setup phase, is involved in the protocol only when one of the parties does not

Olivier Markowitch; Shahrokh Saeednia

2001-01-01

375

Image classification: A novel texture signature approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel image classification methodology based on texture signature. The approach consists of four distinct steps: 1) feature extraction from texture images without using any prior knowledge (e.g. viewpoint, illumination condition); 2) textures are modelled as texture signatures; 3) model selection and reduction is used to remove noise and outliers; 4) texture image classification using

Wenda He; Reyer Zwiggelaar

2010-01-01

376

MMW, IR, and SAM signature collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of smart weapon's seeker\\/sensors, it is imperative to collect high quality signatures of the targets the system is intended to engage. These signatures are used to support algorithm development so the system can find and engage the targets of interest in the specific kill area on the target. Englin AFB FL is the AF development center for

Fred Reichstetter; Mary E. Ward

2002-01-01

377

Does Social Work Have a Signature Pedagogy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to discourse on signature pedagogy by reconceptualizing how our pedagogies are understood and defined for social work education. We critique the view that field education is social work's signature pedagogy and consider what pedagogies are distinct about the teaching and learning of social work. Using Shulman's…

Earls Larrison, Tara; Korr, Wynne S.

2013-01-01

378

Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.  

PubMed

All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy. PMID:23945592

Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C; Aparicio, Samuel A J R; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V; Bignell, Graham R; Bolli, Niccolò; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinski, Marcin; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T W; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V; Puente, Xose S; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N; Span, Paul N; Teague, Jon W; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N J; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M; van 't Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R

2013-08-22

379

Real time gamma-ray signature identifier  

DOEpatents

A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

2012-05-15

380

Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer  

PubMed Central

All cancers are caused by somatic mutations. However, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here, we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer with potential implications for understanding of cancer etiology, prevention and therapy.

Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Aparicio, Samuel A.J.R.; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V.; Bignell, Graham R.; Bolli, Niccolo; Borg, Ake; B?rresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P.; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R.; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjord, Jorunn Erla; Foekens, John A.; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jager, Natalie; Jones, David T.W.; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A.; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V.; Puente, Xose S.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L.; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N.; Span, Paul N.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N.J.; Valdes-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M.; van 't Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P. Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M.; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elias; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

2013-01-01

381

Requirements, Verification, and Compliance (RVC) Database Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development, design, and implementation of the Requirements, Verification, and Compliance (RVC) database used on the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) project managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The RVC is a systems engineer's tool for automating and managing the following information: requirements; requirements traceability; verification requirements; verification planning; verification success criteria; and compliance status. This information normally contained within documents (e.g. specifications, plans) is contained in an electronic database that allows the project team members to access, query, and status the requirements, verification, and compliance information from their individual desktop computers. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) database software that contains networking capabilities, the RVC was developed not only with cost savings in mind but primarily for the purpose of providing a more efficient and effective automated method of maintaining and distributing the systems engineering information. In addition, the RVC approach provides the systems engineer the capability to develop and tailor various reports containing the requirements, verification, and compliance information that meets the needs of the project team members. The automated approach of the RVC for capturing and distributing the information improves the productivity of the systems engineer by allowing that person to concentrate more on the job of developing good requirements and verification programs and not on the effort of being a "document developer".

Rainwater, Neil E., II; McDuffee, Patrick B.; Thomas, L. Dale

2001-01-01

382

Processing Spectrograms as Digital Pictures to Separate Competing Line Signatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of extracting individual signatures from a (digital) spectrogram containing two or more line signatures amidst random noise is discussed. It is assumed that each signature family contains a dominant line and the method proposed is based on usi...

D. G. Nichol

1977-01-01

383

Validation of human papillomavirus genotyping by signature DNA sequence analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Screening with combined cytologic and HPV testing has led to the highest number of excessive colposcopic referrals due to high false positive rates of the current HPV testing in the USA. How best to capitalize on the enhanced sensitivity of HPV DNA testing while minimizing false-positive results from its lower specificity is an important task for the clinical pathologists. Methods The HPV L1 gene DNA in liquid-based Pap cytology specimens was initially amplified by the degenerate MY09/MY11 PCR primers and then re-amplified by the nested GP5+/GP6+ primers, or the heminested GP6/MY11, heminested GP5/MY09 primers or their modified equivalent without sample purification or DNA extraction. The nested PCR products were used for direct automated DNA sequencing. A 34- to 50-base sequence including the GP5+ priming site was selected as the signature sequence for routine genotyping by online BLAST sequence alignment algorithms. Results Of 3,222 specimens, 352 were found to contain HPV DNA, with 92% of the positive samples infected by only 1 of the 35 HPV genotypes detected and 8% by more than 1 HPV genotype. The most common genotype was HPV-16 (68 isolates), followed by HPV-52 (25 isolates). More than half (53.7%) of the total number of HPV isolates relied on a nested PCR for detection although the majority of HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 -35 and -58 isolates were detected by a single MY09/MY11 PCR. Alignment of a 34-base sequence downstream of the GP5+ site failed to distinguish some isolates of HPV-16, -31 and -33. Novel variants of HPV with less than "100% identities" signature sequence match with those stored in the Genbank database were also detected by signature DNA sequencing in this rural and suburban population of the United States. Conclusion Laboratory staff must be familiar with the limitations of the consensus PCR primers, the locations of the signature sequence in the L1 gene for some HPV genotypes, and HPV genotype sequence variants in order to perform accurate HPV genotyping.

Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Vigliotti, Jessica S; Pappu, Suri

2009-01-01

384

Legal Portraits Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Law School Library has quite an impressive collection of legal art and visual materials, and as of late, they have been working to digitize these works and place them online for the web-browsing public. The collection includes images of jurists, political figures, legal thinkers, and lawyers that date from the Middle Ages all the way up to the late twentieth century. As the website notes, the collection is quite strong in its coverage of eighteenth and nineteenth century British and American lawyers, including such luminaries as Jeremy Bentham and John Marshall. Visitors can search the collection at their leisure, and they can also look at the online exhibition titled "The Legal Portrait Project Online", if they wish to do so.

2003-01-01

385

Mediterranean Prehistory Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new online journal, which focuses on the prehistory and protohistory of the Mediterranean Basin, is published as an integrated part of the European Commission's Early Prehistoric Migrations project. As with many other online academic journals, Mediterranean Prehistory Online will select papers not only for their academic content but also for their use "of the opportunities provided by electronic publication and the HTML files." Article topics will include the results of archaeological research, data analyses, discussions on the information technologies and archaeology, as well as book and software reviews. Currently, abstracts and full-text are available for six articles. Topics include exploitation of Obsidian for tool making in the Italian Peninsula, the Early Upper Paleolithic of Croatia, and the extinction of Iberian Neandertals. In addition to articles, the site features an Arch News section and a collection of related links.

386

Evaluation of online documentation.  

PubMed Central

The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) implemented an online documentation system for patient care orders in 1994-1996. Developed entirely in-house, the INFORMM NIS (Information Network for Online Retrieval & Medical Management Nursing Information System) features order-generated task lists, defaulted charting responses, computer-generated chart forms, and graphical data displays. To measure the impact of automation on user perceptions, and documentation compliance, completeness, time, and location, a team of nursing and information systems representatives captured data before and after implementation. Staff surveys show more positive user perceptions. Documentation results indicate increased compliance and completeness, and a decrease or no change in time. Online documentation occurs mainly at unit workstations.

Prophet, C. M.; Krall, M. E.; Budreau, G. K.; Gibbs, T. D.; Walker, K. P.; Eyman, J. M.; Hafner, M. J.

1998-01-01

387

Journal of Online Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Online Behavior (JOB) "is concerned with the empirical study of human behavior in the online environment, and with the impact of evolving communication and information technology upon individuals, groups, organizations, and society." The peer-reviewed articles cross science and social science disciplinary boundaries as well as geographical boundaries. The electronic version of the journal, which is available free of charge, includes an interactive discussion space. Some topics addressed in the articles and research reports include comparative media effects on communication processes and outcomes; social-cognitive dynamics and their effects presented by online interaction; temporal and longitudinal analyses of media influences and adaptation; and media usage and effects by and among ethnic and cultural groups. This site is also reviewed in the April 22, 2005 _NSDL MET Report_.

388

Online Job Admission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of scheduling a maximum profit selection of jobs on m identical machines. Jobs arrive online one by one and each job is specified by its start and end time. The goal is to determine a non-preemptive schedule which maximizes the profit of the scheduled jobs, where the profit of a job is equal to its length. Upon arrival of a new job, an online algorithm must decide whether to accept the job (“admit the job”) or not. If the job is accepted, the online algorithm must be able to reorganize its already existing schedule such that the new job can be processed together with all previously admitted jobs, however, the algorithm need not specify on which machine the job will eventually be run.

Krumke, Sven O.; van Stee, Rob; Westphal, Stephan

389

Washington Post Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Washington Post has an online version on the Web. The site includes the full text of the daily edition, plus news from the 50 states, a daily congressional calendar, and over 1000 pages of links to news, reference and Web sites for over 200 countries around the world. Features include movie reviews, book reviews (along with selected first chapters of books), links to over fifteen online comic strips, and sports features. A searchable archive of the previous two weeks papers is available and, in the near future, an archive from 1986 to the present will be available. There are also several chat rooms on various subjects ranging from business to local Washington, DC issues. While the Post is well known for its international and national coverage, the online version is also very strong with respect to local area news.

1996-01-01

390

Online resources in pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question In the past few years, parents of children seen in my clinic are frequently conducting online searches relating to medical questions. How reliable are online resources in pediatrics and what guidance can I provide parents when searching online about their children’s health? Answer The use of the Internet to gather medical information has increased dramatically over the past decade, including in the field of pediatrics. The enormous amount of information is confusing to parents and providers alike, and general search engines have not done enough to distinguish reliable from biased information. Physicians can develop websites with reliable content, advise parents on how to identify reliable sources of information, and give examples of websites to review child health–related topics.

Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

391

HSIS: a BDD-based environment for formal verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional and timing verification are currently the bottlenecks in many design efforts. Simulation and emulation are extensively used for verification. Formal verification is now gaining acceptance in advanced design groups. This has been facilitated by the use of binary decision diagrams (BDDs). This paper describes the essential features of HSIS, a BDD-based environment for formal verification: 1. Open language design,

Adnan Aziz; Felice Balarin; Szu-Tsung Cheng; Ramin Hojati; Timothy Kam; Sriram C. Krishnan; Rajeev K. Ranjan; Thomas R. Shiple; Vigyan Singhal; Serdar Tasiran; Huey-Yih Wang; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1994-01-01

392

Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

1987-01-01

393

NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.

Piro, Markus [Royal Military College of Canada; Lewis, Brent [Royal Military College of Canada; Thompson, Dr. William T. [Royal Military College of Canada; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2010-01-01

394

MFTF sensor verification computer program  

SciTech Connect

The design, requirements document and implementation of the MFE Sensor Verification System were accomplished by the Measurement Engineering Section (MES), a group which provides instrumentation for the MFTF magnet diagnostics. The sensors, installed on and around the magnets and solenoids, housed in a vacuum chamber, will supply information about the temperature, strain, pressure, liquid helium level and magnet voltage to the facility operator for evaluation. As the sensors are installed, records must be maintained as to their initial resistance values. Also, as the work progresses, monthly checks will be made to insure continued sensor health. Finally, after the MFTF-B demonstration, yearly checks will be performed as well as checks of sensors as problem develops. The software to acquire and store the data was written by Harry Chow, Computations Department. The acquired data will be transferred to the MFE data base computer system.

Chow, H.K.

1984-11-09

395

Verification of NASA Emergent Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

396

News from VLT Science Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data from the UT1 Science Verifications (SV) have been released to the ESO community on October 2, 1998, with the data relative to the Hubble Deep Field South being available worldwide. The SV data can be retrieved either from the ESO Web server at http://www.eso.org/paranal/sv or ask the library of your institution for the CD-ROM set containing the combined and the raw data. These CD-ROM sets where mailed in October to all astronomical institutes within ESO member states (addressed to the institute's library). Since some sets are still available, interested people may get one by contacting ESO through the above Web page.

1998-12-01

397

Maximizing biomarker discovery by minimizing gene signatures  

PubMed Central

Background The use of gene signatures can potentially be of considerable value in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, gene signatures defined with different methods can be quite various even when applied the same disease and the same endpoint. Previous studies have shown that the correct selection of subsets of genes from microarray data is key for the accurate classification of disease phenotypes, and a number of methods have been proposed for the purpose. However, these methods refine the subsets by only considering each single feature, and they do not confirm the association between the genes identified in each gene signature and the phenotype of the disease. We proposed an innovative new method termed Minimize Feature's Size (MFS) based on multiple level similarity analyses and association between the genes and disease for breast cancer endpoints by comparing classifier models generated from the second phase of MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II), trying to develop effective meta-analysis strategies to transform the MAQC-II signatures into a robust and reliable set of biomarker for clinical applications. Results We analyzed the similarity of the multiple gene signatures in an endpoint and between the two endpoints of breast cancer at probe and gene levels, the results indicate that disease-related genes can be preferably selected as the components of gene signature, and that the gene signatures for the two endpoints could be interchangeable. The minimized signatures were built at probe level by using MFS for each endpoint. By applying the approach, we generated a much smaller set of gene signature with the similar predictive power compared with those gene signatures from MAQC-II. Conclusions Our results indicate that gene signatures of both large and small sizes could perform equally well in clinical applications. Besides, consistency and biological significances can be detected among different gene signatures, reflecting the studying endpoints. New classifiers built with MFS exhibit improved performance with both internal and external validation, suggesting that MFS method generally reduces redundancies for features within gene signatures and improves the performance of the model. Consequently, our strategy will be beneficial for the microarray-based clinical applications.

2011-01-01

398

DNA Methylation Signature of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression in T Cells of Both Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males. Methodology/Principal Findings Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males. Conclusions This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females.

Guillemin, Claire; Provencal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew; Cote, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

2014-01-01

399

Online Field Journal: Dioramas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online activity is part of the museum's Online Field Journal Web site, where young children can explore the wonders of nature with the help of an adult. Here, they can create a replica of one of three museum dioramas. On the opening page, the three featured dioramas are listed: Wetlands, Desert, and Fores. On the first page of each diorama activity, there is a full-color image of the diorama, plus links to printable pages with the diorama's background image and pieces. A separate instructions page is included that has kid-friendly step-by-step directions.

400

Statistics Online Computational Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) is a collection of downloadable applets, computational and graphing tools, and instructional materials for use in online data analysis, visualization, and integration. The tools are organized into categories by use: distributions (interactive graphs and calculators); experiments (computer-generated analogs of popular games and processes); analyses (tools for statistical data analysis); games (interfaces and simulations to real-life processes); data modelers (tools for distribution, polynomial and spectral model-fitting and simulation); and graphs, plots, and charts (comprehensive web-based tools for exploratory data analysis). There is also a collaborative collection (Wiki) of activities and educational materials that use these tools.

2005-02-08

401

Theology Journals Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website from the Blume Library at St. Mary's University offers a listing with links to over 50 online journals in theology. Each entry provides information as to access (many are free; some by subscription only), affiliation, and in some cases, a brief description of the journal. The sidebar menu also links visitors to relevant online indexes, such as Humanities Abstracts, as well as to internal Websites of related collections such as Theology Periodicals at the Blume Library and Resources for Biblical or Scriptural Analysis.

402

An Online Bioinformatics Curriculum  

PubMed Central

Online learning initiatives over the past decade have become increasingly comprehensive in their selection of courses and sophisticated in their presentation, culminating in the recent announcement of a number of consortium and startup activities that promise to make a university education on the internet, free of charge, a real possibility. At this pivotal moment it is appropriate to explore the potential for obtaining comprehensive bioinformatics training with currently existing free video resources. This article presents such a bioinformatics curriculum in the form of a virtual course catalog, together with editorial commentary, and an assessment of strengths, weaknesses, and likely future directions for open online learning in this field.

Searls, David B.

2012-01-01

403

Geology Online Laboratory Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 16 labs in this manual cover specific subjects from a range of topics including mineralogy, sedimentology, litho- and biostratigraphy, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, relative dating, and geologic map interpretation. Labs contain reference text, photos, illustrations, diagrams, and classification charts which prepare students for the accompanying exercises. Answers are not provided and labs are not designed for online interaction, but hard copies of the lab manual are available for purchase from the Georgia Perimeter College Online Bookstore. A link from the site provides ordering information and instructions.

Gore, P.; College, Georgia P.

404

Basics of online searching  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this book is to teach the principles of interactive bibliographic searching, or information retrieval to those with little or no prior experience. The major intended audiences are students, working information specialists and librarians, and end users, the people for whom all the searching is done. Material covers such topics as the nature of online searching, the kinds of files available online, the commands used to search for them, and the strategy used to perform a search - with numerous examples from real systems presented.

Meadow, C.T.; Cochrane, P.A.

1981-01-01

405

Security Management Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security Management Online is a website created for the Security Professional field. The site is filled with current articles, hot topics, and forums. Visitors can navigate the site by specific topics such as: Terrorism/Homeland Security, Airport Screening, School Security, and more. In addition, visitors can search by the type of resource they are seeking through quick links on the left side of the home page. These online links include Events, Archives, Forums, and links to additional resources. This site is a valuable research tool for anyone seeking current information about the latest security topics.

2006-11-18

406

Project Based Learning Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home site for PBL-Online.org, which provides comprehensive resources on the Project Based Learning model of instruction. Registered teacher-users have access to free templates for creating project-based activities, including assessment planning, project mapping, checklists, rubrics, and standards. Projects are stored in a database that may be searched by author, keyword, grade level, or topic. Background information on the Project Based Learning method and related research are also provided, along with strategies for implementation in the K-12 classroom. This web site was developed by the Buck Institute for Education specifically for use with the Project Based Learning Handbook, available for online purchase.

2009-11-20

407

A watermarking-based medical image integrity control system and an image moment signature for tampering characterization.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a medical image integrity verification system to detect and approximate local malevolent image alterations (e.g., removal or addition of lesions) as well as identifying the nature of a global processing an image may have undergone (e.g., lossy compression, filtering, etc.). The proposed integrity analysis process is based on nonsignificant region watermarking with signatures extracted from different pixel blocks of interest, which are compared with the recomputed ones at the verification stage. A set of three signatures is proposed. The first two devoted to detection and modification location are cryptographic hashes and checksums, while the last one is issued from the image moment theory. In this paper, we first show how geometric moments can be used to approximate any local modification by its nearest generalized 2-D Gaussian. We then demonstrate how ratios between original and recomputed geometric moments can be used as image features in a classifier-based strategy in order to determine the nature of a global image processing. Experimental results considering both local and global modifications in MRI and retina images illustrate the overall performances of our approach. With a pixel block signature of about 200 bit long, it is possible to detect, to roughly localize, and to get an idea about the image tamper. PMID:24240724

Coatrieux, Gouenou; Huang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Roux, Christian

2013-11-01

408

Using Macroinvertebrates to Evaluate the Condition of Ponds: On-Line Keys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macroinvertebrates are commonly used to evaluate the status of streams and rivers. The deep zones of lakes have also been used for this purpose. This project includes a protocol for using macroinvertebrates to compare and evaluate ponds and wetlands. Listed below are on-line keys that can help you identify macroinvertebrates. Minnesota Aquatic Insect Interactive Verification Program NYS DEC Key to Aquatic Macroinvertebrates EPA Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Our Waters ...

Engelman, Mr.

2007-11-03

409

Final Report: Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum Online (ITLC Online)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum Online (ITLC Online) was a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation for Students with Disabilities Phase 1 (Development) project awarded to the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University (WIU). ITLC Online's goal was to improve services for young children with…

Robinson, Linda; Johanson, Joyce; Schneider, Carol; Hutinger, Patricia

2006-01-01

410

Online Instruction as "Local" Education: CUNY's Online Baccalaureate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City University of New York is taking a new, local approach to online instruction: offering an online baccalaureate for degree completers, designed for NYC students who have "stopped out" in good academic standing and need the "any time" flexibility of asynchronous learning to finish the degree. What is especially distinctive about this online

Otte, George

2007-01-01

411

An Optimization Strategy to Feature Models' Verification by Eliminating Verification-Irrelevant Features and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature models provide an effective approach to requirements reuse. One important problem related to feature models is the\\u000a verification problem, which is NP-complete in theory. The existing approaches to feature models’ verification mostly focus on how to automate the verification of feature\\u000a models using third-party’s tools, while these tools are usually designed to resolve general kinds of problems. However, by

Hua Yan; Wei Zhang; Haiyan Zhao; Hong Mei

2009-01-01

412

Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and superstructure are cooled with dedicated spray systems, in addition to special paint systems that are being developed for optimum stealth. This paper presents a method to develop requirements for the emissivity of a ship's coating that reduces the contrast of the ship against its background in the wavelength band or bands of threat sensors. As this contrast strongly depends on the atmospheric environment, these requirements must follow from a detailed analysis of the infrared signature of the ship in its expected areas of operation. Weather statistics for a large number of areas have been collected to produce a series of 'standard environments'. These environments have been used to demonstrate the method of specifying coating emissivity requirements. Results are presented to show that the optimised coatings reduce the temperature contrast. The use of the standard environments yields a complete, yet concise, description of the signature of the ship over its areas of operation. The signature results illustrate the strong dependence of the infrared signature on the atmospheric environment and can be used to identify those conditions where signature reduction is most effective in reducing the ship's susceptibility to detection by IR sensors.

Neele, Filip

2005-05-01

413

Students' Perceptions of Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a study that examined students' perceptions toward online practice and their developing attitudes toward the online learning process. The results indicated that both cultural background and personal qualities affect students' perceptions.

Isman, Aytekin; Gazi, Zehra Altinay; Aksal, Fahriye Altinay

2010-01-01

414

Online Identities and Social Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals\\u000a for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online\\u000a identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between\\u000a online identities and social networking.

Muthucumaru Maheswaran; Bader Ali; Hatice Ozguven; Julien Lord

2010-01-01

415

Seismoacoustic signatures of fracture connectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix as well as within connected fractures tends to produce significant seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion. While WIFF between fractures and matrix is well understood, the corresponding effects related to fracture connectivity and the characteristics of the energy dissipation due to flow within fractures are largely unexplored. In this work, we use oscillatory relaxation simulations based on the quasi-static poroelastic equations to study these phenomena. We first consider synthetic rock samples containing connected and unconnected fractures and compute the corresponding attenuation and phase velocity. We also determine the relative fluid displacement and pressure fields in order to gain insight into the physical processes involved in the two manifestations of WIFF in fractured media. To quantify the contributions of the two WIFF mechanisms to the total seismic attenuation, we compute the spatial distribution of the local energy dissipation. Finally, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis to study the role played by different characteristics of fracture networks on the seismic signatures. We show that in the presence of connected fractures both P wave attenuation and phase velocity are sensitive to some key characteristics of the probed medium, notably to the lengths, permeabilities, and intersection angles of the fractures as well as to the overall degree of connectivity of the fracture network. This, in turn, indicates that a deeper understanding of these two manifestations of WIFF in fractured media may eventually allow for the extraction of some of these properties from seismic data.

Rubino, J. Germán.; Müller, Tobias M.; Guarracino, Luis; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus

2014-03-01

416

Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states  

SciTech Connect

In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum signature scheme using two-particle entangled Bell states similar to the previous scheme using three-particle entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states [G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002)]. The proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the original scheme while providing a higher efficiency in transmission and reducing the complexity of implementation.

Li Qin [Department of Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chan, W. H. [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Long Dongyang [Department of Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2009-05-15

417

Recognizing impactor signatures in the planetary record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crater size reflects the target response to the combined effects of impactor size, density, and velocity. Isolating the effects of each variable in the cratering record is generally considered masked, if not lost, during late stages of crater modification (e.g., floor uplift and rim collapse). Important clues, however, come from the distinctive signatures of the impactor created by oblique impacts. In summary, oblique impacts allow for the identification of distinctive signatures of the impactor created during early penetration. Such signatures may further allow first-order testing of scaling relations for late crater excavation from the planetary surface record. Other aspects of this study are discussed.

Schultz, Peter H.; Gault, Donald E.

1992-01-01

418

Secure E-cheques for Joint Accounts with Collective Signing Using Forward-Secure Multi-signature Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the modern world going on-line for all businesses, we need to transact with various business organizations all over the world using different modes of payment obtained through various Financial Institutions. We propose a scheme for Joint Account Holders with collective signing agreement to issue e-cheques. Our scheme is based on multi-signatures. When an e-cheque belonging to a Joint Account

N. R. Sunitha; B. B. Amberker; Prashant Koulgi

2008-01-01

419

Language Learning Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

Donahue, Steven

2001-01-01

420

Oh No! It's Online!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last issue of this journal (Volume 60, Number 2), readers were introduced to Dr. Kelly McGyver. Her department head asked her to teach the 820 course when a colleague faced unexpected medical issues. The department head also requested her to redesign the biennial graduate-level course as an online course two months before the beginning…

Hoskins, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

421

An Online Library Catalogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the implementation of an online catalog in the library of the National Institute for Cancer Research and the Clinical and Experimental Oncology Institute of the University of Genoa. Topics addressed include automation of various library functions, software features, database management, training, and user response. (10 references) (MES)

Alloro, Giovanna; Ugolini, Donatella

1992-01-01

422

Online Matching Pennies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a repeated game in which one player, the prophet, acquires more information than another player, the follower, about the play that is going to be played. We characterize the optimal amount of information that can be transmitted online by the prophet to the follower, and provide applications to repeated games played by finite automata, and by players with

Olivier Gossner; Penelope Hernandez; Abraham Neyman

2003-01-01

423

New Consumer Online Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four conference presenters involved in consumer online services present information on new products both under development and in the process of implementation, commenting on technological, content, distribution, and consumer service issues. Products and companies discussed are eWorld (Apple Computer Europe); Olivetti Telemedia; CompuServe; and…

Collinge, Brian; And Others

1995-01-01

424

Teaching Online: 2 Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Impersonal, disconnected, and unfulfilling." That is how the author would have answered if anyone asked her 10 years ago what she thought of online teaching. As a teacher, she feeds off the energy of the crowd and thrives on exciting and entertaining her students to the point of drawing even the most resistant into attending class. When the…

Greco, Gina

2009-01-01

425

MOLS: MULTIPERFORMER ONLINE SYNTHESIZER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MOLS is a novel musical instrument that explores the usage of a web browser as a tool for collaborative music performance on-line. All the sounds are synthesized by an Actionscript application and the instrument can be simulta- neously controlled on real-time by two performers, each one using a separate browser. Therefore, remote creation and performance of music is now

Jorge Herrera

426

Online Telecommunications Demystified.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents of disabled children, the article explains the basics of telecommunications including uses, terminology (i.e. modem, baud rate, upload and download, protocol), shopping for a modem, telecommunications software, and what to expect when you log on. Sample online services are listed. (DB)

Moore, Jack

1989-01-01

427

NCI Visuals Online: Search  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation NCI Visuals Online Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Search Search for: Date Created: Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 to Any 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Sort

428

Free online mathematics books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Freebookcentre.net's mathematics section contains links to many technical books offered free online, either as html pages or downloadable pdfs. Books are arranged by subject: algebra, geometry, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, number theory, differential algebra, probability theory, trigonometry, and others.

429

An Online Education Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides basic information on five selected topics related to creating and implementing online educational programs. "Adult Learning" (John C. Reid) provides an overview of general learning theories and discusses the characteristics of adult learners, strategies for taking advantage of adults' traits and motivations in creating…

Carr, Victor; Locatis, Craig; Reid, John C.; Ullmer, Eldon; Weisberg, Michael

430

Online Conference Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an application designed to manage submitted conference articles, participants, reviewers, venue and finances of a conference. The application allows complete online processing of a paper from submission to print-ready document. Build on three access levels, it also provides real-time statistics of submitted papers, finances and venue needed for accurate conference planning and also an integrated notification system

O. Popovici; A. Stoica

431

Reflective Teaching Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of reflective teaching to bridge the gap between theory and practice focuses on incorporating reflective teaching in online teacher education classes for inservice teachers. Highlights include discussion roles; longitudinal reflection papers; instructor self-storying reflections; tandem learning reflections; critical incident…

Pawan, Faridah

2003-01-01

432

EHS Online Safety Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Oklahoma State University provides access to a number of occupational safety modules. All modules are available to view online, and some include PowerPoint or Microsoft Word documents as well. Topics include electrical safety, lockout/tagout, safety data sheets, asbestos and bloodborne pathogens.

2013-08-06

433

Online Medical CBT Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The website MedicalEducation.nl enables to students to access online medical Computer Based Training material any time and any place. For three types of embedding of CBT material in a medical curriculum, the relation between embedding type and usage statistics are described. The introduction of competition is shown to enhance CBT re-usage.

A. J. M. De Man; P. M. Bloemendaal; S. Eggermont

2007-01-01

434

Online stock trading platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a

Ion LUNGU; Adela BARA; Vlad DIACONITA

2006-01-01

435

Engagement in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet and World Wide Web are transforming delivery of education and making it possible for more individuals than ever to have access to knowledge any time and place across the globe. The extent of learner engagement is key to online learning environments. Constructivist learning theory, an emerging theory of connectivity, and Merrill's…

Suttle, Catherine M.

2010-01-01

436

Online Learning: Research Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book comprises an overview and 11 chapters that address issues related to flexible approaches to delivery and online learning in particular. "Overview" (Guthrie) highlights key points drawn from the chapters. "Does Digital Literacy Mean More Than Clicking Your Fingers?" (Candy) discusses the importance of information and communication…

Guthrie, Hugh, Ed.

437

Coastal Erosion Online Discussion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students are given the following: Read the articles below about erosion along the Lake Erie shoreline and discuss them. What causes the erosion? What can be done to prevent erosion? Should people be allowed to build structures to protect their property from erosion? Should people be allowed to live along the shoreline in high erosion areas? Students are expected to have completed the coastal erosion module (read text book, view powerpoint lecture and take a quiz) and read articles regarding coastal erosion along the Lake Erie coastline. In the online discussion, students must show that they understand coastal processes, the impact of man made structures on coastal processes, and can apply their values as they discuss what should be done, if anything, to reduce the impact of coastal erosion. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment This was designed as an online activity. I have also used it in face-to-face courses (students participate in online discussion prior to in-class discussion). Elements of this activity that are most effective This gets students thinking about how what they learn in class can be used to solve real problems faced by the local community and/or the world. Although some students propose impractical solutions, they are at least thinking. Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course: Find local issues and/or global issues that show how geology can be used to solve problems.

Roberts, Sheila

438

Online Information Retrieval Bibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first update of the bibliography on online information retrieval that was published as a supplement to Vol. 1 of this journal. Entries are divided into seven sections; within each section, they are listed alphabetically by author. Permuted titled (KWIC) and author indexes are included. (Author/JPF)

Hawkins, Donald T.

1978-01-01

439

Online Association Rule Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We presentanovel algorithm to compute large itemsets online. The user is free to change the support threshold any time during the #rst scan of the transaction sequence. The algorithm maintains a superset of all large itemsets and for each itemset a shrinking, deterministic interval on its support. After at most 2 scans the algorithm terminates with the precise support for

Christian Hidber

1999-01-01

440

Online Learning with Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kernel based algorithms such as support vector machines have achieved considerable success in various problems in the batch setting where all of the training data is available in advance. Support vector machines combine the so-called kernel trick with the large margin idea. There has been little use of these methods in an online setting suitable for real-time applications. In this

Jyrki Kivinen; Alex J. Smola; Robert C. Williamson

2001-01-01

441

Online interval scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the online interval scheduling problem,in which a set of intervals of the positive realline is presented to a scheduling algorithm in orderof start time. Upon seeing each interval, thealgorithm must decide whether or not to "schedule" it. Overlapping intervals may not be scheduledtogether. We give a strongly 2-competitivealgorithm for the case in which intervals mustbe one of two

Richard J. Lipton; Andrew Tomkinst

1994-01-01

442

Managing Online Survey Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing data collected from online surveys may be a straightforward process involving no more than downloading a spreadsheet from a Web survey host and presenting descriptive statistics associated with each questionnaire item. On the other hand, if the evaluation objectives require more complex analysis and presentation of the data, it will be…

Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

2007-01-01

443

ONLINE MONITORING USING KISMET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges and universities currently use online exams for student evaluation. Stu- dents can take assigned exams using their laptop computers and email their results to their instructor; this process makes testing more efficient and convenient for both students and faculty. However, taking exams while connected to the Internet opens many opportunities for plagiarism and cheating. In this project, we design,

Sumit Kumar

2012-01-01

444

Chainguard - Online: Bicycle Advocacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chainguard online is a site devoted to bicycle advocacy information. It is dedicated to "increasing bicycle advocacy publicity and locating and uniting cycle advocates." It links to other major bicycle advocacy pages sorted by geographic area, as well as to conferences, an article on the top ten bicycle commuting cities, and Internet Backroads, a list of cycling mailing lists and Usenet news groups.

445

Psychiatry On-Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of psychiatry is one that is vast and rather complex, and fortunately for academics and practitioners in the field, the Psychiatry On-Line Web site provides a well-conceived international forum for the discipline. Edited and maintained since 1994 by Dr. Ben Green (a licensed psychiatrist in the United Kingdom), the site features peer-reviewed articles, papers, and case reports from around the world. Part of the Priory group, Psychiatry On-Line contains links to other germane online journals, including the Italian and Brazilian counterparts to the English-language version of Psychiatry On-Line. Visitors will want to browse the archives of previously featured papers, which are thematically organized under topics ranging from affective disorders to substance abuse. The general public will find the section Psychiatry in the Cinema of note, as Dr. Green offers commentary on the depiction of persons with psychiatric conditions (such as schizophrenia) in films like "A Beautiful Mind" and "As Good as it Gets."

446

Stanford's Online Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanford University (CA) is MOOC Central. While the school may not have launched the first massive open online course (MOOC), its efforts have propelled the concept to the forefront of higher education in a matter of months. Starting with Sebastian Thrun's Introduction to Artificial Intelligence course, which enrolled 160,000 students, Stanford…

Waters, John K.

2013-01-01

447

Merck Manuals Information Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merck Manuals Online Medical Library Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers is produced by Merck & Co., Inc., a global pharmaceutical company that believes in putting patients first. This Web site covers a wide range of topics divided into 25 sections, including drugs, digestive disorders, and mental health disorders. Other resources include anatomical drawings and 3-D models, pronunciations, weights and

Shelley M. White

2009-01-01

448

Banned Books Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Banned Books Online is a new Web page featuring books available on-line that have been the objects of censorship, particularly by legal authorities or by schools. The on-line exhibit gives short descriptions of the titles, which range from "Ulysses" to "Little Red Riding Hood". It also describes how and why each book was censored or suppressed. You can then follow hypertext links from the top-level page to the works themselves, so that you can see what the censors didn't want people to see. Pointers to other resources (both on- and off-line) on censorship issues and on-line literature are provided. The exhibit is based at Carnegie Mellon University, where the administration recently announced the university would censor numerous newsgroups (including text-based groups) related to sexuality, citing fears of legal liability as its reason. The exhibit is particularly appropriate now, as a reminder of the continuing struggle for free expression and the increasingly important role of computer-based forms of expression.

449

Online Access: User Reaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys reactions of students and faculty to the online circulation system at University of Guelph Library, Ontario. Findings concerning status of users, frequency of use, effectiveness of instructions on screen, convenience of terminal locations, type of information required by user, and general comments are noted. Four references are provided.…

Pawley, Carolyn

1982-01-01

450

Retrieving Product Documentation Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

2001-01-01

451

Online Material Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the hardest administrative duties for teacher-librarians seems to be collection development. One would think that the selection of books would be effortless, especially with the number of online bookstores offering used book discounts or free shipping for large orders. Deepening budget cuts and limited or untrained staff means collection…

Brisco, Shonda

2004-01-01

452

Mobile Nondestructive Assay Verification and Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mobile, real-time, nondestructive assay system has been developed for both nuclear material safeguards inventory verifications and measurements on the Hanford project. The system includes electronic and computer support equipment mounted in a specially ...

F. P. Brauer J. E. Fager J. H. Kaye R. J. Sorenson

1977-01-01

453

ETV PILOTS (ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was instituted to verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that threaten human health or the environment and was created to substantially accelerate the entrance of new environmental technologies ...

454

Verification of a Central American Peace Accord.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the background to, possible contexts of, and likely difficulties with an eventual Central American peace accord, particularly its verification. It begins with a brief analysis of the political, military and diplomatic background of the...

H. P. Klepak

1989-01-01

455

ETV - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) - RISK MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 1995, the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was established by EPA. The goal of ETV is to provide credible performance data for commercial-ready environmental technologies to speed their implementation for the benefit of vendors, purchasers, permitter...

456

29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Abatement verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are intended to result...This section sets forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure abatement. These...eliminate a recognized hazard identified by OSHA during an inspection. (2)...

2013-07-01

457

Temporal Verification of Reactive Systems: Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly twenty years ago, Amir and I (ZM) decided to write a series of three volumes summarizing the state of the art (at that time) on the verification of Reactive Systems using Temporal Logic techniques.

Manna, Zohar; Pnueli, Amir

458

HDM/PASCAL verification system user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HDM/Pascal verification system is a tool for proving the correctness of programs written in PASCAL and specified in the Hierarchical Development Methodology (HDM). This document assumes an understanding of PASCAL, HDM, program verification, and the STP system. The steps toward verification which this tool provides are parsing programs and specifications, checking the static semantics, and generating verification conditions. Some support functions are provided such as maintaining a data base, status management, and editing. The system runs under the TOPS-20 and TENEX operating systems and is written in INTERLISP. However, no knowledge is assumed of these operating systems or of INTERLISP. The system requires three executable files, HDMVCG, PARSE, and STP. Optionally, the editor EMACS should be on the system in order for the editor to work. The file HDMVCG is invoked to run the system. The files PARSE and STP are used as lower forks to perform the functions of parsing and proving.

Hare, D.

1983-01-01

459

Spacecraft Attitude Calibration/Verification Baseline Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A baseline study for a generalized spacecraft attitude calibration/verification system is presented. It can be used to define software specifications for three major functions required by a mission: the pre-launch parameter observability and data collecti...

L. C. Chen

1981-01-01

460

VERIFICATION OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a continuation of independent performance evaluations of environmental technologies under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Emissions of some greenhouse gases, most notably methane. can be controlled profitably now, even in the absence of regulations. ...

461

Calibration and verification of environmental models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of calibration and verification of mesoscale models used for investigating power plant discharges are considered. The value of remote sensors for data acquisition is discussed as well as an investigation of Biscayne Bay in southern Florida.

Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Weinberg, N.; Hiser, H.

1976-01-01

462

CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia...

M. W. Edenburn M. L. Bunting A. C. Payne

1997-01-01

463

Capella's Corps of Online Advisors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new model of advisement services for online learners that was developed at Capella University, a totally virtual campus. Discusses advisors' training, that included learning about the characteristics of adult learners and differences between online learning and traditional settings; and a course that teaches online learning strategies.…

Distance Education Report, 2001

2001-01-01

464

Active Learning through Online Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented through online

Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

2010-01-01

465

Awareness Development for Online Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world in which online reading is becoming increasingly common and, as a consequence, online literacy more and more necessary, this paper focuses on possibility of training L2 (second language) readers to bridge the gap between paper reading and online reading. Many researchers believe metacognitive awareness to be the most important ability…

Zenotz, Victoria

2012-01-01

466

Video Streaming in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

2006-01-01

467

Creating an Effective Online Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online courses present a number of challenges particular to their format. Besides basic technological proficiency, online courses require students to possess an array of well-developed non-academic skills; students must be able to manage time, stay organized, and recognize when and how to ask for help. Online courses also require instructors to be…

Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Edgecombe, Nikki; Stacey, Georgia West

2013-01-01

468

Web conferencing in online classrooms.  

PubMed

Web conferencing is a promising tool for online education. A well-developed teaching strategy can lead to effective use of this technology to create a sense of community, engage students, and promote academic integrity in online courses. This article presents strategies for integrating Web conferencing into online nursing courses. PMID:24937291

Hart, Leigh

2014-01-01

469

Changing Demographics of Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professors of online courses often consider the type of learning styles the students may have when designing online learning opportunities. This study explored different issues that may impact the learning styles of learners who self-select online courses. The "Grasha-Riechmann student learning style scales" was used to determine the learning…

Brown, Victoria

2011-01-01

470

Blockage correction in three-dimensional wind tunnel testing based on the wall signature method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved wall interference assessment and correction method for three-dimensional wind tunnel testing is presented. Blockage corrections on the surface of a test article are calculated based on a limited number of wall pressure measurements. These measurements are combined with a signature analysis procedure and influence functions to determine an equivalent test article and wake representation. Pressure coefficient corrections are calculated based on this equivalent body. The signature analysis procedure is modified to improve the on-line operation of the wall signature method. A new geometry of the equivalent body is introduced which can be combined with existing panel codes more effectively. The calculation of influence functions and the determination of pressure coefficient corrections are based on a panel code. Therefore it is possible to apply the present method to any closed tunnel cross section. A numerical simulation of the idealized flow field of a wing and its wake in a rectangular wind tunnel is used to verify the improved wall signature method. The present method is considered to calculate blockage corrections in the NASA/ARC 12ft Pressure Wind Tunnel.

Ulbrich, N.; Lo, C. F.; Steinle, F. W., Jr.

1992-01-01

471

Real-time fingerprint verification system.  

PubMed

Access to security spaces and the verification of credit cards require, ideally, a simple and inexpensive system that combines accuracy with a high resistance to compromise. We have been investigating such a system. This system incorporates a novel fingerprint input arrangement that permits the use of optical pattern recognition for fingerprint verification in real time. Test results together with design considerations are reported. PMID:20720661

Gamble, F T; Frye, L M; Grieser, D R

1992-02-10

472

Certifiable Specification and Verification of C Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach to the specification and verification of C programs through an annotation language that is a mixture between JML and the language of Isabelle/HOL is proposed. This yields three benefits: specifications are concise and close to the underlying mathematical model; existing Isabelle theories can be reused; and the leap of faith from specification language to encoding in a logic is small. This is of particular relevance for software certification, and verification in application areas such as robotics.

Lüth, Christoph; Walter, Dennis

473

Integration of pattern matching into verification flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPC verification problems tend to get more complicated in terms of coding complexity and TAT (turnaround time) increase as the gate length get smaller. A well known example of coding complexity is waivers (OPC verification errors that are priory known to be safe on silicon) detection and elimination. Potential locations for hot spots extraction as well could be a time consuming process if executed on full chips. And finally, OPC verification flows run time is sometimes even larger than OPC runs. In this work, we introduce the use of pattern matching as a potential solution for many verification flows problems. Pattern matching offers a great TAT advantage since it is a DRC based process, thus it is much faster than time consuming LITHO operations. Also, its capability to match geometries directly and operability on many layers simultaneously eliminates complex SVRF coding from our flows. Firstly, we will use the pattern matching in order not to run OPC verification on basic designs identified by the OPC engineer to be error free, which is a very useful technique especially in Memory designs and improves the run time. Then, it will be used to detect waivers, which is hard to code, while running verification flows and eliminate it from the output, and consequently the reviewer will not be distracted by it and concentrate on real errors. And finally, it will be used to detect hot spots in a separate very quick run before standard LITHO verification run which gives the designer/OPC engineer the opportunity to fix design/OPC issues without waiting for lengthy verification flows, and that in turns further improves TAT.

Desouky, Tamer; Saeed, Omnia

2012-03-01

474

Dynamic testing for shuttle design verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space shuttle design verification requires dynamic data from full scale structural component and assembly tests. Wind tunnel and other scaled model tests are also required early in the development program to support the analytical models used in design verification. Presented is a design philosophy based on mathematical modeling of the structural system strongly supported by a comprehensive test program; some of the types of required tests are outlined.

Green, C. E.; Leadbetter, S. A.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

1972-01-01

475

The reduced frequency unannounced verification model  

SciTech Connect

The quantification of inspection randomization models within the context of international safeguards is extended to include the possibility of false alarms associated with measurement errors. Results are used to refine a fuel cycle approach based on randomization of verification across nuclear facilities (the reduced frequency unannounced verification model). Earlier conclusions regarding the usefulness of the model as a means to conserve inspection resources and to reduce safeguards intrusiveness are confirmed.

Canty, M.J.; Stein, G. (Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, Julich (DE)); Avenhaus, R. (Universitat der Bundeswehr, Munich (DE))

1988-01-01

476

The NPARC Alliance Verification and Validation Archive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NPARC Alliance (National Project for Applications oriented Research in CFD) maintains a publicly-available, web-based verification and validation archive as part of the development and support of the WIND CFD code. The verification and validation methods used for the cases attempt to follow the policies and guidelines of the ASME and AIAA. The emphasis is on air-breathing propulsion flow fields with Mach numbers ranging from low-subsonic to hypersonic.

Slater, John W.; Dudek, Julianne C.; Tatum, Kenneth E.

2000-01-01

477

A verification library for multibody simulation software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multibody dynamics verification library, that maintains and manages test and validation data is proposed, based on RRC Robot arm and CASE backhoe validation and a comparitive study of DADS, DISCOS, and CONTOPS that are existing public domain and commercial multibody dynamic simulation programs. Using simple representative problems, simulation results from each program are cross checked, and the validation results are presented. Functionalities of the verification library are defined, in order to automate validation procedure.

Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Frisch, Harold P.

1989-01-01

478

Verification, Validation & Testing Strategy and Planning Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new systems engineering approach for verification and validation (V&V) planning: the Verification, Validation & Testing (VVT) Strategy and Planning Procedure. This iterative planning technique offers an effective method for the deeper integration of V&V planning with other systems engineering disciplines and supports the maximal fulfilment of the project goals and objectives. Since V&V is an important

Viktor Lévárdy; Markus Hoppe; Eric Honour

479

Doctoral Dissertations in Musicology Online: DDM Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the Indiana University School of Music, is the online version of a long established book catalog of the American Musicological Society. It is a searchable and browsable listing of bibliographic information about musicology dissertations. Citations can be browsed by time period or searched by keyword. Completed and in progress dissertations from mid-1995 are available for all time periods, and dissertations from earlier print DDMs are available for the general, Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Renaissance categories. There is also a complete index of authors. Information is available on the DDM codes that accompany each record. The IU School of Music has converted all of the content of earlier DDMs to electronic format.

Butler, Nicholas M.; Mathiesen, Thomas J.

1997-01-01

480

Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

2007-01-01

481

25 CFR 213.10 - Lessor's signature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.10 Lessor's signature. Any Indian who cannot write his name will be...

2011-04-01

482

Hyperspectral signature modeling for terrain backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of our efforts to develop a digital hyperspectral signature model for terrain features. The infrared signature model development was conducted in conjunction with a parallel spectral phenomenology research program devoted to understanding and exploiting spectral data for landmine detection. That effort identified a need for a dynamic hyperspectral signature model to support target detection algorithm development. One requirement of that model was the need for a model of spectral infrared signatures of various terrain features (e.g., soils) that accounts for the impact of various dynamical environmental factors and processes. A discussion of the terrain modeling approach, the underlying analytical basis, and results from the model computations will be presented.

Cathcart, J. Michael; Worrall, Robert V.; Cash, Daniel P.

2006-06-01

483

5 CFR 850.106 - Electronic signatures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...i) Personal Identification Number (PIN) or password; (ii) Smart card; (iii) Digitized signature; or (iv) Biometrics, such as fingerprints, retinal patterns, and voice recognition; (2) Cryptographic control methods, includingâ...

2014-01-01

484

Quantum Mechanical Stabilization of Minkowski Signature Wormholes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When one attempts to construct classical wormholes in Minkowski signature Lorentzian spacetimes violations of both the weak energy hypothesis and averaged weak energy hypothesis are encountered. Since the weak energy hypothesis is experimentally known to ...

M. Visser

1989-01-01

485

Bayesian Separation of Lamb Wave Signatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A persistent problem in the analysis of Lamb wave signatures in experimental data is the fact that several different modes appear simultaneously in the signal. The modes overlap in both the frequency and time domains. Attempts to separate teh overlapping ...

S. W. Kercel

2001-01-01

486

Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phycoerythrin (PE) refers to a family of highly fluorescent photosynthetic pigments found in some marine phytoplankton. In subtropical and temperate waters, PE-producing organisms are common enough that a spectral signature for PE can be obtained from bul...

A. M. Wood

2007-01-01

487

Lagrangian Transport Signatures in Models and Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the overall objective of identifying and comparing Lagrangian transport signatures in models and observations, we are primarily interested in two aspects of the problem: (1) What do Lagrangian features tell us about mixing processes across eddy bou...

H. S. Huntley J. A. Kirwan J. B. Lipphardt

2011-01-01

488

The direct determination of the masses of unstable atoms with the chalk river on-line isotope separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique has been developed to measure the spacing of atomic mass doublets of radioactive isotopes directly with an on-line isotope separator. It relies not on ion detection but on observation of the specific radioactive signature of the isotopes under study. Consequently, line shapes and centroids can be determined, free of interference and with great accuracy, even if the

K. S. Sharma; H. Schmeing; H. C. Evans; E. Hagberg; J. C. Hardy; V. T. Koslowsky

1989-01-01

489

Signature scheme based on bilinear pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An identity-based signature scheme is proposed by using bilinear pairs technology. The scheme uses user's identity information as public key such as email address, IP address, telephone number so that it erases the cost of forming and managing public key infrastructure and avoids the problem of user private generating center generating forgery signature by using CL-PKC framework to generate user's private key.

Tong, Rui Y.; Geng, Yong J.

2013-03-01

490

Signtiming scheme based on aggregate signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timestamping is a cryptographic technique providing us with a proof-of-existence of a digital document at a given time. Combining both digital signature and provable time-stamping guarantees authentication, integrity and non-repudiation of electronic documents. In this paper, we introduce such a service, so called signtiming. Our scheme is based on an ID-based aggregate signature and is secure in the random oracle

Duc-phong Le; Alexis Bonnecaze; Alban Gabillon

2008-01-01

491

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

2012-01-03

492

Kinematics of signature writing in healthy aging.  

PubMed

Forensic document examiners (FDE) called upon to distinguish a genuine from a forged signature of an elderly person are often required to consider the question of age-related deterioration and whether the available exemplars reliably capture the natural effects of aging of the original writer. An understanding of the statistical relationship between advanced age and handwriting movements can reduce the uncertainty that may exist in an examiner's approach to questioned signatures formed by elderly writers. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine age-related changes in signature kinematics in healthy writers. Forty-two healthy subjects between the ages of 60-91 years participated in this study. Signatures were recorded using a digitizing tablet, and commercial software was used to examine the temporal and spatial stroke kinematics and pen pressure. Results indicated that vertical stroke duration and dysfluency increased with age, whereas vertical stroke amplitude and velocity decreased with age. Pen pressure decreased with age. We found that a linear model characterized the best-fit relationship between advanced age and handwriting movement parameters for signature formation. Male writers exhibited stronger age effects than female writers, especially for pen pressure and stroke dysfluency. The present study contributes to an understanding of how advanced age alters signature formation in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24673648

Caligiuri, Michael P; Kim, Chi; Landy, Kelly M

2014-07-01

493

Assessing the Quality of Bioforensic Signatures  

SciTech Connect

We present a mathematical framework for assessing the quality of signature systems in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility—a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics (SQM). We demonstrate the SQM approach by assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system consists of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated fifteen combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We demonstrated that SQM can be used to distinguish between the various combinations in terms of attributes of interest. The approach assisted in clearly identifying assays that were least informative, largely in part because they only could discriminate between very few culture media, and in particular, culture media that are rarely used. There are limitations associated with the data that were used to train and test the signature system. Consequently, our intent is not to draw formal conclusions regarding this particular bioforensic system, but rather to illustrate an analytical approach that could be useful in comparing one signature system to another.

Sego, Landon H.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Gosink, Luke J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Brothers, Alan J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Tardiff, Mark F.

2013-06-04

494

Visual inspection for CTBT verification  

SciTech Connect

On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

1997-03-01

495

Learning Assumptions for Compositional Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositional verification is a promising approach to addressing the state explosion problem associated with model checking. One compositional technique advocates proving properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. However, the application of this technique is difficult because it involves non-trivial human input. This paper presents a novel framework for performing assume-guarantee reasoning in an incremental and fully automated fashion. To check a component against a property, our approach generates assumptions that the environment needs to satisfy for the property to hold. These assumptions are then discharged on the rest of the system. Assumptions are computed by a learning algorithm. They are initially approximate, but become gradually more precise by means of counterexamples obtained by model checking the component and its environment, alternately. This iterative process may at any stage conclude that the property is either true or false in the system. We have implemented our approach in the LTSA tool and applied it to the analysis of a NASA system.

Cobleigh, Jamieson M.; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

496

Verification of CHAMP Accelerometer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-sensitive accelerometers have been implemented on board of the geophysical CHAMP satellite, and even more sensitive have been or will be implemented on board of GRACE and GOCE. The accelerometers (will) provide information for separating non-conservative accelerations from gravity and help to prevent aliasing into the gravity field models that are to be derived from all the different types of observations to be provided by these missions, including GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST), lowlow SST and satellite gravity gradient (SGG) measurements. One of the issues that needs to be addressed is the verification of the accelerometer observations. Two methods have been applied to CHAMP accelerometer data, which were kindly provided by the GeoForSchungsZentrum in Potsdam, Germany. In both methods, a GPS-based precise CHAMP orbit is used as reference. In the first method, one constant atmospheric drag scale factor is estimated using the precise CHAMP orbit as observations using different atmospheric density models. Solar radiation pressure and albedo are included in the non-conservative force models. The total resulting non-conservative accelerations are compared directly with the accelerometer observations resulting in bias and scale factor estimates. In the second method, the accelerometer observations are used instead of non-conservative force models and an accelerometer bias and scale factor are estimated. The sensitivity of both methods to gravity field model error has been investigated, since the improvement of such models is the the primary objective of the aforementioned satellite missions.

Visser, P.; van den Ijssel, J.

497

Development of advanced seal verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research is to develop a technique to monitor and insure seal integrity with a sensor that has no active elements to burn-out during a long duration activity, such as a leakage test or especially during a mission in space. The original concept proposed is that by implementing fiber optic sensors, changes in the integrity of a seal can be monitored in real time and at no time should the optical fiber sensor fail. The electrical components which provide optical excitation and detection through the fiber are not part of the seal; hence, if these electrical components fail, they can be easily changed without breaking the seal. The optical connections required for the concept to work does present a functional problem to work out. The utility of the optical fiber sensor for seal monitoring should be general enough that the degradation of a seal can be determined before catastrophic failure occurs and appropriate action taken. Two parallel efforts were performed in determining the feasibility of using optical fiber sensors for seal verification. In one study, research on interferometric measurements of the mechanical response of the optical fiber sensors to seal integrity was studied. In a second study, the implementation of the optical fiber to a typical vacuum chamber was implemented and feasibility studies on microbend experiments in the vacuum chamber were performed. Also, an attempt was made to quantify the amount of pressure actually being applied to the optical fiber using finite element analysis software by Algor.

Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.; Abushagur, Mustafa A.

1992-01-01

498

Development of advanced seal verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to develop a technique to monitor and insure seal integrity with a sensor that has no active elements to burn-out during a long duration activity, such as a leakage test or especially during a mission in space. The original concept proposed is that by implementing fiber optic sensors, changes in the integrity of a seal can be monitored in real time and at no time should the optical fiber sensor fail. The electrical components which provide optical excitation and detection through the fiber are not part of the seal; hence, if these electrical components fail, they can be easily changed without breaking the seal. The optical connections required for the concept to work does present a functional problem to work out. The utility of the optical fiber sensor for seal monitoring should be general enough that the degradation of a seal can be determined before catastrophic failure occurs and appropriate action taken. Two parallel efforts were performed in determining the feasibility of using optical fiber sensors for seal verification. In one study, research on interferometric measurements of the mechanical response of the optical fiber sensors to seal integrity was studied. In a second study, the implementation of the optical fiber to a typical vacuum chamber was implemented and feasibility studies on microbend experiments in the vacuum chamber were performed. Also, an attempt was made to quantify the amount of pressure actually being applied to the optical fiber using finite element analysis software by Algor.

Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.; Abushagur, Mustafa A.

1992-09-01

499

Black holes, cosmological singularities and change of signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a widespread belief that signature type change could be used to avoid spacetime singularities. We show that signature change cannot be utilised to this end unless the Einstein equation is abandoned at the suface of signature type change. We also discuss how to solve the initial value problem and show to which extent smooth and discontinuous signature changing

Marcus Kriele; Jérôme Martin

1995-01-01

500

Forward-Secure Signatures with Fast Key Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regular digital signatures, once the secret key is compromised, all signatures, even those that were issued by the honest signer before the compromise, will not be trustworthy any more. Forward-secure signatures have been proposed to address this major shortcoming. We present a new forward-secure signature scheme, called KREUS, with several advantages. It has the most efficient Key Update of

Anton Kozlov; Leonid Reyzin

2002-01-01