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Sample records for only child

  1. The Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marcia Ellen McGuire

    This review of the literature on the "only child" indicates that the single child is likely to be oriented more toward adults than towards peers, to be subjected more to an adult culture, to be an achiever who strikes out on his own, and to have a heightened sense of responsibility compared with children who have siblings. Statistics show only…

  2. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  3. Only, Not Lonely: Reflections of an Only Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Libby

    2006-01-01

    Libby Zimmerman, an early childhood consultant, explores the negative stereotypes of only children and reflects on her experiences being an only child and raising an only child. Despite decades of research pointing to the contrary, there is still a lingering suspicion that only children are spoiled, asocial, and maladjusted. The author traces the…

  4. The Only Child Factor in Homosexual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the life experiences and attitudes of homosexual women with only-child status reveals that their emotional and social development is less favorable than that of homosexual women who had siblings. Only-child status is an important variable in understanding child development. (Author/CS)

  5. Reasons for Having an Only Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    1978-01-01

    Reports the situational and psychological reasons why parents have just one child. The situational reasons include biological factors and marital stability. Psychological reasons concern factors in the decision-making process that lead individuals to have an only child. (Author/MA)

  6. The Paradoxical Status of the Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terhune, Kenneth W.

    This paper explores the popular stereotypes and research relating to the single child family. Advantages small families experience include more money available for each child, more attention from parents, healthier children, higher intelligence among the children, and less family tension. Concern over only children centers on their being spoiled…

  7. Self-Medication and the Only Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ronald L.; Lerner, Steven E.

    1972-01-01

    Study results reveal certain personal conflicts predisposing the use of tranquilizers, related to the family structure unique to the only child. Further research is required to substantiate these findings and related causes. (Author)

  8. Folklore and the Only Child: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    Two studies are reported: one examines stereotypes about only children and the other examines stereotypes about mothers of only children. A sample of 150 college students were the subjects for the first study which utilized the Prisoner's Dilemma Game, the NASA exercise, and a questionnaire to test the hypotheses that only children are selfish,…

  9. Three's Company: Family Therapy with Only-Child Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Gail C.

    1981-01-01

    Only children and their parents may have special problems settling the issues of parent-child identification and attachment. Children without siblings and their parents face a continuing oedipal triangle unless the parents maintain united partnership at best, or at least are able to encourage independence in the child. (Author)

  10. Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu

    2014-05-01

    China has had the one-child policy for more than 30 years. It reduced China's population growth within a short period of time and promoted economic development. However, it has also led to difficulties, and this paper focuses on those which pertain to ageing and losing one's only child. Approximately one million families have lost their only child in China. They suffer mentally and physically, and sometimes face social stigma and economic loss. What worries them most, however, is elderly care, which has become a severe crisis for the families who have lost their only children. This article draws upon several qualitative studies and 12 cases reported by the Chinese media in 2012 and 2013, and existing laws and policies for supporting those who have lost only children. It also analyses the current elderly care situation facing these families. The Chinese government has recognized the predicament and provides some help, which is increasing but is still not always adequate. To both sustain China's economic development and limit population growth, it is essential for the government to reform the one-child policy and provide a comprehensive support system for the families who have lost their only children, including financial relief and elderly care, and work to reduce stigma against these families. PMID:24908462

  11. Boys as Only-Children and Girls as Only-Children--Parental Gendered Expectations of the Only-Child in the Nuclear Chinese Family in Present-Day China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…

  12. Dysfunction in the Single-Parent and Only-Child Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayrakal, Sadi; Kope, Teresa M.

    1990-01-01

    Compared 12 adolescent inpatients who were an "only child" in single-parent families to control group of adolescent patients matched for gender, family income, and diagnosis. Findings support hypothesis that, in this clinical sample, single-parent/only-child families and their adolescents would display greater degree of disturbance than control…

  13. Kinship Care and "Child-Only" Welfare Grants: Low Participation despite Potential Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Justine G.; Gibson, Priscilla A.; Bauer, Jean W.

    2010-01-01

    Several U.S. social policies identify kinship care as the preferred out-of-home placement. However, financial assistance to defray the cost of kinship caregiving is limited. One option is the child-only welfare grant. This study investigates kinship households' eligibility for, utilization of, and educational benefits associated with these grants.…

  14. A Precarious Passage: Aging out of the Child-Only Case Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    Child-only cases, minors who receive welfare benefits as individuals, lose their eligibility at age 18 but face the same challenges to self-sufficiency as other "emerging adults." This study examines how 59 youth in 4 New York State communities thought about and prepared for the termination of their benefits. In 8 focus groups and 12 follow-up…

  15. The Only Child: Sibling Presence-Absence or Single Parent Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, B. G.; Falk, F.

    First-borns who were only children (onlies) and first-borns who had a sibling were compared on measures of intelligence from late adolescence at 18 years of age to late middle age at 60. The sample was composed of 38 female and 33 male first-born subjects from one- and two-child families. Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale scores at late…

  16. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered. PMID:23174820

  17. The well-being of bereaved parents in an only-child society.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Jiang, Quanbao; Gietel-Basten, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    There are currently around a million Chinese households where the only child has died and the mother is beyond reproductive age. The number of such bereaved parents, known as shidu fumu, is forecast to increase to over 11 million by 2050. Using a sample survey conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province, the article explores the vulnerability of shidu fumu by various measures of well-being. Such parents are more vulnerable than nonbereaved parents in every respect. There are also significant differences in well-being between shidu fumu due to parental characteristics. We argue that policies supporting shidu fumu should be strengthened. PMID:26073691

  18. Being an only child: effects on educational progression and career orientation.

    PubMed

    Mott, F L; Haurin, R J

    1982-12-01

    This study uses data from the young men's and women's cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience to measure the independent effects of sibling number and placement on a number of educational, family, career, and social phychological outcomes as of age 24 for nationally representative samples of American youth. In particular, the study compares separately for young men and women the effects of being an only child with being the older of two children as well as the general importance of coming from a smaller rather than a larger family. The authors conclude that, while confluence theory is frequently supported by the data for both sexes, the corollary tutoring hypothesis is generally only validated for young women. The authors conjecture that this sex discrepancy may reflect a greater likelihood that the tutoring role within the family may be substantially affectively based, thus making it an activity that is more likely to be associated with female intrafamily role behavior. PMID:12264682

  19. Mental Health Condition of the Only-Child: A Study of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2005-01-01

    The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age =…

  20. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Undergraduate Students in Wuhan, China: The Only-Child versus Students with Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905

  1. The Future of Your Only Child: How to Guide Your Child to a Happy and Successful Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickhardt, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    One-child households have doubled over the last two decades making it one of the fastest growing family units in America. The author aids families in understanding the common traits of many adult "onlies"--like shyness, perfection, and intolerance--so that they can better prepare for potential outcomes. He also celebrates the positive qualities of…

  2. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology. PMID:26391339

  3. Childhood Memory and Self-Description in Young Chinese Adults: The Impact of Growing Up an Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Leichtman, Michelle D.; White, Sheldon H.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 225 Chinese young adults from only-child families and those with siblings to determine relationship between childhood memory and self-description. Found that, compared to subjects with siblings, only-children subjects had more private and fewer self-descriptions, earlier first memories, more specific and more self-focused memories. (LBT)

  4. Examining the Lives and Needs of Child-Only Recipient Kinship Caregivers: Heroes Stepping up to Help Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Kevin D.; Taylor, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Only in the last few years have researchers begun to pay close attention to the child-only cases that fall under the provision of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Few attempts have been made to talk directly to kinship caregivers to understand their day-to-day lives. This triangulated study utilizes multiple strategies to…

  5. Arts Involvement Predicts Academic Achievement Only When the Child Has a Musical Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Laura N.; Cordes, Sara; Winner, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between academic achievement and arts involvement (access to a musical instrument for the child at home, participation in unspecified after-school arts activities) in a sample of 2339 11-12-year-olds surveyed in the USA between 1998 and 2008. We compared the contributions of these variables to other kinds of cognitive…

  6. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  7. Mental health condition of the only-child: a study of urban and rural high school students in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N

    2005-01-01

    The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age = 17.2 years). Both locations are in the Heilongjiang Sheng Province of China. Results showed that urban only-children experienced significantly lower love awareness from family, higher neurotic and social depression, trait anxiety, perceived stressors, and interpersonal dependency than did urban non-only children. No significant differences were found in the rural only- and non-only children. Low love awareness from parents and peers was associated with high negative mental health conditions in the children. Low love awareness also precipitated perceived stressors which resulted in negative mental health in the covariance structure analysis. PMID:16468675

  8. Siblings and Child Development: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of the Literature on Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise F.; Falbo, Toni

    The present study involved a meta-analysis of 157 studies in which only children were compared with individuals raised with siblings. Findings failed to confirm the persistent negative stereotype of only children as maladjusted and disadvantaged. In fact, results suggested that only children are advantaged with respect to intelligence, educational…

  9. "I Am the Only Child of my Parents:" Perspectives on Future Elder Care for Parents among Chinese only-Children Living overseas.

    PubMed

    Gui, Tianhan; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The 1979 One-Child Policy in China created a generation of only children, leading to increased elder care dilemmas for this generation and its aging parents, particularly for young adults studying or working abroad. The current study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese young adults who were currently studying or working in Montreal, Canada (N = 20), whose parents still lived in China. The interviews focused on the following topics: elder care patterns of respondents' grandparents; family values and expectations; perceptions of professional long-term care institutions (in China and Canada); and future plans for taking care of aging parents. Respondents described their grandparents' care as following traditional elder care patterns with multiple familial caregivers, which they appreciated as a positive model that defined their own obligations towards parents. Respondents reported being very close to their parents. Some planned to settle down in Canada and bring their parents, others planned to go back to China. Citing the tradition of filial piety, they expected to take care of their parents in the future, but they also considered the dilemmas involved in caring for aging parents without siblings to share the task, potentially requiring them to find compromises between their personal lives and caring for older parents. Those who planned to settle in Canada raised additional concerns about the challenges of bringing over their parents, including acculturation and access to and communication with health and long-term care providers. The results are discussed in the context of contemporary demographic, economic, and policy concerns about aging, family care, and immigration. PMID:27236539

  10. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The bill... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218...

  11. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The bill... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218...

  12. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218 Administrative... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The...

  13. Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy: The Only-Child Disadvantage in School Enrollment in Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 14973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an…

  14. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204

  15. Getting a Job Is Only Half the Battle: Maternal Job Loss and Child Classroom Behavior in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather D.; Morris, Pamela A.; Castells, Nina; Walker, Jessica Thornton

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is…

  16. The Little Emperor: Chinese Parents' Assessment of Their Own, Their Partner's and Their Only Child's Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Wu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to examine whether Chinese parents, more than people from other nations, over-estimate the intelligence of their son (little emperor) compared to their daughter. In this study, 155 pairs of married couples from mainland China estimated their own, their partner's and their only child's overall intelligence and 13…

  17. Is Only a Small Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantin, Gerard

    Children's bodies are created by the surrounding culture and their bodies, in turn, reproduce the culture. From birth, children are separated from others in the name of scientific rigor, safety, and cultural assimilation. Children move from feeling (trusting their own touching, smelling, and tasting) to seeing, where they recognize that they…

  18. Only complementary voices tell the truth: a reevaluation of validity in multi-informant approaches of child and adolescent clinical assessments.

    PubMed

    Kaurin, Aleksandra; Egloff, Boris; Stringaris, Argyris; Wessa, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    Multi-informant approaches are thought to be key to clinical assessment. Classical theories of psychological measurements assume that only convergence among different informants' reports allows for an estimate of the true nature and causes of clinical presentations. However, the integration of multiple accounts is fraught with problems because findings in child and adolescent psychiatry do not conform to the fundamental expectation of convergence. Indeed, reports provided by different sources (self, parents, teachers, peers) share little variance. Moreover, in some cases informant divergence may be meaningful and not error variance. In this review, we give an overview of conceptual and theoretical foundations of valid multi-informant assessment and discuss why our common concepts of validity need revaluation. PMID:27118025

  19. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010–2011. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer’s Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. Results The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11–1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08–2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89–1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09–1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. Conclusions To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration. PMID:26675032

  20. Chinese Communist Party Central Committee calls on Party and Youth League members to take the lead in having only one child (per couple), [open letter, September 25, 1980].

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    This open letter from the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party concerns the question of controlling China's population growth. To limit the total population of China to 1.2 billion by the end of this century, the State Council has advocated 1 couple giving birth to only 1 child. China's total population will reach 1.3 billion after 20 years and will exceed 1.5 billion after 40 years. Besides the family needing to increase the cost of upbringing, increasing population also requires the state, in order to solve their education, employment, and otheer problem, to raise education expenditures, investments of equipment, and outlays for social and public utilities. The phenomenon of population "aging" will not occur within this century because at present 1/2 of the total national population is below the age of 21, while elderly people above age 65 consist of less than 5%. After 40 years of the practice of 1 child per couple, some families may experience the problem where the elderly lack people to care for them. In the future when production is developed and the people's lives are improved, social welfare and social security will certainly increase and improve continuously. To control population growth, the Party and government have already adopted a series of concrete policies; considerations and allowances are to be given to single children and their families with respect to admission to childcare centers and primar schools. Young comrades must begin with themselves, while old comrades must educate and supervise their own sons and daughters. PMID:12314777

  1. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  2. Design of the FRESH study: A randomized controlled trial of a parent-only and parent-child family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer M; Rhee, Kyung E; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard; Crow, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 1 out of 3 children in the United States is overweight or obese. Family-based treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity, but FBT is both staff and cost intensive. Therefore, we developed the FRESH (Family, Responsibility, Education, Support, & Health) study to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening with parents, without child involvement, to facilitate and improve the child's weight status. Targeting parents directly in the treatment of childhood obesity could be a promising approach that is developmentally appropriate for grade-school age children, highly scalable, and may be more cost effective to administer. The current paper describes the FRESH study which was designed to compare the effectiveness of parent-based therapy for pediatric obesity (PBT) to a parent and child (FBT) program for childhood obesity. We assessed weight, diet, physical activity, and parenting, as well as cost-effectiveness, at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Currently, all participants have been recruited and completed assessment visits, and the initial stages of data analysis are underway. Ultimately, by evaluating a PBT model, we hope to optimize available child obesity treatments and improve their translation into clinical settings. PMID:26358536

  3. "I Only Want to Know What You Know": The Use of Orienting Messages During Forensic Interviews and Their Effects on Child Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D; Anderson, Jennifer N; Krippner, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate orienting messages within the CornerHouse Forensic Interview Protocol in two formats: provided both at the outset and as needed throughout the interview compared to previous practice in which orienting messages were provided only as the opportunity arose. Through the content analysis of 120 videotaped forensic interviews and corresponding case files in which children were interviewed for sexual abuse allegations, results suggest that the use of orienting messages both at the beginning and as needed lead to significantly more autonomous responses from children, that use of more orienting messages was significantly related to more autonomous responses from children, and that the specific orienting messages of "can't/won't say" and "ask me a question" significantly predict more autonomous responses among children. Implications for practice include the use of orienting messages as a way to provide a respectful and safe experience for children participating in forensic interviews. PMID:27561121

  4. Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:20508755

  5. My Child Only Eats Certain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

  6. It's Only Natural: Mother's Love, Mother's Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural It's Only Natural Every woman’s journey to motherhood is ... a mom is how to feed your child. It's Only Natural helps African-American women and their ...

  7. The Advocacy or Avoidance of Only Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    A brief review of the psychological literature on the characteristics of only children is presented in order to determine if the one-child family should be avoided or advocated. The relevant literature is found to be limited in quantity and conceptualization of the only child. Previous literature is divided into three types of study: those with…

  8. Death of a Special Needs Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  9. Differential Socialization of Only and First-Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, B. G.; Hyde, Janet S.

    To examine socialization practices of mothers and fathers toward first-born children with and without a sibling, this study surveyed 151 adult first-born children (22 only-child females, 59 females with a sibling, 25 only-child males, and 45 males with a sibling) who completed a child-rearing practices report for each of their parents. The…

  10. Hands-Only CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR In Schools Hands-Only CPR Community CPR Tracker AED Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE ...

  11. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  12. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  13. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  14. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  15. Progestin-Only Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... of pregnancy is almost the same as the risk with regular birth control pills. With progestin-only pills, it’s very important ... pills at the same time every day, your risk of pregnancy increases. Remember that both kinds of birth control pills are better at preventing pregnancy than condoms ...

  16. English "Si," Only "No."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor, Jr.

    The English-only movement is about more than language; underlying it is bigotry against non-White, non-English-speaking immigrants. The term "Hispanic" is itself a Census Bureau creation which ignores the cultural and linguistic differences between such groups as the Mexican, Cuban, and Nicaraguan immigrants. The argument that a single language…

  17. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  18. The Only One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Afi-Odelia E.

    2010-01-01

    Tia Hall wanted to learn German. As a student at an elite private school, Hall felt that this was a reasonable request. But she still recalls the teacher who ridiculed her, saying, "Why on earth would a black kid want to study German?" She never forgot how it felt to be the "only one." As an adult, she married a man who'd had a similar school…

  19. Gas only nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  20. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  1. After All, Only Millions?

    PubMed Central

    Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An update on the census of species of Archaea and Bacteria published recently in mBio (P. D. Schloss, R. A. Girard, T. Martin, J. Edwards, and J. C. Thrash, mBio 7:e00201-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00201-16) showed again that, despite ever-increasing sequencing efforts, the PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA genes is approaching saturation. On average, 95% of the genes analyzed today are identical to those present in public databases, with rarefaction analysis indicating that about one-third of the bacterial and archaeal diversity has already been covered. Therefore, despite estimates of up to 1012 microbial species, the option should be considered that the census of Archaea and Bacteria on planet Earth might yield only millions of species after all. PMID:27381294

  2. After All, Only Millions?

    PubMed

    Amann, Rudolf; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    An update on the census of species of Archaea and Bacteria published recently in mBio (P. D. Schloss, R. A. Girard, T. Martin, J. Edwards, and J. C. Thrash, mBio 7:e00201-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00201-16) showed again that, despite ever-increasing sequencing efforts, the PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA genes is approaching saturation. On average, 95% of the genes analyzed today are identical to those present in public databases, with rarefaction analysis indicating that about one-third of the bacterial and archaeal diversity has already been covered. Therefore, despite estimates of up to 10(12) microbial species, the option should be considered that the census of Archaea and Bacteria on planet Earth might yield only millions of species after all. PMID:27381294

  3. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  4. Child Labour: The View from the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Reports British research findings that challenge the bias that child labor is a problem of only economically underdeveloped countries. Argues that child employment is evident within developed countries, but is largely invisible. Addresses positive and negative effects, and challenges to child labor/child work dichotomy. Debates underlying causes…

  5. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... go to the caregiver's home. Finally, there are child care centers. You need to choose the one that works for your family. It is important to get to know your child's caregivers. They will be a big part of ...

  6. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  7. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  8. Children's Interpretation of Ambiguous Focus in Sentences with "Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.; White, Diane; Filik, Ruth; Jaz, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    We report 3 studies investigating children's and adults' interpretation of ambiguous focus in sentences containing the focus-sensitive quantifier only. In each experiment, child and adult participants compared sentences with only in a preverbal position and counterpart sentences without only against a series of pictures depicting events that…

  9. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  10. China's only children and psychopathology: A quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's 1-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the 1-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: Only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale, while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. PMID:25894306

  11. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  12. The Young Child in Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    The question of what children need for optimal development is discussed. The "principle of optimum effects" is seen as fundamental: good for children is only good for them in the "right" of optimum proportions. Seven propositions about the needs of children are advanced: (1) The young child has to have a deep sense of safety; (2) every child has…

  13. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  14. Challenging the Stereotypes about Only Children: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancillas, Adriean

    2006-01-01

    The negative stereotypes of only children are pervasive despite a growing trend toward single-child families and evidence of the only child's strengths. People maintain definite beliefs about the characteristics of each ordinal position in a family, typically viewing only children as lonely, spoiled, and maladjusted. The author reviewed the…

  15. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  16. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  17. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  18. Children's Representation of Child and Adult Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitneva, Stanka A.

    2010-01-01

    Do children think that adult knowledge subsumes or only partially overlaps child knowledge? Sixty-four 4- and 6-year-old children were asked either whether a child and an adult know the answers to questions tapping adult- and child-specific knowledge (Experiment 1) or to whom each question should be addressed (Experiment 2). Children were also…

  19. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  20. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  1. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the ... mucus and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of ...

  2. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendless, or even suicidal If your family has developed a pattern of responding to disagreements with physical or emotional abuse If you or your spouse or child use alcohol or other drugs to feel better ...

  3. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  4. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  5. Outdoor Programmes for Women Only?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Tammy Leigh; Priest, Simon

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for women-only outdoor programs as an alternative to mixed programs, socialization and stereotyping of gender roles and behavior in society, and barriers to outdoor participation for women. Describes some women-only outdoor programs and their benefits and disadvantages. Provides recommendations concerning program design and…

  6. Do We Only Die Once?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals believe physical death is the only form of death we experience on this planet. Is such a belief valid? In the Western world, essentially, physical death is seen as the end of life on this planet. It's all over "here." But is physical death really the only form of death experienced while on earth? Physical death is…

  7. 20 CFR 410.330 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 410.330... relationship; child. As used in this section, the term beneficiary means only a widow entitled to benefits at... “father” only, in which case it means only a miner. An individual will be considered to be the child of...

  8. 20 CFR 410.330 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 410.330... relationship; child. As used in this section, the term beneficiary means only a widow entitled to benefits at... “father” only, in which case it means only a miner. An individual will be considered to be the child of...

  9. China's Only Children and Psychopathology: A Quantitative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's one-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the one-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments in order to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale; while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. PMID:25894306

  10. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The ...

  11. The only woman in town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-06-01

    As the only female physics faculty member based at the University of Tokyo - one of Asia's leading institutions - Mio Murao talks to Michael Banks about the challenges Japan faces in getting more women into the subject.

  12. Mother-Child Planning, Child Emotional Functioning, and Children's Transition to First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Susan M.; Gauvain, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Mother-child planning was examined in relation to child emotional functioning and first-grade school performance. Ninety dyads were randomly assigned to the explicit-goal condition (emphasized accuracy and preparation for a child-only posttest) or the no-explicit-goal condition (dyads just asked to work together). In the no-explicit-goal condition…

  13. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... may also do the procedure using a special video camera. A surgical cut in the back is ...

  14. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... Your Child's Checkup: 13 Years Your Child's Checkup: 14 Years Your Child's Checkup: 15 Years Your Child's ...

  15. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    PubMed

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial. PMID:1635907

  16. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children. PMID:25108502

  17. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  18. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your child's plate fruits and vegetables Choose healthy sources of protein, such as lean meat, nuts, and eggs Serve whole-grain breads and cereals because they are high in fiber. Reduce refined grains. Broil, grill, or steam foods instead of frying them Limit fast food and ...

  19. Child CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  20. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  1. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  2. Sibling Tutoring and Other Explanations for Intelligence: Discontinuities of Only and Last Borns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    This study explores and evaluates the explanations for apparent exception to the family size rule that IQ and family size are inversely related. Three large-scale studies were consistent in placing only children lower than firstborns from two-, three-, and four-child families, and at about the same level as firstborns from a five-child family. The…

  3. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-06-22

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  4. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  5. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  6. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000069.htm Ileostomy and your child To use the sharing features on this page, ... health counselor may help you. Caring for Your Child's Ileostomy Your child will need help and support. ...

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  8. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  9. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  10. [Child raising without violence--a right for every child].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Marie; Lucas, Steven

    The view of children and child rearing has undergone a marked change in our country over the past 50 years. As the first country in the world, Sweden passed legislation 1979 on the prohibition of corporal punishment in the home. Many countries have followed suit, but at present, only 5,4% of the world's children have legal protection against violence and abuse. Children's rights are on the agenda, including work towards implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Child abuse is nevertheless a major public health problem with serious implications in both childhood and adulthood, and is tied into both economic and social disadvantage. The childhood adversity we see is only the tip of the iceberg and continued efforts are necessary to identify and reduce the vulnerability of children and protect children's rights. Health care professionals have an important role to play. PMID:25405625

  11. Preferred Child Body Size and Parental Underestimation of Child Weight in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Pasch, Lauri A; Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Martinez, Suzanna M; Deardorff, Julianna; de Groat, Cynthia L; Gregorich, Steven E; Flores, Elena; Butte, Nancy F; Greenspan, Louise C

    2016-09-01

    Objective To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and weight measurements. Parents reported their preferred child body size and their perceptions of their child's weight. Parents' underestimation of their child's weight was calculated as the standardized difference between parent's perception of their child's weight and the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score. Demographic factors and parental BMI were also assessed. Results Although 50 % of children were overweight or obese, only 11 % of mothers and 10 % of fathers perceived their children as being somewhat or very overweight. Multiple regressions controlling for covariates (parental BMI and child age) showed that parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their children's weight more, compared to those who preferred a leaner child (β for mothers = .13, p < .03; β for fathers = .17, p < .03). Conclusions for Practice Parents who preferred a heavier child body size underestimated their child's weight to a greater degree than parents who preferred a leaner child. Attempts by pediatricians to correct parents' misperceptions about child weight may damage rapport and ultimately fail if the misperception is actually a reflection of parents' preferences, which may not be readily amenable to change. Future research should address optimal methods of communication about child overweight which take into account parent preferences. PMID:27016351

  12. Parenting and socialization of only children in urban China: an example of authoritative parenting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely reported in the literature. The parenting of only children in urban China was predominantly authoritative rather than authoritarian. The parenting strategies and beliefs were child-centered, egalitarian, and warmth-oriented rather than control-oriented. Chinese parents encouraged prosocial assertiveness and discouraged behavioral constraint and modesty. The parenting of only children was also gender egalitarian in that there were few gender differences in child social behaviors and little gender differential parenting and socialization of these only children. Together with other recent studies, these findings and conclusions challenge the traditionalist view of Chinese parenting and beliefs and behaviors about child socialization. PMID:23991527

  13. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  14. Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try keeping track of the places that make meal choices easy or that your child enjoys most. For ... If certain restaurants don't offer many vegetable choices or only serve fried ... a special meal to accommodate your child's needs. Many restaurants are ...

  15. [Child marriage in India].

    PubMed

    Wen, J

    1984-07-29

    Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000. PMID:12159404

  16. Child Welfare Workers, Police, and Child Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Uses three different samples of child abuse and neglect complaints drawn from the files of a juvenile court, a child welfare agency, and a police department, to investigate the factors which contribute to the decision to remove a child from his/her family. (Author/CM)

  17. Child's right to special care.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  18. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  19. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  20. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  1. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  2. 20 CFR 725.208 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.208... Determination of relationship; child. As used in this section, the term “beneficiary” means only a surviving... considered to be the child of a beneficiary if: (a) The courts of the State in which the beneficiary...

  3. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  4. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  5. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  6. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

  7. Child Support Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  8. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  9. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  10. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  11. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  12. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  13. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

  14. Child labor: a forgotten focus for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Otis, J; Pasztor, E M; McFadden, E J

    2001-01-01

    Child labor is driven by child and family impoverishment, market forces, and political apathy concerning the rights of the child. Although a fundamental concern of the early 20th century child welfare system, today child labor is often seen as outside the scope of child welfare and child protective services. Making child labor a focus of child advocacy activity once again could do much to better the lives of children. PMID:11678418

  15. Child Care Subsidies and Child Care Choices over Time

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to date on the federal child care subsidy program’s effect on preschool child care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly-funded preschool programs – Head Start and public pre-k – that provide the highest quality care available to low-income families. Using data from the ECLS-B, (n ≈ 2,100; beginning age=9 months), this study finds that subsidy receipt during toddlerhood predicts greater use of the other forms of publicly-funded care in the preschool year, although only if the earlier subsidy is used in a center. These results highlight a previously unconsidered potential benefit of the subsidy program. PMID:24919652

  16. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  17. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  18. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  19. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  20. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  1. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. PMID:26715180

  2. Curbing child marriages.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women. PMID:12280896

  3. Mothers' violence victimization and child behavior problems: examining the link.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128

  4. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  5. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:7593660

  6. A Beneficial Collaboration: Child Care and Child Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes potential collaborations between child care and child support enforcement agencies (CSEA). Child care resource and referral agencies can distribute information about child support enforcement and paternity establishment. CSEAs can provide training to child care providers. Child care subsidies may be linked to cooperation with the CSEA.…

  7. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage. PMID:24480489

  8. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 OCC has a variety of resources and tools related to the law. Visit our Reauthorization site to find webinars, program instructions, and other guidance and information. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  9. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  10. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  11. Normal Child Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. Development can be uneven, too, with a child's social development lagging behind his intellectual growth, or vice versa. ... members, and others. They may interfere with the child's intellectual development. They may be forbidden by law, ethics, religion, ...

  12. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  13. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ... it's not always easy to know when your child has a serious problem. Everyday stresses can cause ...

  14. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  15. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... child small rewards, such as stickers or time reading with Mommy, every time your child goes in ...

  16. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  17. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  18. Mother-Child Planning and Child Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of…

  19. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your child to return to school or daycare. This may be as soon as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery. Your child's activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for ...

  20. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  1. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  2. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  3. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  4. Child Care Update: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Vic; And Others

    This paper provides information on child care needs, existing services, and special topics related to child care in Dane County, Wisconsin. Section I describes and compares needs and services; indicates locations of current full-day services; and offers specific recommendations for expanding child care. Section II concerns cost and affordability…

  5. The favoured child?

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Dickenson, D; Devereux, J

    1994-06-01

    This case conference concerns a child who has been in care following a diagnosis of emotional abuse and a serious incident of physical abuse. She wants to return home again, and her parents, who had previously scapegoated her, now blame the family's previous ills on her sister instead. The Children Act 1989 gives considerable weight to the child's wishes, but what if the child returns home and is re-abused? In this case conference a child psychiatrist, a philosopher and a lawyer discuss the issues of clinicians' responsibilities, moral luck, and child care law. PMID:8083871

  6. The Cycle of Violence Revisited: Distinguishing Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Only, Victims Only, and Victim-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-01-01

    Using a cycle of violence framework, we investigated experiences with physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perpetration, and both IPV victimization and perpetration (IPV overlap). Data included the U.S. subsample of college students in the International Dating Violence Study (n = 4,162). Findings indicated that 40% of participants reported lifetime IPV, with 28% reporting membership in the overlap group. Cycle of violence variables including child sexual abuse, witnessing violence inside the home during childhood, and witnessing violence outside the home during childhood were uniquely related to membership in the overlap group. No relationship between cycle of violence variables and IPV victimization only or IPV perpetration only was identified. Results suggested the cycle of violence might predominantly operate among individuals who are both IPV victims and offenders, rather than among individuals experiencing IPV victimization or perpetrate IPV exclusively. PMID:27302305

  7. From child to child: children as communicators.

    PubMed

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  8. Child care and other support programs.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Latosha; Phillips, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. military has come to realize that providing reliable, high-quality child care for service members' children is a key component of combat readiness. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) has invested heavily in child care. The DoD now runs what is by far the nation's largest employer-sponsored child-care system, a sprawling network with nearly 23,000 workers that directly serves or subsidizes care for 200,000 children every day. Child-care options available to civilians typically pale in comparison, and the military's system, embedded in a broader web of family support services, is widely considered to be a model for the nation. The military's child-care success rests on four pillars, write Major Latosha Floyd and Deborah A. Phillips. The first is certification by the military itself, including unannounced inspections to check on safety, sanitation, and general compliance with DoD rules. The second is accreditation by nationally recognized agencies, such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children. The third is a hiring policy that sets educational and other requirements for child-care workers, and the fourth is a pay scale that not only sets wages high enough to discourage the rapid turnover common in civilian child care but also rewards workers for completing additional training. Floyd and Phillips sound a few cautionary notes. For one, demand for military child care continues to outstrip the supply In particular, as National Guard and Reserve members have been activated during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DoD has sometimes struggled to provide child care for their children. And force reductions and budget cuts are likely to force the military to make difficult choices as it seeks to streamline its child-care services in the years ahead. PMID:25518693

  9. Intracranial haemorrhage and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cheah, I G; Kasim, M S; Shafie, H M; Khoo, T H

    1994-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in child abuse cases in developed countries. However, similar data are not available in most developing countries. This study therefore aimed to determine the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage amongst all cases of child physical abuse, the nature of the injuries incurred, and the morbidity and mortality resulting therefrom. Among 369 cases of physical abuse seen over a 4-year period, 41 (11.4%) had intracranial haemorrhage, of whom 37 (90%) were 2 years old or less. A history of trauma was present in only eight (20%), of which only two were compatible with the injuries incurred. Subdural haemorrhages accounted for 80% of the cases, with skull fractures present in only nine cases. Fifty-four per cent of the 37 children aged 2 years of age or less had no external signs of trauma, but 11 of them had retinal haemorrhages. This is in contrast to the children older than 2 years of age who all had external signs of trauma. The overall prognosis was dismal with an early mortality of almost 30% (13 cases) and at least seven cases with severe neurological sequelae. These findings are comparable with studies from developed countries which have established that non-accidental injury must be considered as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage in any young child, despite the absence of external signs of trauma. PMID:7880096

  10. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse. PMID:26002601

  11. Mother-child planning and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of noncompliance for this age (n = 20). Mothers in the noncompliant group provided more low-level, directive, and negative instruction; requested more compliance; and shared less task responsibility with children. Mothers in both groups responded to child compliance by increasing or maintaining the level of instruction. Results are discussed in relation to the role of child compliance in regulating opportunities for cognitive development in social context. PMID:18489426

  12. The One-Child Family: In Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    This paper reports survey results, from a sample of 76 women past child bearing age with varying numbers of offspring, which suggest that not only sibling absence but also distinctive characteristics of mothers would be considered in studies of the personal and social characteristics of only children. (Among the maternal characteristics mentioned…

  13. Chronic immune thrombocytopenia in a child responding only to thrombopoietin receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired hematological disease in which the body produces antibodies against its own platelets leading to platelet destruction resulting in isolated thrombocytopenia. Childhood ITP may enter complete remission in the majority of cases within six months from diagnosis. However, 20-30% of affected children may develop chronic ITP (lasting for more than 12 months). First line treatment includes intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), corticosteroids or anti-D immunoglobulin. Second line treatment includes splenectomy, immunosuppressive therapy or Rituximab. Recently two thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists (Romiplostim and Eltrombopag) are used to increase platelet count in refractory chronic ITP by increasing platelet production in bone marrow. Here is a case report on an 8 ½ -year-old boy with refractory chronic ITP who failed therapy with IVIG, corticosteroids, splenectomy and Rituximab. He showed excellent response to treatment with TPO receptor agonist (Romiplostim). His platelet count increased from less than 10 x103/dl and maintained between 100x103/dl to 200x103/dl after few weeks of starting Romiplostim therapy.

  14. Understanding the effects of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Warner, S L

    1977-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392

  15. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed. PMID:27325170

  16. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  17. Essential interventions for child health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19 000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world’s under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974

  18. Essential interventions for child health.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Mallick, Dania; Das, Jai K; Mal, Lekho; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19,000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world's under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974

  19. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  20. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  1. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  2. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government’s largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents’ selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients’ using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092

  3. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents' selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients' using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092

  4. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanent memorialization of the crimes committed against them. Studies indicate that child victims endure depression, withdrawal, anger, and other psychological disorders. Victims also experience feelings ...

  5. Adolescents and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Beard, Joyce W

    2014-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a very complex medical and social problem. Many children have died as a result of child maltreatment; others are depressed, engaging in risky behaviors and substance abuse and running away from home. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of child maltreatment in the United States. Characteristics and contributing factors of maltreatment are described, and health and behavior problems associated with maltreated adolescents will be reviewed. Additionally the role of the school nurse will be discussed. It is imperative that school nurses are aware of the significance of the problem and the effects that child maltreatment has on children as they mature into early adulthood. PMID:24707655

  6. Abstinence-Only Debate Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    President Bush's proposal to almost double the amount of money the federal government spends on abstinence education to $273 million in fiscal 2005 has raised the stakes in the battle over what to teach children and adolescents about sex. Only a small percentage of Americans believe abstinence-only programs are the best form of sex education for…

  7. Parenting and Socialization of Only Children in Urban China: An Example of Authoritative Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…

  8. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child is sitting up. Check the tube placement. If your child has diarrhea and cramping: Make ... provider about choice of formula and adding more fiber. If your child is dried out (dehydrated), ask ...

  9. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  10. Generation of phase-only hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, P. W. M.

    2014-11-01

    A phase-only hologram (POH) has two major advantages. First, it can be displayed with a single phase-only SLM. Second, the reconstructed image is brighter, and free from the zeroth-order diffraction and the twin image. In this paper, four modern methods for the generation of POH, are reviewed. Being different from some existing approach that involved multiple epochs of evaluation in the generation of POH, the methods describe in this paper are non-iterative and computationally efficient. Moreover, these works also share the common feature that the holograms generated can be displayed directly on the phase-only SLM, hence simplifying the optical setup.

  11. Simplification in Child Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, Kimbrough

    The pronunciations of children do not merely represent accidental misses with respect to adult pronunciation. Children employ substitutions and deletions in highly systematic ways; child pronunciations reflect a set of simplification strategies. The major common processes of both normal and abnormal child phonology result in simplification of…

  12. The Chicano Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Manuel R., Jr.; Hawkins, Homer C.

    The paper deals with the culture and background of the Chicano migrant child and with his frustrations and conflicts in encountering the Anglo culture as represented by the school. It is pointed out that the Chicano migrant child, whose home base is in the Rio Grande Valley, lives in either a barrio or, in summer, a migrant camp and has little…

  13. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  14. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  15. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  16. Your Child's Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A Text Size What's in ... But in both cases, the protection is temporary. Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to ...

  17. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  18. [Child Abuse: 1979 Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.

    As mandated by Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (Act 124), the document presents the Department of Public Welfare's 1979 report on child abuse. Following an introductory section is a brief section on the nature and scope of the problem. Section III outlines the past year's activities of the Department of Public Welfare's Office of…

  19. Child Maltreatment: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.

    Since the 1960s, when the research community, grassroots organizations, mental health professionals, and lawmakers became involved in the treatment of child maltreatment, progress in the field has been rapid. This book draws together research literature that describes the magnitude and consequences of child maltreatment. It is designed to provide…

  20. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  1. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  2. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  3. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  4. CHILD HEALTH USA 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Child Health USA 2002, the thirteenth annual report on the health status and service needs of America's children is presented by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). To assess the bureau's progress toward achieving its vision...

  5. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  6. Child Care '92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Gage, Diane

    1992-01-01

    This special issue on child care presents articles on children's health, day care, grandparents, father-child relationships, pregnancy after age 40, children's dental care, children's moral development, parties for children, children's fighting, fashions in children's clothes, sibling relationships, and health care programs for children. (BC)

  7. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  8. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  9. A Statewide Study of the Public Attitudes toward Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooper, Surjit Singh; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 742 Kentucky adults revealed that they had a good understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. Only a third of those aware of instances of child abuse actually reported it to authorities. (Author/JDD)

  10. Angle only tracking with particle flow filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show the results of numerical experiments for tracking ballistic missiles using only angle measurements. We compare the performance of an extended Kalman filter with a new nonlinear filter using particle flow to compute Bayes' rule. For certain difficult geometries, the particle flow filter is an order of magnitude more accurate than the EKF. Angle only tracking is of interest in several different sensors; for example, passive optics and radars in which range and Doppler data are spoiled by jamming.

  11. Sertoli cell only syndrome with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatih; Ceylaner, Serdar; Erdogan, Seyda; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Yuksel, Bilgin

    2016-07-01

    The Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS) is a rare genetic disorder with a variable phenotype ranging from a severe ambiguous genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. SCOS is diagnosed on testicular histopathology as germ cells are absent without histological impairment of Sertoli or Leydig cells. The SRY positive XX male syndrome is usually diagnosed in adulthood during infertility investigations. Here, we report a rare case of 46,XX maleness with ambiguous genitalia due to Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS). PMID:27124672

  12. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. PMID:23975849

  13. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  14. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  15. Mother/Child, Father/Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr., Ed.; Mathews, Marilyn, Ed.

    This collection of papers on parent-child relationships consists of three research reports, six research reviews and two position papers on issues critical to research and practice. Papers included were selected on the basis of their relevance to the work of practitioners who counsel parents. The volume's four thematic sections are entitled: (1)…

  16. Child Outcome Measures in the Study of Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…

  17. Child Death Review Teams: A Vital Component of Child Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, Neil J.

    2006-01-01

    The alarming number of children killed and seriously injured as a result of child maltreatment and neglect has led to increased calls for action. In response, interdisciplinary and multiagency child death review teams have emerged as an important component of child protection. Paradoxically, child death review teams are among the least visible and…

  18. CHILD-to-Child Trial Program. Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, David

    1983-01-01

    The CHILD-to-Child program is based on the recognition that older siblings often influence their younger family members. Activities of the CHILD-to-Child Program in Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico, relating to teaching about diarrhea and breast-feeding, are described. (CJ)

  19. Marketing child survival.

    PubMed

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  20. A Child with Intestinal Basidiobolomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Arjmand, Reza; Karimi, Abdollah; Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Kadivar, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are not common in children, especially in immunocompetent ones. In this case report we describe a child who was presented with abdominal pain and mass, bloody diarrhea and fever. He was treated for amebiasis, but due to treatment failure and deterioration of his condition, he underwent a laparatomy. Histologic examination of the excised bowel in the second look revealed Basidiobolomycosis, a fungus belonging to the order Entomophthorales. The signs, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis of the present case indicate that fungal infections must be considered not only in immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and mass, but also in apparently immunocompetent ones. PMID:23115443

  1. 34 CFR 300.615 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Information § 300.615 Records on more than one child. If any education record includes information on more than one child, the parents of those children have the right to inspect and review only... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Records on more than one child. 300.615 Section...

  2. 20 CFR 222.52 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as wages under that Act), the child is considered dependent on the employee only if the requirements... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a legally adopted child is dependent... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.52 When a legally...

  3. 5 CFR 831.671 - Proof of eligibility for a child's annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... judicial decree of adoption. (3) The only acceptable evidence to prove status as an adopted child under... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of eligibility for a child's... eligibility for a child's annuity. (a) Proof of paternity. (1) A judicial determination of...

  4. 34 CFR 300.615 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Information § 300.615 Records on more than one child. If any education record includes information on more than one child, the parents of those children have the right to inspect and review only... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records on more than one child. 300.615 Section...

  5. 34 CFR 300.615 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Information § 300.615 Records on more than one child. If any education record includes information on more than one child, the parents of those children have the right to inspect and review only... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records on more than one child. 300.615 Section...

  6. 20 CFR 222.52 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as wages under that Act), the child is considered dependent on the employee only if the requirements... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a legally adopted child is dependent... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.52 When a legally...

  7. 5 CFR 831.671 - Proof of eligibility for a child's annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... judicial decree of adoption. (3) The only acceptable evidence to prove status as an adopted child under... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proof of eligibility for a child's... eligibility for a child's annuity. (a) Proof of paternity. (1) A judicial determination of...

  8. 34 CFR 303.407 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... review only the information relating to their child or to be informed of that specific information... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records on more than one child. 303.407 Section 303.407... Early Intervention Records § 303.407 Records on more than one child. If any early intervention...

  9. 34 CFR 303.407 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... review only the information relating to their child or to be informed of that specific information... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Records on more than one child. 303.407 Section 303.407... Early Intervention Records § 303.407 Records on more than one child. If any early intervention...

  10. 20 CFR 222.52 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as wages under that Act), the child is considered dependent on the employee only if the requirements... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.52 When a legally...

  11. 20 CFR 222.52 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as wages under that Act), the child is considered dependent on the employee only if the requirements... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.52 When a legally...

  12. 5 CFR 831.671 - Proof of eligibility for a child's annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... judicial decree of adoption. (3) The only acceptable evidence to prove status as an adopted child under... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of eligibility for a child's... eligibility for a child's annuity. (a) Proof of paternity. (1) A judicial determination of...

  13. 34 CFR 303.407 - Records on more than one child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... review only the information relating to their child or to be informed of that specific information... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records on more than one child. 303.407 Section 303.407... Early Intervention Records § 303.407 Records on more than one child. If any early intervention...

  14. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  15. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  16. Child Protection in Sport: Implications of an Athlete-Centered Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Gretchen A.; Stirling, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's…

  17. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  18. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  19. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  20. A child health report card: 1992.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Wynder, E L

    1993-07-01

    It is because of statistics like the ones included above in the Report Card that the health of our children has become a topic of great concern. These statistics, however, reflect only a small piece of a much larger problem, which includes child poverty, child neglect, child abuse, family disintegration, educational failure, violence, and crime. Indeed the biggest threats to child health have roots in the past and present core of our social and environmental conditions. Improving the health of our children will require innovative and comprehensive approaches that include health education, health services, and family support. The cost of our failure to fund preventive programs in the area of child and family health is significant and mounting. Prenatal care for a pregnant women for 9 months cost about $600; however, medical care for a premature baby for only one day may cost more than four times as much ($2,500). Similar comparisons for the cost of prevention versus treatment are listed in Table 8. It is clear that unless we as a nation place more emphasis on funding preventive medicine, the health of our children will continue to suffer, with grave consequences for the future of our country. PMID:8415515

  1. Not Only English: Affirming America's Multilingual Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harvey A., Ed.

    Intended to help teachers of English, language arts, and other subjects interpret "English Only" language issues for students, parents, and school communities, this book addresses various aspects of the controversy. Articles, listed with their authors, are as follows: (1) "The Roots of Language Protectionism" (Harvey A. Daniels); (2) "The Legal…

  2. The English Only Movement: Revisiting Cultural Hegemony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Between national and state budget cuts in education and an ever increasing push toward the English Only movement, a rise in dropout rates for Hispanic students is imminent. National data show the percentage of Hispanic students who drop out of high school to be nearly 60% in some states including Michigan, South Dakota, West Virginia, Alabama,…

  3. Qualitative Aspects of Group-Only Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanshaw, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine how students would describe their group-only cooperative testing experiences in terms of key elements of cooperative learning often cited in the literature. Written comments of 159 graduate students were analyzed and 26 related categories of comments were derived from 495 statements of students enrolled in two…

  4. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Harris, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  5. English Only Movement: Confrontation with Language Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovando, Carlos J.

    A discussion of the movement to make English the only official language in the United States' multilingual society examines the nature and scope of the movement and draws instructional and language policy implications for teaching situations involving language-minority populations. It draws a relationship between the politics of language diversity…

  6. Holographic Compact Disk Read-Only Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1996-01-01

    Compact disk read-only memories (CD-ROMs) of proposed type store digital data in volume holograms instead of in surface differentially reflective elements. Holographic CD-ROM consist largely of parts similar to those used in conventional CD-ROMs. However, achieves 10 or more times data-storage capacity and throughput by use of wavelength-multiplexing/volume-hologram scheme.

  7. Learner Code-Switching versus English Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a study into the functions of code-switching in EFL classes at a Colombian language school. It was undertaken to decide whether the official "English-only" policy in place in this and other classrooms is pedagogically justified. The results suggest that code-switching may not necessarily be connected to ability level and…

  8. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  9. Complete Versus Lesion-Only Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Gerry P.; Khan, Jamal N.; Greenwood, John P.; Nazir, Sheraz; Dalby, Miles; Curzen, Nick; Hetherington, Simon; Kelly, Damian J.; Blackman, Daniel J.; Ring, Arne; Peebles, Charles; Wong, Joyce; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Flather, Marcus; Swanton, Howard; Gershlick, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete revascularization may improve outcomes compared with an infarct-related artery (IRA)-only strategy in patients being treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) who have multivessel disease presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there is concern that non-IRA PCI may cause additional non-IRA myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives This study sought to determine whether in-hospital complete revascularization was associated with increased total infarct size compared with an IRA-only strategy. Methods This multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial evaluated STEMI patients with multivessel disease having PPCI within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients were randomized to either IRA-only PCI or complete in-hospital revascularization. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed following PPCI (median day 3) and stress CMR at 9 months. The pre-specified primary endpoint was infarct size on pre-discharge CMR. The study had 80% power to detect a 4% difference in infarct size with 100 patients per group. Results Of the 296 patients in the main trial, 205 participated in the CMR substudy, and 203 patients (98 complete revascularization and 105 IRA-only) completed the pre-discharge CMR. The groups were well-matched. Total infarct size (median, interquartile range) was similar to IRA-only revascularization: 13.5% (6.2% to 21.9%) versus complete revascularization, 12.6% (7.2% to 22.6%) of left ventricular mass, p = 0.57 (95% confidence interval for difference in geometric means 0.82 to 1.41). The complete revascularization group had an increase in non-IRA MI on the pre-discharge CMR (22 of 98 vs. 11 of 105, p = 0.02). There was no difference in total infarct size or ischemic burden between treatment groups at follow-up CMR. Conclusions Multivessel PCI in the setting of STEMI leads to a small increase in CMR-detected non-IRA MI, but

  10. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  11. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders. PMID:18822999

  12. The Politics of Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah; Lande, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    Considers child care as a political issue and examines the positions of 1988 presidential candidates on child care. Discusses whether concern over the issue of child care is good politics and suggests that readers write to candidates and elicit their positions on child care. (RWB)

  13. Child Care Data and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    A publication releasing the most important current statistics, reports, statutory language, and regulations on child care is presented. Data are presented under the following general topics: (1) Child Care Services and Working Mothers, (2) Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers Today, (3) Federal Assistance for Child Care, (4) How Much Does…

  14. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  15. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  16. Orbit determination by range-only data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.

  17. 20 CFR 229.32 - When a child can be included in the computation of the overall minimum rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beginning date, such child can be included only when the overall minimum rate is already payable in the... in § 229.30 of this part, such child can only be included when the overall minimum rate is already... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a child can be included in...

  18. 20 CFR 229.32 - When a child can be included in the computation of the overall minimum rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beginning date, such child can be included only when the overall minimum rate is already payable in the... in § 229.30 of this part, such child can only be included when the overall minimum rate is already... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a child can be included in...

  19. 20 CFR 229.32 - When a child can be included in the computation of the overall minimum rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beginning date, such child can be included only when the overall minimum rate is already payable in the... in § 229.30 of this part, such child can only be included when the overall minimum rate is already... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a child can be included in...

  20. 20 CFR 229.32 - When a child can be included in the computation of the overall minimum rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beginning date, such child can be included only when the overall minimum rate is already payable in the... in § 229.30 of this part, such child can only be included when the overall minimum rate is already... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a child can be included in...

  1. 20 CFR 229.32 - When a child can be included in the computation of the overall minimum rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beginning date, such child can be included only when the overall minimum rate is already payable in the... in § 229.30 of this part, such child can only be included when the overall minimum rate is already... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a child can be included in...

  2. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid activities that need concentration, such as reading, homework, and complex tasks. When you go home from ... missed work right away Reducing the amount of homework or class work your child does for a ...

  3. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  4. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child's Allergies For starters, pay attention to pollen levels, FDA advises To use the sharing features ... be caused by outdoor allergens such as plant pollens (seasonal allergies) or indoor allergens such as mold, ...

  5. Choosing Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... the opportunity to learn and grow in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  6. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse and neglect reported to child protective services (CPS) in 2014. The youngest children are the most ... reported victims being under the age of three. CPS reports may underestimate the true occurrence of abuse ...

  7. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... seat's instructions), the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts can be used to keep your child strapped ... up so the vehicle's own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across ...

  8. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat from the breathing tube. Sucking on ice chips or gargling (if your child is old enough ... New Haven, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  9. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... dental exams, and getting necessary treatments such as fluoride, extractions, fillings, or braces and other orthodontics. ... provider if your infant needs to take oral fluoride . THE FIRST TRIP TO THE DENTIST Your child's ...

  10. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... for parents. Learn more about this project > EHS Expansion and EHS-CCP Funding Opportunity Announcements Posted Use ... Reporting Guide Latest from OCC Early Head Start Expansion and Early Head Start-Child Care Partnership Funding ...

  11. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  12. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  13. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat healthy. Bicycling, hiking, in-line skating, sports, or any enjoyable activity that will motivate kids ... have concerns about dating, driving, and participating in sports. It's important to try to understand your child's ...

  14. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has seasonal allergies, pay attention to pollen counts and try to keep him or her inside ... in the fall, the FDA said. Besides monitoring pollen counts, it often helps to keep windows closed in ...

  15. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... child's doctor about: Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or ... PA Elsevier Mosby; 2015: Appendix V-Managing your: concussion. Halstead ME, Walter KD. Clinical report -- sport-related ...

  16. Your Child's Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... should help your child breathe more easily. Try reading a book together to pass the time. A ...

  17. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children about September 11th Talking to Kids about War and Terrorism Tantrums: Behavior Problems Tantrums Podcast Teen ... Video Games Back to top W Walking Safety Water and Pool Safety Welcome to Your Child: Development ...

  18. Helping Your Overweight Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white flour, ... Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child water ...

  19. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  20. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  1. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold or flu Bladder infection Stomach pain or stomach flu Headache Constipation Pinworm Poor sleep patterns Although less common, your child's fussiness may be an early sign of a more serious problem, such as: Diabetes, asthma, anemia (low blood count), ...

  2. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma symptoms worse. Know which triggers make your child's asthma worse and what to do when this happens. Common triggers include: Pets Smells from chemicals and cleaners Grass and weeds Smoke Dust Cockroaches Rooms that are moldy or damp Know ...

  3. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  4. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. PMID:23916171

  5. Progestin-only injectables offer many advantages.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1995-06-01

    Progestin-only injectables are among the most effective and safe of all contraceptives, yet they are not widely used in many countries. This limited use is in part due to a lack of accurate information about health concerns, inadequate counseling for users about managing side effects, and their limited availability. Where they are available, progestin-only injectables rapidly become one of the preferred methods. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are the two progestin-only injectables in use worldwide. The former drug is sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, and the latter as Noristerat. DMPA is delivered in a water-based, crystalline suspension and absorbed gradually by the body. The normal injection of 150 mg is intended to be administered every three months, but contraceptive protection continues for an additional two weeks to provide a grace period for women who are late receiving their next injection. NET-EN is an oily solution which requires a larger needle than DMPA for injection. A 200 mg injection of NET-EN is usually administered every two months. Both of these safe, highly effective drugs are injected in either the upper arm or buttocks. DMPA and NET-EN can be distributed easily in nonclinical settings where nonphysicians can provide them to clients. The main disadvantage of the method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, but that is generally not a serious medical problem. Focusing mainly upon DMPA, this article includes discussion of menstrual irregularity, the reduced risk of endometrial cancer among DMPA users, and method availability. PMID:12289828

  6. The child in hospital*

    PubMed Central

    1955-01-01

    In 1951 the WHO Regional Office for Europe as a part of its long-term activities in child health initiated plans for a meeting between paediatricians and child psychiatrists, at which they could discuss their respective roles and the co-ordination of their work. Early in 1953 an ad hoc committee was called together to discuss the possibility of holding a conference which would delineate the role of the paediatrician in the management of psychosomatic and behaviour disorders in young children. This committee, consisting of leading specialists in paediatrics and child psychiatry, under the chairmanship of Professor R. Debré (France), felt that any wider conference should be devoted to considering more fully the inter-relation of somatic and psychological processes in sick children, the respective roles of paediatricians and child psychiatrists in their treatment, and the working relations between the different disciplines responsible for the care of children. In order to avoid diffusion of effort, and to arrive as far as possible at practical conclusions, the study group that was subsequently convened in Stockholm concentrated on one important aspect of child care—the child in hospital. PMID:14364192

  7. Child neglect and forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Lessig, R

    2001-08-15

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLEN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F. canicularis adults are attracted to both feces and urine. From the face, larvae of the bluebottle fly Calliphora vomitoria L. were collected. C. vomitoria maggots are typical early inhabitants of corpses. From the developmental times of the flies, it was estimated that the anal-genital area of the child had not been cleaned for about 14 days (7-21 day range), and that death occurred only 6-8 days prior to discovery of the body. This is the first report where an examination of the maggot fauna on a person illustrated neglect that had occurred prior to death. PMID:11457624

  8. Biomechanical analysis of child restraint system - biomed 2009.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Friedman, Keith; Hutchinson, John; Mihora, Dennis; Harcourt, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that potential for the head injury to child occupants is reduced with energy absorbing foam in a rear facing restraint system. The traffic safety of the pediatric population is improved with the child restraint system. However, the child restraint is effective only if advanced protective features are incorporated. One of the protective features is the energy absorbing padding on the side wings of the child seat wherein the child would interact during the crash. A hybrid computer model of the child restraint system was developed using the commercially available MADYMO and LS-DYNA software. A rear facing child seat in the rear compartment of the vehicle was simulated. The 9 months old anthropometric dummy was modeled. The dummy was restrained in the child seat and the child seat was restrained using the lap and shoulder harness. Two computer models with and without the padding on the side wing were simulated. The input included the acceleration at the center of gravity of the vehicle and the door intrusion into the vehicular interior and the child restraint system. Results indicate that the lack of padding allowed the child's head to interact with the side wing in a concentrated manner while the padding allowed distributed contact to the head area. The padding also retained the head within the confines of the child seat with no exposure to outside environment. The head injury parameters (Head Injury Criteria and Angular Acceleration) were reduced two to three times due to padding on the extended side wing. The present study is an additional step towards a better understanding of the injury biomechanics of pediatric population involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:19369802

  9. Like Parent, Like Child

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Lisa A.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Heatherton, Todd; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine food and beverage choices of preschool-aged children. Design Semistructured observational study. While pretending to be adults during a role-play scenario, children selected food and beverage items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, of which 47 foods and beverages were examined in this analysis. Parents self-reported how frequently they purchased specific grocery items. Setting A behavioral laboratory. Participants One hundred twenty children, aged 2 to 6 years, and 1 parent for each child. Main Outcome Measure Children’s total purchases were classified according to the number of healthier and less healthy products they selected as least healthy, somewhat healthy, and most healthy choices. The same categories were used to classify parents’ self-reported purchases. Results Most of the children (70.8%) purchased foods that were categorized as least healthy choices. Only 13 children (10.8%) had shopping baskets consisting of the healthiest choices. On average, children in the group with the least healthy choices purchased the same number of healthier and less healthy products, whereas children in the group with most healthy choices purchased 5 healthier products for each less healthy product selected. The healthfulness of children’s total purchases were significantly (P=.02) predicted by their parents’ purchasing categorization. Conclusions When presented with a wide array of food products, young children chose combinations of healthier and less healthy foods and beverages. The data suggest that children begin to assimilate and mimic their parents’ food choices at a very young age, even before they are able to fully appreciate the implications of these choices. PMID:18981355

  10. Compound chondrules: An experimental investigation. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  11. Only one health, and so many omics.

    PubMed

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Pećina, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The development of new approaches based on wide profiling methods in studying biological and medical systems is bringing large amounts of data on a daily basis. The causes of complex diseases have been directed to the genome examination bringing formidable knowledge. We can study genome, but also proteome, exome, transcriptome, epigenome, metabolome, and newcomers too such as microbiome, connectome and exposome. The title of this editorial is paraphrasing the famous saying of Victor Schlichter from Buenos Aires children hospital in Argentina who said "How unfair! Only one health, and so many diseases". Today there is indeed a whole lot of omics. We think that we are lucky to have all the omics possible, but we also wanted to stress the importance of future holistic approach in integrating the knowledge omics has rewarded us. PMID:26101467

  12. Child Care Gifts to Bolster Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Allen, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Caring for children should not derail potentially excellent future astronomers. It is therefore suggested that a mechanism be created for established astronomers to voluntarily will 10 percent of their estate to a fund that helps aspiring astronomers reduce child care costs. Statistics indicate that many scientists delay child rearing until they have secure jobs. This delay appears to be based on the early relative cost of child care and the perception that time spent raising children negatively impacts job performance and future employability. Having even a portion of child care expenses covered may increase the efficiency of early-career education and productivity of early-career scientific research. It is hoped that some established astronomers may be inspired to contribute by remembering their own lives as aspiring astronomers, while also wishing to add to their legacy. Only an expression of interest is requested here, both from established astronomers who might be interested in taking such a donation pledge, and from aspiring astronomers who feel their careers would be helped by child care assistance.

  13. Output-Only Techniques for Fault Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Adam John

    Fault detection is relevant to many applications, including structural health monitoring and machine health monitoring. Furthermore, output measurement data may be the only information known about a system. Hence we develop and demonstrate techniques for output-only fault detection. We also investigate implementation issues, including computational complexity and output noise. First, we consider real-time detection of an abrupt change in a noisy signal. Existing techniques exhibit sensitivity to gradual (incipient) changes in the data, as well as detection delays, false alarms, and missed detections. Hence, we propose an adjacent moving window peak detection (AMWPD) approach that uses an approximate low-pass filter and statistical process control techniques to determine whether an abrupt change has occurred. We compare the AMWPD approach with existing techniques for change detection and show that the AMWPD approach exhibits comparable detection speed and number of missed detections while providing fewer false alarms. Second, we consider feature extraction and clustering for classification. For industrial applications, existing methods provide insufficient classification accuracy and require significant training time. Hence, we propose new features that improve classification accuracy and apply a modified tabu search and probabilistic neural network (mTS + PNN) approach to select and cluster the features and thereby classify the data. We compare the mTS + PNN approach with an existing feature selection and clustering technique that employs principal component analysis and a multi-layer perceptron neural network. Using an application example, we demonstrate that the mTS + PNN approach provides higher classification accuracy while requiring less training and classification time. Finally, we consider identification of output-to-output relationships in linear system dynamics. Existing approaches, including operational modal analysis, assume that the excitation signal is

  14. Concurrent Initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

  15. Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

  16. Ozone the one and only drug.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Pepa Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Experience based on evidence shows the use of one drug over time.Ozone has great therapeutic properties. Nowadays, hardly anyone questions its effectiveness.We treated 270 patients with discal hernia of one or multiple levels in a minimally invasive way and under fluoroscopic control in real time, between 1 and 7 ml intradiscal and 3 ml periganglionic, in a concentration of 30 mg/ml of a mixture of oxygen and ozone as the one and only drug.A second group was created, out of which 120 patients were treated with physiatric and kinetic treatment (magnetotherapy) prior to any other type of treatment, whether surgical or minimally invasive.The time period was 3 months. All the patients were followed up from April 2004 to July 2008 with the MacNab, VAS and Owestry scales. We obtained 86% of excellent results, 12% satisfactory results, and 2% poor results.To sum up, we can say that ozone therapy has opened up a new future in the medical field.Discussions go on. New effects, new concentrations and the combination with bioenergetic therapies are the future in the treatment for backaches. PMID:21107951

  17. Child life services.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  18. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    PubMed

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  19. [Managing an autistic child].

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2010-03-20

    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  20. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  1. Marital Problems and the Exceptional Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    The exceptional child, because he/she does not fulfill the parental expectations of a child's behavior, becomes a disturbing child and frequently is labeled as disturbed. The case of one such child is presented and conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  2. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    MedlinePlus

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... All parents and those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they ...

  3. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  4. Reporting Child Abuse: Rights and Responsibilities for Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…

  5. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  6. Structural Predictors of Child Care Quality in Child Care Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; Kontos, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Used data from a family child care study and a licensing study to identify dimensions best predicting global day care quality in over 300 child care homes. Found that caregiver training most consistently predicted global quality. Found no reliable association between care quality and child-caregiver ratio or age-weighted group size recommendations…

  7. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  8. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  9. Child Care Workers' Knowledge about Reporting Suspected Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)

  10. The visually impaired child.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  11. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  12. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  13. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article ... for in children under the age of two: Does your child have unusually large eyes? Is there ...

  14. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  15. Spare the Rod and Save the Child: Observations and Some Positive Recommendations on Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Elie

    1979-01-01

    Parents have the right to their children, but their children have a right to live. The Criminal Code should be amended to oblige parents to prove their innocence. If the Crown can establish that the child was beaten when only parents were present, parents should prove they were not responsible. (Author)

  16. Legal issues in child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Narang, Sandeep K; Melville, John D

    2014-10-01

    The most common medicolegal issues include reporting child maltreatment, the presentation of ethical and effective expert testimony, informed consent in child maltreatment cases, and various liability risks related to child maltreatment cases. The health care professional who remains knowledgeable about the laws within their jurisdiction, the mandates of their professional society and state medical board, and the local resources (eg, child abuse pediatrician and hospital counsel) available to them minimizes medicolegal risk. PMID:25242715

  17. Child Care: A Level III Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report describes the state-mandated review of Florida's child care programs. Florida's community colleges offer a total of six different degree or certificate programs in child care: Child Development and Education; Child Care Center Management; Child Development Early Intervention; Child Care Provider (discontinued in 98-99); Early Childhood…

  18. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  19. Women, Work and Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Elizabeth

    This fact sheet provides an array of statistical data on working mothers, such as the need for child care, the child care providers, who supports child care, and work and family. Data sources include a number of federal government and private organizations. Among the statistics highlighted are the following: (1) in 1988, 65 percent of all women…

  20. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  1. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  2. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  3. Child Care Health Connections, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…

  4. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  5. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  6. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  7. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, shows bizarre behavior, or uses alcohol or drugs WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP If you think a child is in immediate danger because of abuse or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ...

  8. Child Care and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  9. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  10. Trends in Child Maltreatment Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behl, Leah E.; Conyngham, Heather A.; May, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    Child maltreatment articles (n=2090) published from 1977-1998 were reviewed. Across the period studied, quantitative articles and articles on child sexual abuse increased and theoretical articles and articles on physical abuse decreased. Articles examining child neglect or emotional abuse remained consistently low. Participant recruitment from…

  11. Employment-Related Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  12. Alabama's Child Nutrition Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.

    This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…

  13. All About Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn, Ed.; Manburg, Abbey, Ed.

    This resource book for child care practitioners has been written for administrators, nursery school teachers and preschool or Head Start teachers who are interested in practical suggestions (1) for setting up classrooms, (2) for developing a curriculum for infants, toddlers and preschool children, (3) for meeting the social-emotional needs of…

  14. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  15. Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter examines problems and rights of Romani children in East Central Europe, focusing on such topics as: the displaced childhoods of Romani children; snapshots of living conditions in various European countries; Roma child rights; Romani and non-Romani schools in Bulgaria; Romani children's rights to education in Central and Eastern…

  16. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and has a…

  17. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  18. The Child Whisperer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  19. Child Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk County Public Schools, Bartow, FL.

    This manual from the Polk County Public Schools in Bartow, Florida, was developed for school personnel and parents to aid in their efforts to develop successful behavioral and academic interventions to enhance the educational outcomes for students. Section 1 describes the child study team which is comprised of an administrator, guidance counselor,…

  20. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  1. The Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Studies Center, San Ramon, CA.

    In the context of a regular academic program, the Child Development Project (CDP) helps teachers and parents promote characteristics such as helpfulness and responsibility in children in kindergarten through sixth grade. The CDP program contains five major elements: (1) cooperative activities; (2) helping activities; (3) the highlighting of…

  2. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  3. The Hyperactive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    The newsletter's main article focuses on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. The causes of hyperactivity, which affects 3-5 percent of all children, are elusive but may include neurological immaturity, inherent genetic problems, or fetal exposure to harmful substances. Patterns of behavior that typify a hyperactive child include a short…

  4. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  5. Literacy and Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sandra Josephs

    Fourteen examples of "literacy events" in the reading development of one preschool-age boy are described by the boy's mother, a parent-researcher who conducted a case study of her son's interaction with his literate home environment. Field notes were kept in a household diary, and audiotapes were made of the child's storytelling and retelling, of…

  6. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  7. Child and Storying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alparaque, Idrenne

    The power of language gives children (and the rest of us) that "magic" talent of bringing to life that which is otherwise hidden from conscious awareness. From the viewpoint of one attempting to listen to children's languaging within experience so that the listening becomes a dialogic experience, the child storyteller seems to experience a…

  8. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian Society" (de Barros, Milhomen); and "India: Hope for a…

  9. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  10. Child Care Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  11. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  12. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  13. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  14. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  15. Parent-child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, A. C., Ed.

    This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…

  16. The Shy Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1987-01-01

    To further practitioners' understanding of shyness, this review of research discusses (1) origins of shyness, (2) cognition and shyness, (3) situational factors affecting shy behavior, (4) social difficulties of shy children, (5) shyness and sex differences, (6) persistence of shyness, and (7) ways for caregivers to help the shy child. (RH)

  17. Child Health and Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Kathryn B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the temporal relationship between child abuse and children's illnesses by analyzing hospital records of 11 abused children and 6 of their siblings, 14 neglected children, 31 children with nonorganic failure to thrive and 24 control children. Results suggest that having ill children is a source of stress that may trigger abuse. (Author/CB)

  18. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior and address other underlying problems, like drug abuse, that may surface. continue What Should I Do? When a child has been caught stealing, a parent's reaction should depend on whether it's the first time or there's a pattern of stealing. With very ...

  19. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. The effect of water accessibility on child health in China.

    PubMed

    Mangyo, Eiji

    2008-09-01

    Using a dynamic panel model of child anthropometrics from China, the effect of an in-yard water source on child health was measured. Changes in within-community averages of household access to in-yard water were used as the instrument for changes in access to in-yard water sources. Further, to address the concern of non-random placements of water projects, correlations between changes in disease symptoms and community-level changes in access to in-yard water sources were examined. It was found that access to in-yard water sources improved child health only when mothers were relatively well educated. PMID:18511138

  1. [HOW TO EXPLORE BIPOLARITY IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY: A DIMENSIONAL SEMIOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Scholl, J-M

    2016-02-01

    Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child's psychosocial future is at stake. A proper diagnosis requires recognition of accurate clinical signs. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers. This paper presents a dimensional semiology for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. These clinical signs enable the identification of a bipolar manic temperament in the child and/or the identification of various different forms of childhood bipolar and depressive disorder. The relevant differential diagnoses and comorbidities are also presented. PMID:27141653

  2. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Milavić, Gordana; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Training programs aim to produce child and adolescent psychiatry professionals who are competent at both clinical work as well as health promotion through teaching and research. Child psychiatry training programs not only offer training in teaching the clinical skills of the discipline of child and adolescent psychiatry but also strive to help with the development of professionalism, ethical behaviors, and leadership skills in their trainees. Ultimately, it is the children of the world who stand to gain by having a skilled work force that adheres to the highest global standards when it comes to the provision of mental health services. PMID:26346384

  3. Probiotics for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor; Devillard, Estelle

    2004-07-01

    For the survival of humankind, nothing can be as important as the health of a mother and a child. As the world's population grows to more than 6 billion, it might seem ridiculous to suggest that any real threat exists to the human species. Diseases have long ravaged populations, as have wars, poverty, and malnutrition. Life today is no different with new and emerging diseases such as SARS and Mad Cow Disease leaving a trail of concern around the planet. All that being said, the AIDS crisis is threatening humans like no other. In countries such as Botswana, close to half the population of pregnant women is infected. Of great concern, the disease is now prevalent among women and teenage girls, threatening not only their lives but those of their offspring. Efforts to control this spread are quite abysmal, albeit well intentioned. Likewise, the death of a child every 15 seconds from diarrheal disease is not being addressed with the same vigor as SARS, even though the risk of dying from the latter for most people is similar to being struck by lightning. In the end, it is the economy and politics that dictate health spending. Image and perception are everything. While deaths mount among women and children from AIDS and other infections, the potential to intervene with a low-risk natural concept of probiotics seemed all too distant. As evidence mounts of the attributes of certain probiotic strains to treat diarrhea and reduce the risk of urogenital and other diseases, the developing world has failed to embrace it, support its evaluation and implementation, and take it to where it is needed the most. In this review, the case for and against probiotics for urogenital and intestinal infections is presented based on current literature. The story is far from complete, but the potential for improving the health of the mother and child is significant. United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines have now been developed to vanquish the unproved marketing hype products

  4. Child-Directed Speech: Relation to Socioeconomic Status, Knowledge of Child Development and Child Vocabulary Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2 ; 6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed…

  5. The Relationships between Child Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Teacher-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Meral; Jones, Ithel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between child temperament, teacher-child relationships, and teacher-child interactions in four preschool classrooms. The preliminary analyses revealed classroom differences for all variables. In all the classrooms except one, the temperament factor Reactivity had positive and high…

  6. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  7. The use of child drawings to explore the dual↔group analytic field in child analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Awareness that the child is part of a complex relational system has ensured that all child analysts agree on the necessity of establishing a therapeutic alliance with the parents. Unconscious conflictual dynamics involve the child analyst and include him, from the time of the initial consultation, in an analytic field that is closer to that of a group than to the bi-personal set-up of therapy with adults. Through a clinical example, the author hypothesizes that the child's drawings and play can be viewed as tools capable of mapping the unconscious emotions present in an analytic field that extends beyond the analyst-child couple. Play and drawings can be used in the relationship with the parents not in an explanatory sense, but as a probe with which to explore the universe of unconscious emotions present in the group field. The images or the story of the play used with this particular modality prove to be an attractive pathway that is effective in facilitating the alpha function of each of the members of the group. Furthermore, in this sense, they create the conditions for an occasion through which the parents can become more aware of their own unconscious emotions that have been entrusted to the child and expressed through his symptomatology. The possibility for the little group of subjects involved in a child analysis for oscillation in a dual-group field permits not only a shared experience of knowledge, but also a shared creativity aimed at knowledge of emotional truth (O). PMID:23560904

  8. Distinguishing Risk Profiles among Parent-Only, Partner-Only, and Dually-Perpetrating Physical Aggressors

    PubMed Central

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; O’Leary, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed whether and how men and women who are not physically aggressive, only physically aggressive against their children or their partners, or aggressive against both family members differ in their risk profiles. Risk factors that were unrelated to the partner or parenting role (e.g., impulsivity) and that were specific to one of these roles (e.g., negative parenting attributions, negative partner attributions) were examined using profile analysis. Dually aggressive men and women had the highest overall risk across all types of risk factors; non-aggressive men and women had consistently low risk. Individuals who were aggressive toward only their partners or only their children had distinct risk profiles, with highest levels of risk on the role-specific variable sets. With the exception of parent-only aggressive men, singly aggressive individuals’ risk levels were significantly lower on role-independent and the unrelated role-specific risk than they were on the role-related risk factors. These results suggest theories of partner and parent aggression might gain precision if co-occurrence status were specifically taken into account. PMID:19803606

  9. Health: the basic right of every child.

    PubMed

    Tandon, B N

    1989-01-01

    Through the efforts of organizations such as the National Children's Board, the health of children in India has shown considerable improvement in the post-independence period. The Integrated Child Development Services Program, launched in 1975, has brought together government and voluntary organizations in multisectoral, comprehensive activities aimed at enhancing children's physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being. Nonetheless, on essential child health indicators, India falls behind many other developing countries with even fewer technical resources. India's perinatal, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality rates stand at 84, 65, 95 and 152/1000, respectively. 30% of infants are low birthweight. 35% of children under 5 suffer from malnutrition and only 17% receive measles vaccination. 62% of Indian children do not complete primary school. These inadequacies persist despite programs directed at prenatal care, breastfeeding promotion, immunization, supplementary nutrition to preschoolers, iron and folic acid tablet distribution, oral rehydration for diarrhea, management of acute respiratory infection, safe drinking water, and preschool education. For these programs to have the intended impact, coordination and management must be improved at the village level. The mass media and village-level health workers must be enlisted in outreach activities to reach mothers with messages on child health and nutrition. Finally, any efforts to improve child health must be accompanied by family planning programs. PMID:12342721

  10. Mother-child bonding assessment tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859

  11. The four cultures: Public engagement with science only, art only, neither, or both museums.

    PubMed

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study uses an art-and-science comparative lens to understand the science culture, particularly the public engagement with science museums. A representational Taiwanese sample of 1863 subjects was categorized into "four cultures," who visit science only, art only, neither, or both museums, resulting in six multivariate logistic regression models. Knowledge of science, interests in scientific and social issues, and socio-demographic variables were considered in the models. Adults with children and males prefer science museums, females prefer art museums, and the young and urban intellects show no strong preference, appearing to be open to both science and art museums. The findings show the complex decisions the public make in visiting museums. It is no longer a strictly science or art decision, as framed by Snow's "The Two Cultures" argument; rather, the possibility of visiting both museums has emerged, a phenomenon we describe as cognitive polyphasia. PMID:26341642

  12. The best possible child

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Julian Savulescu argues for two principles of reproductive ethics: reproductive autonomy and procreative beneficence, where the principle of procreative beneficence is conceptualised in terms of a duty to have the child, of the possible children that could be had, who will have the best opportunity of the best life. Were it to be accepted, this principle would have significant implications for the ethics of reproductive choice and, in particular, for the use of prenatal testing and other reproductive technologies for the avoidance of disability, and for enhancement. In this paper, it is argued that this principle should be rejected, and it is concluded that while potential parents do have important obligations in relation to the foreseeable lives of their future children, these obligations are not best captured in terms of a duty to have the child with the best opportunity of the best life. PMID:17470505

  13. Managing the unwell child

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Managing the unwell child can be a frightening experience for everyone involved. As GPs become more involved in delivery of care in Urgent Care Centres and Emergency Units, it is more likely that they will come across a child who is sicker than those attending the surgery. This article will help the GP and the rest of the team to be prepared for this situation – to identify the unwell infant or toddler, to know general management principles and some specific treatment pathways for common emergencies and to take steps to try and prevent children becoming critically ill wherever possible. Local management pathways may vary so please refer to your local guidelines. Advice from national bodies such as the UK Resuscitation Council, the Advanced Life Support Group and the British National Formulary for Children has been included. Please revisit these resources for updated material. PMID:25949613

  14. Child homicide spectrum.

    PubMed

    Jason, J

    1983-06-01

    Violence toward children is an acknowledged pediatric problem, but physicians may not be aware that it is a leading cause of pediatric mortality. Therefore, I used homicide data for persons younger than 18 years of age to characterize child homicide. There are two broad categories: The first predominates until the victim age of 3 years, is intrafamilial, and is associated with bodily force and poorly defined precipitating events. It might be described as fatal child abuse. The second type predominates after the victim age of 12 years, is extrafamilial, involves guns or knives, occurs during arguments or criminal acts by the offender, and may represent children unsupervised in an adult environment. Homicides that occur in children between 3 and 12 years of age are a mixture of these two types. PMID:6846292

  15. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  16. Biliteracy, or the Bilingual Child's Right to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Theodore

    So far bilingual education has had only the most modest success in providing for children of limited English-speaking ability (LESAS) an educational opportunity equal to that of English-speaking children. In fact, to aim only at equality is self-defeating because it is impossible for a LESA child with a five-to-six year handicap ever to catch up…

  17. [Child sexual exploitation].

    PubMed

    Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience. PMID:19812796

  18. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  19. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Child passenger safety has dramatically evolved over the past decade; however, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death of children 4 years and older. This policy statement provides 4 evidence-based recommendations for best practices in the choice of a child restraint system to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence: (1) rear-facing car safety seats for most infants up to 2 years of age; (2) forward-facing car safety seats for most children through 4 years of age; (3) belt-positioning booster seats for most children through 8 years of age; and (4) lap-and-shoulder seat belts for all who have outgrown booster seats. In addition, a fifth evidence-based recommendation is for all children younger than 13 years to ride in the rear seats of vehicles. It is important to note that every transition is associated with some decrease in protection; therefore, parents should be encouraged to delay these transitions for as long as possible. These recommendations are presented in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate implementation of the recommendations by pediatricians to their patients and families and should cover most situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics urges all pediatricians to know and promote these recommendations as part of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. PMID:21422088

  20. Child passenger safety.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  1. Pilot Evaluation of Outcomes of Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Families at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Schroeder, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Child physical abuse (CPA) is not only a highly prevalent public health problem, but it has been associated with a wide range of debilitating psychosocial sequelae that may develop during childhood and persist into adulthood. This paper outlines a treatment model, Combined Parent-Child Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT), that addresses the…

  2. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  3. The community deals with the child who has a handicap.

    PubMed

    Bullard, I D; Dohnal, J T

    1984-06-01

    Exclusion messages, however subtle, are interwoven into the community of the child who is handicapped. The subsystems of family, religion, neighborhood, education, health care, and financial assistance agencies have good intentions but frequently communicate poorly with the child and the parents. What is meant as a help becomes a hindrance for the child who must adapt to a limitation while continuing to move toward self-esteem, self-sufficiency, and skills that will enhance productivity and employability. No one negative message will destroy a handicapped child: it is the "history of learned inferiority" that cripples the child who is handicapped. Only when able-bodied individuals within the subsystems recognize the cumulative effect of these messages will the community be responsive to the real needs of the child who has a handicap. Nurses, schooled in sensitivity for the person, should resolve to be in the vanguard in this movement, becoming ever more sensitive to the needs of the handicapped. Such a giant step will begin a fresh and long-needed approach toward understanding those needs central to the well-being of the child who resides in the community and is also handicapped. PMID:6233539

  4. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  5. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    the recommended age ranges. Analysis of the results from this study indicates that alterations in restraint geometry, particularly shortening the seat cushion, allowing for adjustable upper sash belt anchorages in the rear seat of vehicles, and increasing the height of high back booster seats would substantially improve the fit of restraints for child occupants. This data confirms findings from a recent study that looked only at rear seat cushion depths and provides new data on seat belt and child restraint geometry for child occupants. PMID:18278601

  6. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  7. Special needs and child welfare: healing the child.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Cindy S

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has placed the child at the center of the child welfare system. Courts bear the ultimate responsibility for the safety and well-being of these children, including those with disabilities. Findings from the Child and Family Service Reviews, however, indicate less-than-optimal conformity in a number of states regarding the physical and mental well-being of children. A multidisciplinary approach involving jurisprudence, science, and financing is required to bring about better compliance. Collaboration among legal, medical, dental, and child advocacy organizations is necessary for healing children in the welfare system to become a national imperative. PMID:17566535

  8. The relation between child death and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, C; Isaac, R

    2006-01-01

    The death of a child is a sentinel event in a community, and a defining marker of a society's policies of safety and health. Child death as a result of abuse and neglect is a tragic outcome that occurs in all nations of the world. The true incidence of fatal child abuse and neglect is unknown. The most accurate incidence data of such deaths have been obtained from countries where multi‐agency death review teams analyse the causes of child fatalities, as is done in the United States and Australia. PMID:16492892

  9. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008). PMID:23444794

  10. Haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies from nuclear families with only one parent available.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Flury, Christine; Simianer, Henner

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature has suggested that haplotype inference through close relatives, especially from nuclear families can be an alternative strategy in determining the linkage phase. In this paper, haplotype reconstruction and estimation of haplotype frequencies via expectation maximization (EM) algorithm including nuclear families with only one parent available is proposed. Parent and his (her) child are treated as parent-child pair with one shared haplotype. This reduces the number of potential haplotype pairs for both parent and child separately, resulting in a higher accuracy of the estimation. In a series of simulations, the comparisons of PHASE, GENEHUNTER, EM-based approach for complete nuclear families and our approach are carried out. In all situations, EM-based approach for trio data is comparable but slightly worse error rate than PHASE, our approach is slightly better and much faster than PHASE for incomplete trios, the performance of GENEHUNTER is very bad in simple nuclear family settings and dramatically decreased with the number of markers being increased. On the other hand, the comparison result of different sampling designs demonstrates that sampling trios is the most efficient design to estimate haplotype frequencies in populations under same genotyping cost. PMID:16954697

  11. State Plan for Child Day Care [Virginia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravett, Marty; And Others

    Virginia's first state plan for child day care begins with 14 sections covering several aspects of child care. Section I reviews child care history and trends. Sections II, III, IV, and V argue, respectively, that child day care is important to government, business, families, and children. Elements of a comprehensive child day care delivery system…

  12. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  13. How To Define Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M.

    This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…

  14. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  15. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  16. Struggle for the Soul: John Lawrence Childs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Jared

    2010-01-01

    John Lawrence Childs was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin on January 11, 1889, the second child of John Nelson Childs and Helen Janette (Nettie) Smith. In childhood Childs absorbed the values of industry, democracy, and a traditional, but socially conscious, religion. Childs was a Methodist and an intensely private person not given to talking about…

  17. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  18. The Child Care Problem: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    Addressed to both social scientists and to nonacademic readers, this book provides an overview of the United States child care market, analyzes the main aspects of child care and child care policy, and proposes a new child care policy. The main thesis of the book is that the child care market functions much better than is commonly believed.…

  19. The role Kentucky's dentists must play in preventing child abuse & neglect.

    PubMed

    Mouden, L D

    1997-01-01

    Dentistry must become more aware of its moral, legal, and ethical responsibilities in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. All dental professionals must be aware of the seriousness of the problems of child maltreatment, and understand that children do not just get hurt in abuse and neglect, they often die as a direct result of their maltreatment. Unfortunately, victims of child abuse and neglect fall into only two categories--those who lived through it and those who did not. PMID:9573768

  20. Family ties and child placement.

    PubMed

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  1. Is psychiatry only neurology? Or only abnormal psychology? Déjà vu after 100 years.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Forgetting history, which frequently repeats itself, is a mistake. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers criticised early 20th century psychiatrists, including those who thought psychiatry was only neurology (Wernicke) or only abnormal psychology (Freud), or who did not see the limitations of the medical model in psychiatry (Kraepelin). Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the medical model (Group I), while others are variations of normality (Group III), or comprise schizophrenia and severe mood disorders (Group II). In the early 21st century, the players' names have changed but the game remains the same. The US NIMH is reprising both Wernicke's brain mythology and Kraepelin's marketing promises. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution started at Washington University, became pre-eminent through the DSM-III developed by Spitzer, but reached a dead end with the DSM-5. McHugh, who described four perspectives in psychiatry, is the leading contemporary representative of the Jaspersian diagnostic approach. Other neo-Jaspersians are: Berrios, Wiggins and Schwartz, Ghaemi, Stanghellini, Parnas and Sass. Can psychiatry learn from its mistakes? The current psychiatric language, organised at its three levels, symptoms, syndromes, and disorders, was developed in the 19th century but is obsolete for the 21st century. Scientific advances in Jaspers' Group III disorders require collaborating with researchers in the social and psychological sciences. Jaspers' Group II disorders, redefined by the author as schizophrenia, catatonic syndromes, and severe mood disorders, are the core of psychiatry. Scientific advancement in them is not easy because we are not sure how to delineate between and within them correctly. PMID:25849592

  2. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

  3. Donor conception from the viewpoint of the child: positives, negatives, and promoting the welfare of the child.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Julianne E

    2015-09-01

    Use of donor egg and donor sperm has made parenthood a possibility for many who could not achieve it through natural conception. The use of donor gametes may also permit prospective parents to mitigate a number of health problems for the hoped-for child. Promoting the welfare of the hoped-for child, however, includes not only the consideration of good physical health but also necessitates consideration of psychological, emotional, and social well-being. This paper will review the impact of donor conception from the viewpoint of the resulting child including the psychological, emotional, and social well-being of donor-conceived children. It will discuss the topic of disclosure and closely consider the expansion of donor conception to older parents from the viewpoint of the child. PMID:26158907

  4. Nigeria: child health.

    PubMed

    Amobi, I

    The child in Nigeria is loved and pampered but food may be scarce or inadequate in nutrients, and he/she has overcrowding and poor sanitation to deal with as well as a maze of conflicting and hybrid values and way of life. Statistics show that in black Africa 1 child out of 5 will survive up to his 5th birthday. The infant mortality rate is high primarily because of inadequate nutrition and communicable diseases. The 10 most common diseases in Africa from 4 sample countries, i.e., Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya are: malaria; gastroenteritis, measles; respiratory tract infections; malnutrition; intestinal worm, anemias; tetanus; meningitis; and tuberuclosis. All these diseases are preventable, but prevention is more difficult because there are few health workers and inadequate facilities. 80 pediatricians and a few unrecognized pediatric trained nurses look after about 40 million children in Nigeria. Nutrition plays a prominent role in both growth and development. Local food may be plentiful but some families are unable to balance their diets. There is malnutrition or undernutrition because of ignorance, poverty, and feeding habits. In Africa the effect of malnutrition is most marked during weaning. In a traditional African society a child does not lack for love and affection. There are no unwanted pregnancies, no motherless children, no unmarried women, for the extended family system absorbs many of these shocks. The circumstances of the family are related to the incidence of child abuse, which is increasing. Children are used as cheap labor by both parents and guardians. In the current 5-year development plan, the government is making a bold step in health care. Some of the major goals of this 4th 5-year development plan in health care delivery include: rapid expansion of facilities to achieve 100% primary health care coverage by the year 2000; emphasizing preventive care; decentralization so that the local government areas are implementation units

  5. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children. PMID:19586926

  6. Planning for Child Development: Manual. Appalachian Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Franklin, Jr.

    This group facilitator manual which forms the basis of a package of materials (including a handbook and media presentation) is designed for use with child care councils, policy advisory committees, and child advocacy groups which want to become more effective in developing programs for children. The manual is divided into two major sections. The…

  7. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  8. Child Support, Child Care and Head Start Collaboration: Innovations & Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bureau, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This monograph highlights and compares approaches of six demonstration grant projects designed to promote collaboration between state Child Support Enforcement, Child Care, and Head Start programs. These demonstration grant projects were awarded to Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, and Missouri. These three-year projects were…

  9. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  10. Children, Child Abuse and Child Protection: Placing Children Centrally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This book provides an overview of the political, moral, and social context within which British child welfare practitioners and managers attempt to work with children, families, and others. The book reviews the development of improved policy and practices in child protection. Placing children at the center of policy, practice, and discourse, it…

  11. Child-to-Child Evangelism Hits on Parents' Religious Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Rob

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "child-to-child evangelism" technique designed by evangelist Franklin Graham to convert America's children to his brand of Christianity. Starting in local public schools, Graham put out this plan whereby children could study evangelism techniques over the Internet and then march into their schools to…

  12. Musings: Does Criticizing Your Child's Teacher Disempower Your Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the negative effects of criticizing a child's teacher in front of the child and the positive effects of modeling a healthy respect of the educational system. Study findings are discussed which indicate high-achieving children saw themselves as active partners with their teachers or coaches, not empty vessels. (Contains 6…

  13. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baby teeth hold space for adult teeth. Take care of your child’s teeth to protect your child from tooth decay (cavities). Tooth decay can: Cause your child pain Make it hard for your child to chew ...

  14. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000184.htm Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... with your child's doctor about the type of anesthesia that will be best for your child. Below ...

  15. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  16. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing ... with a child about having cancer. Why Your Child Needs to Know It can be tempting NOT ...

  17. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to stop? Should I water down my child's formula? ...

  18. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices wou...

  19. Will the Child be Normal? Ask Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)

  20. Population education and China: prospects for the one child family.

    PubMed

    Fraser, S E

    1980-01-01

    elderly will be high regardless of the fact that they have few children to support them. Population growth rates are falling as a result of these programs. The following are some of the economic sanctions levied against couples who produce a second child after being rewarded for only having one: deduction from welfare expenses, nonpayment of medical expenses, and no food coupons. China has taken a great social leap forward in promoting the 1 child family and the call for population education and family planning information dissemination has been established in public schools. PMID:12264276

  1. The sick child's predicament.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D C

    1985-06-01

    There is widespread criticism of medicine which contrasts with its manifest success in biotechnology. Medicine's failure to convince stems partly from the fact that its successful biotechnology distracts it from the mundane task of responding appropriately to components of commonplace sicknesses which do not stem from disease (things) or illness (symptoms) but from predicaments. Predicaments are painful social situations or circumstances, complex, unstable, morally charged and varying in their import in time and place, which are readily discernible from a good history. Predicaments are distinguished from environmental agents by being an aspect of social organisation rather than structures. Dangerous and excruciating predicaments are described as well as the predicaments of being sick, and being in hospital. Child psychiatrists are often presented with problems where diagnosis of disease or illness in the child is inappropriate and resolution of its predicament alleviates the distress that had been presented in the language of sickness. The model is capable of broader application in psychiatry and medicine. Doctors should be more concerned to know about the context and background of their patients' sickness, as patients give this information very freely if asked. If patients' complaints are misunderstood then medical responses, made in good faith, may be seen as dangerous intrusions leading to a loss of trust, anger, and litigiousness. PMID:3863603

  2. [Child social welfare service].

    PubMed

    Bouyx, A; Rosset, D J

    1989-03-01

    In France, the Child Welfare Service is the public agency responsible for the protection of children and adolescents. Since the enaction of the decentralization laws, this Service is under the authority of the president of the Regional Council of each district. The Child Welfare Service provides material and/or educational support to families and youngsters in need of help. It also ensures the placement of children, adolescents and youngsters of age in institutions or foster homes according to the therapeutic indication. The CWS's role is to prevent the disruption of families, promote the reconstruction of broken families, and ensure the adoption of neglected children. As a result of the intense efforts provided over a great number of years, the numbers of families and children eligible for CWS intervention are falling. In Paris, in 1987, 5,000 youngsters separated from their families benefited from CWS actions, and approximately one hundred neglected children were adopted into new families. In this article, we describe the current work of the CWS by means of a few figures and comments. PMID:2729836

  3. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    PubMed

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain. PMID:26713422

  4. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  5. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  6. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  7. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  8. The Child's Right To Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Beverley

    This paper argues that play is an important and fundamental educational process and that the child's right to play should be respected. The paper also comments on the 1990 Tokyo International Conference on the Child's Right to Play. Several issues related to children's play, both in and out of school, are discussed. The focus is on the state of…

  9. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  10. Influential Papers in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, R. Kim; Donnelly, Anne Cohn

    1997-01-01

    Child protection professionals (N=242) were surveyed regarding their picks for the best papers or book chapters in the field. A citation search was also conducted. Eight papers appeared in the top 15 of both the professional survey and the citation search, with "The Battered Child Syndrome" (Kempe, et al., 1962) appearing at the top of both lists.…

  11. An Introduction to Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chess, Stella

    The role of child psychiatry is discussed, and the child is described as a developing organism. Genetic factors in behavior are considered as are the presenting problems. Methods treated involve taking the history, conducting the diagnostic interview, using special diagnostic procedures, and applying diagnostic classification. Problem areas dealt…

  12. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  13. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  14. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  15. Help Your Child Get Organized

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have your child gather the supplies where the work will take place. As the project progresses, show your child how ... kind way, that you expect your kids to work on these skills and that you'll be there ... the natural place to begin. Get Comfortable in Your Role For ...

  16. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  17. Young Child. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: (1) "Young Children and Technology: Building Computer Literacy" (Michael J. Bell and Caroline M. Crawford); (2) "Integrating Technology into the Young Child Lesson Plan" (Michael J. Bell and…

  18. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  19. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  20. Illinois: Child Care Collaboration Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…

  1. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  2. Child Development Associate Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This training guide presents information about the Child Development Associate (CDA) program, which is a nationwide experimental program that embodies a new concept for career preparation and credentials of child care staff. The information in this guide concerns the CDA concept, competencies, pilot training projects, and the CDA Consortium. The…

  3. [Psychiatric aspects of child maltreatment].

    PubMed

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2014-05-01

    The paper reviews the epidemiology of child maltreatment, forms of child abuse and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the psychiatrist's roles and responsibilities in relation to assessment of problems and treatment are also addressed in the paper. PMID:24776383

  4. Advanced Child Development. Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document examines many aspects of parenting, child care, and child development and is designed to be used in conjunction with a curriculum guide as part of secondary laboratory-oriented courses. The 12 chapters covering course subject matter are as follows: (1) parenting; (2) prenatal and neonatal development; (3) factors affecting prenatal…

  5. The history of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1986-01-01

    Though the child abuse syndrome is usually considered to have been first described in the middle of the present century, references to child abuse occur throughout history and in the 19th century, detailed descriptions were published in the French medical literature. PMID:3514400

  6. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  7. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  8. Assessment of Early Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapan, Dorothy

    This is a short assessment outline for use by non-clinicians in evaluating the development of young children. It usually requires 20-30 minutes to assess one child. It may be used periodically to evaluate changes, as a year-end summary, or as a means of communicating with others who have contacts with the child. Sections of the assessment deal…

  9. Neuroscience, Play, and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    This paper presents a brief overview of the array of neuroscience research as it applies to play and child development. The paper discusses research showing the importance of play for brain growth and child development, and recommends that families, schools and other social and corporate institutions rearrange their attitudes and priorities about…

  10. What Can Education Teach Child Mental Health Services? Practitioners' Perceptions of Training and Joint Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostanis, Panos; O'Reilly, Michelle; Taylor, Helen; Day, Crispin; Street, Cathy; Wolpert, Miranda; Edwards, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The importance of joint working between educational and child mental health professionals is well documented but there are numerous challenges and only limited training models. While the evidence base and training programmes for educationalists regarding child mental health is growing, training mental health professionals about education is more…

  11. Child Care: When We Care for Children. Issue Series Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehnert, Barbara H., Ed.

    As the number of working women with young children continues to grow, the demand for affordable, high quality child care increases as well. Existing licensed centers and family day care programs can only accommodate 2.5 million children, while 10.5 million children under the age of 6 have working mothers. The quality of child care programs has a…

  12. Evaluation Research in Child Welfare: Improving Outcomes through University-Public Agency Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    While research shows that trained social workers were better prepared to produce more effective outcomes in child welfare than those with other degrees, only an estimated 3 to 28 percent of the public child welfare workforce comprised trained social workers. A social work effort to promote workforce development and to promote professional social…

  13. Where's Papa? Fathers' Role in Child Care. Population Trends and Public Policy No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Martin

    Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…

  14. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  15. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  16. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that explicitly states…

  17. Barriers to the Implementation of Continuity-of-Care Practices in Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguillard, Amber E.; Pierce, Sarah H.; Benedict, Joan H.; Burts, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined barriers to the implementation of continuity-of-care practices in child care centers. We collected qualitative and quantitative data for 52 children at four centers that advertise their programs as continuity programs. Of the 52 children, only 7 of the children had been cared for in a single child-caregiver dyad between the…

  18. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  19. The Language Development of a Deaf Child with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouvet, Kimberley; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Taverniers, Miriam; Van Herreweghe, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf or partially deaf infants are confronted with the complex question of communication with their child. This question is complicated further by conflicting advice on how to address the child: in spoken language only, in spoken language supported by signs, or in signed language. This paper studies the linguistic environment…

  20. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  1. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  2. Social Information in Court Decisions of Compulsory Child Adoption in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-David, Vered

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguity over the concepts of "parental capability" and "the child's best interests" in the Israeli adoption law, and a lack of sufficient professional knowledge can lead to bias in the professional decision-making process regarding child adoption. This study investigates the idea that judges do not use only legal considerations and relevant…

  3. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K

    2014-04-01

    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals. PMID:24588605

  4. Can one distinguish between Doppler shifts due to source-only and detector-only velocities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Ambroselli, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This paper revisits the optical Doppler shift as the classical Doppler shift based upon spectroscopic line broadening of spontaneous emission (moving source) and quantum mechanical conditions for stimulated absorption and emissions (moving detector). We find that excited emitting source-atoms and stimulated detecting-atoms clearly discern their individual absolute velocities with respect to the cosmic vacuum (Complex Tension Field, or CTF). In other words, the optical Doppler shift does not depend solely upon the relative velocity between a pair of source and detector; as the prevailing assumption is. The implication is that Doppler shifts of light coming from distant galaxies are determined by the local velocities of the emitting and detecting atoms with respect to the CTF; and the emissions frequencies remain completely independent of the velocities of the various detectors in various other galaxies; because they obey quantum mechanical transition rule Δν mn = hν mn . The released energy mn hν evolves into a wave packet of frequency mn ν only when the velocity of the source atom is zero w.r.t. CTF. Atom velocity in CTF introduces a real physical frequency shift from mn ν into med . ν . Then a detector would perceive this med . ν as det . ν due to its own velocity w.r.t CTF. The key assertion of this paper is that, the classical Doppler shift for material based waves and the optical Doppler shift for CTF based EM waves, follow the same and two different physical processes during emission and absorption and hence the representative mathematical formulation should be same as classical Doppler shift formula. Light emitted by an atom in a star in a galaxy at a distance of 10 billion years from the Sun, could not have coordinated its Doppler shift "knowing" its relative velocity with an earth based detector's; because the earth did not exist! The Sun was born barely 4 billion years ago. Calculation of optical Doppler shift based upon current relative velocity

  5. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    age groups, and for all levels of maternal education. Higher prices were associated with shorter children. Joint price and expenditure interactions were significant. Children at the top of the expenditure distribution were more affected by some prices than by others. Capital building improvements alone and with expenditures were all positively associated with child height. Only nurses per capita impacted on child height. PMID:12318394

  6. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  7. Pregnancy and child outcome after oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Söderström-Anttila, V

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade oocyte donation has been highly successful for treating women previously thought to be hopelessly infertile. The pregnancy rate after oocyte donation is among the highest reported for any fertility-enhancing procedure. Most investigators have noted an increased rate of obstetric complications in these pregnancies. In particular, pregnancy-induced hypertension appears to occur more often than expected, and the Caesarean section rate is high. However, the majority of oocyte recipients experience a favourable pregnancy and perinatal outcome. When perinatal complications occur they are usually related to multiple gestation. The high frequency of multiple pregnancy after oocyte donation, as well as in all other fields of assisted reproduction, deserves attention, and efforts to avoid multi-fetal gestation must be made. There are only a few studies on post-natal growth and development of young children born after oocyte donation. The health of these children appears to be within normal ranges. The psychological consequences of the treatment on the child require further investigation. Thus far, studies have shown normal socio-emotional development in the child and a warm relationship between the parents and the child in oocyte donation families. PMID:11212070

  8. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children. PMID:23906118

  9. The role of temperament by family environment interactions in child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-11-01

    In order to advance our understanding of the etiology of individual differences in child maladjustment (i.e., conduct and emotional problems), we tested hypotheses about the statistical interactions between child temperament and two aspects of the family environment: maternal negativity and positivity, and household chaos (e.g., crowding, noise, lack of routines). Mothers (n = 149) reported on their child's effortful control, negative affect, surgency, and behavioral/emotional problems. The age range of the children was 3 to 7 years old and half of the sample was girls. Observers rated maternal negativity and positivity based on brief structured interaction tasks in the laboratory. Child temperament moderated the association between maternal negativity/positivity and child maladjustment. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were associated only for those children who also were high in surgency or negative affectivity. Maternal positivity was associated with less child problem behavior for those high in surgency. Child effortful control interacted with both maternal negativity and chaos. Maternal negativity and child problem behavior were most strongly associated for children who were low in effortful control and living in chaotic homes. The results point to distinct transactions between child temperament and maternal negativity/positivity that depend in part on the dimensions of temperament and parenting behavior in question. PMID:24691836

  10. Child Temperament, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784

  11. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  12. Multisensory Integration and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Paquette, Natacha; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI). We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity. PMID:25679116

  13. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income. PMID:12158011

  14. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  15. An overview of child physical abuse: developing an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed. PMID:15006297

  16. [Advocating "one couple with one child" being an optimal choice].

    PubMed

    Wang, W Y; Zhang, M C

    1981-04-01

    Zero population growth within the next 5 years in China would be reached only if many couples were not allowed to have their own child. On the other hand, if every couple were allowed to have 2 children China's population would reach 1500 million within the next 50 years. It seems advisable to advocate the "1 couple 1 child" idea; couples will have to keep in mind both the national interest and the communist ideology; social welfare to assure good living conditions for the old people will relieve the worries of parents with 1 child only. Most people are willing to follow this decision made by the Communist Party; many people declare their willingness to stick by this rule during their wedding ceremony; many couples send back their permit to have a second child, and many women choose abortion when pregnant with a second permitted pregnancy. By the end of 1979 the proportion of "1 couple 1 child" couples was 90% in many large cities; people realize that the practice of "1 couple 1 child" is the best assurance for the future of the country and of their children. This policy will not result in aging of the population, lack of manpower and shortage of soldiers; even if birth rate were 1% in 1985 the proportion of older people for the next 25 years will still be lower than that in European countries. The problem of aging of the population will not occur in this century, and population policies can always be adjusted when needed. Today's problem is to control population through the "1 couple 1 child" policy, even if it may result in many lonely old people, which is a lesser problem than too many people. Even if China has reduced its population growth by 10 million births each year from 1970 to 1979, the necessity to control population growth is still present, in the interest of the country and economic development. PMID:12311032

  17. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    PubMed

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  18. Chinese youth favor one-child families.

    PubMed

    Yu, P

    1995-04-01

    Sichuan province in China has 109 million people. Reports from a 1988 student survey of over 69% of students from rural Sichuan province indicated most lived by moderate standards, and family economic well-being has improved in the past 5 years. 78% of the teenagers surveyed considered the one-child family ideal. 43% of students in the 7th grade but only 31% in the 12th grade preferred having only one child someday. 65% of 7th graders compared to only 43% of 12th graders thought that the one-child family was an ideal family size for China. The desired family size for oneself was higher for urban youth (1.2) than rural youth (1.0). About 90% agreed with the statement that China had a population growth problem. Manliness and happiness were not equated with having large families. Over 50% agreed that children provided old age security. 80% reported lack of son preference. Modern attitudes were also reflected in the attitude toward equality in marriage and women's role. Student attitudes on small family size could reflect a norm or youthful responses that would change with maturity. 75% reported a desire to use contraception. 10% disapproved of contraception within marriage, and 20% objected to any personal use of contraception. 49% disagreed and 29% agreed with the unacceptability of premarital sexual relations. The average ideal marriage age was given as 24.3 years for women and 25.4 years for men. Suitable marriage age did not vary by socioeconomic status. Only 10% considered getting married as very important for themselves, and only 28% thought married people were happier. Under 50% thought everyone should get married. Regardless of the modern attitudes reported, the indications were that knowledge of family planning and human sexuality was limited. Only 18% knew when a woman's most fertile period was. About 40% relied on printed material as the main source of information on sexuality and reproduction. 18% learned about sexuality from their peers. Under 10% talked

  19. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  20. Child pornography and the internet.

    PubMed

    Temporini, Humberto

    2012-12-01

    The dramatic increase in child pornography offenses over the past 10 years is directly related to the availability of such material on the Internet. Child pornography can be found on the Web, in newsgroups, and on peer-to-peer networks (the most common source at present). Offenders are a heterogeneous group, with different motivations and levels of risk. The possibility of crossover to a contact sexual offense exists, depending on the presence of other risk factors. Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending. PMID:23107565

  1. Foster Care and Child Health.

    PubMed

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care. PMID:26318955

  2. Child with acute lobar nephronia

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, M.; Prahlad, N.; Nandhini, G.; Prasad, N.; Muralinath, S.

    2010-01-01

    A five-year-old girl child presented to us with a history of two weeks high grade fever treated outside with intensive antibiotic therapy for an ultrasound abdomen finding of hypoechoic lesion in the midpole of the left kidney. As fever and sonographic findings persisted, a CT abdomen was done, which showed features of lobar nephronia but reported as Wilm’s tumor. Child underwent open biopsy and the diagnosis of lobar nephronia was confirmed. Child was continued on antibiotics and fever and sonographic findings improved. PMID:21072159

  3. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  4. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p < 0.05), while parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher

  5. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens. PMID:26851605

  6. Conceptualization, Reporting and Underreporting of Child Abuse in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Yu, Aaron; Wong, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,001 Hong Kong adults found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. Only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive. (Author/CR)

  7. The Community Context of Child and Youth Care Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    Child and youth care practice unfolds within the context of the community. It is therefore essential that practitioners develop reflective skills not only in relation to their clients and the organizational context in which they are employed, but also in relation to their presence within a community and the community's perception of the…

  8. The One-Child Policy and School Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…

  9. Nurturing the Future: Implementing Internships in Child Care Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterangelo, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    One way that child care programs can help prepare future professionals in the field is to offer opportunities for the student to gain real life experience in a program. This is where internships are indispensable. An internship will help a novice develop their skills under the watchful eye of a more seasoned mentor. With internships, not only is…

  10. The Transformation of the Family: Implications for Child Care Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill-Scott, Karen

    This paper summarizes theories of American family organization, points out social changes that have had an impact on family structure, and discusses implications of current social and political conditions for child care policy. It is suggested that monistic characterizations of the family, emphasizing self-sufficiency and only one kind of family…

  11. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  12. The Influence of Child-Directed Speech in Early Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Contexts of limited input such as trilingual families where a language is not spoken in the wider community but only by a reduced number of speakers in the home provide a unique opportunity to examine closely the relationship between a child's input and what she learns to say. Barnes reported on the relationship between maternal input and a…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.; Bubar, Roe

    2001-01-01

    Victims of child abuse are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, not only directly through sexual abuse, but also because they engage in more high-risk behaviors. Because American Indian youth experience higher rates of sexual abuse and have less access to treatment and counseling, they are especially at risk.…

  14. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle; Fink, Dale B.

    This ERIC Digest provides an overview of school-age child care (SACC) programs and suggests reasons for their growth. Discussion points out that escalating interest in SACC has paralleled the raising numbers of children left on their own, and that educators are only the latest in a parade of civic and professional groups which have gone on record…

  15. Child and Adult Outcomes of Chronic Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Drake, Brett

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how child maltreatment chronicity is related to negative outcomes in later childhood and early adulthood. METHODS: The study included 5994 low-income children from St Louis, including 3521 with child maltreatment reports, who were followed from 1993–1994 through 2009. Children were 1.5 to 11 years of age at sampling. Data include administrative and treatment records indicating substance abuse, mental health treatment, brain injury, sexually transmitted disease, suicide attempts, and violent delinquency before age 18 and child maltreatment perpetration, mental health treatment, or substance abuse in adulthood. Multivariate analysis controlled for potential confounders. RESULTS: Child maltreatment chronicity predicted negative childhood outcomes in a linear fashion (eg, percentage with at least 1 negative outcome: no maltreatment = 29.7%, 1 report = 39.5%, 4 reports = 67.1%). Suicide attempts before age 18 showed the largest proportionate increase with repeated maltreatment (no report versus 4+ reports = +625%, P < .0001). The dose-response relationship was reduced once controls for other adverse child outcomes were added in multivariate models of child maltreatment perpetration and mental health issues. The relationship between adult substance abuse and maltreatment report history disappeared after controlling for adverse child outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Child maltreatment chronicity as measured by official reports is a robust indicator of future negative outcomes across a range of systems, but this relationship may desist for certain adult outcomes once childhood adverse events are controlled. Although primary and secondary prevention remain important approaches, this study suggests that enhanced tertiary prevention may pay high dividends across a range of medical and behavioral domains. PMID:22529281

  16. The Family Child Care Licensing Study, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 1999 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 1998 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized in 22 categories: (1) number of regulated homes; (2)…

  17. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nia, Comp.

    This report presents the findings of the 2000 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 1999 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized in 23 categories: (1) number of regulated homes; (2)…

  18. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 2002 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2001 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…

  19. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of the 2001 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2000 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…

  20. Family Child Care Licensing Study, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollestelle, Kay; Koch, Pauline D.

    This report presents the findings of the 2003 national survey of state child care regulatory agencies to update and expand family child care regulatory information published in the 2002 study. Data on small family child care homes and group or large family child care homes are organized into the following 23 categories: (1) number of regulated…