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Sample records for open chest dogs

  1. Absence of prejunctional sympathetic effect of amiodarone in hearts of open-chest anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, D; Yamaguchi, N; Lambert, C; de Champlain, J; Nadeau, R

    1990-02-01

    The effect of amiodarone (30 mg/kg p.o. each day for 3 weeks) on noradrenaline (NA) overflow into coronary sinus (CS) blood during left stellate stimulation (15 V, 2-ms square waves, 30 s duration at 1, 2, 4, and 8 Hz in random order) was investigated in an open-chest dog preparation. CS blood samples were taken before and during the stimulation period for plasma NA and hematocrit determinations. CS blood flow was monitored (extracorporal circulation with an electromagnetic flow meter) and used for NA output computation. The right atrium was paced throughout the experimental period. However, because AV block occurred at a high pacing rate in some amiodarone-treated dogs, pacing rate was lower in that group than in control dogs (132 +/- 13 vs. 161 +/- 10 min-1, ns). Mean arterial pressure was also lower in the treated group (95 +/- 9 vs. 110 +/- 13 mmHg, but increased in every dog upon stimulation (p less than 0.05). Basal left ventricular dP/dtmax was comparable in the two groups of dogs and increased in a similar fashion upon stimulation (p less than 0.05). The increase in plasma NA concentration upon stimulation was comparable between the control and the amiodarone-treated group (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs 0.40 +/- 0.12 ng/mL at 1 Hz and 12.7 +/- 3.1 vs 11.3 +/- 2.3 ng/mL at 8 Hz, ns). The increase in NA output was also comparable (7.0 +/- 1.6 vs. 10.7 +/- 5.4 ng/min at 1 Hz and 356 +/- 124 vs. 334 +/- 102 ng/min at 8 Hz, ns). Amiodarone did not alter the myocardial NA content. We conclude that amiodarone, administered orally for 3 weeks, does not interfere with neural NA release, or with the positive inotropic response, following sympathetic nerve stimulation in dogs. PMID:2310999

  2. Reduction of left ventricular epicardial segment length by 100% oxygen breathing in open-chest dogs.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K; Kanamasa, K; Yamakado, T; Katori, R

    1982-03-01

    We conducted this study in order to learn whether or nt oxygen inhalation reduces left ventricular size, one of the major determinants of myocardial oxygen demand. In 11 open-chest dogs, a Mercury-in-Silastic gauge was applied to measure left ventricular circumferential length while the dogs were being ventilated with either room air or 100% oxygen. Four characteristic notches were identified on the resulting length curve: L1, length at the beginning of ejection; L2, length at the end of ejection; L3, length in early diastole; and L4, length at end diastole, L1 was shortened from 24.9 +/- 10.5 to 24.4 +/- 9.9 mm (a decrease of 1.4 +/- 2.1%) by oxygen breathing, L2 was also shortened from 26.8 +/- 11.5 to 26.2 +/- 10.7 mm (a decrease of 1.5 +/- 2.9%), L3 from 17.5 +/- 4.4 to 17.4 +/- 4.3 mm (a decrease of 0.7 +/- 2.7%) and L4 from 17.7 +/- 4.8 to 17.5 +/- 4.7 mm (a decrease o 1.3 +/- 2.4%). These changes all disappeared when the inspiratory gas was changed from oxygen back to air. Heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no significant changes but were accompanied by a slight reduction in aortic pressure and myocardial contractile force. This study demonstrated a small but consistent reduction in left ventricular circumferential length by oxygen breathing. This reduction in left ventricular size will reduce left ventricular tension and thus result in reduction of left ventricular myocardial oxygen demand when oxygen inhalation is applied to patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:7071848

  3. Demonstration of free radical generation in the "stunned" myocardium in the conscious dog and identification of major differences between conscious and open-chest dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X Y; McCay, P B; Zughaib, M; Jeroudi, M O; Triana, J F; Bolli, R

    1993-01-01

    Conscious dogs undergoing a 15-min coronary occlusion were given alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and the local coronary venous plasma was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A prolonged myocardial release of PBN radical adducts was observed, which exhibited a burst in the initial minutes of reflow (peaking at 3 min) and then abated but continued for 1-3 h after reperfusion. Computer simulation revealed the presence of at least two PBN adducts (aN = 15.2 G and a beta H = 6.0 G; aN = 14.6 G and a beta H = 3.0 G), both consistent with the trapping of secondary carbon-centered radicals. No appreciable PBN adduct production was observed when collateral flow exceeded 30-40% of nonischemic flow, indicating that a flow reduction of at least 60% is necessary to trigger free radical reactions. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the severity of contractile dysfunction (r = 0.77), suggesting that the radicals generated upon reperfusion play a causal role in the subsequent stunning. The total release of PBN adducts after 3 h of reperfusion following a 15-min coronary occlusion was found to be approximately five times greater in open-chest compared with conscious dogs; at the same time, the recovery of wall thickening was markedly less in open-chest dogs. This study represents the first application of spin trapping to a conscious animal model of myocardial ischemia. The results demonstrate (a) that free radicals are generated in the stunned myocardium in the absence of the artificial or abnormal conditions associated with previously used models (isolated hearts, open-chest preparations), and (b) that both the severity of postischemic dysfunction and the magnitude of the attendant free radical production are greatly exaggerated in the open-chest dog, implying that previous conclusions derived from this model may not be applicable to conscious animals or to humans. This investigation also provides a

  4. Mechanism of ventricular vulnerability to single premature stimuli in open-chest dogs.

    PubMed

    Chen, P S; Wolf, P D; Dixon, E G; Danieley, N D; Frazier, D W; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1988-06-01

    To determine the mechanism of ventricular vulnerability to electrical stimulation, we simultaneously recorded from 120 transmural electrodes in a 35 X 20 X 5-mm portion of right ventricular infundibulum in seven dogs. Baseline pacing (S1) was performed from outside the mapped region followed by single premature stimulation (S2) of increasing strength at the center of the mapped region. In five of six episodes of ventricular fibrillation and 26 of 30 episodes of repetitive responses, complete reentrant pathways were observed. Earliest activation following S2 was not at the site of S2 stimulation but was at a point between the S1 and S2 sites of stimulation. Activation spread away from the early site toward the opposite side of the mapped region around the sides of an arc of block near the S2 site to form a "figure-of-eight." The activation fronts coalesced to activate the region around the S2 site last and, if the difference in times between activation at the early site and near the S2 site was large, reentered the tissue toward the S1 site. Ventricular refractory periods were determined in four dogs following S1 pacing; the regions with the greatest nonuniformity in the dispersion of refractoriness were not the regions of unidirectional block after S2 stimulation. Thus, 1) ventricular fibrillation and repetitive responses induced electrically with S1 and S2 stimuli at different ventricular sites arise by figure-of-eight reentry, 2) this reentry is caused by the ability of S2 stimulation both to prolong refractoriness near the S2 site and to initiate a propagated response in the region between the S1 and S2 sites, and 3) a nonuniform dispersion of refractoriness is not crucial for the electrical induction of reentry leading to ventricular fibrillation or repetitive responses when S1 and S2 stimuli are given at different locations on the right ventricular outflow tract. PMID:2454762

  5. Kinetics of rubidium-82 after coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Assessment of patency and viability in open-chested dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, R A

    1985-01-01

    Currently available noninvasive techniques are unable to rapidly assess artery patency and tissue viability during acute myocardial infarction. In prior studies, rubidium-82 (Rb-82), a short-lived positron emitter obtained from a generator, was validated as an indicator of flow with a model that included the rate constants for transfer into and out of the cell. Accordingly, in the current study, 20 open-chested dogs with experimental infarction were studied serially at base line, after coronary occlusion, and at reperfusion. Time-activity curves acquired with beta probes on the epicardial surface were used to measure flow and net transfer of rubidium. Flow decreased to 0.41 +/- 0.08 ml/min per gram during occlusion and increased to 2.73 +/- 0.56 ml/min per gram in potentially viable ischemic tissue, whereas flows were 0.32 +/- 0.08 during occlusion (P less than 0.05 vs. viable) and 1.58 ml/min per gram (P less than 0.002 vs. viable) in irreversibly injured tissue. The transfer rate constant for Rb-82, kT, at base line was +1.22 +/- 0.60 X 10(-3) s-1 and did not change significantly during occlusion in viable vs. nonviable samples (+1.41 +/- 1.27 vs. +0.93 +/- 1.51 X 10(-3) s-1, respectively), except that 4 out of 11 nonviable tissue samples had negative kTs. At reperfusion, viable myocardial samples were all positive (+1.26 +/- 1.58 X 10(-3) s-1), whereas all irreversibly injured tissues had a negative kT, indicating leakage of tracer (-1.50 +/- 1.10 X 10(-3) s-1, P less than 0.001). This study suggests that Rb-82 time-activity curves can be useful to determine patency of an infarct related artery and potential viability after reperfusion during myocardial infarction. Images PMID:3988934

  6. Activation during ventricular defibrillation in open-chest dogs. Evidence of complete cessation and regeneration of ventricular fibrillation after unsuccessful shocks.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P S; Shibata, N; Dixon, E G; Wolf, P D; Danieley, N D; Sweeney, M B; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a defibrillation shock is unsuccessful because it fails to annihilate activation fronts within a critical mass of myocardium, we recorded epicardial and transmural activation in 11 open-chest dogs during electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Shocks of 1-30 J were delivered through defibrillation electrodes on the left ventricular apex and right atrium. Simultaneous recordings were made from septal, intramural, and epicardial electrodes in various combinations. Immediately after all 104 unsuccessful and 116 successful defibrillation shocks, an isoelectric interval much longer than that observed during preshock VF occurred. During this time no epicardial, septal, or intramural activations were observed. This isoelectric window averaged 64 +/- 22 ms after unsuccessful defibrillation and 339 +/- 292 ms after successful defibrillation (P less than 0.02). After the isoelectric window of unsuccessful shocks, earliest activation was recorded from the base of the ventricles, which was the area farthest from the apical defibrillation electrode. Activation was synchronized for one or two cycles following unsuccessful shocks, after which VF regenerated. Thus, after both successful and unsuccessful defibrillation with epicardial shocks of greater than or equal to 1 J, an isoelectric window occurs during which no activation fronts are present; the postshock isoelectric window is shorter for unsuccessful than for successful defibrillation; unsuccessful shocks transiently synchronize activation before fibrillation regenerates; activation leading to the regeneration of VF after the isoelectric window for unsuccessful shocks originates in areas away from the defibrillation electrodes. The isoelectric window does not support the hypothesis that defibrillation fails solely because activation fronts are not halted within a critical mass of myocardium. Rather, unsuccessful epicardial shocks of greater than or equal to 1 J halt all activation

  7. Ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression in dogs with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Zidulka, A; Gross, D; Minami, H; Vartian, V; Chang, H K

    1983-06-01

    In 6 anesthetized and paralyzed supine dogs, ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC) was accomplished by a piston pump rapidly oscillating the pressure in a modified double blood pressure cuff wrapped around the lower thorax. Testing applied frequencies at 3, 5, 8, and 11 Hz, applied peak cuff pressures ranged from 30 to 230 cmH2O. This produced swings of esophageal pressure as high as 18 cmH2O and peak oscillatory air flow ranging from 0.7 to 1.6 L/s. Oscillatory tidal volume declined with increasing frequency and ranged from a mean of 61 to 45 ml. After 30 min of applied HFCWC, arterial blood gas determinations revealed a mean PaCO2 of 29.3 mmHg at 5 Hz, 35 mmHg at 3 Hz, 36 mmHg at 8 Hz, and 51 mmHg at 11 Hz. Mean PaO2 improved from ventilator control values at 3 Hz, remained unchanged at 5 and 8 Hz, and declined at 11 Hz. In 2 dogs breathing spontaneously, HFCWC applied at 5 and 11 Hz resulted in a reduction in spontaneous minute ventilation, mainly by a reduction in spontaneous tidal volume, whereas arterial blood gas values changed slightly. One dog ceased to breath spontaneously within 5 min of application of HFCWC as the PaCO2 fell below control values. We conclude that in dogs with normal lungs, HFCWC may assist spontaneous ventilation. In paralyzed dogs, HFCWC may be of sufficient magnitude to cause hyperventilation. PMID:6407373

  8. ROI extraction of chest CT images using adaptive opening filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Nobuhiro; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Omatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2003-05-01

    We have already developed a prototype of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that can automatically detect suspicious shadows from Chest CT images. But the CAD system cannot detect Ground-Grass-Attenuation perfectly. In many cases, this reason depends on the inaccurate extraction of the region of interests (ROI) that CAD system analyzes, so we need to improve it. In this paper, we propose a method of an accurate extraction of the ROI, and compare proposed method to ordinary method that have used in CAD system. Proposed Method is performed by application of the three steps. Firstly we extract lung area using threshold. Secondly we remove the slowly varying bias field using flexible Opening Filter. This Opening Filter is calculated by the combination of the ordinary opening value and the distribution which CT value and contrast follow. Finally we extract Region of Interest using fuzzy clustering. When we applied proposal method to Chest CT images, we got a good result in which ordinary method cannot achieve. In this study we used the Helical CT images that are obtained under the following measurement: 10mm beam width; 20mm/sec table speed; 120kV tube voltage; 50mA tube current; 10mm reconstruction interval.

  9. The effect of body position, sedation, and thoracic bandaging on functional residual capacity in healthy deep-chested dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Bedenice, Daniela; Lofgren, Jennifer; Abrams, Julie; Bach, Jonathan; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body position, chest wrap, and sedation on functional residual capacity (FRC) in 6 healthy dogs. Functional residual capacity was determined by helium dilution (re-breathing) whilst in different clinically relevant conditions. These conditions included the standing (sternal) and lateral positions in unsedated dogs and then again both standing and lateral following chest bandaging, and sedation with acepromazine, IV and butorphanol, IV. The mean FRC at each measurement point was determined, as was the change in FRC (delta FRC) from one measurement point to another. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures with Fisher’s LSD post hoc test was used to evaluate the effect of interventions. The differences in delta FRC were evaluated using a t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean FRC at baseline, defined as standing, unsedated and unwrapped, was 75.3 ± 23.8 mL/kg. Body position or sedation had the most profound effect on FRC with right lateral recumbency lowering FRC by a median of 20.4 mL/kg and sedation lowering FRC by a median of 19.8 mL/kg. Common clinical procedures and positioning result in lowered FRC in healthy deep-chested dogs. In critically ill or injured dogs, the iatrogenic loss of FRC through chest bandaging, sedation, or body position may be clinically relevant. PMID:20357956

  10. Electrophysiological effects of Org 7797 in the closed-chest anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    Leboeuf, J.; Basiez, M.; Massingham, R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The intravenous electrophysiological effects of a new antifibrillatory agent, Org 7797, were studied in closed chest anaesthetized dogs. Effects of fast sodium and slow calcium-mediated action potentials were also examined in guinea-pig isolated papillary muscle. 2. The major effects of a known antifibrillatory dose of Org 7797 (0.5 mg kg-1) were a protracted slowing of AV nodal conduction (for at least 20 min) and prolongation of the AV nodal functional refractory period. Conduction in the atria and His-Purkinje system (reflected by the St-A and HV intervals) were not significantly modified whilst ventricular conduction (reflected by the QRS interval) and the ventricular functional refractory period were only transiently prolonged. No other electrophysiological changes were seen. 3. A higher dose of Org 7797 (1.5 mg kg-1) slowed conduction at all levels of the myocardium (as evidenced by increases in the St-A, AH, HV and QRS intervals), slightly shortened cardiac repolarization (as assessed from JTc) and decreased Wenckebach rate. Atrial refractory periods were increased whereas effects on ventricular refractory periods were modest. 4. Neither heart rate nor sinus node recovery time were modified by either dose of Org 7797. 5. Org 7797, at a concentration (20 microM) which reduced Vmax of fast sodium-mediated action potentials in isolated papillary muscle by 83%, did not modify Vmax of slow calcium-mediated action potentials. It prolonged duration of the latter but did not modify that of the former. However, the plateau phase of both the 'fast' and especially the 'slow' action potentials was prolonged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220882

  11. Chest MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Restrictive cardiomyopathy Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction Thoracic aortic aneurysm Thymus tumor Tumors of the chest Consult your ... Restrictive cardiomyopathy SVC obstruction Swollen lymph nodes Thoracic aortic aneurysm Patient Instructions Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge ...

  12. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-12-29

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  13. Transauricular embolization of the rabbit coronary artery for experimental myocardial infarction: comparison of a minimally invasive closed-chest model with open-chest surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To date, most animal studies of myocardial ischemia have used open-chest models with direct surgical coronary artery ligation. We aimed to develop a novel, percutaneous, minimally-invasive, closed-chest model of experimental myocardial infarction (EMI) in the New Zealand White rabbit and compare it with the standard open-chest surgical model in order to minimize local and systemic side-effects of major surgery. Methods New Zealand White rabbits were handled in conformity with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" and underwent EMI under intravenous anesthesia. Group A underwent EMI with an open-chest method involving surgical tracheostomy, a mini median sternotomy incision and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation with a plain suture, whereas Group B underwent EMI with a closed-chest method involving fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transauricular intra-arterial access, superselective LAD catheterization and distal coronary embolization with a micro-coil. Electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac enzymes and transcatheter left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurements were recorded. Surviving animals were euthanized after 4 weeks and the hearts were harvested for Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson-trichrome staining. Results In total, 38 subjects underwent EMI with a surgical (n = 17) or endovascular (n = 21) approach. ST-segment elevation (1.90 ± 0.71 mm) occurred sharply after surgical LAD ligation compared to progressive ST elevation (2.01 ± 0.84 mm;p = 0.68) within 15-20 min after LAD micro-coil embolization. Increase of troponin and other cardiac enzymes, abnormal ischemic Q waves and LVEDP changes were recorded in both groups without any significant differences (p > 0.05). Infarct area was similar in both models (0.86 ± 0.35 cm in the surgical group vs. 0.92 ± 0.54 cm in the percutaneous group;p = 0.68). Conclusion The proposed model of transauricular coronary coil embolization avoids thoracotomy and major

  14. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping

    PubMed Central

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog’s tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue’s interaction with the air–fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  15. Coenzyme Q10 protects ischemic myocardium in an open-chest swine model.

    PubMed

    Atar, D; Mortensen, S A; Flachs, H; Herzog, W R

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial stunning, defined as a reversible decrease in contractility after ischemia and reperfusion, may be a manifestation of reperfusion injury caused by free oxygen radical damage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone), believed to act as a free radical scavenger, reduces myocardial stunning in a porcine model. Twelve swine were randomized to receive either oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 or placebo for 20 days. A normothermic open-chest model was used with short occlusion (8 min) of the distal left descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. Regional contractile function was measured with epicardial Doppler crystals in ischemic and nonischemic segments by measuring thickening fraction of the left ventricular wall during systole. Stunning time was defined as the elapsed time of reduced contractility until return to baseline. Coenzyme Q10 concentrations were measured in blood and homogenized myocardial tissue by high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma levels of reduced coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) were higher in swine pretreated with the experimental medication as compared to placebo (mean 0.45 mg/l versus 0.11 mg/l, respectively). Myocardial tissue concentrations, however, did not show any changes (mean 0.79 micrograms/mg dry weight versus 0.74 micrograms/mg). Stunning time was significantly reduced in coenzyme Q10 pretreated animals (13.7 +/- 7.7 min versus 32.8 +/- 3.1 min, P < 0.01). In conclusion, chronic pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 protects ischemic myocardium in an open-chest swine model. The beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 on myocardial stunning may be due to protection from free radical mediated reperfusion injury. This protective effect seems to be generated by a humoral rather than intracellular mechanism. PMID:8241692

  16. [Chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Freixinet Gilart, Jorge; Ramírez Gil, María Elena; Gallardo Valera, Gregorio; Moreno Casado, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Chest trauma is a frequent problem arising from lesions caused by domestic and occupational activities and especially road traffic accidents. These injuries can be analyzed from distinct points of view, ranging from consideration of the most severe injuries, especially in the context of multiple trauma, to the specific characteristics of blunt and open trauma. In the present article, these injuries are discussed according to the involvement of the various thoracic structures. Rib fractures are the most frequent chest injuries and their diagnosis and treatment is straightforward, although these injuries can be severe if more than three ribs are affected and when there is major associated morbidity. Lung contusion is the most common visceral lesion. These injuries are usually found in severe chest trauma and are often associated with other thoracic and intrathoracic lesions. Treatment is based on general support measures. Pleural complications, such as hemothorax and pneumothorax, are also frequent. Their diagnosis is also straightforward and treatment is based on pleural drainage. This article also analyzes other complex situations, notably airway trauma, which is usually very severe in blunt chest trauma and less severe and even suitable for conservative treatment in iatrogenic injury due to tracheal intubation. Rupture of the diaphragm usually causes a diaphragmatic hernia. Treatment is always surgical. Myocardial contusions should be suspected in anterior chest trauma and in sternal fractures. Treatment is conservative. Other chest injuries, such as those of the great thoracic and esophageal vessels, are less frequent but are especially severe. PMID:21640287

  17. How dogs lap: open pumping driven by acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-11-01

    Dogs drink by lapping because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck fluids into the mouth. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from a bath, which is then swallowed, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured the kinematics of lapping from nineteen dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments with an accelerating rod help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results suggest that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, and that dogs curl the tongue ventrally (backwards) and time their bite on the column to increase fluid intake per lap. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that though they both lap with the same frequency scaling with respect to body mass and have similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: a high-acceleration regime for dogs and a low-acceleration regime for cats.

  18. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  19. A successful treatment of cardiac tamponade due to an aortic dissection using open-chest massage.

    PubMed

    Keiko, Terasumi; Yanagawa, Youichi; Isoda, Susumu

    2012-05-01

    An 81-year-old woman became unconsciousness after complaining of a backache, and then, an ambulance was called. She was suspected to have an aortic dissection by the emergency medical technicians and was transferred to our department. On arrival, she was in shock. Emergency cardiac ultrasound disclosed good wall motion with cardiac tamponade but no complication of aortic regurgitation. Computed tomography of the trunk revealed a type A aortic dissection with cardiac tamponade. During performance of pericardial drainage, she lapsed into cardiopulmonary arrest. Immediately after sterilization of the patient's upper body with compression of the chest wall, we performed a thoracotomy and dissolved the cardiac tamponade by pericardiotomy and obtained her spontaneous circulation. Fortunately, blood discharge was ceased immediately after controlling her blood pressure aggressively. As she complicated pneumonitis, conservative therapy was performed. Her physical condition gradually improved, and she finally could feed herself and communicate. In cases of acute cardiac tamponade, simple pericardiocentesis often is not effective due to the presence of the clot, and a cardiac tamponade by a Stanford type A aortic dissection is highly possible to complicate cardiac arrest, so emergency physicians should be ready to provide immediate open cardiac massage to treat such patients. PMID:21406318

  20. Injuries suffered by dogs from riding in the back of open pickup trucks: a retrospective review of seventy cases.

    PubMed

    Houston, D M; Fries, C L; Alcorn, M J; Thomas, S S

    1995-08-01

    Case records of 70 dogs injured while riding in the back of open pickup trucks during the period January 1, 1982, to May 1, 1993, were reviewed. Most dogs were young (mean age 2.4 y) and of medium to large size (average weight 22.6 kg). Sixty-five dogs (93%) were injured during the months of April through October. Forty-nine dogs (70%) had single injuries and 21 dogs (30%) sustained multiple injuries. Fractures were the most frequent injury incurred, with fractures of the femur the most common. Surgical repair was recommended in all but 2 cases. PMID:7585438

  1. Electrophysiological effects of bepridil and its quaternary derivative CERM 11888 in closed chest anaesthetized dogs: a comparison with verapamil and diltiazem.

    PubMed Central

    Leboeuf, J.; Lamar, J. C.; Massingham, R.; Ponsonnaille, J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological effects of bepridil, its quaternary derivative, CERM 11888 (methylpyrrolidinium bromide) (both 2.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) and those of verapamil and diltiazem (0.2 mg kg-1 i.v.) were studied in closed chest anaesthetized dogs at doses used in clinical studies. 2. The four drugs caused a bradycardia with the following order of potency: bepridil greater than CERM 11888 greater than diltiazem greater than verapamil. 3. All the compounds slowed conduction in the AV node, increased the refractory period (RP) and decreased Wenckebach rates with the following order: verapamil much greater than diltiazem greater than bepridil greater than CERM 11888. 4. Verapamil and diltiazem did not affect conduction or the RP in atria while bepridil weakly slowed the former and markedly increased the latter. CERM 11888 caused a lengthening of RP but this was a delayed effect. 5. In the ventricle, bepridil and CERM 11888 caused a small increase in the QRS and a more pronounced increase in the RP. Both compounds increased QTc but did not modify HV. Verapamil and diltiazem had no significant effects at the ventricular level. 6. Our results confirm that the main sites of action of calcium antagonists are the SA and AV nodes. Bepridil has a broader spectrum of activity and also acts at the atrial and ventricular levels. A comparison of the effects of bepridil with those of its quaternary derivative suggests the involvement of an intracellular action in the electrophysiological effects of bepridil. PMID:2611495

  2. Near-infrared optical monitoring of cardiac oxygen sufficiency through thoracic wall without open-chest surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakihana, Yasuyuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    1991-05-01

    The cardiac function is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen, because its energy production mainly depends on the oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondria. Thus, oxygenation state of the tissue is critical. Cytochrome a,a3, hemoglobin and myoglobin, which play indispensable role in the oxygen metabolism, have the broad absorption band in near infrared (NIR) region and the light in this region easily penetrates biological tissues. Using NIR spectrophotometry, we attempted to measure the redox state of the copper in cytochrome a,a3 in rat heart through thoracic wall without open chest. The result is given in this paper.

  3. Clinical evaluation of high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) in patients scheduled for open-chest surgery.

    PubMed

    Malina, J R; Nordström, S G; Sjöstrand, U H; Wattwil, L M

    1981-05-01

    Comparisons were made in 10 patients scheduled for thoracotomy between a prototype of a low-compressive system (Bronchovent Special) for volume-controlled, high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV; fixed frequency of 60/min; fixed relative insufflation time of 22%), and a conventional respirator (SV-900) for intermittent positive-pressure, volume-controlled ventilation at a frequency of 20/min, after induction of anesthesia, but before surgery. With both ventilator systems intratracheal, intrapleural, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial systemic and central venous pressures were measured at normoventilation (normocarbia). Mean intratracheal pressure and mean intrapleural pressure were significantly lower with volume-controlled HFPPV (1.3 +/- 0.5 and -4.0 +/- 2.1 (SD) cm H2O, respectively) than with conventional volume-controlled ventilation with SV-900 (2.1 +/- 1.2 and -3.0 +/- 1.5 cm H2O, respectively). No significant differences between the two ventilators were found with respect to arterial systemic and central venous pressures, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, or alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference. With the thorax open, during volume-controlled HFPPV the exposed lung was moderately expanded and exhibited only minor movements during insufflation. Repeated blood gas analyses during surgery showed normocarbia and good oxygenation even during compression of the exposed lung. After compression the lung was readily re-expanded with the aid of a brief period of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Thus, even relatively low intrapulmonary pressures during volume-controlled HFPPV without PEEP are adequate to keep the open-chest lung expanded during intrathoracic surgery. This creates optimal conditions for the surgeons. PMID:7013568

  4. Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Having a pain in your chest can be scary. It does not always mean that you are having a heart attack. There can be many other causes, ... embolism Costochondritis - an inflammation of joints in your chest Some of these problems can be serious. Get ...

  5. [Chest pain].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain in ambulatory setting is predominantly not heart-associated. Most patients suffer from muskuloskeletal or functional (psychogenic) chest pain. Differential diagnosis covers aortic dissection, rib-fracture, shingles, GERD, Tietze-Syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pleuritis, pneumothorax, pleurodynia and metastatic disease. In most cases history, symptoms and signs allow a clinical diagnosis of high pretest-probability. PMID:25533261

  6. Treadmill exercise promotes cyclic alterations in coronary blood flow in dogs with coronary artery stenoses and endothelial injury.

    PubMed Central

    Eidt, J F; Ashton, J; Golino, P; McNatt, J; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown in anesthetized, open-chest dogs with coronary stenosis and endothelial injury that serotonin and/or thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor activation play a major role in the mediation of platelet-dependent, intermittent coronary occlusion. Using a similar model in awake, closed-chest dogs, we tested the following hypotheses: (a) treadmill exercise promotes the development of cyclic flow variations in dogs with coronary stenoses and endothelial injury; (b) ventricular pacing does not induce cyclic flow variations in the same dogs; and (c) TXA2 and/or serotonin are important mediators of exercise-induced cyclic flow variations in this model. The surgical preparation consisted of the application of a hard, flow-limiting constrictor and a Doppler ultrasonic flow probe around the left coronary artery of 11 dogs. Treadmill exercise resulted in the prompt development of cyclic flow variations in all 11 dogs. Ventricular pacing at rates as high as 170 beats/min induced cyclic flow variations in only one of five dogs. Exercise-induced cyclic flow variations were abolished by TXA2 and/or serotonin receptor antagonists in all but one dog. Thus, (a) treadmill exercise promotes the development of cyclic flow variations in dogs with coronary stenoses and endothelial injury; (b) ventricular pacing does not induce cyclic flow variations in most dogs in the same model; and (c) TXA2 and/or serotonin are important mediators of cyclic flow variations in this model. PMID:2760199

  7. Chest MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging test that uses powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to create pictures of the chest (thoracic area). ... no side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The most common type of ...

  8. Chest radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference in plain chest film diagnosis provides a thorough background in the differential diagnosis of 22 of the most common radiologic patterns of chest disease. Each chapter is introduced with problem cases and a set of questions, followed by a tabular listing of the appropriate differential considerations. The book emphasizes plain films, CT and some MR scans are integrated to demonstrate how these modalities enhance the work of a case.

  9. Chest drainage.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris

    2014-07-15

    As an intensive care nurse with experience of caring for critically ill patients in the UK and on deployed operations overseas, I found the CPD article useful in reviewing the pathophysiology of a pneumothorax, use of intrapleural chest drains, observations that should be recorded, and nursing care and management of a patient with an intrapleural chest drain. Reflecting on the time out activities in the CPD article was valuable. PMID:25005418

  10. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Aortic rupture, chest x-ray Lung cancer, frontal chest x-ray Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Coal ... cancer - chest x-ray Lung nodule, right middle lobe - chest x-ray Lung mass, right upper lung - ...

  11. Canine theriogenology for dog enthusiasts: teaching methodology and outcomes in a massive open online course (MOOC).

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    A massive open online course (MOOC) in canine theriogenology was offered for dog owners and breeders and for veterinary professionals as a partnership between the University of Minnesota and Coursera. The six-week course was composed of short video lectures, multiple-choice quizzes with instant feedback to assess understanding, weekly case studies with peer evaluation to promote integration of course materials, and discussion forums to promote participant interaction. Peak enrollment was 8,796 students. The grading policy for completion was strict and was upheld; completion rate for all participants was 7.5%. About 12% of participants achieved a grade of over 90% in the course, with those who had any deficiency mostly missing one quiz or assignment. Ninety-nine individuals were enrolled in a for-cost, credentialed pathway, and 50% of those individuals completed all required course components. Pre- and postcourse surveys were used to demonstrate that learning objectives were met by the participants and to identify that lack of time to commit to study was the biggest impediment to completion. Positive aspects of the course were active engagement by participants from all over the world and the ability of this university and instructor to reach those learners. Negative aspects concerned technical support and negative feedback from some participants who were unable to meet course requirements for reasons beyond the control of the instructor. PMID:24393779

  12. What Is Chest MRI?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive ... creates detailed pictures of the structures in your chest, such as your chest wall, heart, and blood ...

  13. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  14. Open and closed chest extrathoracic cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass and extracorporeal life support: methods, indications, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Field, M L; Al‐Alao, B; Mediratta, N; Sosnowski, A

    2006-01-01

    Extrathoracic cannulation to establish cardiopulmonary bypass has been widely applied in recent years and includes: (a) repeat surgery, (b) minimally invasive surgery, and (c) cases with diseased vessels such as porcelain, aneurysmal, and dissecting aorta. In addition, the success and relative ease of peripheral cannulation, among other technological advances, has permitted the development of closed chest extracorporeal life support, in the form of cardiopulmonary support and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. With this development have come applications for cardiopulmonary bypass based support outside the traditional cardiac theatre setting, including emergency circulatory support for patients in cardiogenic shock and respiratory support for patients with severely impaired gas exchange. This review summarises the approach to extrathoracic cannulation for the generalist. PMID:16679471

  15. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your ...

  16. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaks from inside the lung into the chest ( pneumothorax ) Fluid buildup in the chest (called a pleural ... on the reason a chest tube is inserted. Pneumothorax usually improves, but sometimes needs minimally invasive surgery. ...

  17. Failure of papyerine hydrocholoride and doxycycline hyclate as antipruritis agents in pruritic dogs: Results of an open clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Danny W.; Cayatte, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Papaverine hydrochloride (150 to 300 mg/dog every 12 hours) and doxycycline hyclate (3 mg/kg every 12 hours) were both administered orally as individual agents to 13 dogs with pruritus of allergic or idiopathic origin. No dog improved. Depression, anorexia, and vomiting were seen in one dog treated with papaverine hydrochloride. Under the conditions of the study, papaverine and doxycycline were not useful antipruritic agents for the dog. PMID:17424184

  18. Hemodynamic Changes in Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery and Anterior Interventricular Vein during Right Ventricular Apical Pacing: A Doppler Ultrasound Study in Open Chest Beagles

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Long, Bin; Shen, Jie; Su, Li; Yin, Lixue

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) on hemodynamics in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and anterior interventricular vein (AIV) contrast to baseline condition in open chest beagles using Doppler ultrasound imaging. Methods In 6 anesthetized open chest beagles, the spectral Doppler waveforms of the middle segmental LAD and the AIV were acquired with a 5 MHz linear array transducer at baseline condition and during RVAP. The aortic pressure-time curves were recorded synchronously. The Doppler hemodynamic parameters of the LAD and AIV at both states were derived and compared. Results The spectral Doppler waveforms of the LAD had a principal diastolic positive wave (Dp), which heelled by a momentary negative wave and a positive wave during early systole at baseline condition. During RVAP, an additional negative wave appeared in the LAD at late systole. The duration of the Dp shortened (227.83±12.16 ms vs 188.50±8.97 ms, P<0.001), and the acceleration of the Dp decreased (11.85±2.22 m/s2 vs 3.54±0.42 m/s2, P<0.001). The spectral Doppler waveforms of the AIV only had a principal positive wave (Sp) at baseline condition, but an additional diastolic negative wave appeared during RVAP. The duration of the Sp shortened (242.99±7.98 ms vs 215.38±15.44 ms, P<0.001), and the acceleration of the Sp decreased (9.61±1.93 m/s2 vs 1.01±0.11 m/s2, P<0.001). Conclusions Obvious hemodynamic changes in the LAD and AIV during RVAP were observed, and these abnormal flow patterns in epicardial coronary arteries and vena coronaria may be sensitive and important hints of the disturbed cardiac electrical and mechanical activity sequences. PMID:23825640

  19. In vivo swine myocardial tissue characterization and monitoring during open chest surgery by time-resolved diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ascari, Luca; Potì, Luca; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; L'Abbate, Antonio; Puzzuoli, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Worldwide, a large number of patients suffering from cardiac diseases are treated by surgery. Despite the advances achieved in the last decades with myocardial protection, surgical failure can still occur. This is due at least in part to the imperfect control of the metabolic status of the heart in the various phases of surgical intervention. At present, this is indirectly controlled by the electrocardiogram and the echographic monitoring of cardiac mechanics as direct measurements are lacking. Diffuse optical technologies have recently emerged as promising tools for the characterization of biological tissues like breast, muscles and bone, and for the monitoring of important metabolic parameters such as blood oxygenation, volume and flow. As a matter of fact, their utility has been demonstrated in a variety of applications for functional imaging of the brain, optical mammography and monitoring of muscle metabolism. However, due to technological and practical difficulties, their potential for cardiac monitoring has not yet been exploited. In this work we show the feasibility of the in-vivo determination of absorption and scattering spectra of the cardiac muscle in the 600-1100 nm range, and of monitoring myocardial tissue hemodynamics by time domain near-infrared spectroscopy at 690 nm and 830 nm. Both measurements have been performed on the exposed beating heart during open chest surgery in pigs, an experimental model closely mimicking the clinical cardio-surgical setting.

  20. Two Independent Mutations in ADAMTS17 Are Associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in the Basset Hound and Basset Fauve de Bretagne Breeds of Dog

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James A. C.; Forman, Oliver P.; Pettitt, Louise; Mellersh, Cathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in ADAMTS10 (CFA20) have previously been associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Beagle and Norwegian Elkhound. The closely related gene, ADAMTS17, has also been associated with several different ocular phenotypes in multiple breeds of dog, including primary lens luxation and POAG. We investigated ADAMTS17 as a candidate gene for POAG in the Basset Hound and Basset Fauve de Bretagne dog breeds. Methods We performed ADAMTS17 exon resequencing in three Basset Hounds and three Basset Fauve de Bretagne dogs with POAG. Identified variants were genotyped in additional sample cohorts of both breeds and dogs of other breeds to confirm their association with disease. Results All affected Basset Hounds were homozygous for a 19 bp deletion in exon 2 that alters the reading frame and is predicted to lead to a truncated protein. Fifty clinically unaffected Basset Hounds were genotyped for this mutation and all were either heterozygous or homozygous for the wild type allele. Genotyping of 223 Basset Hounds recruited for a different study revealed a mutation frequency of 0.081 and predicted frequency of affected dogs in the population to be 0.007. Based on the entire genotyping dataset the association statistic for the POAG-associated deletion was p = 1.26 x 10−10. All affected Basset Fauve de Bretagne dogs were homozygous for a missense mutation in exon 11 causing a glycine to serine amino acid substitution (G519S) in the disintegrin-like domain of ADAMTS17 which is predicted to alter protein function. Unaffected Basset Fauve de Bretagne dogs were either heterozygous for the mutation (5/24) or homozygous for the wild type allele (19/24). Based on the entire genotyping dataset the association statistic for the POAG-associated deletion was p = 2.80 x 10−7. Genotyping of 85 dogs of unrelated breeds and 90 dogs of related breeds for this variant was negative. Conclusion This report documents strong associations between two independent ADAMTS17

  1. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Prostate Ultrasound Video: IMRT Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Pediatric MRI Radiology and You About ... Prostate Ultrasound Video: IMRT Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Pediatric MRI Radiology and You About ...

  2. Chest pain in children.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, A. K.; Robson, W. L.; Cho, H.

    1996-01-01

    Chest pain is usually a benign symptom in children. The most common identifiable causes are musculoskeletal. Often, no cause can be identified. Cardiac disorders are uncommon causes of chest pain children. Most causes can be diagnosed from history and physical examination. Treatment should be directed at the underlying cause. For idiopathic chest pain, reassurance and regular follow-up examinations are important. PMID:8704491

  3. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  4. American College of Chest Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Certification (MOC) CHEST GAIN NSCLC CHEST SEEK Innovation, Simulation, and Training Center Professional Representative Education Program ( ... of Certification (MOC) CHEST GAIN NSCLC CHEST SEEK Innovation, Simulation, and Training Center Professional Representative Education Program ( ...

  5. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  6. Tracheal mucus clearance in high-frequency oscillation. II: Chest wall versus mouth oscillation.

    PubMed

    King, M; Phillips, D M; Zidulka, A; Chang, H K

    1984-11-01

    We compared the tracheal mucus clearance rate (TMCR) in anesthetized dogs during spontaneous breathing (SB), ventilation by high-frequency oscillation at the airway opening (HFO/AO), and ventilation by high-frequency oscillation of the chest wall (HFO/CW). The HFO/AO was carried out by using a piston pump with a high impedance transverse flow at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube; HFO/CW was effected by creating rapid pressure oscillations in an air-filled cuff wrapped around the lower thorax of the animal, causing small tidal volumes at the mouth. The TMCR was measured by observing the rate of displacement of a charcoal marker in the lower trachea; a fiberoptic bronchoscope was used to deposit the marker before each experiment and to relocate it after a 5-min run. In 7 dogs, mean TMCR during control (SB) was 8.9 +/- 3.5 mm/min. At 13 Hz with an oscillatory tidal volume (VTO) of 1.5 ml/kg, mean TMCR was 240% of control with HFO/CW (p less than 0.001) and 76% of control with HFO/AO (NS). During HFO/AO at 20 Hz and a VTO of 3 ml/kg, mean TMCR was 97% of control. We conclude that high-frequency ventilation by rapid chest wall compression enhances tracheal mucus clearance when compared with spontaneous breathing, whereas high-frequency oscillation at the mouth does not. PMID:6497152

  7. Antioxidant enzymes attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog

    SciTech Connect

    Triana, J.F.; Unisa, A.; Bolli, R. )

    1990-02-26

    Several studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (myocardial stunning) is attenuated by antioxidants, implying a pathogenetic role of oxy-radicals in this phenomenon. However, since all these studies have been performed in open-chest preparations, artifacts due to anesthesia, trauma, and other nonphysiologic conditions cannot be excluded. Accordingly, chronically instrumented dogs underwent a 15-minute occlusion (o) of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Dogs received i.v. either saline or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT) (16,000 U/kg and 55,000 U/kg, respectively, over 1 hour starting 15 minutes before O). Regional myocardial function was assessed as systolic wall thickening (WTh) using a pulsed Doppler probe. WTh after reperfusion was significantly greater in treated dogs, and this difference could not be ascribed to differences in collateral flow or hemodynamics. The authors conclude that SOD plus catalase attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog, indicating that oxy-radicals play a pathogenetic role in this phenomenon under physiologic conditions.

  8. Application of hyaluronic acid in the healing of non-experimental open wounds: A pilot study on 12 wounds in 10 client-owned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Roberta; Boracchi, Patrizia; Romussi, Stefano; Ravasio, Giuliano; Stefanello, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Veterinarians have frequently to deal with wounds to the skin, subcutis, and underlying muscle. The aim was to explore the application of hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing dressing on open skin wounds in dogs. The progress of healing was assessed by wound area reduction and two scoring scales applied in human medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten client-owned dogs with 12 cutaneous open wounds healed by the second intention were included. All wounds were treated using available in commerce HA-containing wound dressing from admission to complete re-epithelialization. At every clinical examination, wound area and scale scoring assessments were performed. Results: After debridement, an increased wound size was obtained while an improvement was determined by both grading systems. The median numbers of return to the clinic for bandage change were 5 times. The median time to complete wound healing was 34.5 days. The mean wound area at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 were, respectively, 90.4%, 47.7%, 22.4%, and 14.8% of the original size (for linear measurement) and 95.5%, 54.4%, 23.10%, and 14.8% of the original size (for software measurement). Regarding wound healing assessment tools, the agreement between two operators was considered high for both scales. Conclusions: HA-containing dressing may be a possible wound treatment for cutaneous open wounds in dogs. The assessment of wound quality using scale scoring system could be useful especially in the 1st week and to direct clinical decision-making process. PMID:27047026

  9. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588

  10. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... pictures to create a very detailed, three-dimensional (3D) model of organs. Sometimes, a substance called contrast dye is injected into a vein in your arm for the CT scan. This substance highlights areas in your chest, which ...

  11. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  12. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  13. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588

  14. [Chest wall reconstruction after resection of malignant chest wall tumors].

    PubMed

    Ayabe, H; Oka, T; Akamine, S; Takahashi, T; Nagayasu, T

    1998-05-01

    Full-thickness chest wall resection is performed for complete removal of primary and secondary malignant chest wall tumors. Large defects of the chest wall after resection must be repaired to maintain adequate ventilation, to protect important intrathoracic structures, and to preserve cosmetic integrity. Various materials have been utilized over the years to replace the rigid chest wall. At present, Marlex mesh and a composite of Marlex mesh and methylmethacrylate are frequently used to reconstruct rigid chest wall defects. On the other hand, to replace the soft part of the chest wall and cover the rigid materials, pedicled muscle flaps, myocutaneous flaps, or omentum are used. Major pedicled flaps include the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and latissimus dorsi muscular, and musculocutaneous flaps. Techniques are now available to repair any chest wall site, and to restore chest continuity in patients whose tumors are curatively resected. PMID:9656244

  15. Chest Pain (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary arteries. Heart attack — A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), occurs when the surface covering of a ... chest pain Criteria for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction Outpatient evaluation of the adult with chest pain ...

  16. Sonography of the Pediatric Chest.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yonggeng; Kapur, Jeevesh

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, pediatric chest diseases are evaluated with chest radiography. Due to advancements in technology, the use of sonography has broadened. It has now become an established radiation-free imaging tool that may supplement plain-film findings and, in certain cases, the first-line modality for evaluation of the pediatric chest. This pictorial essay will demonstrate the diagnostic potential of sonography, review a spectrum of pediatric chest conditions, and discuss their imaging features and clinical importance. PMID:27009313

  17. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  18. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans. PMID:20731263

  19. Approach to Pediatric Chest Radiograph.

    PubMed

    Jana, Manisha; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Chest radiograph remains the first line imaging modality even today, especially in ICU settings. Hence proper interpretation of chest radiographs is crucial, which can be achieved by adopting a systematic approach and proper description and identification of abnormalities. In this review, the authors describe a short and comprehensive way of interpreting the pediatric chest radiograph. PMID:26983619

  20. Pediatric digital chest imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Broderick, N.J.; Conces, D.J. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology.

  1. Filters For Chest Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Paron, J.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of low dose radiography is achieved by a judicious combination of proper kV selection, fast film-screen systems and beam filtration. A systematic study of filters was undertaken to evaluate the improvements that can be realized in terms of patient Entrance Skin Exposures (ESE) for chest radiographs. The Picker CD 135 Generator and the Automatic Chest Filmer with dynamic phototiming were used for the study. The kV dependence of ESE with various amounts of zinc and aluminum filtration is presented. The effect of filtration on image contrast is discussed. The variations of ESE with phantom thickness under different filtration conditions are also considered. It was found that the ESE can be reduced by as much as a factor of 1.8 ± .1 with no significant increase in tube loading.

  2. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  3. Inherited and predisposing factors in the development of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jerold S

    2014-09-01

    This review article summarizes what is known as well as what is undetermined concerning the inherited and environmental pathogenesis of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs. The disorder primarily affects large and giant, deep-chested breeds. A concise description of a typical dog affected with gastric dilatation volvulus is presented. PMID:25496921

  4. Coronary and systemic arterial physiology and immunohistochemical markers related to early coronary arterial lesions in beagle dogs given the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw Bowen; Björkman, Jan-Arne; Schofield, Jason

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand Factor [vWF] or fibrinogen) and systemic and coronary arterial physiological parameters in beagle dogs to investigate early arterial lesions induced by the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611. Dogs given an oral dose of ZD6169 (experiment 1) were terminated 1 day later and showed arterial and myocardial lesions. Minimal arterial lesions exhibited few condensed medial smooth muscle cells only, with others showing segmental medial necrosis occasionally with medial/adventitial acute inflammation. Intercellular immunostaining was seen in ostensibly normal tissue, where no pathology was present in conventionally stained sections. vWF and fibrinogen are valuable tools for detecting disruption of arterial integrity. In experiment 2, 2 dogs were given a single high dose of ZD6169 or ZD1611 and BP/HR monitored by conventional measures or telemetry. Substantially reduced systolic/diastolic BP and increased HR occurred within 10 min of ZD6169 infusion: ZD1611 caused minor BP decrease and HR increase. In experiment 3, both drugs given to anaesthetized dogs induced markedly exaggerated systolic phasic forward and reverse flow in left descending and right coronary arteries. Diastolic coronary artery flows were unaffected with ZD1611 and increased slightly with ZD6169. In both coronary arteries, the ZD1611-induced increase in flows paralleled decreased resistance. PMID:23125115

  5. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  6. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries. PMID:17676376

  7. Painful Chest Wall Swellings: Tietze Syndrome or Chest Wall Tumor?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Gunal, Nesimi; Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kocer, Bulent; Han, Serdar; Eryazgan, Mehmet Ali; Ozsoy, Arzu; Naldoken, Seniha; Alhan, Aslıhan; Sakinci, Unal

    2016-04-01

    Background Tietze syndrome (TS) is an inflammatory condition characterized by chest pain and swelling of costochondral junction. Primary chest wall tumors may mimic TS. In this article, we report our experience of approximately 121 patients initially diagnosed as TS and determined chest wall tumor in some cases at the follow-up. Methods This is a retrospective review of patients diagnosed as TS by clinical examination, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, routine laboratory tests, and computed tomography (CT) of chest: all treated and followed up between March 2001 and July 2012. There were 121 cases (41 males and 80 females; mean age, 39.6 ± 3.2 years) of TS. Results In 27 patients with initial normal radiological findings, the size of swellings had doubled during the follow-up period (mean, 8.51 ± 2.15 months). These patients were reevaluated with chest CT and bone scintigraphy and then early diagnostic biopsy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed primary chest wall tumor in 13 patients (5 malignant, 8 benign). CT had a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 64.2% in detection of tumors (kappa: 0.56, p = 0.002), whereas the sensitivity and the specificity of bone scan were 84.6 and 35.7%, respectively (kappa: 0.199, p = 0.385). Conclusion Primary chest wall tumors could mimic TS. Bone scintigraphy or CT is not specific enough to determine malignant and other benign disorders of costochondral junction. Therefore, clinicians should follow TS patients more closely, and in case of increasing size of swelling, early diagnostic biopsy should be considered. PMID:25742551

  8. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  9. Chest drainage systems in use.

    PubMed

    Zisis, Charalambos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Lazaridis, George; Lampaki, Sofia; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    A chest tube is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space or mediastinum. It is used to remove air in the case of pneumothorax or fluid such as in the case of pleural effusion, blood, chyle, or pus when empyema occurs from the intrathoracic space. It is also known as a Bülau drain or an intercostal catheter. Insertion of chest tubes is widely performed by radiologists, pulmonary physicians and thoracic surgeons. Large catheters or small catheters are used based on each situation that the medical doctor encounters. In the current review we will focus on the chest drain systems that are in use. PMID:25815304

  10. Chest drainage systems in use

    PubMed Central

    Zisis, Charalambos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Lazaridis, George; Lampaki, Sofia; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A chest tube is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space or mediastinum. It is used to remove air in the case of pneumothorax or fluid such as in the case of pleural effusion, blood, chyle, or pus when empyema occurs from the intrathoracic space. It is also known as a Bülau drain or an intercostal catheter. Insertion of chest tubes is widely performed by radiologists, pulmonary physicians and thoracic surgeons. Large catheters or small catheters are used based on each situation that the medical doctor encounters. In the current review we will focus on the chest drain systems that are in use. PMID:25815304

  11. Effects of alcohol on cardiovascular performance after experimental nonpenetrating chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, A J; DeMuth, W E

    1975-02-01

    Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic correlates were recorded before and after a standardized nonpenetrating blow to the chest in 9 anesthetized control dogs (Group I), 5 dogs, pretreated with alcohol, 0.4 g/kg intravenously (Group II), and 12 dogs undergoing chest trauma after alcohol infusions (Group III). In animals in Group I, transient major arrhythmias, including complete heart block and ventricular tachycardia, occurred immediately after impact. One animal died with ventricular fibrillation. In the eight survivors these disturbances were accompanied by acute reductions in aortic pressure and cardiac index; values for both variables gradually increased after restoration of sinus mechanism. Alcohol alone (Group II) produced no significant alterations in either hemodynamic performance or electrical activity, but when combined with nonpenetrating chest injury (Group III) it caused a mortality rate of 92 percent, the majority of animals dying with electromechanical dissociation. Mean survival time in Group III was 23.1 plus and minus 6.5 (standard error of the mean) minutes compared with 80.3 plus and minus 9.6 minutes in Group I. At autopsy, minor cardiac lesions of either the pericardium or myocardium were observed in all animals in Groups I and III, but none were considered lethal. It is concluded that administration of alcohol, even in small doses, can effect catastrophic reductions in mechanical performance in the presence of otherwise nonfatal cardiac injury secondary to nonpenetrating chest trauma. The clinical implications of this association are discussed. PMID:1119384

  12. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4(+) CD4(+) Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus-pituitary gland-adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4(+) CD4(+) lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  13. Influence of a Diester Glucocorticoid Spray on the Cortisol Level and the CCR4+ CD4+ Lymphocytes in Dogs with Atopic Dermatitis: Open Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masato; Ishimaru, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of 0.00584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray (HCA; Cortavance Virbac SA, Carros, France) on blood serum cortisol levels and peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Patients were randomly divided into group I (N = 8) and group II (N = 8). The dogs in group I were sprayed with HCA on the affected skin once a day for three weeks. The dogs in group II were treated once a day for 3 days followed by no treatment for 4 days for a total of three weeks. For the dogs in group I and group II the CADESI-03 scores before and after use of HCA showed significant reduction (P < 0.01). The postcortisol level after the use of HCA in group I showed 36.0% decrease and showed significant suppression (P < 0.01). By comparison, the use of HCA on group II did not show decrease in postcortisol levels. There was a tendency of suppression for hypothalamus—pituitary gland—adrenal gland system, but it was not serious influence. In addition, there was no influence on peripheral blood CCR4+ CD4+ lymphocytes percentage in dogs in group I after treatment with HCA. PMID:26464935

  14. Effects of KRN4884, a novel K channel opener, on the cardiovascular system in anesthetized dogs: a comparison with levcromakalim, nilvadipine, and nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Izumi, H; Jinno, Y; Kaneta, S; Tanaka, Y; Okada, Y; Izawa, T; Ogawa, N

    1995-08-01

    Pharmacological profiles of KRN4884, 5-amino-N-[2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-N'-cyano-3-pyridinecarboxamidine+ ++, were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In rat isolated aorta, KRN4884 (10(-10)-10(-5) M) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation. Pretreatment with glibenclamide (10(-7)-10(-6) M) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve for KRN4884. In anesthetized dogs, KRN4884 (3 and 10 micrograms/kg intravenously, i.v.), levcromakalim (3 and 10 micrograms/kg i.v.), nilvadipine (1-10 micrograms/kg i.v.), and nifedipine (1-10 micrograms/kg i.v.) produced decreases in mean blood pressure (MBP), total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR), and increases in aortic blood flow (AoF) and coronary blood flow (CBF). The percentage decrease in CVR was greater than that in TPR with KRN4884 and levcromakalim, but nilvadipine and nifedipine showed no significant differences between CVR and TPR in percentage decreases. Heart rate (HR) was slightly increased by KRN4884 but was not affected by levcromakalim, nilvadipine, or nifedipine. Left ventricular dP/dt (LVdP/dt) was reduced only by nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. The duration of the hypotensive action of KRN4884 was longer than those of levcromakalim and nifedipine and was similar to that of nilvadipine. The duration of the decreases in TPR and CVR induced by KRN4884 was longer than those induced by levcromakalim and nifedipine and shorter than that induced by nilvadipine. These results suggest that the cardiovascular effects of KRN4884 are very similar to those of the K channel opener levcromakalim and Ca channel blockers such as nilvadipine and nifedipine. However, the hypotensive effects of KRN4884 are long-acting in comparison with those of levcromakalim and the selective effect of KRN4884 on coronary vasculature is greater than those of nilvadipine and nifedipine. PMID:7475042

  15. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Greene, S A; Wolff, R K; Hahn, F F; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Lundgren, D L

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance; and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO2-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO2 for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO2 exposure. PMID:6492210

  17. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures. PMID:22819690

  18. Augmentation of Left Ventricular Wall Thickness With Alginate Hydrogel Implants Improves Left Ventricular Function and Prevents Progressive Remodeling in Dogs With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Hani N.; Wang, Mengjun; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Rastogi, Sharad; Ilsar, Itamar; Sabbah, Michael S.; Kohli, Smita; Helgerson, Sam; Lee, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study tested the hypothesis that augmentation of the left ventricular (LV) wall thickness with direct intramyocardial injections of alginate hydrogel implants (AHI) reduces LV cavity size, restores LV shape, and improves LV function in dogs with heart failure (HF). Background Progressive LV dysfunction, enlargement, and chamber sphericity are features of HF associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Methods Studies were performed in 14 dogs with HF produced by intracoronary microembolizations (LV ejection fraction [EF] <30%). Dogs were randomized to AHI treatment (n = 8) or to sham-operated control (n = 6). During an open-chest procedure, dogs received either intramyocardial injections of 0.25 to 0.35 ml of alginate hydrogel (Algisyl-LVR, LoneStar Heart, Inc., Laguna Hills, California) or saline. Seven injections were made ∼1.0 to 1.5 cm apart (total volume 1.8 to 2.1 ml) along the circumference of the LV free wall halfway between the apex and base starting from the anteroseptal groove and ending at the posteroseptal groove. Hemodynamic and ventriculographic measurements were made before treatment (PRE) and repeated post-surgery for up to 17 weeks (POST). Results Compared to control, AHI significantly reduced LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and improved LV sphericity. AHI treatment significantly increased EF (26 ± 0.4% at PRE to 31 ± 0.4% at POST; p < 0.05) compared to the decreased EF seen in control dogs (27 ± 0.3% at PRE to 24 ± 1.3% at POST; p < 0.05). AHI treatment was well tolerated and was not associated with increased LV diastolic stiffness. Conclusions In HF dogs, circumferential augmentation of LV wall thickness with AHI improves LV structure and function. The results support continued development of AHI for the treatment of patients with advanced HF. PMID:23998003

  19. [Imaging signs in chest diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Krombach, G A

    2016-08-01

    Signs in chest imaging are defined as typical findings which can be easily recognized on x‑ray photographs or computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. They are caused by different typical pathophysiological processes. Due to the association of a certain pathophysiological cause with a given sign, knowledge and use of these signs can allow the possible differential diagnoses to be narrowed down. If other imaging findings and clinical data are additionally taken into account, the diagnosis can be made with a high degree of confidence in many cases. PMID:27369549

  20. Chest pain syndromes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Gagan

    2012-08-01

    Chest pain syndromes in pregnancy include numerous catastrophic cardiovascular events. Acute myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and amniotic fluid embolism are the most important causes of nonobstetric mortality and morbidity in pregnancy. Each of these could result in poor maternal and fetal outcomes if not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. However, their diagnosis and management is limited by fetal risks of diagnostic procedures, dangers of pharmacotherapy and interventions that have neither been widely studied nor validated. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of 4 potentially lethal chest pain syndromes in pregnancy. PMID:22813362

  1. Contemporary management of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Vana, P Geoff; Neubauer, Daniel C; Luchette, Fred A

    2014-06-01

    Thoracic injury is currently the second leading cause of trauma-related death and rib fractures are the most common of these injuries. Flail chest, as defined by fracture of three or more ribs in two or more places, continues to be a clinically challenging problem. The underlying pulmonary contusion with subsequent inflammatory reaction and right-to-left shunting leading to hypoxia continues to result in high mortality for these patients. Surgical stabilization of the fractured ribs remains controversial. We review the history of management for flail chest alone and when combined with pulmonary contusion. Finally, we propose an algorithm for nonoperative and surgical management. PMID:24887787

  2. Pharmacology of a phosphorus-containing novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, SQ 29 852 in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Ohara, N; Yokota, S; Konishi, C; Shukunobe, K; Ono, H

    1991-12-01

    The effects of (S)-1[6-amino-2[[hydrozy(4- phenylbutyl)phosphinyl]oxy]-1-oxohexyl]-L-proline (SQ 29 852), a phosphorus-containing novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), which is synthesized aiming an ACEI with long-lasting activity and with few side effects, were studied using anesthetized dogs. SQ 29 852 was equipotent with captopril to modify blood pressure response of the animals to angiotensin I (Ang I) and bradykinin (Bdk). An intravenous infusion of SQ 29 852 at 0.1 mg/kg/min for 30 min caused a remarkable hypotension without reflex tachycardia in open-chest dogs. In these animals cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax of left ventricular pressure) appeared to be reduced by SQ 29 852 without any changes in right atrial pressure (RAP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and aortic blood flow (AoF, cardiac output). In sodium-restricted dogs, the hypotension and renal vasodilation by SQ 29 852 (at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/kg, i.v.) were slightly pronounced compared with animals fed with normal diet. It is demonstrated from these results that SQ 29 852 has comparable potency with captopril to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and as common a pharmacological profile as ACEI. SQ 29 852 may be a favorable antihypertensive agent, if its long-lasting activity and few side effects are confirmed. PMID:1812274

  3. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  4. Reclaiming identity through service to dogs in need.

    PubMed

    Alers, Elvin V; Simpson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Dog Tags is an animal-assisted therapy offered by the Washington Humane Society (WHS) in partnership with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). The program is open to all ranks of enlisted service members using WRNMMC services. Dog Tags is a 3-tiered certificate program allowing Soldiers, recovering at WRNMMC, to learn and apply progressively complex and challenging elements of canine positive reinforcement training to dogs awaiting adoption at the WHS. Although each tier is a self-contained and complete curriculum, subsequent tiers build on the skills and knowledge acquired in the previous one(s). Dog Tags Warrior/trainers work with fully-screened (health and temperament) shelter dogs to provide these dogs with mental stimulation, environmental enrichment, and socialization that are vital to their successful adoption and integration into new homes. The Soldiers also benefit because they develop new skills, build positive bonds with the dogs, and continue to serve their community. PMID:22388686

  5. Chest tomosynthesis: technical and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Ase Allansdotter; Vikgren, Jenny; Bath, Magnus

    2014-02-01

    The recent implementation of chest tomosynthesis is built on the availability of large, dose-efficient, high-resolution flat panel detectors, which enable the acquisition of the necessary number of projection radiographs to allow reconstruction of section images of the chest within one breath hold. A chest tomosynthesis examination obtains the increased diagnostic information provided by volumetric imaging at a radiation dose comparable to that of conventional chest radiography. There is evidence that the sensitivity of chest tomosynthesis may be at least three times higher than for conventional chest radiography for detection of pulmonary nodules. The sensitivity increases with increasing nodule size and attenuation and decreases for nodules with subpleural location. Differentiation between pleural and subpleural lesions is a known pitfall due to the limited depth resolution in chest tomosynthesis. Studies on different types of pathology report increased detectability in favor of chest tomosynthesis in comparison to chest radiography. The technique provides improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography and facilitates the exclusion of pulmonary lesions in a majority of patients, avoiding the need for computed tomography (CT). However, motion artifacts can be a cumbersome limitation and breathing during the tomosynthesis image acquisition may result in severe artifacts significantly affecting the detectability of pathology. In summary, chest tomosynthesis has been shown to be superior to chest conventional radiography for many tasks and to be able to replace CT in selected cases. In our experience chest tomosynthesis is an efficient problem solver in daily clinical work. PMID:24481756

  6. Crush injuries of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, I. A.; Bargh, W.; Cruickshank, A. N.; Duthie, W. H.

    1969-01-01

    Fifty-four patients previously treated for a severe chest injury in an artificial ventilation unit have been followed up. An attempt has been made to determine their state of health and activity. Particular attention has been paid to their respiratory function. The significance of the findings has been discussed. Images PMID:4899979

  7. Chest physiotherapy in acute bronchiolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, M S; Martin, J A; Cartlidge, P H; Ng, Y K; Wright, N A

    1985-01-01

    Forty four children with acute bronchiolitis were given twice daily chest physiotherapy in addition to standard supportive measures and were compared with 46 controls who were not given physiotherapy. There was no clinically discernable benefit on the course of their illness. PMID:3907510

  8. Device Assists Cardiac Chest Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichstadt, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    Portable device facilitates effective and prolonged cardiac resuscitation by chest compression. Developed originally for use in absence of gravitation, also useful in terrestrial environments and situations (confined spaces, water rescue, medical transport) not conducive to standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques.

  9. Relationship of blood pressure and flow during CPR to chest compression amplitude: evidence for an effective compression threshold.

    PubMed

    Babbs, C F; Voorhees, W D; Fitzgerald, K R; Holmes, H R; Geddes, L A

    1983-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the importance of the depth of chest compression in producing effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in animals, as indicated by cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure. Cardiac output was measured by a modified indicator dilution technique in 8 anesthetized dogs, 6 to 12 kg body weight, during repeated 2-minute episodes of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation and CPR provided by a mechanical chest compressor and ventilator (Thumper). Chest compression exceeding a threshold value (xo) between 1.5 and 3.0 cm was required in each animal to produce measurable cardiac output. In particular, cardiac output (CO) was linearly related to chest compression depth (x) by an expression of the form CO = a(x-xo) for x greater than xo. The mean value of xo was 2.3 cm. A similar threshold for measurable blood pressure was observed in 7 of the 8 dogs, with a mean value of 1.8 cm. For chest compression of 2.5 cm or greater, relatively modest increases in chest compression depth caused relatively large changes in cardiac output. PMID:6614604

  10. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  11. Frequency dependence and partitioning of respiratory impedance in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kappos, A D; Rodarte, J R; Lai-Fook, S J

    1981-09-01

    Total pulmonary resistance (Rt) and reactance (Xt) from 1 to 30 Hz were determined by time series analysis in open-chest vagotomized dogs. Rt and Xt were partitioned by retrograde catheter into central airway resistance (Rc) and reactance (Xc) and peripheral resistance (Rp) and reactance (Xp). Rt, Rc, or Rp did not change with transpulmonary pressure (Pst) from 5 to 15 cmH2O, although Rc tended to decrease and Rp to increase. Vagal stimulation (Vs) and intravenous histamine (H) increased all resistances (R) at all lung volumes (V) and produced an inverse relationship between R and V. The increases in Rt produced by H and Vs were not significantly different at any volume, but H predominantly increased Rp and Vs predominantly increased Rc. In the control (vagotomized) dogs at Pst of 5 cmH2O, Rp/Rt was 0.41 +/- 0.03 (SE). Rp/Rt was significantly increased by H but not by Vs. Control Rt decreased slightly from 5 to 10 Hz and increased from 15 to 30 Hz. The increase of Rt at higher frequencies caused by the frequency dependence of Rc was not changed by H but was augmented by Vs. The slope of Xt and Xc vs. frequency was increased by Vs but not by H. The frequency dependence of Rt and Xt above 10 Hz appears to be caused by inertial losses proximal to the 2-mm airways. Thus central and peripheral bronchoconstriction caused by Vs and H, respectively, could be differentiated by increased frequency dependence of Rt and Xt above 15 Hz. PMID:7327963

  12. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133 Mineral... chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound, weather-resistant, equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powder chests. 57.6133 Section 57.6133 Mineral... § 57.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound,...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powder chests. 57.6133 Section 57.6133 Mineral... § 57.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound,...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133 Mineral... chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound, weather-resistant, equipped...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powder chests. 57.6133 Section 57.6133 Mineral... § 57.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound,...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133 Mineral... chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound, weather-resistant, equipped...

  18. Chest pain in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Tonino, S H; Nur, E; Otten, H M; Wykrzykowska, J J; Hoekstra, J B L; Biemond, B J

    2013-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of chest pain in a patient with sickle cell disease is difficult and may encompass several serious conditions, including chest syndrome, pulmonary embolism and infectious complications. In this manuscript we provide an overview on the various underlying diseases that may cause chest pain in patients with sickle cell disease and provide clues for a proper diagnostic workup. PMID:23799317

  19. 30 CFR 57.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powder chests. 57.6133 Section 57.6133 Mineral... § 57.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powder chests. 57.6133 Section 57.6133 Mineral... § 57.6133 Powder chests. (a) Powder chests (day boxes) shall be— (1) Structurally sound,...

  1. [Experience with thoracoscopy for rifle gunshot penetrating trauma of the chest; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Kambayashi, T; Moriuchi, T; Noguchi, T; Kamakari, K; Terada, T

    2005-10-01

    A 57-year-old man came to our hospital by ambulance for a chest injury by a rifle gunshot. He had a penetrating injury of the chest wall, hemopneumothorax and pulmonary laceration. He was managed with chest drainage, oxygen inhalation. His respiratory and cardiac status was stable. However, for the purpose to prevent the development of empyema or pneumonia, and to check the existence of damage of intrathoracic structures by the gunshot injury, thoracoscopy was performed next day. He discharged without postoperative complications 17 days after the injury. Open thoracotomy is reported to be required in only about 10-15% of patients with chest injuries. However, operative indication of the chest injuries may spread in the future with the spread of thoracoscopy and its low invasiveness. PMID:16235855

  2. Modeling of low-frequency pulmonary impedance in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hantos, Z; Daróczy, B; Csendes, T; Suki, B; Nagy, S

    1990-03-01

    The mechanical impedance of the lungs (ZL) was measured in open-chest dogs with small-amplitude pseudorandom volume oscillations between 0.125 and 5 Hz, at mean transpulmonary pressures (Ptp) of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 kPa. At the lowest frequencies, the pulmonary resistance showed a marked negative frequency dependence and mirrored the changes in the reactance with altered Ptp. The ZL data were evaluated on the basis of two models, each containing the same airway compartment with a resistance and an inertance. The tissue impedance (Zti) in model 1 was represented with two compliances and a resistance (L. E. Mount. J. Physiol. Lond. 127: 157-167, 1955), whereas in model 2 a two-parameter formulation implying rate-independent dissipated work and frequency-dependent elastance (J. Hildebrandt. J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 365-372, 1970) was employed. The estimation of model parameters showed that model 2 was superior to model 1 in both fitting performance and parameter insensitivity to weighting in the fitting criterion. The model 2 coefficients of damping and elastance, characterizing the real and imaginary parts of Zti, respectively, depended on the lung distension and were closely correlated. Although ZL exhibited a slight dependence on the peak-to-peak volume excursion, at a given oscillatory volume no inconsistency with linear tissue viscoelasticity was detected. PMID:2341352

  3. Fentanyl-induced asystole in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Jang, M; Son, W-G; Lee, I

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is used in small animals for perioperative analgesia during anaesthesia. Severe bradycardia and asystole were observed on bolus administration of a 3 µg/kg loading dose of fentanyl in two dogs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Premedication with 10 µg/kg glycopyrrolate did not prevent asystole in the first case; and although bradycardia was treated with 5 µg/kg glycopyrrolate administered intravenously in the second case, the heart rate continuously decreased and asystole subsequently developed. Asystole in both cases was quickly corrected by intravenous administration of 0 · 04 mg/kg atropine and closed chest compressions. This case report describes asystole induced by fentanyl administration in isoflurane anaesthetised dogs. Atropine was more effective than glycopyrrolate in the treatment of fentanyl-induced asystole. PMID:25599659

  4. Computed tomography of the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this reference book readers have access to information pertaining to the role of thoracic CT, its limitations, normal anatomy and variations, scanning techniques, confusing artifacts, and pathologic anatomy. Major sections provide detailed, explicit data on lung cancer staging, the thoracic inlet, the heart, the esophagus, CT-guided invasive techniques, and the pediatric chest CT. Controversies are explored fully and presented fairly. This book is profusely illustrated with almost 500 CT scans for greater recognition and comprehension of the material presented.

  5. Radiology of occupational chest disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A. ); Kreel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radiologic manifestations of occupational lung disease are summarized and classified in this book according to the ILO system. The interpretation of chest roentgenograms outlines the progression of each disease and is accompanied with clinically-oriented explanations. Some of the specific diseases covered include asbestosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, silicosis, non-mining inhalation of silica and silicates, beryllium induced disease, inhalation of organics and metallics, and occupationally induced asthma.

  6. Clinical image: Hydatid disease of the chest wall

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.J.; Berlin, J.W.; Ghahremani, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    Hydatid disease is rarely encountered among the population of the United States, but it affects several million people in sheep-raising regions of the world. Human infestation with Echinococcus granulosus begins following ingestion of its ova, which are excreted into the contaminated water during the usual dog-sheep cycle. Hydatid cysts will then develop most frequently in the liver (75% of cases) and lungs (15%) of the human host. Skeletal involvement has been reported to occur in only 0.5-4.0% of patients in the endemic areas. Because of the rarity and perplexing imaging features of hydatid disease involving the chest wall, we wish herein to present a case evaluated recently at our institution. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Myocardial uptake and kinetic properties of technetium-99m-Q3 in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.; Millard, R.W.; McGoron, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    We postulated that {sup 99m}Tc-Q3, a cationic imaging agent, produces myocardial activity related to myocardial blood flow during myocardial ischemia and pharmacologic coronary artery vasodilation, and shows little or no myocardial redistribution over 4 hr after intravenous injection. In six Group 1 dogs, the chest was opened, the left circumflex coronary artery was acutely ligated, and dipyridamole (0.32, 0.56 or 0.84 mg/kg) was infused into the right atrium, followed by 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres. The animals were euthanized and 357 myocardial samples were assayed in a well counter for {sup 99m}Tc activity. One week later, radiolabeled microsphere activity was counted and myocardial blood flow calculated. In nine Group 2 dogs, a variable occluder was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery and an ischemic level of circumflex blood flow was maintained constant over 4 hr as measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was then infused into the right atrium followed by 10mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Gamma camera images were acquired at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following k{sup 99m}Tc-Q3 injection. Microsphere blood flow and endocardial biopsies (n - 6 dogs) were performed at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following {sup 99m}TcQ3 injection. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... and kidney tests) Chest x-ray or electrocardiogram ( EKG ), for some patients Several x-rays of the ... Procedure You may stay in the hospital for 3 to 5 days after open gallbladder removal. During ...

  9. Chest wall resection for extrapulmonary tumor.

    PubMed

    Long, W P; Kline, R; Levine, E A

    1997-09-01

    Despite progress in early detection of breast cancer, a minority of women continue to present with extensive disease which may necessitate chest wall resection. Between 1992 and 1996, 14 patients were treated by surgical resection of the chest wall and reconstruction by the LSU Sections of Surgical Oncology and Plastic Surgery. Indications included resection of primary tumor, resection of recurrent tumor, and resection of radiation therapy induced damage to the chest wall. We report chest wall excision and reconstruction with no operative mortality and minor surgical morbidity in 21% of cases. Local control was achieved in 13 of 14 cases. Additionally we report uniform success in the palliation of ulcerating, painful, or infected chest wall lesions. Approximately 25% of patients treated for breast cancer and followed up for more than 6 months have remained free of disease. Chest wall resection is a useful modality in selected patients with extensive disease. PMID:9316348

  10. Technique for chest compressions in adult CPR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chest compressions have saved the lives of countless patients in cardiac arrest as they generate a small but critical amount of blood flow to the heart and brain. This is achieved by direct cardiac massage as well as a thoracic pump mechanism. In order to optimize blood flow excellent chest compression technique is critical. Thus, the quality of the delivered chest compressions is a pivotal determinant of successful resuscitation. If a patient is found unresponsive without a definite pulse or normal breathing then the responder should assume that this patient is in cardiac arrest, activate the emergency response system and immediately start chest compressions. Contra-indications to starting chest compressions include a valid Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Order. Optimal technique for adult chest compressions includes positioning the patient supine, and pushing hard and fast over the center of the chest with the outstretched arms perpendicular to the patient's chest. The rate should be at least 100 compressions per minute and any interruptions should be minimized to achieve a minimum of 60 actually delivered compressions per minute. Aggressive rotation of compressors prevents decline of chest compression quality due to fatigue. Chest compressions are terminated following return of spontaneous circulation. Unconscious patients with normal breathing are placed in the recovery position. If there is no return of spontaneous circulation, then the decision to terminate chest compressions is based on the clinical judgment that the patient's cardiac arrest is unresponsive to treatment. Finally, it is important that family and patients' loved ones who witness chest compressions be treated with consideration and sensitivity. PMID:22152601

  11. Chest pain evaluation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Foy, Andrew J; Filippone, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department. Recognition of chest pain symptoms and electrocardiographic changes consistent with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can lead to prompt initiation of goal-directed therapy. Cardiac troponin testing confirms the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, but does not reveal the mechanism of injury. When patients with chest pain rule out for ACS the use of advanced, noninvasive testing has not been found to be associated with better patient outcomes. PMID:26042885

  12. Hydatid disease of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Xanthakis, D.; Efthimiadis, M.; Papadakis, G.; Primikirios, N.; Chassapakis, G.; Roussaki, A.; Veranis, N.; Akrivakis, A.; Aligizakis, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Ninety-one cases of hydatid disease of the chest are reported. Eighty-eight were involving the lung, two the chest wall, and one the mediastinum. All the patients were treated surgically. Conservative operations (simple removal of the parasite and closure of the remaining cavity) were performed in 78 patients, 37 unruptured and 41 ruptured cysts. Late postoperative complications occurred in eleven. In 10 patients, recurrent haemoptysis was the main symptom due to residual cavity in four, bronchiectatic changes in two, and unknown aetiology in four. In one patient, recurrence of multiple cysts occurred in the affected lobe. Radical operations were carried out in 10 patients, including segmental resection in four and lobectomy in six. Conservative operations were performed in all cases of unruptured cysts, with the exception of a giant cyst in which resection was the operation of choice. For ruptured cysts with mild infection conservative operation was also performed. Resection was necessary only in patients with ruptured cysts with suppuration, bronchiectatic changes, and giant cysts replacing a whole lobe. There was no mortality. We believe that conservative operation is the treatment of choice for hydatid disease of the lung. Indications for resection are very limited. Images

  13. Common errors in evaluating chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Mann, H

    1990-01-01

    Chest radiographs that are correctly obtained and interpreted provide valuable diagnostic information. However, some radiographs are not taken at total lung capacity, and the appearance of the lungs on film may mimic certain lung disorders. Most common interpretive pitfalls in chest radiography can be avoided by physicians who are familiar with the film appearance of varying degrees of lung inflation, technical limitations of portable radiography, and common chest abnormalities. When further definition is necessary, additional projections should be obtained. Chest fluoroscopy and computed tomography can offer further clarification, if needed. PMID:2296566

  14. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  15. Radiographic findings in the chest of patients following cardiac transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, K.K.; Amendola, M.A.; Tisnado, J.; Cho, S.R.; Beachley, M.C.; Lower, R.R.

    1983-04-01

    The postoperative chest radiographic findings in 38 patients undergoing orthotopic (37 patients) and heterotopic (1 patient) cardiac transplantation were evaluated. Findings were correlated with those of echocardiograms, sputum and blood cultures, and lung and heart biopsies. The radiographic manifestations in the chest of these patients are classified in the following three main categories: 1) newly formed cardiac silhouette findings due to the transplanted heart itself, i.e., changes in size and shape of the new heart and pericardial effusion resulting from the placement of a smaller heart in a larger pericardial sac. 2) infectious complications due to bacteria, fungal, and other opportunistic agents secondary to immunosuppressive therapy, and 3) usual postoperative complications following thoracomoty and open-heart surgery.

  16. Bark in the Park: A Review of Domestic Dogs in Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of domestic dogs Canis familiaris in public open spaces is increasingly controversial. In our review of the literature, we located 133 publications of various types (papers, reports etc.) that examine some aspect of dogs in parks and open spaces (50 % focussed solely on dogs). There has been an exponential growth in the cumulative number of articles ( R 2 = 0.96; 82 % published since 1997); almost all pertain to temperate latitudes (97 %) and most to the northern hemisphere (62 %). Most articles focus on impacts on wildlife (51 %), zoonotic diseases (17 %), and people's perceptions regarding dogs (12 %). Articles mostly describe problems associated with dogs, while reports of low compliance with dog regulations are common. We outline six major findings regarding dogs in parks: (1) there is a paucity of information on dogs in parks, particularly in relation to their interactions with wildlife and regarding their management; (2) published studies are mainly restricted to a handful of locations in developed countries; (3) sectors of societies hold different views over the desirability of dogs in parks; (4) the benefits and risks of dogs to humans and park values are poorly documented and known; (5) dogs represent a notable disease risk in some but not all countries; and (6) coastal parks are over-represented in the literature in terms of potential negative impacts. Park managers globally require better information to achieve conservation outcomes from dog management in parks.

  17. Chest neoplasms with infectious etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Chen, Melissa M; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Carrillo, Jorge; Restrepo, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of thoracic tumors have known or suspected viral etiologies. Oncogenic viruses can be classified by the type of genomic material they contain. Neoplastic conditions found to have viral etiologies include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid granulomatosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, leukemia and lymphomas. Viruses involved in these conditions include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 8, human papillomavirus, Simian virus 40, human immunodeficiency virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Imaging findings, epidemiology and mechanism of transmission for these diseases are reviewed in detail to gain a more thorough appreciation of disease pathophysiology for the chest radiologist. PMID:22224176

  18. Bronchial cancer - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a chest x-ray of a person with bronchial cancer. This is a front view. The lungs are the two dark ... white areas visible in the middle of the chest. The light areas that appear as subtle branches ...

  19. Effects of ketamine on the circulatory functions and body tissue oxygenation in dogs under normal and hypovolemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Yeh, F C; Chou, Y P; Chen, H I

    1984-04-01

    Anesthetic induction with ketamine may cause cardiovascular (CV) stimulation and depression. The study was conducted in dogs to evaluate the dependence of ketamine-induced CV effects upon the dosage, mode of administration and experimental hypovolemic conditions. Slow ketamine infusion (n = 12) at 3 dose levels (5 mg/kg/min for 1, 2 and 4 min to a total dose of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) consistently increased the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). Rapid bolus injections at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg (n = 16) produced biphasic changes--decreases followed by increases in AP and HR. Profound depressor and bradycardic responses were readily observed with large dose, rapid bolus injection and during hemorrhagic hypotension. The striking CV depression in some cases became irreversible and led to death. Further study in 8 open-chest dogs revealed that ketamine infusion (a total dose of 10 mg/kg) caused slight increases in cardiac output (CO) and tissue oxygen uptake (VO2). However, the marked depressor response to bolus injection was associated with decreases in CO, total peripheral resistance, stroke volume and VO2. These inhibitory effects were prolonged after hemorrhagic hypotension. In a few cases, CO and VO2 became severely and progressively depressed and death ensued shortly following the injection. PMID:6571587

  20. [Wooden chests for the midwife's equipment].

    PubMed

    Carlén-Nilsson, C

    1993-01-01

    In the museum of medical history in Lund there are several wooden chests containing partly identical instruments apparently belonging to a midwife. The instruments dated from before 1900, e.g. lancets and horn cups for blood-letting, a pewter enema syringe, a wooden stethoscope, a "tobacco pipe" and glass bottles. The use of the tobacco pipe was first puzzling, but it appeared to be a breast reliver. What do we know about the date of the chests? One chest has belonged to Kjersti Nilsdotter, a midwife educated in Lund 1872-1873. Her certificate was in the chest. From Ronnie Hunt, Minnesota we have got information about another chest of the same type. That belonged to Nelly Gustafsson, a midwife educated in Lund probably about 1870. She emigrated to USA and was a practising midwife in Lindstrom, Minnesota from about 1900. PMID:11639439

  1. Intercostal hemangioma of the chest wall

    PubMed Central

    Hamzík, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 36-year-old patient who had six months’ pain of the thoracic spine and left chest. A soft slowly growing resistance was present on the dorso-lateral side of the left chest wall, in the range of the seventh to ninth rib. According to the medical history, the patient did not have any prior trauma and malignancy. A well-defined tumor of the left chest wall with calcifications, which grew to the seventh and eighth intercostal space, was present on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The patient underwent resection of the tumor with the chest wall and reconstruction with polypropylene mesh. Histologically, it was a venous hemangioma, one of very rare tumors of the chest wall. PMID:27212983

  2. [How to do - the chest tube drainage].

    PubMed

    Klopp, Michael; Hoffmann, Hans; Dienemann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    A chest tube is used to drain the contents of the pleural space to reconstitute the physiologic pressures within the pleural space and to allow the lungs to fully expand. Indications for chest tube placement include pneumothorax, hemothorax, pleural effusion, pleural empyema, and major thoracic surgery. The most appropriate site for chest tube placement is the 4th or 5th intercostal space in the mid- or anterior- axillary line. Attention to technique in placing the chest tube is vital to avoid complications from the procedure. Applying the step-by-step technique presented, placement of a chest tube is a quick and safe procedure. Complications - frequently occurring when the tube is inserted with a steel trocar - include hemothorax, dislocation, lung lacerations, and injury to organs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity." PMID:25734676

  3. A Murine Closed-chest Model of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Chan; Boehm, Olaf; Meyer, Rainer; Hoeft, Andreas; Knüfermann, Pascal; Baumgarten, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Surgical trauma by thoracotomy in open-chest models of coronary ligation induces an immune response which modifies different mechanisms involved in ischemia and reperfusion. Immune response includes cytokine expression and release or secretion of endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors. Activation of innate immunity can potentially modulate infarct size. We have modified an existing murine closed-chest model using hanging weights which could be useful for studying myocardial pre- and postconditioning and the role of innate immunity in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. This model allows animals to recover from surgical trauma before onset of myocardial ischemia. Volatile anesthetics have been intensely studied and their preconditioning effect for the ischemic heart is well known. However, this protective effect precludes its use in open chest models of coronary artery ligation. Thus, another advantage could be the use of the well controllable volatile anesthetics for instrumentation in a chronic closed-chest model, since their preconditioning effect lasts up to 72 hours. Chronic heart diseases with intermittent ischemia and multiple hit models are other possible applications of this model. For the chronic closed-chest model, intubated and ventilated mice undergo a lateral blunt thoracotomy via the 4th intercostal space. Following identification of the left anterior descending a ligature is passed underneath the vessel and both suture ends are threaded through an occluder. Then, both suture ends are passed through the chest wall, knotted to form a loop and left in the subcutaneous tissue. After chest closure and recovery for 5 days, mice are anesthetized again, chest skin is reopened and hanging weights are hooked up to the loop under ECG control. At the end of the ischemia/reperfusion protocol, hearts can be stained with TTC for infarct size assessment or undergo perfusion fixation to allow morphometric studies in addition to histology and

  4. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  5. Cardiac troponins as indicators of acute myocardial damage in dogs.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Iwan A; Kovacevic, Alan; Mauldin, G Neal; Lombard, Christophe W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) have a high sequence homology across phyla and are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Cardiac Reader, a human point-of-care system for the determination of cTnT and myoglobin, and the Abbott Axsym System for the determination of cTnI and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) in healthy dogs and in dogs at risk for acute myocardial damage because of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and blunt chest trauma (BCT). In healthy dogs (n = 56), cTnI was below detection limits (<0.1 microg/L) in 35 of 56 dogs (reference range 0-0.7 microg/L), and cTnT was not measurable (<0.05 ng/mL) in all but 1 dog. At presentation, cTnI, CK-MB, myoglobin, and lactic acid were all significantly higher in dogs with GDV (n = 28) and BCT (n = 8) than in control dogs (P < .001), but cTnT was significantly higher only in dogs with BCT (P = .033). Increased cTnI or cTnT values were found in 26 of 28 (highest values 1.1-369 microg/L) and 16 of 28 dogs (0.1-1.7 ng/mL) with GDV, and in 6 of 8 (2.3-82.4 microg/L) and 3 of 8 dogs (0.1-0.29 ng/mL) with BCT, respectively. In dogs suffering from GDV, cTnI and cTnT increased further within the first 48 hours (P < .001). Increased cardiac troponins suggestive of myocardial damage occurred in 93% of dogs with GDV and 75% with BCT. cTnI appeared more sensitive, but cTnT may be a negative prognostic indicator in GDV. Both systems tested seemed applicable for the measurement of canine cardiac troponins, with the Cardiac Reader particularly suitable for use in emergency settings. PMID:16594583

  6. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  7. Experimental studies on electrolytic dosage of ECT for dog's oesophageal injury and clinical effects of ECT for oesophageal anastomotic opening stenosis and oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Xin, Y L; Ge, B; Zhao, F; Zhso, H

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have been performed to explore the potential benefits of electrochemical therapy (ECT) in oesophageal cancer. In a dog experiment, the oesophageal injury induced by ECT was evaluated. The provision of 7.5 volts (V) and 25-100 coulomb (C) was associated with a slight injury of the mucosa, which was completely healed after two weeks. Ten patients with oesophageal stenosis were treated with ECT (4.5-5.5 V, 20-50 mA and 85-180 C). In all patients there was a significant dilatation of the stenotic area and the patients could eat a normal diet after three to four weeks. The clinical effectiveness in 35 patients treated with ECT for inoperable oesophagela carcinoma was found to be satisfactory. Complete and partial response was obtained in 15 cases (42.8%), and dysphagia was relieved for five to 13 months. In conclusion, oesophageal cancer may be successfully treated with a specially designed electrode and a specified dosage of electricity. PMID:7531026

  8. Effect of shape and size of lung and chest wall on stresses in the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Matthews, F. L.; West, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    To understand better the effect of shape and size of lung and chest wall on the distribution of stresses, strains, and surface pressures, we analyzed a theoretical model using the technique of finite elements. First we investigated the effects of changing the chest wall shape during expansion, and second we studied lungs of a variety of inherent shapes and sizes. We found that, in general, the distributions of alveolar size, mechanical stresses, and surface pressures in the lungs were dominated by the weight of the lung and that changing the shape of the lung or chest wall had relatively little effect. Only at high states of expansion where the lung was very stiff did changing the shape of the chest wall cause substantial changes. Altering the inherent shape of the lung generally had little effect but the topographical differences in stresses and surface pressures were approximately proportional to lung height. The results are generally consistent with those found in the dog by Hoppin et al (1969).

  9. Investigation of the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Zachrisson, Sara; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus

    2009-02-01

    Chest tomosynthesis has recently been introduced to healthcare as a low-dose alternative to CT or as a tool for improved diagnostics in chest radiography with only a modest increase in radiation dose to the patient. However, no detailed description of the dosimetry for this type of examination has been presented. The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the dosimetry of chest tomosynthesis. The chest tomosynthesis examination was assumed to be performed using a stationary detector and a vertically moving x-ray tube, exposing the patient from different angles. The Monte Carlo based computer software PCXMC was used to determine the effective dose delivered to a standard-sized patient from various angles using different assumptions of the distribution of the effective dose over the different projections. The obtained conversion factors between input dose measures and effective dose for chest tomosynthesis for different angular intervals were then compared with the horizontal projection. The results indicate that the error introduced by using conversion factors for the PA projection in chest radiography for estimating the effective dose of chest tomosynthesis is small for normally sized patients, especially if a conversion factor between KAP and effective dose is used.

  10. [A rare case of chest pain].

    PubMed

    Bodócsi, Beáta; Koncz, István; Hum, Zsigmond; Serfőző, Orsolya; Pap-Szekeres, József; Szabó, István

    2016-09-01

    Chest pain is a common symptom in patients who visit Emergency Departments. The main task is to exclude life-threatening diseases such as acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolization and dissection of thoracic aorta. The authors present the history of a patient, who had an intense chest pain for 7 hours. In accordance with the diagnostic algorithm of chest pain, ECG, blood collection, chest X-ray and chest computed tomography angiography were performed. Acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolization and dissection of the thoracic aorta were excluded, however, chest computed tomography CT revealed a huge hiatal hernia as an incidental finding. An emergency surgical repair was performed and the patient recovered without any complications. The authors emphasize that the diagnostic algorithms focus on the confirmation or rejection of possible life threatening diseases in case of chest pain. However, it should be kept in mind that rarer causes may occur, which may require involvement of the relevant disciplines and multidisciplinary thinking. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(36), 1445-1448. PMID:27596512

  11. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT) scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Methods Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mammary tumors was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Three-view thoracic radiographs were accomplished: right lateral, left lateral and ventrodorsal views. Sequential transverse images of the thorax were acquired on a spiral Scanner, before and after intravenous bolus injection of nonionic iodine contrast. Soft-tissue and lung windows were applied. All the mammary tumors were surgically removed and examined histologically. Results The correlation between the cytological and histological results regarding presence of malignancy was observed in only 17 cases. In radiographic examinations, no dog displayed signs of lung metastases or thorax chest lesions. CT detected lung metastasis in two cases, while small areas of lung atelectasis located peripherally were found in 28.57% of the dogs. Conclusion In this study population, spiral CT showed higher sensitivity than chest radiographies to detect lung metastasis; this indicates that CT should be performed on all female dogs with malignant mammary tumors. PMID:20214816

  12. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  13. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  14. Impacts to the chest of PMHSs - Influence of impact location and load distribution on chest response.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Svensson, Mats Y; Davidsson, Johan; Gutsche, Andreas; Tomasch, Ernst; Darok, Mario; Ravnik, Dean

    2016-02-01

    The chest response of the human body has been studied for several load conditions, but is not well known in the case of steering wheel rim-to-chest impact in heavy goods vehicle frontal collisions. The aim of this study was to determine the response of the human chest in a set of simulated steering wheel impacts. PMHS tests were carried out and analysed. The steering wheel load pattern was represented by a rigid pendulum with a straight bar-shaped front. A crash test dummy chest calibration pendulum was utilised for comparison. In this study, a set of rigid bar impacts were directed at various heights of the chest, spanning approximately 120mm around the fourth intercostal space. The impact energy was set below a level estimated to cause rib fracture. The analysed results consist of responses, evaluated with respect to differences in the impacting shape and impact heights on compression and viscous criteria chest injury responses. The results showed that the bar impacts consistently produced lesser scaled chest compressions than the hub; the Middle bar responses were around 90% of the hub responses. A superior bar impact provided lesser chest compression; the average response was 86% of the Middle bar response. For inferior bar impacts, the chest compression response was 116% of the chest compression in the middle. The damping properties of the chest caused the compression to decrease in the high speed bar impacts to 88% of that in low speed impacts. From the analysis it could be concluded that the bar impact shape provides lower chest criteria responses compared to the hub. Further, the bar responses are dependent on the impact location of the chest. Inertial and viscous effects of the upper body affect the responses. The results can be used to assess the responses of human substitutes such as anthropomorphic test devices and finite element human body models, which will benefit the development process of heavy goods vehicle safety systems. PMID:26687541

  15. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between Der p 1 in house dust and food from the paper (P < 0.0001) and plastic bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. PMID:21106038

  16. Compression of digital chest x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Michael; Trefler, Martin; Young, Tzay S.

    1990-07-01

    The application of digital technologies to chest radiography holds the promise of routine application of intage processing techniques to effect image enhancement. However, due to their inherent spatial resolution, digital chest images impose severe constraints on data storage devices. Compression of these images will relax such constraints and facilitate image transmission on a digital network. We have evaluated image processing algorithms aimed at compression of digital chest images while improving the diagnostic quality of the image. The image quality has been measured with respect to the task of tumor detection. Compression ratios of as high as 2:1 have been achieved. This compression can then be supplemented by irreversible methods.

  17. Technique for chest radiography for pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Routine radiographic chest examinations have been performed using a variety of techniques. Although chest radiography is one of the most commonly performed radiographic examinations, it is often difficult to obtain consistently good quality roentgenograms. This publication provides a simple guide and relatively easy solution to the many problems that radiologic technologists might encounter. The language is purposely relatively simple and care has been taken to avoid difficult mathematical and physical explanations. The intent is to provide an easily referrable text for those who may encounter difficulties in producing acceptable chest radiographs.

  18. Classification of chest wall diseases.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, E; Gulotta, C

    1993-01-01

    Several disorders of the thoracic cage are known to cause respiratory failure, by means of relatively simple mechanisms, such as the increased work of breathing, which results in alveolar hypoventilation. A variety of pathogenic mechanisms may be considered, as functions of the types of thoracic disorders present. As causes of these additional potential mechanisms, we considered the following: 1) ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) inhomogeneity; 2) inability to cough; 3) malformation or acquired defect of the respiratory centres; and 4) excess blood volume and fluid retention, which aggravate work of breathing and V/Q inhomogeneity. All of these disorders can be grouped into two major categories (which nevertheless have some of the pathophysiology in common): the mechanical syndrome and the neuromuscular or paralytic syndrome. In this paper we discuss chest wall diseases falling into the first category; namely, kyphoscoliosis, fibrothorax, thoracoplasty, ankylosing spondylitis and obesity-hypoventilation. Congenital deformities of the thoracic cage, which do not have important effects on ventilatory apparatus (e.g. pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum), were also considered. PMID:8472068

  19. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  20. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  1. Wolves Are Better Imitators of Conspecifics than Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics’ actions. During domestication, dogs’ dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation. PMID:24489744

  2. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  3. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  4. Imaging of diseases of the chest

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.; Dee, P.; Wilson, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book promises to be the first intermediate length chest imaging book that successfully integrates material on the newer modalities (MRI, Nuclear Medicine) with that on conventional techniques (plain film radiography).

  5. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-03-01

    The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice. PMID:20380955

  6. [Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma of the Chest Wall].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Genkichi; Yoneshima, Yasuto; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Kitagawa, Dai; Kinjo, Nao; Ohgaki, Kippei; Maehara, Shinichiro; Teramoto, Seiichi; Adachi, Eisuke; Ikeda, Yoichi; Mine, Mari

    2016-08-01

    A 79-year-old man complaining of an anterior chest mass with pain had an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. A mass, 7 cm in size, with destruction of the right 4th rib was found on chest computed tomography. A F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) corresponding to the lesion showed an abnormal accumulation of FDG with the standardized uptake value(SUV) max=16.19. A malignant tumor of the chest wall origin was suspected and the tumor was resected with the 3th, 4th, and 5th ribs. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. He died of local recurrence about 5 months after the operation. PMID:27476566

  7. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  8. Thymic carcinoma presenting as atypical chest pain.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sadiq; Connelly, Tara; Keita, Luther; Blazkova, Sylvie; Veerasingam, Dave

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a 2-month history of atypical chest pain was referred to the chest pain clinic by the general practitioner. Exercise stress test was positive and subsequent coronary angiogram revealed significant triple vessel disease with left ventricular impairment requiring a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The patient had a chest X-ray as part of the preoperative work up. Chest X-ray revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass. Subsequent thorax CT revealed a 7.2 cm anterior mediastinal mass. CT-guided biopsy of the mass revealed the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated thymic basaloid carcinoma. The patient was successfully treated with concomitant surgery involving complete resection of the mass and a CABG procedure. PMID:26607199

  9. Fluoroscopic chest tube insertion and patient care.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Disher, A. C.; Miller, T. Q.

    1992-01-01

    Catheters and chest tubes may be placed under fluoroscopic control to reduce pleural effusions. This procedure has been adopted as a routine procedure at the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California to improve patient care. This technique was modified for the placement of large chest tubes, which can be placed by a radiologist without multiple attempts or complications. Our experience with 2234 patients who underwent this procedure between 1977 and 1990 is described. PMID:1404463

  10. Management of chest trauma: a review.

    PubMed

    Adebonojo, S A

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of chest trauma has increased significantly since the turn of the century especially in developed countries where rapid means of transportation has become part of daily life. Although gunshot wounds (GSWs) were the commonest causes of chest trauma in wartime, road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become the scourge of peacetime and modern civilization. Chest trauma is more common in males during the 2nd to the 5th decades of life with an average age of 40 years reducing their life expectancy by another 40 years at the most productive and active period of their lives. Despite improvement in ambulance service and rapid mobilization of victims from the scene of accident, about 10% of chest injured patients will die on the spot and another 5% die within an hour of reaching the hospital. Of the remaining 85%, five percent will require emergency thoracotomy for various reasons while 80% will respond to resuscitative measures and tube thoracostomy drainage alone. The primary aims in the management of chest trauma are prompt restoration of normal cardiorespiratory functions, control of haemorrhage, treatment of associated injuries and prevention of sepsis. Although the overall survival rate of trauma has improved in recent years, deaths are often due to airway obstruction, exsanguinating haemorrhage, flail chest, tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade and associated intracranial, intraabdominal and skeletal injuries. PMID:8398932

  11. [Differential diagnosis "non-cardiac chest pain"].

    PubMed

    Frieling, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) are recurrent angina pectoris like pain without evidence of coronary heart diesease in conventional diagnostic evaluation. The prevalence of NCCP is up to 70% and may be detected in this order at all levels of the medical health care system (general practitioner, emergency department, chest pain unit, coronary care). Reduction of quality of life in NCCP is comparable, partially even higher compared to cardiac chest pain. Reasons for psychological strain are symptom recurrence in app. 50%, nonspecific diagnosis with resulting uncertainty and insufficient integration of other medical disciplines in diagnostic work-up. Managing of patients with NCCP has to be interdisciplinary because non cardiac causes of chest pain may be found frequently. This are musculosceletal in app. 40%, gastrointestinal in app. 20%, psychiatric in app. 10% and pulmonary and mediastinal diseases in app. 5% of cases. Also gastroenterological expertise is required because here gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in app. 60%, hypercontractile esophageal motility disorders with nutcracker, jackhammer esophagus or distal esophageal spasmus or achalasia in app. 20% and other esophageal alterations (e. g. infectious esophageal inflammation, drug-induced ulcer, rings, webs, eosinophilic esophagits) in app. 30% of cases may be detected as cause of chest pain may. This implicates that regular interdisciplinary round wards and interdisciplinary management of chest pain units are mandatory. PMID:26230070

  12. How to remove a chest drain.

    PubMed

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26443174

  13. Surgical stabilization of traumatic flail chest.

    PubMed Central

    París, F; Tarazona, V; Blasco, E; Cantó, A; Casillas, M; Pastor, J; París, M; Montero, R

    1975-01-01

    Since 1970 we have stabilized the ribs to correct paradoxical movement of the chest wall in chest injuries, using an original technique, in order to avoid as far as possible the need for long-term chest wall stabilization by intermittent positive pressure respiration (IPPR). The technical details of surgical stabilization are described, and the different types of stainless steel struts are shown. Type I was originally used either as an intramedullary nail or as an external brace. Types II and III were designed for external fixation of the strut to the rib. Treatment of 29 patients with severe flail chest, classified into four groups is shown: group I was treated by IPPR, group II by IPPR plus surgical stabilization, group III by surgical stabilization only, and group IV by surgical stabilization after exploratory thoracotomy. The clinical results are discussed. We conclude that surgical stabilization of the paradoxial movement of the chest wall can avoid the use of the respirator or at least reduce the interval of IPPR to a short period during the initial recovery from trauma. Using type III struts, we have obtained stabilization of the flail chest in all cases even in patients with severe anterior paradoxical movement. The patients' tolerance of surgical stainless steel struts was good. Images PMID:1105874

  14. A national survey of emergency department chest pain centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Rydman, R J; Ting, S; Kampe, L; Selker, H P

    1998-06-01

    Although chest pain centers are promoted as improving emergency cardiac care, no data exist on their structure and processes. This national study determines the 1995 prevalence rate for emergency department (ED)-based chest pain centers in the United States and compares organizational differences of EDs with and without such centers. A mail survey was directed to 476 EDs randomly selected from the American Hospital Association's database of metropolitan hospitals (n = 2,309); the response rate was 63%. The prevalence of chest pain centers was 22.5% (95% confidence interval 18% to 27%), which yielded a projection of 520 centers in the United States in 1995. EDs with centers had higher overall patient volumes, greater use of high-technology testing, lower treatment times for thrombolytic therapy, and more advertising (all p <0.05). Hospitals with centers had greater market competition and more beds per annual admissions, cardiac catheterization, and open heart surgery capability (all p <0.05). Logistic regression identified open heart surgery, high-admission volumes, and nonprofit status as independent predictors of hospitals having chest pain centers. Thus, chest pain centers have a moderate prevalence, offer more services and marketing efforts than standard EDs, and tend to be hosted by large nonprofit hospitals. PMID:9631967

  15. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  18. 42 CFR 37.4 - Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations. 37.4... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.4 Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations. (a) Every plan for chest...

  19. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  20. 42 CFR 37.4 - Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations. 37.4... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.4 Plans for chest roentgenographic examinations. (a) Every plan for chest...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  2. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  3. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  4. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  5. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics after acute lung injury in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Romand, J.A.; Pinsky, M.R.; Firestone, L.; Zar, H.A.; Lancaster, J.R. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mismatch in ventilation-to-perfusion ratio characterize acute lung injury (ALI). Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) decreases when nitric oxide (NO) is inhaled during hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV); thus NO inhalation may reduce PVR and improve gas exchange in ALI. The authors studied the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of NO inhalation during HPV and then ALI in eight anesthetized open-chest mechanically ventilated dogs. Right atrial pressure, Ppa, and left ventricular and arterial pressures were measured, and cardiac output was estimated by an aortic flow probe. Shunt and dead space were also estimated. The effect of 5-min exposures to 0, 17, 28, 47, and 0 ppm inhaled NO was recorded during hyperoxia, hypoxia, and oleic acid-induced ALI. During ALI, partial [beta]-adrenergic blockage (propanolol, 0.15 mg/kg iv) was induced and 74 ppm NO was inhaled. Nitrosylhemoglobin (NO-Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) levels were measured. During hyperoxia, NO inhalation had no measurable effects. Hypoxia increased Ppa and calculated PVR, both of which decreased with 17 ppm NO. ALI decreased arterial Po[sub 2] and increased airway pressure, shunt, and dead space ventilation. Ppa and PVR were greater during ALI than during hyperoxia. NO inhalation had no measurable effect during ALI before or after [beta]-adrenergic blockage. MetHb remained low, and NO-Hb was unmeasurable. Bolus infusion of nitroglycerin (15 [mu]g) induced an immediate decrease in Ppa and PVR during ALI. Short-term NO inhalation does not affect PVR or gas exchange in dogs with oleic acid-induced ALI, nor does it increase NO-Hb or MetHb. In contrast, NO can diminish hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary vascular tone. These data suggest that NO inhalation selectively dilates the pulmonary circulation and specifically reduces HPV but not oleic acid-induced increases in pulmonary vasomotor tone. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  7. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  8. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  9. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  10. Use of a titanium alloy (Chest Way) in the surgical stabilization of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tomoki; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Aruga, Naohiro; Imamura, Naoko; Hamanaka, Rurika; Ikoma, Yoichiro; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    To avoid the complications of internal pneumatic stabilization for flail chest, we performed stabilization of the chest wall with a metal bar using the Nuss procedure. Here, we used a highly elastic lightweight biocompatible titanium alloy Chest Way (Solve Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan), enabling magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was a 37-year-old man who sustained injuries in a car crash. Gradually increasing subcutaneous emphysema was present. Bilateral pleural drainage and tracheal intubation were conducted on the scene, and a peripheral venous line was established. The patient was then transferred to our hospital by helicopter. A titanium alloy Chest Way was inserted to manage his flail chest accompanied by multiple rib fractures on the left side. Two days later, artificial respiration was no longer required. PMID:26096325

  11. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. PMID:26382070

  12. A Review of Esophageal Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is a term that encompasses all causes of chest pain after a cardiac source has been excluded. This article focuses on esophageal sources for chest pain. Esophageal chest pain (ECP) is common, affects quality of life, and carries a substantial health care burden. The lack of a systematic approach toward the diagnosis and treatment of ECP has led to significant disability and increased health care costs for this condition. Identifying the underlying cause(s) or mechanism(s) for chest pain is key for its successful management. Common etiologies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and psychological conditions, including panic disorder and anxiety. However, the pathophysiology of this condition is not yet fully understood. Randomized controlled trials have shown that proton pump inhibitor therapy (either omeprazole, lansoprazole, or rabeprazole) can be effective. Evidence for the use of antidepressants and the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline is fair. Psychological treatments, notably cognitive behavioral therapy, may be useful in select patients. Surgery is not recommended. There remains a large unmet need for identifying the phenotype and prevalence of pathophysiologic mechanisms of ECP as well as for well-designed multicenter clinical trials of current and novel therapies. PMID:27134590

  13. A Review of Esophageal Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Coss-Adame, Enrique; Rao, Satish S C

    2015-11-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is a term that encompasses all causes of chest pain after a cardiac source has been excluded. This article focuses on esophageal sources for chest pain. Esophageal chest pain (ECP) is common, affects quality of life, and carries a substantial health care burden. The lack of a systematic approach toward the diagnosis and treatment of ECP has led to significant disability and increased health care costs for this condition. Identifying the underlying cause(s) or mechanism(s) for chest pain is key for its successful management. Common etiologies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and psychological conditions, including panic disorder and anxiety. However, the pathophysiology of this condition is not yet fully understood. Randomized controlled trials have shown that proton pump inhibitor therapy (either omeprazole, lansoprazole, or rabeprazole) can be effective. Evidence for the use of antidepressants and the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline is fair. Psychological treatments, notably cognitive behavioral therapy, may be useful in select patients. Surgery is not recommended. There remains a large unmet need for identifying the phenotype and prevalence of pathophysiologic mechanisms of ECP as well as for well-designed multicenter clinical trials of current and novel therapies. PMID:27134590

  14. Acute inhalation of ozone stimulates bronchial C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Coleridge, J.C.G.; Coleridge, H.M.; Schelegle, E.S.; Green, J.F. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1993-05-01

    To identify the afferents responsible for initiating the vagally mediated respiratory changes evoked by acute exposure to ozone, the authors recorded vagal impulses in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated dogs and examined the pulmonary afferent response to ozone (2--3 ppM in air) delivered to the lower trachea for 20--60 min. Bronchial C-fibers (BrCs) were the lung afferents most susceptible to ozone, the activity of 10 of 11 BrCs increasing from 0.2 [+-] 0.2 to 4.6 [+-] 1.3 impulses/s within 1--7 min of ozone exposure. Ten of 15 rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) were stimulated by ozone, their activity increasing from 1.5 [+-] 0.4 to 4.7 [+-] 0.7 impulses/s. Stimulation of RARs (but not of BrCs) appeared secondary to the ozone-induced reduction of lung compliance because it was abolished by hyperinflation of the lungs. Ozone had little effect on pulmonary C-fibers or slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. The authors' results suggest that both BrCs and RARs contribute to the tachypnea and bronchoconstriction evoked by acute exposure to ozone when vagal conduction is intact and that BrCs alone are responsible for the vagally mediated tachypnea that survives vagal cooling to 7[degrees]C. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Influence of site of regional ischemia on LV cavity shape change in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, P.; Kass, D.; Lima, J.; Maughan, W.L.; Graves, W.; Weiss, J.L. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors assessed whether altering the location of acute ischemia produced differing and consistent changes in cavity shape in the canine left ventricle. Twenty anesthetized open-chest dogs underwent transient occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) or circumflex (Circ) artery, and cavity shape change was recorded in two-dimensional short-axis echocardiograms. The extent of injury was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. Shape was analyzed by converting digitized endocardial contours into polar form and expressing the results as a Fourier series. Series terms reflected specific shape deformations. Normal ventricular shape became more circular during ejection indicated by a reduction in the power in nearly all of the Fourier spectra components. During Circ occlusion, the chamber became more elongated and overall shape significantly less circular at end systole than at end diastole. LAD occlusion produced an entirely different pattern, one with no significant elongation but the development of a more triangular shape by end systole. They conclude that there are characteristic and contrasting shape deformations in LV short-axis contours that depend on the site of ischemic injury. These changes may relate to site-specific geometry and loading, and they point to potential limitations of left ventricular models that no not account for regional inhomogeneity.

  16. Effects of a new nitro compound on the systemic circulatory system in dogs.

    PubMed

    Taki, K; Hashiba, Y; Sumita, T; Shoji, T; Ishikawa, N

    1991-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a newly synthesized nitro compound (E-4701) on the systemic circulatory system with special reference to venous return and vascular compliance. Dogs were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. After opening the chest, cannulae were inserted into the superior and inferior vena cavae and into the right atrial appendage. The venous flow from the caval veins was redirected to a blood reservoir with an outlet at a constant height. The blood was pumped into the right atrium at a constant flow rate. E-4701 had a hypotensive effect, and also caused a decrease in reservoir blood volume; i.e., a decrease in venous return. Venous return via the superior vena cava was increased, whereas return via the inferior vena cava was decreased. Similar effects on the systemic circulatory system were observed with nitroprusside. The lowest dose of nitroprusside that caused a significant reduction in blood pressure was the same dose as that which caused a decrease in reservoir blood volume. However, a low dose of E-4701 caused a significant reduction in reservoir blood volume without affecting the systemic blood pressure. Arterial and venous compliances were increased by both E-4701 and nitroprusside. Nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate increased venous compliance, but did not affect arterial compliance. The results suggest that E-4701 caused an almost equipotent reduction in blood pressure and venous return by dilating the arterial and venous vascular beds. The capacitance vessels may be more sensitive to E-4701 than the resistance vessels. PMID:1720838

  17. Aortic pressure reduction redistributes transmural blood flow in dog left ventricle

    SciTech Connect

    Smolich, J.J.; Weissberg, P.L.; Broughton, A.; Korner, P.I. )

    1988-02-01

    The authors studied the effect of graded aortic blood pressure reduction on left ventricular (LV) blood flow in anesthetized, autonomically blocked, open-chest dogs at constant heart rate and mean left atrial pressure. Aortic diastolic pressure (ADP) was lowered from rest to 90, 75, and 60 mmHg with an arteriovenous fistula. Global and regional LV blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Mean LV blood flow fell stepwise from 145 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} at rest to 116 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} at ADP of 60 mmHg, whereas the endocardial-to-epicardial flow ratio decreased from 1.20 to 084. The transmural redistribution of LV blood flow was not accompanied by increases in LV oxygen extraction, depression of LV contractility, LV dilatation or LV electrical dysfunction and also occurred in the presence of considerable coronary vasodilator flow reserve. Electrical evidence of subendocardial ischemia appeared at ADP of 32 mmHg and an endocardial-to-epicardial flow ratio of 0.41 in a subgroup of animals. They conclude that the redistribution of LV flow during moderate aortic pressure reduction was an appropriate physiological adjustment to uneven transmural alterations in regional LV wall stress and that it preceded a more pronounced redistribution evident with myocardial ischemia.

  18. N-13 ammonia as an indicator of myocardial blood flow. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; MacDonald, N.S.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-06-01

    We have characterized N-13 ammonia as a myocardial blood flow imaging agent suitable for positron-emission computed tomography. However, the mechanisms of uptake and retention of this agent in myocardium are not known, and effects of altered metabolism were not considered. Therefore, we studied the uptake and retention of N-13 ammonia in myocardium under various hemodynamic and metabolic conditions in open-chest dogs. N-13 ammonia was extracted nearly 100% during its initial capillary transit, followed by metabolic trapping that competed with flow-dependent back diffusion. At control flows, the first capillary transit extraction fraction (E) of N-13 ammonia averaged 0.82 +- 0.06. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase with L-methionine sulfoximine impaired metabolic trapping of N-13 ammonia and implicates te glutamic acid-glutamine reaction as the primary mechanism for ammonia fixation. Blood flow and metabolic trapping are the primary determinants of myocardial uptake and retention of N-13 ammonia. The relative constancy of metabolic trapping over a wide range of hemodynamic and metabolic conditions demonstrates the value of N-13 ammonia as a myocardial blood flow imaging agent.

  19. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  20. Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a terrier dog

    PubMed Central

    Kheirandish, Reza; Saberi, Mehdi; Vosough, Dariush; Askari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    A one-month-old male terrier dog was referred in shock status with a history of anorexia, tachypnea, abdominal distention and progressive weight loss. Auscultation of right side of the lungs found enhanced respiratory noises. The thorough auscultation of the opposite side of the chest revealed the presence of typical intestinal sounds. Cardiac auscultation revealed muffled heart sounds and a diminished palpable precordial cardiac impulse was evident. The radiograph showed the presence of gas within the bowel in abrupt contrast to the adjacent structures of soft tissue opacity. Conservative treatment was failed and the animal died. At necropsy, cranial displacement of abdominal viscera into the pericardial sac was seen. A definitive diagnosis of peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was made. Although congenital pericardial diseases are rare in dogs, awareness of the clinical manifestation of these kinds of defects combined with early use of available imaging modalities can yield a preoperative diagnosis. PMID:25568711

  1. Regional blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Luce, J M; Rizk, N A; Niskanen, R A

    1984-10-01

    We studied regional blood flow (QR) using radiolabeled microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A circumferential vest and abdominal binder were used with a mechanical ventilator to deliver 30 simultaneous chest compressions and ventilations per minute. When this device was modified to increase aortic pressure (Pao) during compression and the aortic-to-right atrial pressure gradient (Pao-Pra) during relaxation, cerebral and myocardial QR increased significantly. These findings suggest that QR during CPR can be improved by augmenting perfusion-pressure gradients across the cerebral and coronary circulations. PMID:6488828

  2. Congenital lobar emphysema concurrent with pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in a dog

    PubMed Central

    YUN, Sungho; LEE, Hohyun; LIM, Jaehyun; LEE, Kija; JANG, Kwangho; SHIWA, Nozomi; BOONSRIROJ, Hassadin; KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; PARK, Chunho; KWON, Youngsam

    2016-01-01

    A two-year-old castrated male Pomeranian dog was referred with the chief complaints of coughing and subcutaneous emphysema. On physical examination, the crepitant areas were palpable. When auscultated, the right chest was absent of respiratory sound, while the sound of the opposite side was enhanced. Radiographs presented pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. On computed tomography, hypoattenuated bulla-like lesion at right middle lung lobe and trapped air in mediastinum were shown. After patient stabilization, surgery for excision of affected lobe was performed. During follow-up period, there were no recurrence and complication on radiographic examination. Based on clinical and pathological findings, the dog was diagnosed as congenital lobar emphysema. PMID:26860354

  3. Congenital lobar emphysema concurrent with pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sungho; Lee, Hohyun; Lim, Jaehyun; Lee, Kija; Jang, Kwangho; Shiwa, Nozomi; Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Park, Chunho; Kwon, Youngsam

    2016-06-01

    A two-year-old castrated male Pomeranian dog was referred with the chief complaints of coughing and subcutaneous emphysema. On physical examination, the crepitant areas were palpable. When auscultated, the right chest was absent of respiratory sound, while the sound of the opposite side was enhanced. Radiographs presented pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. On computed tomography, hypoattenuated bulla-like lesion at right middle lung lobe and trapped air in mediastinum were shown. After patient stabilization, surgery for excision of affected lobe was performed. During follow-up period, there were no recurrence and complication on radiographic examination. Based on clinical and pathological findings, the dog was diagnosed as congenital lobar emphysema. PMID:26860354

  4. Treatment of Morbidity with Atypical Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The appropriate management of atypical chest pain requires an integration of medical and behavioural treatments. Unnecessary medicalization can increase morbidity. A sensitivity to the behavioural factors contributing to symptoms and disability may reduce both. The purpose of this paper is to provide physicians with a cognitive-behavioural perspective of the nature of morbidity and disability associated with chronic chest discomfort; some strategies for detecting heretofore unsuspected disability associated with chronic chest pain and related discomfort in patients with organic findings (both cardiac and non-cardiac), as well those with no identifiable disease process or organic cause; and some simple behavioural and cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques for treating and preventing such problems. PMID:21263912

  5. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    PubMed Central

    Winge, Rikke; Berg, Jais O.; Albret, Rikke; Krag, Christen

    2012-01-01

    A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation. PMID:24765464

  6. Enhancement of chest radiographs using eigenimage processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, Philip J.; Butler, Anthony P. H.; Hurrell, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Frontal chest radiographs ("chest X-rays") are routinely used by medical personnel to assess patients for a wide range of suspected disorders. Often large numbers of images need to be analyzed. Furthermore, at times the images need to analyzed ("reported") when no radiological expert is available. A system which enhances the images in such a way that abnormalities are more obvious is likely to reduce the chance that an abnormality goes unnoticed. The authors previously reported the use of principal components analysis to derive a basis set of eigenimages from a training set made up of images from normal subjects. The work is here extended to investigate how best to emphasize the abnormalities in chest radiographs. Results are also reported for various forms of image normalizing transformations used in performing the eigenimage processing.

  7. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.

    PubMed

    Winge, Rikke; Berg, Jais O; Albret, Rikke; Krag, Christen

    2012-05-29

    A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation. PMID:24765464

  8. Enhancement and compression of digital chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Cohn, M; Trefler, M; Young, T Y

    1990-01-01

    The application of digital technologies to chest radiography holds the promise of routine application of image processing techniques to effect image enhancement. Because of their inherent spatial resolution, however, digital chest images impose severe constraints on data storage devices. Compression of these images will relax such constraints and facilitate image transmission on a digital network. We evaluated an algorithm for enhancing digital chest images that has allowed significant data compression while improving the diagnostic quality of the image. This algorithm is based on the photographic technique of unsharp masking. Image quality was measured with respect to the task of tumor detection and compression ratios as high as 2:1 were achieved. This compression can be supplemented by irreversible methods. PMID:2299708

  9. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ∼ 19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. PMID:25404132

  10. DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Zhao, Wen-Ming; Tang, Bi-Xia; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, He-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Hu; Zhu, Jun-Wei; Irwin, David M.; Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ∼19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies. PMID:25404132

  11. Companion Angels on a Leash: Welcoming Service Dogs into Classroom Communities for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen I.; Sholtis, Stephanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Love, affection, acceptance, and companionship to children, these are just some of the benefits of a service dog for children. Yet there is much that these remarkable animals can do. From opening doors for children with cerebral palsy to warning a child with diabetes of low blood sugar, the abilities of a properly trained service dog are wide and…

  12. [Traumatically-induced mucocele of the frontal sinus in two dogs].

    PubMed

    L'Eplattenier, H F; Montavon, P M

    1998-01-01

    Two young dogs were presented with an accumulation of mucus in the frontal sinus which occurred after a head injury had caused an obstruction of the nasofrontal openings. Both dogs were successfully managed by surgically reconstructing and draining the nasofrontal ducts. PMID:9719732

  13. Noninvasive ventilation in large postoperative flail chest.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; De Luca, Daniele; Zorzi, Giulia; Ruggiero, Antonio; Antonelli, Massimo; Conti, Giorgio; Pietrini, Domenico

    2008-12-01

    An 11-year-old male developed a severe respiratory failure due to a iatrogenic flail chest following a surgery for removing a large chest wall area. A rare Ewing sarcoma was histologically diagnosed and intensive chemotherapy was administered. Postoperatively, because of the failure in ventilation weaning, the patient was electively extubated and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation through face-mask was provided. Respiratory support avoided asynchronous paradoxical movements and achieved pneumatic stabilization. Clinical and respiratory improvement allowed a successful weaning from ventilator. PMID:18798557

  14. Homicidal tandem bullet wound of the chest.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A J; Busuttil, A; Clifton, B; Sibbald, P

    1997-03-01

    An unusual case of a homicidal gunshot wound to the chest is reported in which two bullets were fired in unison as tandem bullets from a handgun. At autopsy, two intact bullets were retrieved from the body of the victim, yet there was only one entrance wound and a single bullet track across the chest wall and thoracic organs. An examination of the weapon and ammunition supported the likelihood of tandem bullets and suggested the probable mechanism for this event. Very few similar cases have been documented. PMID:9095302

  15. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  16. [Coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Seven, Ekim; Henningsen, Kristoffer; Abildgaard, Ulrik

    2015-03-16

    A previously healthy 38-year-old man was admitted to hospital with chest pain. The day before the patient had been to a karate session and had received multiple punches and kicks to the chest region. An ECG showed Q-waves in V1 and V2 and flattening of the T-waves in V1-V6. Levels of cardiac enzyme markers were elevated. The patient subsequently underwent coronary angiography with supplemental optical coherence tomography that revealed a bifurcate dissection involving the proximal parts of left ramus interventricularis anterior and circumflex coronary artery. Two drug-eluting stents were implanted with good angiographic result. PMID:25786846

  17. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1–10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1–25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40–180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40–100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53–128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59–154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93–180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41–84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  18. Vertical Mandibular Range of Motion in Anesthetized Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Gracis, Margherita; Zini, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The main movement of the temporomandibular joint of dogs and cats is in vertical dimensions (opening and closing the mouth). An objective evaluation of the vertical mandibular range of motion (vmROM) may favor early diagnosis of a number of conditions affecting the joint mobility. vmROM, corresponding to the maximum interincisal opening, was measured in 260 dogs and 127 cats anesthetized between June 2011 and April 2015 because of oral or maxillofacial problems and procedures. Animals with a known history of or having current diseases considered to hamper mandibular extension were excluded from the study. Dogs were divided into four subgroups, based on body weight: subgroup 1 (≤5.0 kg, 51 dogs), subgroup 2 (5.1-10.0 kg, 56 dogs), subgroup 3 (10.1-25 kg, 66 dogs), and subgroup 4 (>25.1 kg, 87 dogs). The mean vmROM of all dogs was 107 ± 30 mm (median 109, range 40-180); in subgroup 1 was 67 ± 15 mm (median 67, range 40-100), in subgroup 2 was 93 ± 15 mm (median 93, range 53-128), in subgroup 3 was 115 ± 19 mm (median 116, range 59-154), and in subgroup 4 was 134 ± 19 mm (median 135, range 93-180). The mean vmROM of the cats was 62 ± 8 mm (median 63, range 41-84). Correlations between vmROM, age, sex, and body weight were evaluated. In dogs, vmROM did not correlate with age, and in cats a weak positive correlation was found. vmROM and body weight were positively correlated in both populations, except dog subgroup 2. Overall, mean vmROM and body weight were significantly higher in male than in female, both in dogs and in cats. However, vmROM did not differ between sexes in any of the canine subgroups, and only in subgroup 4 male dogs were significantly heavier than females. Evaluation of vmROM should be incorporated into every diagnostic examination as it may be valuable in showing changes over time for every single patient. PMID:27446939

  19. Lung cancer detection with digital chest tomosynthesis: first round results from the SOS observational study

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Tavella, Chiara; Priotto, Roberto; Ghirardo, Donatella; Grosso, Maurizio; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Baseline results of the Studio OSservazionale (SOS), observational study, a single-arm observational study of digital chest tomosynthesis for lung cancer detection in an at-risk population demonstrated a detection rate of lung cancer comparable to that of studies that used low dose CT scan (LDCT). We present the results of the first round. Methods Totally 1,703 out of 1,843 (92%) subjects who had a baseline digital chest tomosynthesis underwent a first round reevaluation after 1 year. Results At first round chest digital tomosynthesis, 13 (0.7%) subjects had an indeterminate nodule larger than 5 mm and underwent low-dose CT scan for nodule confirmation. PET/CT study was obtained in 10 (0.5%) subjects and 2 subjects had a low-dose CT follow up. Surgery, either video-assisted thoracoscopic or open surgery for indeterminate pulmonary nodules was performed in 10 (0.2%) subjects. A lung cancer was diagnosed and resected in five patients. The lung cancer detection rate at first round was 0.3% (5/1,703). Conclusions The detection rate of lung cancer at first round for tomosynthesis is comparable to rates reported for CT. In addition, results of first round digital chest tomosynthesis confirm chest tomosynthesis as a possible first-line lung cancer-screening tool. PMID:25992366

  20. Chest wall reconstruction after resection using hernia repair piece

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yimin; Zhang, Guofei; Zhu, Zhouyu

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of chest wall tumor is very important link of chest wall tumor resection. Many implants have been reported to be used to reconstruct the chest wall, such as steelwire, titanium mesh and polypropylene mesh. It is really hard for clinicians to decide which implant is the best one to replace the chest wall. We herein report a 68-year-old man who had underwent a chest wall reconstruction with a hernia repair piece and a Dacron hernia repair piece. The patient has maintained an excellent cosmetic and functional outcome since surgery, which proves that the hernia piece still has its place in reconstruction of chest wall. PMID:27293859

  1. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  2. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  3. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  4. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  5. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  6. Functional MRI of the Olfactory System in Conscious Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hao; Pustovyy, Oleg M.; Waggoner, Paul; Beyers, Ronald J.; Schumacher, John; Wildey, Chester; Barrett, Jay; Morrison, Edward; Salibi, Nouha; Denney, Thomas S.; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2014-01-01

    We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology. PMID:24466054

  7. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  8. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  9. Effect of gravity on chest wall mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, D; Kays, C; Bailliart, O; Capderou, A; Techoueyres, P; Lachaud, J L; Vaïda, P; Miserocchi, G

    2002-02-01

    Chest wall mechanics was studied in four subjects on changing gravity in the craniocaudal direction (G(z)) during parabolic flights. The thorax appears very compliant at 0 G(z): its recoil changes only from -2 to 2 cmH(2)O in the volume range of 30-70% vital capacity (VC). Increasing G(z) from 0 to 1 and 1.8 G(z) progressively shifted the volume-pressure curve of the chest wall to the left and also caused a fivefold exponential decrease in compliance. For lung volume <30% VC, gravity has an inspiratory effect, but this effect is much larger going from 0 to 1 G(z) than from 1 to 1.8 G(z). For a volume from 30 to 70% VC, the effect is inspiratory going from 0 to 1 G(z) but expiratory from 1 to 1.8 G(z). For a volume greater than approximately 70% VC, gravity always has an expiratory effect. The data suggest that the chest wall does not behave as a linear system when exposed to changing gravity, as the effect depends on both chest wall volume and magnitude of G(z). PMID:11796685

  10. Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall

    PubMed Central

    Tonziello, Gilda; Valentinotti, Romina; Arbore, Enrico; Cassetti, Paolo; Luzzati, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall Symptoms: — Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Non-typhoid Salmonella extra-intestinal infections usually develop in infants and in adult patients with pre-existing predisposing conditions. Blood stream infections and urinary tract infections are the most common clinical presentations, but other sites of infection may be involved as well. Case Report: We describe a case of invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium involving the chest wall in a 73-year-old man. The patient had suffered from gastroenteritis followed by left basal pneumonia with pleural effusion 7 weeks before. The CT scan of the chest wall showed a pericostal abscess with shirt-stud morphology near the left last cartilaginous arch. The abscess was surgically drained and patient was cured after a 40-day ciprofloxacin treatment. Conclusions: A review of the literature on extra-intestinal non-typhoid salmonellosis shows that pleuropulmonary and soft-tissue infections are uncommon. We argue that non-typhoid Salmonella might be considered as a possible cause of chest wall abscess in individuals with recent history of gastroenteritis complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. PMID:24298305

  11. [Optimal beam quality for chest digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Oda, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Yoshito; Nakano, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the optimal beam quality for chest computed radiography (CR), we measured the radiographic contrast and evaluated the image quality of chest CR using various X-ray tube voltages. The contrast between lung and rib or heart increased on CR images obtained by lowering the tube voltage from 140 to 60 kV, but the degree of increase was less. Scattered radiation was reduced on CR images with a lower tube voltage. The Wiener spectrum of CR images with a low tube voltage showed a low value under identical conditions of amount of light stimulated emission. The quality of chest CR images obtained using a lower tube voltage (80 kV and 100 kV) was evaluated as being superior to those obtained with a higher tube voltage (120 kV and 140 kV). Considering the problem of tube loading and exposure in clinical applications, a tube voltage of 90 to 100 kV (0.1 mm copper filter backed by 0.5 mm aluminum) is recommended for chest CR. PMID:25410333

  12. Unsupervised segmentation of lungs from chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Payel; Antani, Sameer K.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes our preliminary investigations for deriving and characterizing coarse-level textural regions present in the lung field on chest radiographs using unsupervised grow-cut (UGC), a cellular automaton based unsupervised segmentation technique. The segmentation has been performed on a publicly available data set of chest radiographs. The algorithm is useful for this application because it automatically converges to a natural segmentation of the image from random seed points using low-level image features such as pixel intensity values and texture features. Our goal is to develop a portable screening system for early detection of lung diseases for use in remote areas in developing countries. This involves developing automated algorithms for screening x-rays as normal/abnormal with a high degree of sensitivity, and identifying lung disease patterns on chest x-rays. Automatically deriving and quantitatively characterizing abnormal regions present in the lung field is the first step toward this goal. Therefore, region-based features such as geometrical and pixel-value measurements were derived from the segmented lung fields. In the future, feature selection and classification will be performed to identify pathological conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs. Shape-based features will also be incorporated to account for occlusions of the lung field and by other anatomical structures such as the heart and diaphragm.

  13. Uncommon Flaps for Chest Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The omentum, external oblique musculocutaneous, and thoracoepigastric flaps are uncommonly used for chest wall reconstruction. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge of these flaps is essential for reconstructive surgeons because they fill specific niche indications or serve as lifeboats when workhorse flaps are unavailable. The current report describes the anatomic basis, technical aspects of flap elevation, and indications for these unusual flaps. PMID:22294943

  14. [Functional Outcome after Chest Wall Stabilisation].

    PubMed

    Kyriss, T; Lenz, U; Friedel, G

    2016-09-01

    This overview reviews the current literature to compare the functional results after surgical and conservative treatment of patients with flail chest and multiple rib fractures. Regarding functional aspects, patients in the early phase after a thoracic trauma are those that benefit most from the stabilisation of the chest wall by internal fixation of the ribs. Patients recover faster from restrictive respiratory disorders, have less pain and return to the workplace earlier after an operation compared with those that receive conservative treatment. In the medium term, however, patients that are treated conservatively also achieve normal pulmonary function values and become free of pain. The period of convalescence after blunt thoracic trauma is generally underestimated. Future studies of the functional outcome after severe chest injuries should take this into account and the development of functional parameters should be monitored for at least 24 months. A prospective data collection of early and long-term surgical results in registries would be suitable to evaluate benefits and indications of chest wall stabilisation. PMID:27607891

  15. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6133...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6133 - Powder chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies are available at MSHA, 1100 Wilson Blvd., Room 2436, Arlington, Virginia 22209... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powder chests. 56.6133 Section 56.6133 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6133...

  17. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  18. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  19. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-08-01

    Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids.A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6-18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors.Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect.Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  20. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  1. Algorithm of chest wall keloid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiao; Zhang, Mingzi; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Ru; Wang, Youbin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keloids are common in the Asian population. Multiple or huge keloids can appear on the chest wall because of its tendency to develop acne, sebaceous cyst, etc. It is difficult to find an ideal treatment for keloids in this area due to the limit of local soft tissues and higher recurrence rate. This study aims at establishing an individualized protocol that could be easily applied according to the size and number of chest wall keloids. A total of 445 patients received various methods (4 protocols) of treatment in our department from September 2006 to September 2012 according to the size and number of their chest wall keloids. All of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy in our hospital. Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to assess the treatment effect by both doctors and patients. With mean follow-up time of 13 months (range: 6–18 months), 362 patients participated in the assessment of POSAS with doctors. Both the doctors and the patients themselves used POSAS to evaluate the treatment effect. The recurrence rate was 0.83%. There was an obvious significant difference (P < 0.001) between the before-surgery score and the after-surgery score from both doctors and patients, indicating that both doctors and patients were satisfied with the treatment effect. Our preliminary clinical result indicates that good clinical results could be achieved by choosing the proper method in this algorithm for Chinese patients with chest wall keloids. This algorithm could play a guiding role for surgeons when dealing with chest wall keloid treatment. PMID:27583896

  2. [Chest Wall Reconstruction Using Titanium Plates Sandwiched Between Sheets after Resection of Chest Wall Chondrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Endoh, Makoto; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Jun; Watarai, Hikaru; Hamada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Ai; Nakahashi, Kenta; Sugawara, Masato; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2016-07-01

    Extensive chest wall resection carries the risk of difficult reconstruction and surgical complications. We report our experience on chest wall reconstruction using titanium plates for a wide thoracic defect after tumor resection. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with chondrosarcoma of the 6th rib on the right. He needed extensive chest wall resection because of skip lesions on 4th rib noted on operative inspection, leaving a defect measuring 33 × 20 cm. Reconstruction using 5 transverse titanium plates sandwiched between an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch and a polypropylene mesh sheet stabilized the chest wall. This reconstruction allowed successful separation from ventilatory support after operation. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 20. The advantages of this form of reconstruction over conventional prostheses are rigidity, and stability and usability. PMID:27365062

  3. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  4. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  5. Psoriasis, guttate on the arms and chest (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... guttate (drop-shaped) psoriasis on the arms and chest. Guttate psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis. ... streptococcal infection, appears rapidly and affects the face, chest, and nearest limbs. The patches are small and ...

  6. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...

  7. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  8. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  9. 42 CFR 37.50 - Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpreting and classifying chest roentgenograms... MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of...

  10. Noncardiac chest pain: epidemiology, natural course and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fass, Ronnie; Achem, Sami R

    2011-04-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is defined as recurrent chest pain that is indistinguishable from ischemic heart pain after a reasonable workup has excluded a cardiac cause. Noncardiac chest pain is a prevalent disorder resulting in high healthcare utilization and significant work absenteeism. However, despite its chronic nature, noncardiac chest pain has no impact on patients' mortality. The main underlying mechanisms include gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility and esophageal hypersensitivity. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is likely the most common cause of noncardiac chest pain. Esophageal dysmotility affects only the minority of noncardiac chest pain patients. Esophageal hypersensitivity may be present in non-GERD-related noncardiac chest pain patients regardless if esophageal dysmotility is present or absent. Psychological co-morbidities such as panic disorder, anxiety, and depression are also common in noncardiac chest pain patients and often modulate patients' perception of disease severity. PMID:21602987

  11. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... you cough a lot, wheeze, are short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might ...

  12. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  13. Tube thoracostomy; chest tube implantation and follow up

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an urgent medical situation that requires urgent treatment. We can divide this entity based on the etiology to primary and secondary. Chest tube implantation can be performed either in the upper chest wall or lower. Both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can place a chest tube with minimal invasive techniques. In our current work, we will demonstrate chest tube implantation to locations, methodology and tools. PMID:25337405

  14. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification of pneumoconiosis and shall conform to the standards for administration and interpretation of chest...

  15. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification of pneumoconiosis and shall conform to the standards for administration and interpretation of chest...

  16. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification of pneumoconiosis and shall conform to the standards for administration and interpretation of chest...

  17. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification of pneumoconiosis and shall conform to the standards for administration and interpretation of chest...

  18. 20 CFR 718.102 - Chest roentgenograms (X-rays).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chest roentgenograms (X-rays). 718.102... roentgenograms (X-rays). (a) A chest roentgenogram (X-ray) shall be of suitable quality for proper classification of pneumoconiosis and shall conform to the standards for administration and interpretation of chest...

  19. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  20. 42 CFR 37.3 - Chest radiographs required for miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chest radiographs required for miners. 37.3 Section... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations § 37.3 Chest radiographs required for miners. (a) Voluntary examinations. Every operator must provide to...

  1. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  4. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  6. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  8. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  9. 42 CFR 37.3 - Chest roentgenograms required for miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chest roentgenograms required for miners. 37.3... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.3 Chest roentgenograms required for miners. (a) Voluntary examinations. Every operator...

  10. 42 CFR 37.3 - Chest roentgenograms required for miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chest roentgenograms required for miners. 37.3... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.3 Chest roentgenograms required for miners. (a) Voluntary examinations. Every operator...

  11. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  12. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  15. 42 CFR 37.3 - Chest roentgenograms required for miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chest roentgenograms required for miners. 37.3... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.3 Chest roentgenograms required for miners. (a) Voluntary examinations. Every operator...

  16. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  19. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  20. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  2. 42 CFR 37.3 - Chest radiographs required for miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chest radiographs required for miners. 37.3 Section... EXAMINATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.3 Chest radiographs required for miners. (a) Voluntary examinations. Every operator...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  4. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  5. Why is the dog an ideal model for aging research?

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Keiva M; Greer, Kimberly A

    2015-11-01

    With many caveats to the traditional vertebrate species pertaining to biogerontology investigations, it has been suggested that a most informative model is the one which: 1) examines closely related species, or various members of the same species with naturally occurring lifespan variation, 2) already has adequate medical procedures developed, 3) has a well annotated genome, 4) does not require artificial housing, and can live in its natural environment while being investigated, and 5) allows considerable information to be gathered within a relatively short period of time. The domestic dog unsurprisingly fits each criterion mentioned. The dog has already become a key model system in which to evaluate surgical techniques and novel medications because of the remarkable similarity between human and canine conditions, treatments, and response to therapy. The dog naturally serves as a disease model for study, obviating the need to construct artificial genetically modified examples of disease. Just as the dog offers a natural model for human conditions and diseases, simple observation leads to the conclusion that the canine aging phenotype also mimics that of the human. Genotype information, biochemical information pertaining to the GH/IGF-1 pathway, and some limited longitudinal investigations have begun the establishment of the domestic dog as a model of aging. Although we find that dogs indeed are a model to study aging and there are many independent pieces of canine aging data, there are many more "open" areas, ripe for investigation. PMID:26325590

  6. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  7. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  8. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  9. A forensic and medical evaluation of dog bites in a province of Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Ayranci, Unal

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the demographic data of dog-bite cases organized from criminal and forensic reports. This study evaluated 328 cases admitted to the Director of Forensic Medicine, Eskisehir, as a result of dog bites between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. It was found that those in the age-group of 0-18 were most frequently exposed to dog bites (48.5%). Injuries to the lower extremity, upper extremity, and chest/abdomen/back were more frequent in men (72.6%, 76.4%, and 66.1%, respectively), while injuries to the head/neck/face were more frequent in women (52.3%) (p < 0.01). While most of those wounded in the upper extremity, the head/neck/face, and the chest/abdomen/back were in the child age-group, most of those wounded in the lower extremity were in the adult age-group (p < 0.001). Teaching children, in particular, how to behave around dogs would be useful in reducing the incidence of bite. PMID:24313618

  10. [NECROTIZING FASCIITIS OF THE CHEST WALL].

    PubMed

    Farah, Raymond; Asla, Husam

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a bacterial dermo-hypodermitis affecting the soft tissue and muscular fascia. It is an uncommon and severe infection caused by microorganisms called 'flesh eating bacteria', mainly represented by group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus. NF remains a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate. Its location on the chest wall is extremely rare. The few reported cases are subsequent to thoracic drainage, lung surgery or esophageal resection. This is a case report of an 80-year old female with comorbidity of heart disease, a past history of coronary artery by-pass and diabetes. She was admitted to the emergency room with acute NF of the chest and shortly after diagnosis, the patient died. Due to the fast decline observed in this disease, we would like to emphasize the importance of early recognition and diagnosis. PMID:27323534

  11. Myocardial contusion following nonfatal blunt chest trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.A.; Puri, V.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Cortez, J.

    1983-04-01

    Currently available diagnostic techniques for myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma were evaluated. We investigated 30 patients prospectively over a period of 1 year for the presence of myocardial contusion. Among the 30 patients, eight were found to have myocardial contusion on the basis of abnormal electrocardiograms, elevated creatine phosphokinase MB fraction (CPK-MB), and positive myocardial scan. Myocardial scan was positive in seven of eight patients (87.5%). CPK-MB fraction was elevated in four of eight patients (50%). Definitive electrocardiographic changes were seen in only two of eight patients (25%). It appears that myocardial scan using technetium pyrophosphate and CPK-MB fraction determinations are the most reliable aids in diagnosis of myocardial contusion following blunt chest trauma.

  12. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  13. Cholecystocutaneous fistula containing multiple gallstones in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Fabbi, Martina; Volta, Antonella; Quintavalla, Fausto; Zubin, Elena; Manfredi, Sabrina; Martini, Filippo M.; Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Gnudi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old dog was presented with a history of an open lesion on the right thoracic wall, discharging honey-like fluid and small stones. Ultrasonography and computed tomographic fistulography identified a cholecystocutaneous fistula; cholecystectomy was curative. Veterinarians should consider this disease in patients with long-term discharging lesions on the right thoracic or abdominal wall. PMID:25477544

  14. 26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INSIDE THE 'DOG HOUSE' AT THE REAR END OF THE WALKING BEAM. HERE ARE HOUSED THE HOIST ENGINE, WHICH CONTROLS MOVEMENT OF THE BEAM; AND THE ENGINES THAT CONTROL THE OPENING AND CLOSING AND SWIVEL OF THE GRAB BUCKET. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. [Chest wall tuberculosis: report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Zidane, A; Bakzaza, O; Afandi, O; Baiz, Y; Chafik, A

    2015-10-01

    Despite the dramatic decline in the incidence of tuberculosis during the last decades, the disease remains a significant public health problem especially in developing countries. Chest wall tuberculosis is a very rare location. Clinically, it can present as a pyogenic abscess or soft tumor, making diagnosis difficult, particularly in the absence of warning signs. Optimal therapeutic management is controversial. Medical treatment alone in often insufficient and must be associated with a surgical excision or debridement. PMID:25725600

  16. Exercises in chest X-ray diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.A.; Cowan, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    In the fifty exercises which form the first part of the book, radiographs are combined with a group of questions designed to test the readers clinical and radiological knowledge. The exercises cover all the common and many of the rarer cardiothoracic disorders which are revealed on the chest x-ray. Increasingly, computed tomography is used in the differential diagnosis of thoracic problems, and several examples have been included.

  17. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. Images Fig. 3A. Fig. 3C. Fig. 3D. Fig. 4A. Fig. 4C. Fig. 4D. Fig. 4E. Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 5D. Fig. 6A. Fig. 6C. Fig. 6D. Fig. 6E. Fig. 6F. Fig. 6G. Fig. 6H. PMID:3389939

  18. Chest pain: coronary CT in the ER.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Erica; Seitun, Sara; Guaricci, Andrea I; Cademartiri, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac CT has developed into a robust clinical tool during the past 15 years. Of the fields in which the potential of cardiac CT has raised more interest is chest pain in acute settings. In fact, the possibility to exclude with high reliability obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients at low-to-intermediate risk is of great interest both from the clinical standpoint and from the management standpoint. Several other modalities, with or without imaging, have been used during the past decades in the settings of new onset chest pain or in acute chest pain for both diagnostic and prognostic assessment of CAD. Each one has advantages and disadvantages. Most imaging modalities also focus on inducible ischaemia to guide referral to invasive coronary angiography. The advent of cardiac CT has introduced a new practice diagnostic paradigm, being the most accurate non-invasive method for identification and exclusion of CAD. Furthermore, the detection of subclinical CAD and plaque imaging offer the opportunity to improve risk stratification. Moreover, recent advances of the latest generation CT scanners allow combining both anatomical and functional imaging by stress myocardial perfusion. The role of cardiac CT in acute settings is already important and will become progressively more important in the coming years. PMID:26866681

  19. Surface chest motion decomposition for cardiovascular monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C

    2014-01-01

    Surface chest motion can be easily monitored with a wide variety of sensors such as pressure belts, fiber Bragg gratings and inertial sensors, etc. The current applications of these sensors are mainly restricted to respiratory motion monitoring/analysis due to the technical challenges involved in separation of the cardiac motion from the dominant respiratory motion. The contribution of heart to the surface chest motion is relatively very small as compared to the respiratory motion. Further, the heart motion spectrally overlaps with the respiratory harmonics and their separation becomes even more challenging. In this paper, we approach this source separation problem with independent component analysis (ICA) framework. ICA with reference (ICA-R) yields only desired component with improved separation, but the method is highly sensitive to the reference generation. Several reference generation approaches are developed to solve the problem. Experimental validation of these proposed approaches is performed with chest displacement data and ECG obtained from healthy subjects under normal breathing and post-exercise conditions. The extracted component morphologically matches well with the collected ECG. Results show that the proposed methods perform better than conventional band pass filtering. PMID:24865183

  20. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, John W.; Bennett, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Jackson, J. W., and Bennett, M. H. (1973).Thorax, 28, 788-793. Chest wall tumour following iodized talc pleurodesis. A man of 37 had an iodized talc pleurodesis carried out for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. There was no history of industrial exposure to asbestos. Two years later he presented with pain in the right chest and radiographs at that time showed some localized pleural thickening at the site of the thoracoscopy cannulation for introduction of talc. A provisional diagnosis of talc granuloma, chemical abscess or tumour was made and exploratory thoracotomy revealed a tumour involving the chest wall, lung, and pleura which, on histological examination, showed adenocarcinoma of varying degrees of differentiation and in some parts also presenting a more squamoid appearance. Numerous doubly refractile talc particles were intimately associated with the tumour and fibrous tissue. Shortly after excision the patient developed evidence of systemic dissemination of the disease and died four months later. The possibility of this tumour being induced by the talc is discussed. A brief review is made of the various forms of talc used in surgery over the past 40 years and attention is drawn to the significance of the proportion of asbestos mineral which is present in talc as mined in various parts of the world. We do not consider that this is a case of mesothelioma of the pleura. Images PMID:4787992

  1. Reconstruction of full thickness chest wall defects.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R F; Edgerton, M T; Wanebo, H J; Daniel, T M; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

    1988-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, 14 patients were treated by wide en bloc resection of chest wall tumors with primary reconstruction. There were nine females and five male patients with an age range of 31-77 years. All patients had a skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 3.9 ribs were resected in the patients treated. In three patients a partial sternectomy was carried out in conjunction with the rib resections. Chest wall skeletal defects were reconstructed with Prolene mesh, which was placed under tension. Soft tissue reconstruction utilized selected portions of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous territory with fasciocutaneous extensions beyond the muscle itself. Primary healing was obtained in all patients and secondary procedures were not required. The average hospitalization was 23 days. All patients survived the resection and reconstruction and were alive 30 days after operation. In selected patients the preservation of a portion of the innervated muscle in situ or the transfer of the muscle with the preservation of its resting length has maintained the majority of the muscle function. PMID:3389939

  2. Surface Chest Motion Decomposition for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.

    2014-05-01

    Surface chest motion can be easily monitored with a wide variety of sensors such as pressure belts, fiber Bragg gratings and inertial sensors, etc. The current applications of these sensors are mainly restricted to respiratory motion monitoring/analysis due to the technical challenges involved in separation of the cardiac motion from the dominant respiratory motion. The contribution of heart to the surface chest motion is relatively very small as compared to the respiratory motion. Further, the heart motion spectrally overlaps with the respiratory harmonics and their separation becomes even more challenging. In this paper, we approach this source separation problem with independent component analysis (ICA) framework. ICA with reference (ICA-R) yields only desired component with improved separation, but the method is highly sensitive to the reference generation. Several reference generation approaches are developed to solve the problem. Experimental validation of these proposed approaches is performed with chest displacement data and ECG obtained from healthy subjects under normal breathing and post-exercise conditions. The extracted component morphologically matches well with the collected ECG. Results show that the proposed methods perform better than conventional band pass filtering.

  3. Surface Chest Motion Decomposition for Cardiovascular Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface chest motion can be easily monitored with a wide variety of sensors such as pressure belts, fiber Bragg gratings and inertial sensors, etc. The current applications of these sensors are mainly restricted to respiratory motion monitoring/analysis due to the technical challenges involved in separation of the cardiac motion from the dominant respiratory motion. The contribution of heart to the surface chest motion is relatively very small as compared to the respiratory motion. Further, the heart motion spectrally overlaps with the respiratory harmonics and their separation becomes even more challenging. In this paper, we approach this source separation problem with independent component analysis (ICA) framework. ICA with reference (ICA-R) yields only desired component with improved separation, but the method is highly sensitive to the reference generation. Several reference generation approaches are developed to solve the problem. Experimental validation of these proposed approaches is performed with chest displacement data and ECG obtained from healthy subjects under normal breathing and post-exercise conditions. The extracted component morphologically matches well with the collected ECG. Results show that the proposed methods perform better than conventional band pass filtering. PMID:24865183

  4. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. PMID:23094756

  5. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory A; Lomolino, Mark V

    2004-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) influence avian community structure on the shortgrass prairie. We surveyed 36 prairie dog towns and 36 paired sites without prairie dogs during summer and fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999 in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Our surveys totaled 9,040 individual observations for 73 avian species. Significantly distinct avian communities were present on prairie dog towns when compared to sites within four different macrohabitats of the surrounding landscape: open rangeland, scrub/sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) habitats, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots, and fallow crop fields. Relative densities of all bird species combined was higher on prairie dog towns versus paired sites in summer and fall. Mean species richness of birds was significantly higher on prairie dog towns than paired sites during summer, but there were no significant differences in fall. Open rangeland had the highest mean species richness in fall. Assemblages of avian communities differed significantly between prairie dog towns and the four macrohabitat types during summer. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were positively and significantly associated with prairie dog towns during summer, while horned larks and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were significantly associated with prairie dog towns during fall. Even in their current remnant state, black-tailed prairie dogs continue to play a significant role in the assembly of ecological communities across the Great Plains. Conservation of prairie dogs goes well beyond a single species, and is an important strategy for the preservation of the prairie ecosystem as a whole. PMID:14685848

  6. Parametric imaging of experimentally simulated Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome conduction abnormalities in dogs: a concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Weismueller, P.H.; Henze, E.; Adam, W.E.; Roth, J.; Bitter, F.; Stauch, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the diagnostic potential of phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for localizing accessory bundles in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 24 experimental runs were performed in three open chest instrumented dogs. After a baseline study, WPW syndrome was simulated by stimulation at seven different sites around the base of the ventricles, and RNV's were obtained. Subsequent data processing including Fourier transformation allowed the localization of the site of the first inward motion of the ventricles by an isophasic wave display. In sinus rhythm, the septum contracted first. During ectopic premature ventricular stimulation by triggering the atrial signal, the phase scan was altered only when the stimulus was applied earlier than 20 ms before the expected QRS complex during sinus rhythm. During stimulation with fixed frequency, only the left lateral positions of the premature stimulation were detected by phase analysis with a sensitivity of 86%. Neither the antero- or posteroseptal nor the right ventricular premature contraction pattern could be exactly localized.

  7. Should PEEP Titration Be Based on Chest Mechanics in Patients With ARDS?

    PubMed

    Kallet, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Functional residual capacity (FRC) is essentially the alveolar volume and a determinant of both oxygenation and respiratory system compliance (CRS). ARDS decreases FRC, and sufficient PEEP restores FRC; thus, assessments of PEEP by its impact on oxygenation and CRS are intimately linked. PEEP also can ameliorate or aggravate ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, it can be argued that PEEP should be titrated primarily by its impact on CRS The pro position argues that the heterogeneous nature of lung injury and its unique presentation in individual patients results in an uncoupling between oxygenation and CRS Therefore, relying upon oxygenation alone may enhance lung injury and mortality risk, particularly in those with severe ARDS. The con argument is that the preponderance of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that a relatively narrow range of PEEP is required to manage all but the most severe cases of ARDS. In addition, pathological alterations in chest wall compliance confuse the interpretation of chest mechanics. Moreover, ambiguities and technical limitations in advanced techniques, such as esophageal manometry and pressure-volume curves, add a layer of complexity that renders its broader application in all ARDS patients both impractical and unnecessary. Whether sophisticated monitoring of chest mechanics in severe ARDS might improve outcomes further is open to question and should be studied further. However, it is highly improbable that we will ever discover a PEEP strategy that optimizes all aspects of cardiorespiratory function and chest mechanics for individual patients suffering from ARDS. PMID:27235320

  8. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  9. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. PMID:26783495

  10. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  11. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  12. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Rosa, Maria Eugênia Dela; Giacomini, Guilherme; Bacchim Neto, Fernando Antonio; Yamashita, Seizo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda; de Pina, Diana Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  13. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  14. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  15. [Isolated chest trauma in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Yersin, Bertrand; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Pasquier, Mathieu; Zingg, Tobias

    2015-08-12

    In elderly patients, a blunt trauma of the chest is associated with a significant risk of complications and mortality. The number of ribs fractures (≥ 4), the presence of bilateral rib fractures, of a pulmonary contusion, of existent comorbidities or acute extra-thoracic traumatic lesions, and lastly the severity of thoracic pain, are indeed important risk factors of complications and mortality. Their presence may require hospitalization of the patient. When complications do occur, they are represented by alveolar hypoventilation, pulmonary atelectasia and broncho-pulmonary infections. When hospitalization is required, it may allow for the specific treatment of thoracic pain, including locoregional anesthesia techniques. PMID:26449103

  16. Results of chest wall resection and reconstruction in 162 patients with benign and malignant chest wall disease

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanzadeh, Manoucheher; Alavy, Ali; Taskindost, Mehrdad; Pourrasouly, Zahra; Aghajanzadeh, Gilda; massahnia, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Background Chest wall resection is a complicated treatment modality with significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with chest wall resections and reconstructions. Methods The records of all patients undergoing chest wall resection and reconstruction were reviewed. Diagnostic procedures, surgical indications, the location and size of the chest wall defect, performance of lung resection, the type of prosthesis, and postoperative complications were recorded. Results From 1997 to 2008, 162 patients underwent chest wall resection.113 (70%) of patients were male. Age of patients was 14 to 69 years. The most common indications for surgery were primary chest wall tumors. The most common localized chest wall mass has been seen in the anterior chest wall. Sternal resection was required in 22 patients, Lung resection in 15 patients, Rigid prosthetic reconstruction has been used in 20 patients and nonrigid prolene mesh and Marlex mesh in 40 patients. Mean intensive care unit stay was 8 days. In-hospital mortality was 3.7 % (six patients). Conclusions Chest wall resection and reconstruction with Bone cement sandwich with mesh can be performed as a safe and effective surgical procedure for major chest wall defects and respiratory failure is lower in prosthetic reconstruction patients than previously reported (6). PMID:22263024

  17. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  18. Adapting to the human world: dogs' responsiveness to our social cues.

    PubMed

    Reid, Pamela J

    2009-03-01

    Dogs are more skilful than a host of other species at tasks which require they respond to human communicative gestures in order to locate hidden food. Four basic interpretations for this proficiency surface from distilling the research findings. One possibility is that dogs simply have more opportunity than other species to learn to be responsive to human social cues. A different analysis suggests that the domestication process provided an opening for dogs to apply general cognitive problem-solving skills to a novel social niche. Some researchers go beyond this account and propose that dogs' co-evolution with humans equipped them with a theory of mind for social exchanges. Finally, a more prudent approach suggests that sensitivity to the behaviours of both humans and conspecifics would be particularly advantageous for a social scavenger like the dog. A predisposition to attend to human actions allows for rapid early learning of the association between gestures and the availability of food. PMID:19056474

  19. Semi-automatic central-chest lymph-node definition from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The three-dimensional (3D) definition of lymph nodes from multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. This is because of the limitations in the MDCT imaging of soft-tissue structures and the complicated phenomena that influence the appearance of a lymph node in an MDCT image. In the past, we have made significant efforts toward developing (1) live-wire-based segmentation methods for defining 2D and 3D chest structures and (2) a computer-based system for automatic definition and interactive visualization of the Mountain central-chest lymph-node stations. Based on these works, we propose new single-click and single-section live-wire methods for segmenting central-chest lymph nodes. The single-click live wire only requires the user to select an object pixel on one 2D MDCT section and is designed for typical lymph nodes. The single-section live wire requires the user to process one selected 2D section using standard 2D live wire, but it is more robust. We applied these methods to the segmentation of 20 lymph nodes from two human MDCT chest scans (10 per scan) drawn from our ground-truth database. The single-click live wire segmented 75% of the selected nodes successfully and reproducibly, while the success rate for the single-section live wire was 85%. We are able to segment the remaining nodes, using our previously derived (but more interaction intense) 2D live-wire method incorporated in our lymph-node analysis system. Both proposed methods are reliable and applicable to a wide range of pulmonary lymph nodes.

  20. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  1. Severe Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation 40 Years After Blunt Chest Trauma.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Simon; Heiberg, Johan; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Severe pulmonary valve regurgitation caused by a pulmonary valve tear is a rare complication to a blunt chest trauma. In this case report, we present a patient with pulmonary regurgitation originating from a chest trauma 40 years ago. Possible mechanisms are osseous pinch of the pulmonary valve between the anterior chest wall and the vertebral column, and retrograde blowout from severe compression of the lungs. PMID:26434447

  2. [A case of esophageal cancer with a funnel chest].

    PubMed

    Takemura, Manabu; Matsuyama, Takeshi; Nishibeppu, Keiji; Matsumura, Atsushi; Ogino, Shiro; Mugitani, Tatsuro; Akami, Toshikazu; Shimode, Yoshikazu

    2013-11-01

    Esophageal cancer is a disease that is difficult to manage before and after surgery and is associated with a high in-hospital mortality rate despite there being reports of improved outcomes after multidisciplinary treatment. Meanwhile, although funnel chest is generally a subclinical condition, patients with this deformity may sometimes present with cardiac failure and chest pain. We report a case of advanced esophageal cancer with a funnel chest deformity that was very difficult to reconstruct after thoracoscopy-assisted resection. PMID:24394024

  3. Recurrent Chest Pain, as a Presenting Sign of Ovarian Endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Mehmet; Oztekin, Ozgur; Oztekin, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Chest pain is a rare sign of thoracal endometriosis associated with endometrioma of the tubo-ovarian endometrioma. We report the case periodic episodes of chest pain concurrent with menstruation in a 35-year-old female, in which ovarian endometrioma was diagnosed and left-sided oophorectomy was performed. After surgery, patient underwent medical treatment which included a Gn-RH agonist and a combined oral contraceptive. In the follow-up period, there was no evidence of chest pain. PMID:22084779

  4. Cross-chest liposuction in gynaecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Biju; Vijayaraghavan, Sundeep; Kishore, P.; Iyer, Subramania; Jimmy, Mathew; Sharma, Mohit; Paul, George; Chavare, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gynaecomastia is usually treated with liposuction or liposuction with excision of the glandular tissue. The type of surgery chosen depends on the grade of the condition. Objective: Because gynaecomastia is treated primarily as a cosmetic procedure, we aimed at reducing the invasiveness of the surgery. Materials and Methods: The technique complies with all recommended protocols for different grades of gynaecomastia. It uses liposuction, gland excision, or both, leaving only minimal post-operative scars. The use of cross-chest liposuction through incisions on the edge of the areola helps to get rid of all the fat under the areola without an additional scar as in the conventional method. Results: This is a short series of 20 patients, all with bilateral gynaecomastia (i.e., 40 breasts), belonging to Simon's Stage 1 and 2, studied over a period of 2 years. The average period of follow-up was 15 months. Post-operative complications were reported in only two cases, with none showing long-term complications or issues specifically due to the procedure. Conclusions : Cross-chest liposuction for gynaecomastia is a simple yet effective surgical tool in bilateral gynaecomastia treatment to decrease the post-operative scars. The use of techniques like incision line drain placement and post-drain removal suturing of wounds aid in decreasing the scar. PMID:21713166

  5. Solitary fibrous tumour of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Mohtarrudin, N; Nor Hanipah, Z; Mohd Dusa, N

    2016-04-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare tumours characterized by patternless spindle cells with haemangiopericytoma-like vascular spaces. Previously the tumours have been classified as haemangiopericytoma, an entity that is now considered obsolete. We report a case of extrapleural SFT arising in the soft tissue of the chest wall. The patient was a 31-year-old Malay lady presenting with a mobile swelling of the right chest wall for more than five years. During excision the tumour was noted to be well-circumscribed and yellowish in colour, giving an impression of lipoma. Microscopically, the tumour had patternless architecture, characterized by hypocellular and hypercellular areas. It was composed of uniform, spindle-shaped cells displaying oval nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, pale cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. The mitotic count was 2 per 10 HPF. Branching, medium-sized thin-walled blood vessels in a haemangiopericytomatous growth pattern, some with hyalinised wall were identified. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to CD99 and CD34 and were non-immunoreactive to Desmin, Smooth Muscle Actin, S100 protein and EMA. We elucidate the challenges in diagnosing this tumour in this unusual location. PMID:27126667

  6. Acute chest pain emergencies - spouses' prehospital experiences.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kerstin; Quell, Robin; Sørlie, Venke

    2008-10-01

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation. PMID:18929341

  7. Catastrophic chest pain: blinded by cardiopulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Timothy John; Asiimwe, Denis D; Gemmel, David; Brine, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a history of diabetic foot ulcer, osteomyelitis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, presented with chest pain of 3 weeks duration. Eleven days earlier, the patient had had a drug-eluting stent (DES) placed in a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA) after similar chest pain, leading to the findings of a positive nuclear stress test. Since discharge, he was not compliant with taking clopidegrel (Plavix), a concern for in-stent thrombosis with recurrent myocardial ischaemia; but work up was negative and medications were restarted. Within 24 h of admission, he developed bilateral flaccid leg weakness, urine retention and loss of sensation from the umbilicus level down. MRI revealed a T4-T6 epidural abscess. Emergent decompression laminectomy and abscess drainage was completed. Neurological symptoms improved hours after surgery with complete resolution of sensory deficits. Cultures grew Streptococcus sp., treated with intravenous nafcillin for 8 weeks. He regained leg strength with continued improvement seen in rehabilitation. PMID:26135489

  8. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matos, António P.; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall. PMID:25295188

  9. Multidetector computer tomography: evaluation of blunt chest trauma in adults.

    PubMed

    Palas, João; Matos, António P; Mascarenhas, Vasco; Herédia, Vasco; Ramalho, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall. PMID:25295188

  10. Factors modulating effective chest compressions in the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Mildenhall, Lindsay F J; Huynh, Trang K

    2013-12-01

    The need for chest compressions in the newborn is a rare occurrence. The methods employed for delivery of chest compressions have been poorly researched. Techniques that have been studied include compression:ventilation ratios, thumb versus finger method of delivering compressions, depth of compression, site on chest of compression, synchrony or asynchrony of breaths with compressions, and modalities to improve the compression technique and consistency. Although still in its early days, an evidence-based guideline for chest compressions is beginning to take shape. PMID:23920076

  11. Comparison of closure times for cranial base synchondroses in mesaticephalic, brachycephalic, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin J; Volk, Holger; Klingler, Melanie; Failing, Klaus; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Premature closure of cranial base synchondroses has been proposed as the mechanism for brachycephaly in dogs and caudal occipital malformation syndrome (COMS) in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare times of closure for cranial base synchondroses in mesaticephalic, brachycephalic, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dogs. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging studies were retrieved for client-owned dogs less than 18 months of age. Breed, age, skull conformation, and the open or closed state of cranial base synchondroses were independently recorded by two observers. For dogs with a unanimous observer agreement, regression analysis was used to test effects of age and gender on the open or closed status of synchondroses and differences between groups. A total of 174 dogs were included in MRI interpretations and 165 dogs were included in the regression analysis. Statistically significant differences in closure time of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis were identified between brachycephalic and mesaticephalic dogs (P = 0.016), Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and mesaticephalic dogs (P < 0.0001), and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and brachycephalic dogs (P = 0.014). Findings from the current study supported the theory that morphological changes leading to the skull phenotype of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniels could be due to an earlier closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. PMID:23782353

  12. Primary chest wall abscess mimicking a breast tumor that occurred after blunt chest trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yusuke; Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Nakamori, Shoji; Kanazawa, Toru; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2014-01-01

    Primary chest wall abscess occurring after blunt chest trauma is rare. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with a swelling in her left breast. The patient had experienced blunt chest trauma 2 months back. Needle aspiration revealed pus formation in the patient's chest. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the lower region of the left mammary gland, with thickening of the parietal pleura and skin and fracture of the fifth rib under the abscess. Following antibiotic administration and irrigation of the affected region, surgical debridement was performed. During surgery, we found that the pectoralis major muscle at the level of the fifth rib was markedly damaged, although the necrotic tissue did not contact the mammary gland. We diagnosed the lesion as a chest wall abscess that occurred in response to blunt chest trauma. Her postoperative course was uneventful. There has been no recurrence for six months after surgery. PMID:24660001

  13. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-12-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others' emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others' expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs. PMID:27019737

  14. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-01-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others’ emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others’ expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs. PMID:27019737

  15. Botulism in 2 urban dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

  16. Neuromuscular disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bors, M; Valentine, B A; de Lahunta, A

    1988-10-01

    Diffuse neuromuscular disease occurs sporadically in dogs. The most commonly reported diffuse neuromuscular diseases are polyradiculoneuritis (coonhound paralysis), tick paralysis, botulism, and myasthenia gravis (1,2,12). This clinical report describes an atypical presentation of a diffuse neuromuscular disease in a dog. PMID:3168469

  17. Nodular panniculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, B B; Stannard, A A

    1975-10-15

    Nodular panniculitis, a granulomatous inflammatory disease of the subcutaneous fat, was diagnosed in 11 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by development of subcutaneous nodules and intermittent fever and anorexia. Short-term corticosteroid therapy was effective in 10 of the 11 dogs. PMID:1237484

  18. Ureteral fibropapilloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hattel, A L; Diters, R W; Snavely, D A

    1986-04-15

    A fibropapilloma was found to involve the left ureter in a 7-year-old castrated male Doberman Pinscher dog. Severe unilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were associated with the ureteral mass. Treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy and ureterectomy. This case represents an additional type of primary ureteral neoplasm found in the dog. PMID:3710881

  19. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  20. Comparison of chest compression quality between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method during CPR.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Sub

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to grasp difference in quality of chest compression accuracy between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method. Participants were progressed 64 people except 6 absentees among 70 people who agreed to participation with completing the CPR curriculum. In the classification of group in participants, the modified chest compression method was called as smartphone group (33 people). The standardized chest compression method was called as traditional group (31 people). The common equipments in both groups were used Manikin for practice and Manikin for evaluation. In the meantime, the smartphone group for application was utilized Android and iOS Operating System (OS) of 2 smartphone products (G, i). The measurement period was conducted from September 25th to 26th, 2012. Data analysis was used SPSS WIN 12.0 program. As a result of research, the proper compression depth (mm) was shown the proper compression depth (p< 0.01) in traditional group (53.77 mm) compared to smartphone group (48.35 mm). Even the proper chest compression (%) was formed suitably (p< 0.05) in traditional group (73.96%) more than smartphone group (60.51%). As for the awareness of chest compression accuracy, the traditional group (3.83 points) had the higher awareness of chest compression accuracy (p< 0.001) than the smartphone group (2.32 points). In the questionnaire that was additionally carried out 1 question only in smartphone group, the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone had the high negative reason in rescuer for occurrence of hand back pain (48.5%) and unstable posture (21.2%). PMID:24704648

  1. Effects of denopamine with or without diltiazem on the ischemic heart of anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Chibana, T; Noguchi, K; Ojiri, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Nakasone, J; Uezu, K; Itomine, T; Higuchi, M; Sakanashi, M

    1992-11-01

    Effects of denopamine with or without diltiazem on the ischemic heart were investigated in anesthetized open-chest dogs. Partial occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) produced significant decreases in LCX flow and regional myocardial segment shortening rate (%SS) in the LCX-perfused area, and a significant increase in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP). Heart rate (HR) and mean aortic pressure (mAoP) were not altered, but aortic flow (AoF), positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure ((+)LVdP/dt), stroke volume (SV), stroke work index (SWI) and double product showed a tendency to decrease. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) tended to increase. During coronary stenosis, saline infusion (vehicle group) did not change any parameter, but diltiazem infusion (diltiazem group) decreased HR, mAoP, TPR and double product and increased SV and SWI. Under these conditions, denopamine infusion produced increases in HR, mAoP, AoF, (+)LVdP/dt and double product and decreases in LVEDP and TPR in both groups. %SS in the left anterior descending coronary artery-perfused area was increased, but %SS in the LCX-perfused area was slightly decreased in both groups. SV and SWI were decreased by denopamine infusion in the vehicle group, while they were increased in the diltiazem group. Differences in changes in SV and SWI between the groups were statistically significant. Results suggest that combined treatment of denopamine and diltiazem may exert an advantage in alleviation of heart failure due to coronary stenosis. PMID:1363733

  2. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  3. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  4. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gugjoo, M. B.; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C.; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P<0.05) with body weight was obtained for some of the left ventricular, atrial and mitral valve parameters, being strong for LAD, AOD, LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd and IVSs (r>0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (r<0.3). Non-significant effect of gender was seen on all the echocardiographic parameters. However, some of the parameters had a significant breed effect. It is expected that the obtained data will be valuable for the progress of studies on small animal cardiology. PMID:27175128

  5. Use of a laryngeal mask airway in a brachycephalic dog with masticatory myositis and trismus

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Frances; Iff, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    An 8-month old, male, neutered bulldog was presented for investigation of a 2-day history of trismus. Endotracheal intubation was impossible as the dog was only able to open his mouth approximately 2 cm. A laryngeal mask airway was blindly inserted after induction of general anesthesia to maintain the patient on inhalational anesthesia and improve respiration for computed tomography and muscle biopsy. The dog recovered from anesthesia uneventfully. PMID:22942446

  6. Use of a laryngeal mask airway in a brachycephalic dog with masticatory myositis and trismus.

    PubMed

    Reed, Frances; Iff, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    An 8-month old, male, neutered bulldog was presented for investigation of a 2-day history of trismus. Endotracheal intubation was impossible as the dog was only able to open his mouth approximately 2 cm. A laryngeal mask airway was blindly inserted after induction of general anesthesia to maintain the patient on inhalational anesthesia and improve respiration for computed tomography and muscle biopsy. The dog recovered from anesthesia uneventfully. PMID:22942446

  7. Tracheobronchial injury due to blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial avulsion resulting from blunt trauma is a very rare and serious condition, mostly due to high-speed traffic crashes. In this article, we briefly report the case of an 18-year-old man who was injured in a car accident and because of massive persistent air leakage (despite appropriate chest tube drainage), deemed to have a deep tracheobronchial injury. Due to a rapid drop in the patient's O2 saturation, he underwent an anterolateral thoracotomy. Endotracheal intubation was performed under direct visualization. The right mainstem bronchus was disrupted from the carina with a 1.5-cm stump remaining on the carina, and the remainder was crushed to the origin of the right superior lobe bronchus. Hence, a right superior lobectomy was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26157657

  8. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  9. Chest tuberculosis: Radiological review and imaging recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Goyal, Ankur; Guleria, Randeep; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chest tuberculosis (CTB) is a widespread problem, especially in our country where it is one of the leading causes of mortality. The article reviews the imaging findings in CTB on various modalities. We also attempt to categorize the findings into those definitive for active TB, indeterminate for disease activity, and those indicating healed TB. Though various radiological modalities are widely used in evaluation of such patients, no imaging guidelines exist for the use of these modalities in diagnosis and follow-up. Consequently, imaging is not optimally utilized and patients are often unnecessarily subjected to repeated CT examinations, which is undesirable. Based on the available literature and our experience, we propose certain recommendations delineating the role of imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of such patients. The authors recognize that this is an evolving field and there may be future revisions depending on emergence of new evidence. PMID:26288514

  10. Peripartum cardiac chest pain and troponin rise.

    PubMed

    Tatham, K; Hughes-Roberts, Y; Davies, S; Johnson, M; Ashpole, K; Cox, M

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of myocardial ischaemia is increasing in the obstetric population. This has been attributed to several factors including greater maternal age, the increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes, and the growing population of patients with grown-up congenital heart disease who now reach adulthood and become pregnant. A number of cases of myocardial ischaemia in pregnant women have been documented, during and after delivery, for which no cause has been established. We present a case of a nulliparous woman who developed cardiac chest pain, bradycardia, hypertension and a raised troponin I after vaginal delivery of twin boys at 36 weeks of gestation. Ischaemic electrocardiogram changes were noted. Detailed investigations demonstrated a normal coronary circulation. A patent foramen ovale was found on bubble echocardiography. PMID:20833026

  11. Possible association of glaucoma with pectinate ligament dysplasia and narrowing of the iridocorneal angle in Shiba Inu dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kumiko; Sasaki, Nobuo; Matsunaga, Satoru; Mochizuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ogawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the shape of the pectinate ligament (PL) and to estimate the width of the iridocorneal angle (ICA) in glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eye of Shiba Inu dogs in Japan. One hundred fourteen Shiba Inu dogs were presented to the Veterinary Medical Center at the University of Tokyo between June 1998 and June 2003. Among these, 46 dogs had glaucoma; the remaining 68 dogs were presented for routine vaccinations or heartworm testing and were used as a control population. Complete ophthalmic examination and gonioscopy were performed in all the dogs. PL and ICA were evaluated by gonioscopy and goniophotographs. Of the 46 dogs with glaucoma, 17 (37%) were affected bilaterally, and 29 (63%) were affected unilaterally. Of the 29 dogs with unilateral glaucoma, the ICA of the normotensive eye was slightly narrow in 2 eyes (7%), narrow in 12 eyes (41%), and closed in 15 eyes (52%). Among the normotensive control group, the ICA was open in 13 dogs (19%), slightly narrow in 29 (43%), narrow in 22 (32%), and closed in 4 (6%). In dogs with narrow and slightly narrow ICAs, the PLs were thickened, and in some cases, formed a solid sheet. The majority of dogs with glaucoma had changes in both ICA and PL. A narrow or slightly narrow ICA was also detected in the majority of normotensive control dogs. This study suggests that ICA narrowing and PL thickening is a common abnormality in Shiba Inu dogs in Japan and may predispose those dogs to glaucoma. PMID:16497230

  12. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  13. Atypical chest discomfort in a 36-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa Mustone; Robie, Stephen; Baute, Scott

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on aortic aneurysms and the evaluation of patients with atypical chest pain. A complete and accurate family history is essential. Clinicians should pay close attention to persistence of symptoms and age in patients with atypical chest discomfort who do not have routine confirmatory cardiac findings. PMID:27351640

  14. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  15. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture is a chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and ... visible in the middle of the chest. The x-ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, ...

  16. Use of chest sonography in acute-care radiology☆

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, C.; Valentino, M.; Rimondi, M.R.; Branchini, M.; Baleni, M. Casadio; Barozzi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute lung disease is a daily challenge for radiologists working in acute-care areas. It is generally based on the results of chest radiography performed under technically unfavorable conditions. Computed tomography (CT) is undoubtedly more accurate in these cases, but it cannot always be performed on critically ill patients who need continuous care. The use of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently been proposed for the study of acute lung disease. It can be carried out rapidly at the bedside and does not require any particularly sophisticated equipment. This report analyzes our experience with chest sonography as a supplement to chest radiography in an Emergency Radiology Unit. We performed chest sonography – as an adjunct to chest radiography – on 168 patients with acute chest pathology. Static and dynamic US signs were analyzed in light of radiographic findings and, when possible, CT. The use of chest US improved the authors' ability to provide confident diagnoses of acute disease of the chest and lungs. PMID:23397048

  17. Management of chest drainage tubes after lung surgery.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yukitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Since chest tubes have been routinely used to drain the pleural space, particularly after lung surgery, the management of chest tubes is considered to be essential for the thoracic surgeon. The pleural drainage system requires effective drainage, suction, and water-sealing. Another key point of chest tube management is that a water seal is considered to be superior to suction for most air leaks. Nowadays, the most common pleural drainage device attached to the chest tube is the three-bottle system. An electronic chest drainage system has been developed that is effective in standardizing the postoperative management of chest tubes. More liberal use of digital drainage devices in the postoperative management of the pleural space is warranted. The removal of chest tubes is a common procedure occurring almost daily in hospitals throughout the world. Extraction of the tube is usually done at the end of full inspiration or at the end of full expiration. The tube removal technique is not as important as how it is done and the preparation for the procedure. The management of chest tubes must be based on careful observation, the patient's characteristics, and the operative procedures that had been performed. PMID:27048219

  18. Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…

  19. Triptans and chest symptoms: the role of pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W

    2004-04-01

    Triptans are effective and well tolerated in the treatment of acute migraine. Chest symptoms are a common adverse effect unrelated to coronary vasoconstriction in most patients. Although the aetiology of chest symptoms remains to be fully defined, pulmonary vasoconstriction is a possible underlying mechanism. Pre-clinical studies of isolated human blood vessels were used to identify the cerebral selectivity of triptans and ascertain if selectivity vs the pulmonary vasculature predicts a lower rate of chest symptoms. Controlled clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance studies were reviewed to document the incidence of chest symptoms after triptan therapy. In clinical trials, the incidence of chest symptoms at usual therapeutic doses ranged from 1 to 4% depending on the triptan and study design, whereas in post-marketing surveillance studies, up to 41% of patients specifically asked about chest symptoms reported them. A comparative clinical trial showed that almotriptan was associated with lower incidence of chest symptoms than sumatriptan (0.3 vs 2.2%). The intrinsic activity of almotriptan, a second-generation triptan, on human pulmonary arteries and veins was lower than that of sumatriptan. Pre-clinical studies of isolated pulmonary blood vessels may predict the clinical likelihood of chest symptoms; however, additional comparisons are needed. PMID:15030540

  20. An original technique for surgical stabilisation of traumatic flail chest.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, V; Martinelli, G; Giansante, P; Gentile, K

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of chest wall injuries with severe paradoxical movement remains controversial. Intermittent positive-pressure respiration may be appropriate, but in some, especially those requiring exploratory thoracotomy for a visceral lesion, surgical fixation is desirable. We present a simple method using two or three stainless Kirschner wires placed in the chest wall. Results in five cases have been good. Images PMID:694812

  1. 46 CFR 194.10-20 - Magazine chest construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lid shall have a minimum thickness of 1/8 inch. (b) Permanent sun shields shall be provided for sides... distance of 11/2 inches. Sun shields may be omitted when chests are installed “on deck protected,” shielded from direct exposure to the sun. (c) Chests shall be limited to a gross capacity of 100 cubic feet....

  2. Multidisciplinary Oncoplastic Approach Reduces Infection in Chest Wall Resection and Reconstruction for Malignant Chest Wall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malahias, Marco N.; Balasubramanian, Balapathiran; Djearaman, Madava G.; Naidu, Babu; Grainger, Melvin F.; Kalkat, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of complex thoracic defects post tumor extipiration is challenging because of the nature of pathology, the radical approach, and the insertion of prosthetic material required for biomechanical stability. Wound complications pose a significant problem that can have detrimental effect on patient outcome. The authors outline an institutional experience of a multidisciplinary thoracic oncoplastic approach to improve outcomes. Methods: Prospectively collected data from 71 consecutive patients treated with chest wall resection and reconstruction were analyzed (2009–2015). The demographic data, comorbidities, operative details, and outcomes with special focus on wound infection were recorded. All patients were managed in a multidisciplinary approach to optimize perioperative surgical planning. Results: Pathology included sarcoma (78%), locally advanced breast cancer (15%), and desmoids (6%), with age ranging from 17 to 82 years (median, 42 years) and preponderance of female patients (n = 44). Chest wall defects were located anterior and anterolateral (77.5%), posterior (8.4%), and apical axillary (10%) with skeletal defect size ranging from 56 to 600 cm2 (mean, 154 cm2). Bony reconstruction was performed using polyprolene mesh, methyl methacrylate prosthesis, and titanium plates. Soft tissue reconstructions depended on size, location, and flap availability and were achieved using regional, distant, and free tissue flaps. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 5 to 70 months (median, 32 months). All flaps survived with good functional and aesthetic outcome, whereas 2 patients experienced surgical site infection (2.8%). Conclusions: Multidisciplinary thoracic oncoplastic maximizes outcome for patients with large resection of chest wall tumors with reduction in surgical site infection and wound complications particularly in association with rigid skeletal chest wall reconstruction. PMID:27536488

  3. [The medicine chest of Roald Amundsen in 1914].

    PubMed

    Gjelsvik, A M; Engelskjøn, T

    1990-12-10

    This historical medicine chest evidently has not been used, and its contents are nearly complete. Practically all medicines for internal use were dispensed in tablet form, which was very advanced for that time. The chest also contains a manual with short descriptions of illnesses and injuries and how to treat them, accompanied by an inventory. The medicine chest and accompanying booklet were compiled in a systematic way for easy access, and provide an interesting review of medical and pharmaceutical knowledge at that time. Many of the compounds are in surprisingly good condition after 75 years. Some of them have been analysed for active ingredients, and were shown to contain from 0 to 79% of the declared content. The composition of the medicine chest is based on 19th century traditions for ships' equipment, but compared with a 20 years older specimen it seems advanced. The medicine chest is located in Roald Amundsen's Home at Svartskog near Oslo. PMID:2281451

  4. Unveiling the "secret" of play in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): Asymmetry and signals.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Giada; Nicotra, Velia; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Due to their playful propensity, dogs are a good model to test some hypotheses about play dynamics (length, asymmetry, features of players) and communication (play bow [PBOW]; relaxed open-mouth [ROM] display). We video-recorded 203 play sessions between dogs in an off-leash dog park in Palermo, Italy. Contrary to the expectation, play asymmetry (particularly high in this species) did not differ between stranger and familiar dogs, thus suggesting the limited role of play in forming dominance relationships. Asymmetry negatively affected the duration of the session, whereas the increasing number of players was positively linked to the duration of playful interactions. The number of PBOWs exchanged by players may exert a certain influence on the session length as well. PBOWs were performed independently from the kind of play (locomotor vs. contact) the dogs were engaging in. Conversely, ROMs were preferentially emitted during contact play when "face-to-face" interactions were more likely. Body closeness is also required in case opening the mouth has not a signal function but only preludes a bite. However, in the 82% of cases play bites did not follow a ROM, thus suggesting that dogs place ROMs in the appropriate context to optimize signal detectability. In conclusion, 2 tactics may concur in coping with the asymmetry and unpredictability of play sessions in dogs. First, whenever the asymmetry increases dogs shorten the duration of their sessions thus limiting the risk of possible escalation. Second, dogs make use of a good communicative system based on the reciprocal exchange of playful signals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124401

  5. Gait scoring in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries when walking on a treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An inexpensive method of generating continuous data on hind limb function in dogs with spinal cord injury is needed to facilitate multicentre clinical trials. This study aimed to define normal fore limb, hind limb coordination in dogs walking on a treadmill and then to determine whether reliable data could be generated on the frequency of hind limb stepping and the frequency of coordinated stepping in dogs with a wide range of severities of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury. Results Sixty-nine neurologically normal dogs of different body sizes including seven lame dogs were videotaped walking on the treadmill without prior training and all used the lateral gait of right fore, left hind, left fore, right hind (RF-LH-LF-RH). Severely paraparetic dogs were able to walk on the treadmill for a minimum of 75 seconds, scoring of which generated data representative of function in animals with extremely variable gaits. Fifty consecutive stepping cycles were scored by three observers in 18 dogs with a wide range of disability due to acute thoracolumbar spinal cord injury using a stepping score (hind limb steps/fore limb steps ×100), and a coordination score (coordinated hind limb steps/total hind limb steps ×100). Dogs were also scored using a previously validated ordinal open field score (OFS). Inter- and intraobserver agreement was high as assessed with Cronbach’s alpha test for internal reliability. The stepping and coordination scores were significantly correlated to each other and to the OFS. Conclusions Dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injury can walk on a treadmill without prior training and their hind limb function can be scored reliably using a stepping score and coordination score. The only requirements for data acquisition are a treadmill and appropriately positioned video camera and so the system can be used in multicentre clinical trials to generate continuous data on neurologic recovery in dogs. PMID:24597771

  6. Clinical study on VATS combined mechanical ventilation treatment of ARDS secondary to severe chest trauma

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical effects of microinvasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) combined with mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to severe chest trauma. A total of 62 patients with ARDS secondary to severe chest trauma were divided into the observation and control groups. The patients in the observation groups were treated with VATS combined with early mechanical ventilation while patients in the control group were treated using routine open thoracotomy combined with early mechanical ventilation. Compared to the controls, the survival rate of the observation group was significantly higher. The average operation time of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and the incidence of complications in the perioperative period of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). The average application time of the observation group was significantly shorter than that of the control group, and the incidence of ventilator-associated complications was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a reasonable understanding of the indications and contraindications of VATS, combined with early mechanical treatment significantly improved the success rate of the treatment of ARDS patients secondary to severe chest trauma and reduced the complications. PMID:27446317

  7. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  8. Pseudoketogenesis in hepatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Daloze, P; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Landau, B R; Brunengraber, H

    1990-03-01

    Overestimation of ketone body turnover in vivo, measured by tracer kinetics, could occur if specific activity or molar percent enrichment is diluted in extrahepatic tissues by label exchange via reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, a process we call pseudoketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, euglycemic hepatectomized dogs were injected with a bolus of acetoacetate (0.8 mmol/kg), 32% enriched in [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. Concentrations and labeling patterns of blood acetoacetate and R-3-hydroxybutyrate were measured by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the 60 min after bolus injection of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate, the molar percent enrichment of blood [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate decreased to 73 +/- 3% (n = 5) in controls and to 11.5 +/- 0.8% (n = 3) during infusion of dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enrichment of R-3-hydroxy-[3,4-13C2]butyrate followed closely that of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. These dilutions occurred despite a net uptake of ketone bodies. Concomitantly, 10.6 +/- 2.2 (n = 5) and 6.0 +/- 2.9% (n = 3) of [13C]acetoacetate molecules were labeled on all four carbons in control and dichloroacetate-treated dogs, respectively. This uniformly labeled acetoacetate arises from partial equilibration between [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate and [1,2-13C2]acetyl-CoA via the reactions catalyzed by 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Our data demonstrate the reversibility of the 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase in intact extrahepatic tissues and support the concept of pseudoketogenesis. This phenomenon has been quantitated by kinetic analysis of the data. PMID:2316645

  9. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

  10. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  11. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  12. An uncommon cause of chest pain - penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Htoo; Sadiq, Sanah; Chowdhury, Arnab; Gholamrezaee, Rashin; Yoe, Linus

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is a very common symptom and can be of cardiac or non-cardiac origin. It accounts for approximately 5.5 million annual emergency room visits in the United States, according to 2011 CDC data. Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer (PAU), an uncommon condition, is also a potential cause of chest pain. We here report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with atypical chest and back pain. The pain persisted for 4 weeks necessitating two emergency room visits. Initial tests were non-significant including cardiac troponins, an electrocardiogram (EKG), and a chest X-ray on her first visit. Upon her second visit, she underwent a computed tomography angiogram of chest with contrast which revealed a PAU with an intramural hematoma in descending aorta. The PAU was finally diagnosed with an exclusion of other chest pain causes. She was treated non-surgically with a blood pressure control strategy and pain management. After a 2-month period of smoking cessation and following the achievement of a controlled blood pressure, she felt well without chest pain. PMID:27406453

  13. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  14. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  15. Nodular Fasciitis of the Chest in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hong Joo; Ryu, Sang Wan; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign reactive proliferation that usually involves the deep fascia. Although it is relatively common in the adult population, it is often misdiagnosed as sarcoma due to its rapid growth and pathological features. It rarely presents as a chest wall tumor in young patients. Here, we report a case of nodular fasciitis involving the chest wall of an 18-year-old woman and its surgical management. This case underscores the need to consider nodular fasciitis in the differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors in young patients. PMID:26889452

  16. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma originating from the chest wall with rib metastases.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Junichi; Kiyoshima, Moriyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Kitahara, Miyuki; Asato, Yuji; Iijima, Tatsuo; Amemiya, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    An asymptomatic 39-year-old woman was referred to us for an abnormal nodular opacity detected on the chest X-ray. Histopathological and further examinations revealed findings consistent with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) originating from the chest wall with metastases to the ribs. Complete excision was performed; however, adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered because of the patient's mental disorder. There are very few reports of EHE arising from the chest wall; therefore, we present this case report with the clinicopathological features of EHE and discuss the therapeutic aspects. PMID:24399489

  17. Chest tube injury to left ventricle: complication or negligence?

    PubMed

    Haron, Hairufaizi; Rashid, Norfaezan Abdul; Dimon, Mohd Zamrin; Azmi, Muhd Helmi; Sumin, Joanna Ooi; Zabir, Azmil Farid; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Ramzisham

    2010-07-01

    An injury to the left ventricle after a chest tube insertion is a rare but lethal phenomenon that is likely to occur if precautions are not seriously addressed. We present a 15-year-old girl who was diagnosed a left empyema thoracis. An attempt to place a chest drain in this young girl was almost fatal. A left ventricular repair together with thoracotomy and decortication were successful. This case emphasizes the rarity of this lethal complication and the importance of the correct technique for chest tube insertion. PMID:20609810

  18. Determination of lung volumes from chest films

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, J.; Lapp, N. L.; Russakoff, A. D.; Reger, R.; Morgan, W. K. C.

    1970-01-01

    The results obtained from two radiological methods of determining total lung capacity (TLC) (Kovach's parabo oid and Barnhard's ellipsoid) were compared with those obtained with the body plethysmograph. Determinations of TLC were made in four groups of subjects: group 1 consisted of 26 miners most of whom had simple pneumoconiosis; group 2 consisted of 12 normal subjects; group 3 consisted of eight subjects who had a variety of chest disease, but with no demonstrable parenchymal or pleural opacification; and group 4 consisted of 19 subjects with miscellaneous diseases, all showing demonstrable infiltration or opacification. The values obtained by the method of Kovach and his colleagues often differed markedly from the plethysmographic determinations, and it became apparent that this method was not sufficiently accurate. On the other hand, the technique of Barnhard and his colleagues gave results that were essentially similar to, and as far as we can say interchangeable with, those obtained by the body plethysmograph in groups 1, 2, and 3. In subjects with marked pulmonary opacification or infiltration, the disparity between Barnhard's method and the plethysmograph tended to be more sizeable. It was concluded that Barnhard's method for determining total lung capacity is accurate and could be applied to epidemiological surveys. PMID:5489177

  19. Image analysis of chest radiographs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    The report demonstrates the feasibility of using a computer for automated interpretation of chest radiographs for pneumoconiosis. The primary goal of this project was to continue testing and evaluating the prototype system with a larger set of films. After review of the final contract report and a review of the current literature, it was clear that several modifications to the prototype system were needed before the project could continue. These modifications can be divided into two general areas. The first area was in improving the stability of the system and compensating for the diversity of film quality which exists in films obtained in a surveillance program. Since the system was to be tested with a large number of films, it was impractical to be extremely selective of film quality. The second area is in terms of processing time. With a large set of films, total processing time becomes much more significant. An image display was added to the system so that the computer determined lung boundaries could be verified for each film. A film handling system was also added, enabling the system to scan films continuously without attendance.

  20. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  1. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  2. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  3. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  4. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  5. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  6. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  7. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  8. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  9. 27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest and oil/grease cans used for maintenance. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  10. Chest trauma: A case for single lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Pandharikar, Nagaraj; Sachdev, Anil; Gupta, Neeraj; Gupta, Suresh; Gupta, Dhiren

    2016-01-01

    Chest trauma is one of the important causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatric trauma patients. The complexity, magnitude, and type of lung injury make it extremely challenging to provide optimal oxygenation and ventilation while protecting the lung from further injury due to mechanical ventilation. Independent lung ventilation is used sporadically in these patients who do not respond to these conventional ventilatory strategies using double-lumen endotracheal tubes, bronchial blocker balloons, etc. However, this equipment may not be easily available in developing countries, especially for pediatric patients. Here, we present a case of severe chest trauma with pulmonary contusion, flail chest, and bronchopleural fistula, who did not respond to conventional lung protective strategies. She was successfully managed with bronchoscopy-guided unilateral placement of conventional endotracheal tube followed by single lung ventilation leading to resolution of a chest injury. PMID:27303142

  11. Acute myocardial infarction due to blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, R K; Singh, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sinha, Ajay; Saurabh; Kumar, Amit

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of blunt chest injury following a road accident leading to damage of the left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries causing acute myocardial infarction in a young person. PMID:12674188

  12. Chest Pain in Adolescent Japanese Male Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin K.; Naheed, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Acute chest pain with very elevated troponin level and abnormal EKG in adult population is considered sine qua non to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) unless proved otherwise. Similar presentation in adolescent population is seen less often but raises suspicion for ACS. Most common etiology for chest pain with cardiac enzyme elevation in adolescent population is usually viral myopericarditis. The adolescent population presenting with chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes should be carefully evaluated for ACS and other etiologies including myocarditis, myopericarditis, pulmonary embolism, acute rheumatic fever, and trauma. We report one Japanese adolescent male with mycoplasma pneumoniae myocarditis who presented to the ER with chest pain, elevated cardiac enzymes, and abnormal EKG. PMID:25202456

  13. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography. PMID:12960952

  14. Chest radiography in acute aortic syndrome: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Ashish; Rajendran, Surendran; Yung, Wai Heng; Babu, Suresh Balasubramanian; Peh, Wilfred C

    2016-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a group of life-threatening diseases of the thoracic aorta that usually present to the emergency department. It includes aortic dissection, aortic intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Rare aortic pathologies of aorto-esophageal fistula and mycotic aneurysm may also be included in this list. All these conditions require urgent treatment with complex clinical care and management. Most patients who present with chest pain are evaluated with a chest radiograph in the emergency department. It is important that maximum diagnostic information is extracted from the chest radiograph as certain signs on the chest radiograph are extremely useful in pointing towards the diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome. PMID:27282377

  15. The chest pain center in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Grzybowski, M

    2001-05-01

    Despite the improvement of medical treatment for acute coronary syndromes throughout the 20th century, the authors believe that many cases of life-threatening coronary events could be avoided through early detection of CAD and the use of preventive strategies. Establishing chest pain units that are linked to the ED is one excellent strategy to risk-stratify patients with symptoms who are at risk for sustaining an AMI or having lethal arrhythmias. There is a need for more research on chest pain units to determine the value for cost and to further optimize strategies for ACI detection and screening. In EDs with high volumes of chest pain patients, or high pressures to avoid hospital admissions, a planned, systematic, and rapid approach to the treatment of AMI and the diagnosis of chest pain is a rewarding necessity. PMID:11373990

  16. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: an important differential in acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Francesca; McCullough, Chris; Rahman, Asif

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with pleuritic chest pain that was present on waking and localised to the left costal margin with no radiation. He was otherwise asymptomatic and denied preceding trauma, heavy lifting, coughing or recent vomiting. Observations and examination were unremarkable; however, a chest radiograph showed a pneumomediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition that tends to follow a benign clinical course. A CT of the chest is generally only indicated if the chest X-ray fails to show an SPM in patients for whom there is a high index of clinical suspicion. A contrast-enhanced swallow study is only indicated if there is suspicion of an oesophageal tear or rupture. Evidence suggests that patients with SPM can be managed conservatively and observed for 24 h. PMID:25432910

  17. Detail view of steam chest and valve mechanisms for high ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of steam chest and valve mechanisms for high pressure stage of unit 40. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage engine of unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEAM CHEST FOR LOW PRESSURE STAGE ENGINE OF UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of steam chest for low pressure stage of unit 40. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  2. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  3. Of Mice and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dewald, Oliver; Ren, Guofeng; Duerr, Georg D.; Zoerlein, Martin; Klemm, Christina; Gersch, Christine; Tincey, Sophia; Michael, Lloyd H.; Entman, Mark L.; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

    2004-01-01

    Large animal models have provided much of the descriptive data regarding the cellular and molecular events in myocardial infarction and repair. The availability of genetically altered mice may provide a valuable tool for specific cellular and molecular dissection of these processes. In this report we compare closed chest models of canine and mouse infarction/reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively for temporal, cellular, and spatial differences. Much like the canine model, reperfused mouse hearts are associated with marked induction of endothelial adhesion molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Reperfused mouse infarcts show accelerated replacement of cardiomyocytes by granulation tissue leading to a thin mature scar at 14 days, when the canine infarction is still cellular and evolving. Infarcted mouse hearts demonstrate a robust but transient postreperfusion inflammatory reaction, associated with a rapid up-regulation of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Unlike canine infarcts, infarcted mouse hearts show only transient macrophage infiltration and no significant mast cell accumulation. In correlation, the growth factor for macrophages, M-CSF, shows modest and transient up-regulation in the early days of reperfusion; and the obligate growth factor for mast cells, stem cell factor, SCF, is not induced. In summary, the postinfarction inflammatory response and resultant repair in the mouse heart shares many common characteristics with large mammalian species, but has distinct temporal and qualitative features. These important species-specific differences should be considered when interpreting findings derived from studies using genetically altered mice. PMID:14742270

  4. Partial tearing of the interventricular septum after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    López-Ruiz, Nilson; Ramírez Gil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac trauma after blunt chest trauma is a rare complication of patients arriving alive to an emergency department. We here present the case of patient who had a partial rupture of the interventricular septum after having had a blunt chest trauma in a traffic accident. As there was no ventricular septal defect, conservative management was deemed appropriate. At 3-year follow-up, the patient was free of right heart failure symptoms suggestive of the septal defect progression. PMID:26031362

  5. Pleuritic Chest Pain; Where Should We Search for?

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Behdad; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Esmaeili, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Pleuritic pain is not an unusual problem in children. Other concomitant symptoms should be considered for diagnostic approach in a child with pleuritic chest pain. In this report we discuss chest pain in a 6-year-old child with regard to other signs and symptoms. Finally, we found a rare life-threatening complication of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) in our patient. PMID:23056851

  6. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  7. Psychiatric Characteristics of the Cardiac Outpatients with Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jea-Geun; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Ki-Seok; Joo, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A cardiologist's evaluation of psychiatric symptoms in patients with chest pain is rare. This study aimed to determine the psychiatric characteristics of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and explore their relationship with the intensity of chest pain. Subjects and Methods Out of 139 consecutive patients referred to the cardiology outpatient department, 31 with atypical chest pain (heartburn, acid regurgitation, dyspnea, and palpitation) were excluded and 108 were enrolled for the present study. The enrolled patients underwent complete numerical rating scale of chest pain and the symptom checklist for minor psychiatric disorders at the time of first outpatient visit. The non-CAD group consisted of patients with a normal stress test, coronary computed tomography angiogram, or coronary angiogram, and the CAD group included those with an abnormal coronary angiogram. Results Nineteen patients (17.6%) were diagnosed with CAD. No differences in the psychiatric characteristics were observed between the groups. "Feeling tense", "self-reproach", and "trouble falling asleep" were more frequently observed in the non-CAD (p=0.007; p=0.046; p=0.044) group. In a multiple linear regression analysis with a stepwise selection, somatization without chest pain in the non-CAD group and hypochondriasis in the CAD group were linearly associated with the intensity of chest pain (β=0.108, R2=0.092, p=0.004; β= -0.525, R2=0.290, p=0.010). Conclusion No differences in psychiatric characteristics were observed between the groups. The intensity of chest pain was linearly associated with somatization without chest pain in the non-CAD group and inversely linearly associated with hypochondriasis in the CAD group. PMID:27014347

  8. Quick identification of acute chest pain patients study (QICS)

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Hendrik M; de Jong, Gonda; Tio, René A; Nieuwland, Wybe; Kema, Ido P; van der Horst, Iwan CC; Oudkerk, Mattijs; Zijlstra, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients with acute chest pain are often referred to the emergency ward and extensively investigated. Investigations are costly and could induce unnecessary complications, especially with invasive diagnostics. Nevertheless, chest pain patients have high mortalities. Fast identification of high-risk patients is crucial. Therefore several strategies have been developed including specific symptoms, signs, laboratory measurements, and imaging. Methods/Design The Quick Identification of acute Chest pain Study (QICS) will investigate whether a combined use of specific symptoms and signs, electrocardiography, routine and new laboratory measures, adjunctive imaging including electron beam (EBT) computed tomography (CT) and contrast multislice CT (MSCT) will have a high diagnostic yield for patients with acute chest pain. All patients will be investigated according a standardized protocol in the Emergency Department. Serum and plasma will be frozen for future analysis for a wide range of biomarkers at a later time point. The primary endpoint is the safe recognition of low-risk chest pain patients directly at presentation. Secondary endpoint is the identification of a wide range of sensitive predictive clinical markers, chemical biomarkers and radiological markers in acute chest pain patients. Chemical biomarkers will be compared to quantitative CT measurements of coronary atherosclerosis as a surrogate endpoint. Chemical biomarkers will also be compared in head to head comparison and for their additional value. Discussion This will be a very extensive investigation of a wide range of risk predictors in acute chest pain patients. New reliable fast and cheap diagnostic algorithm resulting from the test results might improve chest pain patients' prognosis, and reduce unnecessary costs and diagnostic complications. PMID:19527487

  9. Chest wall mechanics in sustained microgravity.

    PubMed

    Wantier, M; Estenne, M; Verbanck, S; Prisk, G K; Paiva, M

    1998-06-01

    We assessed the effects of sustained weightlessness on chest wall mechanics in five astronauts who were studied before, during, and after the 10-day Spacelab D-2 mission (n = 3) and the 180-day Euromir-95 mission (n = 2). We measured flow and pressure at the mouth and rib cage and abdominal volumes during resting breathing and during a relaxation maneuver from midinspiratory capacity to functional residual capacity. Microgravity produced marked and consistent changes (Delta) in the contribution of the abdomen to tidal volume [DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc), where Vab is abdominal volume and Vrc is rib cage volume], which increased from 30.7 +/- 3. 5 (SE)% at 1 G head-to-foot acceleration to 58.3 +/- 5.7% at 0 G head-to-foot acceleration (P < 0.005). Values of DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) did not change significantly during the 180 days of the Euromir mission, but in the two subjects DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) was greater on postflight day 1 than on subsequent postflight days or preflight. In the two subjects who produced satisfactory relaxation maneuvers, the slope of the Konno-Mead plot decreased in microgravity; this decrease was entirely accounted for by an increase in abdominal compliance because rib cage compliance did not change. These alterations are similar to those previously reported during short periods of weightlessness inside aircrafts flying parabolic trajectories. They are also qualitatively similar to those observed on going from upright to supine posture; however, in contrast to microgravity, such postural change reduces rib cage compliance. PMID:9609801

  10. Lung and chest wall mechanics in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Edyvean, J; Estenne, M; Paiva, M; Engel, L A

    1991-11-01

    We studied the effect of 15-20 s of weightlessness on lung, chest wall, and abdominal mechanics in five normal subjects inside an aircraft flying repeated parabolic trajectories. We measured flow at the mouth, thoracoabdominal and compartmental volume changes, and gastric pressure (Pga). In two subjects, esophageal pressures were measured as well, allowing for estimates of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi). In all subjects functional residual capacity at 0 Gz decreased by 244 +/- 31 ml as a result of the inward displacement of the abdomen. End-expiratory Pga decreased from 6.8 +/- 0.8 cmH2O at 1 Gz to 2.5 +/- 0.3 cmH2O at Gz (P less than 0.005). Abdominal contribution to tidal volume increased from 0.33 +/- 0.05 to 0.51 +/- 0.04 at 0 Gz (P less than 0.001) but delta Pga showed no consistent change. Hence abdominal compliance increased from 43 +/- 9 to 70 +/- 10 ml/cmH2O (P less than 0.05). There was no consistent effect of Gz on tidal swings of Pdi, on pulmonary resistance and dynamic compliance, or on any of the timing parameters determining the temporal pattern of breathing. The results indicate that at 0 G respiratory mechanics are intermediate between those in the upright and supine postures at 1 G. In addition, analysis of end-expiratory pressures suggests that during weightlessness intra-abdominal pressure is zero, the diaphragm is passively tensed, and a residual small pleural pressure gradient may be present. PMID:1761497

  11. Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Jitesh; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Cristopher A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J; Schmidt, Rodney A; Swanson, Jonathan O; Godwin, J David

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Among primary histiocytic disorders, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is the most common; others include Erdheim-Chester disease and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Adult PLCH occurs almost exclusively in adults aged 20-40 years who smoke. Pediatric PLCH is extremely rare and typically occurs as part of multisystemic disease. Erdheim-Chester disease affects middle-aged and older adults; thoracic involvement usually occurs as part of systemic disease. Rosai-Dorfman disease affects children and young adults and manifests as painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Examples of secondary histiocytic disorders are storage diseases such as Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and Fabry disease; pneumoconiosis such as silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; and infections such as Whipple disease and malakoplakia. These disorders are characterized at histopathologic examination on the basis of infiltration of alveoli or the pulmonary interstitium by histiocytes, which are a group of cells that includes macrophages and dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous group of nonphagocytic antigen-presenting immune cells. Immunohistochemical markers help to distinguish among various primary histiocytic disorders. Characteristic radiologic findings in the appropriate clinical context may obviate biopsy to establish a correct diagnosis. However, in the absence of these findings, integration of clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features is required to establish a diagnosis. PMID:25763722

  12. Chest wall mechanics in sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wantier, M.; Estenne, M.; Verbanck, S.; Prisk, G. K.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the effects of sustained weightlessness on chest wall mechanics in five astronauts who were studied before, during, and after the 10-day Spacelab D-2 mission (n = 3) and the 180-day Euromir-95 mission (n = 2). We measured flow and pressure at the mouth and rib cage and abdominal volumes during resting breathing and during a relaxation maneuver from midinspiratory capacity to functional residual capacity. Microgravity produced marked and consistent changes (Delta) in the contribution of the abdomen to tidal volume [DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc), where Vab is abdominal volume and Vrc is rib cage volume], which increased from 30.7 +/- 3. 5 (SE)% at 1 G head-to-foot acceleration to 58.3 +/- 5.7% at 0 G head-to-foot acceleration (P < 0.005). Values of DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) did not change significantly during the 180 days of the Euromir mission, but in the two subjects DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) was greater on postflight day 1 than on subsequent postflight days or preflight. In the two subjects who produced satisfactory relaxation maneuvers, the slope of the Konno-Mead plot decreased in microgravity; this decrease was entirely accounted for by an increase in abdominal compliance because rib cage compliance did not change. These alterations are similar to those previously reported during short periods of weightlessness inside aircrafts flying parabolic trajectories. They are also qualitatively similar to those observed on going from upright to supine posture; however, in contrast to microgravity, such postural change reduces rib cage compliance.

  13. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  14. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  15. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  16. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  17. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  18. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm. PMID:23273891

  19. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  20. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Roentgenograms § 37.60 Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification...

  1. 42 CFR 37.6 - Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.6 Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary will give chest roentgenograms or make arrangements with an appropriate...

  2. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Roentgenograms § 37.60 Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification...

  3. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest radiograph classification and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submitting required chest radiograph classification... OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.60 Submitting required chest radiograph classification and...

  4. 42 CFR 37.6 - Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.6 Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary will give chest radiographs or make arrangements with an appropriate...

  5. 42 CFR 37.6 - Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.6 Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary will give chest roentgenograms or make arrangements with an appropriate...

  6. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Roentgenograms § 37.60 Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification...

  7. 42 CFR 37.6 - Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations § 37.6 Chest roentgenographic examinations conducted by the Secretary. (a) The Secretary will give chest roentgenograms or make arrangements with an appropriate...

  8. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner... Chest Roentgenographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.60 Submitting required chest roentgenograms and miner identification...

  9. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  10. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  11. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  12. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  13. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  14. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  15. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  16. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  17. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  18. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  19. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  20. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  1. [Chest pain - not always the heart! Clinical impact of gastrointestinal diseases in non-cardiac chest pain].

    PubMed

    Frieling, T; Bergdoldt, G; Allescher, H D; Riemann, J F

    2015-02-01

    Non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) are recurrent angina pectoris like pain without evidence of coronary heart disease in conventional diagnostic evaluation. The prevalence of NCCP is up to 70 % and may be detected in this order at all levels of the medical health care system (general practitioner, emergency department, chest pain unit, coronary care). Reduction of quality of life in NCCP is comparable, partially even higher compared to cardiac chest pain. Reasons for psychological strain are symptom recurrence in app. 50 %, nonspecific diagnosis with resulting uncertainty and insufficient integration of other medical disciplines in diagnostic work-up. Managing of patients with NCCP has to be interdisciplinary because non cardiac causes of chest pain may be found frequently. Especially gastroenterological expertise is required because in 50 - 60 % of cases gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in 15 - 18 % hypercontractile esophageal motility disorders with nutcracker, jackhammer esophagus or distal esophageal spasmus or achalasia and in 32 - 35 % other esophageal alterations (e. g. infectious esophageal inflammation, drug-induced ulcer, rings, webs, eosinophilic esophagitis) as cause of chest pain may be detected. This implicates that regular interdisciplinary round wards and management of chest pain units are mandatory. PMID:25668714

  2. Temporal and spatial characteristics of evolving cell injury during regional myocardial ischemia in the dog: the ''border zone'' controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Yellon, D.M.; Hearse, D.J.; Crome, R.; Wyse, R.K.

    1983-10-01

    An open chest dog heart with multiple coronary ligations was used to define the temporal and spatial characteristics of injury evolving during regional ischemia. With the use of a multiple (40 sample) biopsy device, adjacent transmural biopsy specimens were obtained from the transition zone between normal and ischemic tissue after 5, 30, 45, 60 and 120 minutes of ischemia. The first 1.8 mm of epicardial tissue was taken for the analysis of flow and metabolites. The results confirmed the existence of a sharp interface of flow and metabolism in the epicardial lateral plane at the boundary of the ischemic zone. There was no significant zone of intermediate injury (flow and metabolism being depressed uniformly throughout the ischemic area). Comparison of the distribution of flow determined by radiolabeled gadolinium-153 at onset of ischemia with that indicated by radiolabeled tin-113 microspheres given at the end of various periods of ischemia revealed no change in the position or steepness of the flow interface at any time during the first 2 hours of ischemia. This observation, together with the absence of any major redistribution or enhancement of residual flow to the ischemic zone, indicated that there was little or no significant collateralization between 5 and 120 minutes. Analysis of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content revealed a rapid depletion during the first 5 minutes of ischemia; the content then remained essentially unchanged until 30 minutes, after which time a second phase of accelerated ATP depletion was observed until 45 minutes. ATP content then remained relatively constant up to 2 hours.

  3. Phenylephrine does not limit myocardial blood flow or oxygen delivery during isoflurane-induced hypotension in dogs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, M; Kim, S J; Salem, M R; Crystal, G J

    1992-06-01

    Experiments were performed on seven fentanyl-pentobarbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs to determine whether stimulation of coronary alpha 1-adrenergic receptors by phenylephrine causes coronary vasoconstriction and impaired myocardial oxygen delivery when phenylephrine is infused to correct isoflurane-induced hypotension. Myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, and myocardial oxygen and lactate extraction were determined. The Fick equation was used to calculate myocardial oxygen consumption. Measurements were obtained (a) under control conditions, (b) after a 30-min inhalation of isoflurane sufficient to decrease mean aortic pressure by 30%, and (c) while maintaining administration of isoflurane, 5-10 min after restoration of mean aortic pressure by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine. Isoflurane-induced hypotension was accompanied by a baroreceptor-mediated increase in heart rate and by a decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption; however, myocardial blood flow was maintained, resulting in decreased oxygen extraction and increased coronary sinus PO2, thus implying a direct coronary vasodilating effect for isoflurane. Lactate extraction was unaffected. Phenylephrine infusion during inhalation of isoflurane returned mean aortic pressure and heart rate to their respective control values, and it did not change myocardial oxygen consumption, myocardial blood flow, myocardial oxygen extraction, coronary sinus PO2, or lactate extraction from values obtained during isoflurane alone. These latter findings are consistent with undiminished coronary vasodilation by isoflurane in the presence of phenylephrine. In conclusion, infused phenylephrine to restore aortic pressure during isoflurane administration had no vasoconstrictor effect in the coronary circulation and did not impair myocardial oxygen delivery. Apparently, the direct coronary vasodilating action of isoflurane completely nullified phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction via local alpha

  4. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  5. CONSTANT-PHASE DESCRIPTIONS OF CANINE LUNG, CHEST WALL, AND TOTAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VISCOELASTICITY: EFFECTS OF DISTENDING PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Smallwood, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in twelve dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cmH2O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η = G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H2O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H2O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. PMID:22691447

  6. Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, François; Burnand, Bernard; Herzig, Lilli; Junod, Michel; Pécoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6%) patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration. PMID:17850647

  7. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, K; Warman, S M; Marques, A I; Yool, D A; Eckersall, P D; McCulloch, E; Lynn, K; Mellanby, R J; Gow, A G

    2013-12-14

    Dogs with liver disease have been shown to have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. However, it is unclear whether dogs with liver disease also have increased serum haptoglobin concentrations. The aim of the study was to measure serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, hospitalised dogs and dogs with liver diseases. Haptoglobin concentrations were measured in 30 healthy dogs, 47 hospitalised dogs with non-hepatic illness, 46 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) and 11 dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly different between cPSS dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy (HE), thus all cPSS dogs were considered as one group. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly different between the remaining groups (P<0.0001). Hospitalised ill dogs had significantly higher haptoglobin concentrations than healthy dogs (P<0.001), dogs with cPSS (P<0.001) and dogs with primary hepatopathy (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with cPSS and dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly increased in dogs with liver diseases or in dogs with cPSS and HE. This is in contrast with the previously reported CRP results. This study demonstrates that liver function should be considered when interpreting haptoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:24158322

  8. Retrospective case series analysing the clinical data and treatment options of patients with a tubercular abscess of the chest wall

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Satona; Aoki, Minoru; Nakanishi, Takao; Otake, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Masataka; Sakurai, Toshiyasu; Tada, Kimihide; Ikeda, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The tubercular abscess of the chest wall remains one of the differential diagnoses of a chest wall tumour, and the management strategy is controversial. We reviewed the medical records of 22 patients treated at our institution. Two patients were managed by antitubercular medications alone; eight patients were managed by medication and open drainage. Five patients underwent open drainage with subsequent radical surgery at a constant interval of time, and the mean duration between open drainage and radical surgery was 9.8 weeks (range, 3–12). Seven patients underwent radical surgery without prior open drainage. Five patients required rib resections, and curettage of infected pleural peel was necessary in 5 patients. Antitubercular drugs were administered basically for more than 6 months regardless of surgical management, including for more than 1 month prior to radical surgery. Postoperative empyema was seen in 1 patient after radical surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 32.8 months (range, 3–100), and there was no recurrence. Complete resection of the tubercular abscess with sufficient antitubercular therapy resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Antitubercular therapy with or without open drainage can be a viable choice. PMID:22184463

  9. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  10. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  11. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. PMID:26924739

  12. Massive chest wall resection and reconstruction for malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Foroulis, Christophoros N; Kleontas, Athanassios D; Tagarakis, George; Nana, Chryssoula; Alexiou, Ioannis; Grosomanidis, Vasilis; Tossios, Paschalis; Papadaki, Elena; Kioumis, Ioannis; Baka, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Anastasiadis, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malignant chest wall tumors are rare neoplasms. Resection with wide-free margins is an important prognostic factor, and massive chest wall resection and reconstruction are often necessary. A recent case series of 20 consecutive patients is reported in order to find any possible correlation between tumor histology, extent of resection, type of reconstruction, and adjuvant treatment with short- and long-term outcomes. Methods Twenty patients were submitted to chest wall resection and reconstruction for malignant chest wall neoplasms between 2006 and 2014. The mean age (ten males) was 59±4 years. The size and histology of the tumor, the technique of reconstruction, and the short- and long-term follow-up records were noted. Results The median maximum diameter of tumors was 10 cm (5.4–32 cm). Subtotal sternal resection was performed in nine cases, and the resection of multiple ribs was performed in eleven cases. The median area of chest wall defect was 108 cm2 (60–340 cm2). Histology revealed soft tissue, bone, and cartilage sarcomas in 16 cases (80%), most of them chondrosarcomas. The rest of the tumors was metastatic tumors in two cases and localized malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in one case. The chest wall defect was reconstructed by using the “sandwich technique” (propylene mesh/methyl methacrylate/propylene mesh) in nine cases of large anterior defects or by using a 2 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) mesh in nine cases of lateral or posterior defects. Support from a plastic surgeon was necessary to cover the full-thickness chest wall defects in seven cases. Adjuvant oncologic treatment was administered in 13 patients. Local recurrences were observed in five cases where surgical reintervention was finally necessary in two cases. Recurrences were associated with larger tumors, histology of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and initial incomplete resection or misdiagnosis made by nonthoracic surgeons. Three patients died

  13. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  14. ABA-stimulated SoDOG1 expression is after-ripening inhibited during early imbibition of germinating Sisymbrium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Matilla, Angel J; García-Ramas, Cristina; Rodríguez-Gacio, María Del Carmen

    2015-12-01

    DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (AtDOG1) was the first gene identified as dormancy-associated, but its physiological role in germination is far from being understood. Here, an orthologue of AtDOG1 in Sisymbrium officinale (SoDOG1; KM009050) is being reported. Phylogenetically, the SoDOG1 gene is included into the dicotyledonous group together with DOG1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (EF028470), Brassica rapa (AC189537), Lepidium papillosum (JX512183, JX512185) and Lepidium sativum (GQ411192). The SoDOG1 expression peaked at the onset of the silique maturation stage and there was presence of SoDOG1-mRNA in the freshly collected viable dry seed (i.e. AR0). The SoDOG1 transcripts were also found in other organs, such as open and closed flowers and to a lesser degree in roots and stems. We have previously reported in S. officinale seeds in which sensu stricto germination is positively affected by nitrate and both testa and micropylar endosperm ruptures are temporally separated. In dry viable seeds, the SoDOG1-mRNA level in three different after-ripening (AR) status was AR0 ≈ AR7 (optimal AR) < AR27 (optimal AR was almost lost). The presence of nitrate in the AR0 seed imbibition medium markedly decreased the SoDOG1 expression during sensu stricto germination. However, the nitrate stimulated the SoDOG1 expression during imbibition of AR7 compared to AR0. At the early AR0 seed imbibition (3-6 h), exogenous ABA provoked a very strong stimulation of the SoDOG1 expression. AR inhibits ABA-induced SoDOG1 expression during early germination and gibberellins (GA) can partially mimic this AR effect. A view on the integration of all found results in the sensu stricto germination of S. officinale was conducted. PMID:26046653

  15. Right coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Ander; Alvarez-Contreras, Luis; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Kasa, Gizem; Sabaté, Manel

    2012-04-01

    Chest trauma is a major health problem with a high mortality. Myocardial infarction secondary to coronary dissection following blunt chest trauma is a rare entity. We describe the case of an inferior MI following blunt chest trauma. A 61-year-old male without any relevant medical history was transported to a hospital after a low-velocity motorcycle accident. The patient was asymptomatic before the accident. The patient developed severe chest pain and an ECG revealed inferior ST segment elevation. After ruling out aortic dissection with angio-CT, a coronary angiograph depicted a proximal occlusion of the right coronary artery. After thrombectomy, a typical image of coronary artery dissection was observed; the image persisted after several runs of thrombectomy and for that reason a bare metal stent was implanted with a good final angiographic result. Five days after admission the patient was discharged home. Cardiac contusion is not uncommon; however acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma. Thorough evaluation with clinical suspicion can lead to optimal medical care. PMID:24062888

  16. Chest drain care bundle: Improving documentation and safety.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joe; Graham, Selina

    2015-01-01

    Chest drain insertion is a common advanced procedure with a significant associated risk of pain, distress, and complications. Nationally, audit and recommendations from leading bodies have highlighted a number of safety concerns around chest drain insertion. Audit work has demonstrated poor levels of documentation; particularly around use of premedication, use of ultrasound guidance and consent. This has obvious potential consequences for patient safety and thus is an important target for improvement work. This project quantifies current standards of documentation and aims to improve this through a combination of accessible and easy to read guidelines, education, and the introduction of a chest drain insertion bundle. National best practice standards were identified through review of national guidance. Drain insertion was prospectively analysed over a three month period to establish baseline standards of documentation. This initial work was presented and a bundle and clinical guidelines produced. Chest drain insertion was then reaudited and assessed for improvement. Results demonstrated an improvement in many areas of documentation, pushing local results above the national average. However, only 40% of cases used the new bundle due to a mixture of staff rotation and an unexpectedly high proportion of drains inserted in non targeted areas including the emergency department, theatre, and intensive care. Despite this, the introduction of accessible guidance and bundle has significantly improved chest drain insertion documentation to the benefit of all. PMID:26734423

  17. Effect of the chest wall on breast lesion reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Huang, Minming; Zhu, Quing

    2009-07-01

    The chest wall underneath the breast tissue affects near-infrared (NIR) diffusive waves measured with reflection geometry. With the assistance of a co-registered ultrasound, the depth and the tilting angle of the chest wall can be determined and are used to model the breast as a two-layer medium. Finite element method (FEM) is suitable for modeling complex boundary conditions and is adapted to model the breast tissue and chest wall. Four parameters of bulk absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of these two layers are estimated and used for imaging reconstruction. Using a two-layer model, we have systematically investigated the effect of the chest wall on breast lesion reconstruction. Results have shown that chest-wall depth, titling angle, and difference between optical properties of two layers of lesion and reference sites affect the lesion reconstruction differently. Our analysis will be valuable and informative to researchers who are using reflectance geometry for breast imaging. The analysis can also provide guidelines for imaging operators to minimize image artifacts and to produce the best reconstruction results.

  18. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35162) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to broaden and... quality of care that the VA-system can provide. 76 FR 35163. One commenter additionally noted that the... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION:...

  19. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  20. Ventilation distribution and chest wall mechanics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paiva, M.; Wantier, M.; Verbanck, S.; Engel, L. A.; Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J. B.; West, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gravity on lung ventilation distribution and the mechanisms of the chest wall were investigated. The following tests were performed with the respiratory monitoring system of the Anthorack, flown onboard Spacelab D2 mission: single breath washout (SBW), multiple breath washout (MBW) and argon rebreathing (ARB). In order to study chest wall mechanisms in microgravity, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph was used. The SBW tests did not reach statistical significance, while the ARB tests showed that gravity independent inhomogeneity of specific ventilation is larger than gravity dependent inhomogeneity. In which concerns the chest wall mechanisms, the analysis on the four astronauts during the normal respirations of the relaxation maneuver showed a 40 percent increase on the abdominal contribution to respiration.

  1. Spinal dural AV fistula: an unusual cause of chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Bioh, Gabriel; Bogle, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 22 -year-old man presented with 6 months of sudden onset, incapacitating, left-sided chest pain occurring 1–2 times a week. The severity of the pain caused loss of consciousness several times leading to multiple fractures. Investigation with echocardiogram, exercise tolerance test, Holter monitor, chest X-ray and V/Q scan revealed no abnormality as did EEG and 48 h video telemetry. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) at the level of T6, confirmed on angiogram. The patient underwent division of the left T6 AV fistula. Following the operation, the patient has been completely pain free. Our patient, presenting in his early 20s does not fit the usual age demographic for SDAVF. A second atypical feature is his presentation with chest pain alone and no neurological symptoms. This case represents a rare presentation of SDAVF. PMID:24532234

  2. System for definition of the central-chest vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate definition of the central-chest vasculature from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. For instance, the aorta and pulmonary artery help in automatic definition of the Mountain lymph-node stations for lung-cancer staging. This work presents a system for defining major vascular structures in the central chest. The system provides automatic methods for extracting the aorta and pulmonary artery and semi-automatic methods for extracting the other major central chest arteries/veins, such as the superior vena cava and azygos vein. Automatic aorta and pulmonary artery extraction are performed by model fitting and selection. The system also extracts certain vascular structure information to validate outputs. A semi-automatic method extracts vasculature by finding the medial axes between provided important sites. Results of the system are applied to lymph-node station definition and guidance of bronchoscopic biopsy.

  3. Stabilization of the Chest Wall: Autologous and Alloplastic Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Raman Chaos; Butler, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of chest wall stabilization include maintenance of a rigid airtight cavity, protection of the thoracic and abdominal contents, optimization of respiration, and, whenever possible, an aesthetic reconstruction. Evidence suggests that bony fixation results in reduced ventilator dependence, a shorter overall hospital stay, and improved upper extremity function. We prefer to accomplish this with autologous tissue alone (such as the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, or rectus abdominus muscle flaps) for small to moderate defects. En bloc resection of defects larger than 5 cm or containing four or more ribs will likely benefit from chest wall stabilization. For patients previously treated with radiation, even larger defects may be tolerated owing to fibrosis. For these larger defects, methyl methacrylate composite meshes are used and covered with vascularized tissue. Contaminated wounds are generally reconstructed with bioprosthetic mesh rather than synthetic mesh. Using these principles, the reconstructive plastic surgeon can devise a comprehensive and safe plan to repair tremendous defects of the chest wall. PMID:22294941

  4. The futility of universal pre-employment chest radiographs.

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Lohiya, Piyush; Bui, De

    2006-01-01

    In a developmental center, a preemployment chest x-ray was required for all job applicants. We scrutinized the pros and cons of this practice through a review of the medical literature and our experience, and discussion with our colleagues. We concluded that such chest x-ray caused unwarranted radiation exposure, did not produce compliance with the tuberculosis laws, gave a false sense of security regarding workers' compensation risk management, was contrary to established occupational medicine practice guidelines, and was unnecessary and wasteful. We discontinued such chest x-rays. The purpose of the pre-employment examination should remain narrowly job related. Even long-established procedures require periodic utilization review. PMID:17225852

  5. Lung nodules detection in chest radiography: image components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin; Yang, Ying; Yan, Hao

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of different components of chest image on performances of both human observer and channelized Fisher-Hotelling model (CFH) in nodule detection task. Irrelevant and relevant components were separated from clinical chest radiography by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods. Human observer performance was evaluated in two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) on original clinical images and anatomical structure only images obtained by PCA methods. Channelized Fisher-Hotelling model with Laguerre-Gauss basis function was evaluated to predict human performance. We show that relevant component is the primary factor influencing on nodule detection in chest radiography. There is obvious difference of detectability between human observer and CFH model for nodule detection in images only containing anatomical structure. CFH model should be used more carefully.

  6. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  7. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  8. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  9. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  10. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  11. Retrospective analysis of spinal arachnoid cysts in 14 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Lipsitz, David; Berry, Wayne L; Sturges, Beverly K; Vernau, Karen M; Dickinson, Peter J; Añor, Sonia A; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:12465766

  12. Tube Thoracostomy (Chest Tube) Removal in Traumatic Patients: What Do We Know? What Can We Do?

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Ghahramani, Zahra; Ghoddusi Johari, Hamed; Khezri, Samad; Ziaeian, Bizhan; Ghayyoumi, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi, Mohammad Javad; Niakan, Mohammad Hadi; Sabetian, Golnar; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Chest tube (CT) or tube thoracostomy placement is often indicated following traumatic injuries. Premature movement of the chest tube leads to increased hospital complications and costs for patients. Placement of a chest tube is indicated in drainage of blood, bile, pus, drain air, and other fluids. Although there is a general agreement for the placement of a chest tube, there is little consensus on the subsequent management. Chest tube removal in trauma patients increases morbidity and hospital expense if not done at the right time. A review of relevant literature showed that the best answers to some questions about time and decision-making have been long sought. Issues discussed in this manuscript include chest tube removal conditions, the need for chest radiography before and after chest tuberemoval, the need to clamp the chest tube prior to removal, and drainage rate and acceptability prior to removal. PMID:27162900

  13. Management of Open Pneumothorax in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: TCCC Guidelines Change 13-02.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K; Dubose, Joseph J; Otten, Edward J; Bennett, Donald R; Gerhardt, Robert T; Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Gross, Kriby R; Cap, Andrew P; Littlejohn, Lanny F; Edgar, Erin P; Shackelford, Stacy A; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Kotwal, Russ S; Holcomb, John B; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    During the recent United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) and Joint Trauma System (JTS) assessment of prehospital trauma care in Afghanistan, the deployed director of the Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS), CAPT Donald R. Bennett, questioned why TCCC recommends treating a nonlethal injury (open pneumothorax) with an intervention (a nonvented chest seal) that could produce a lethal condition (tension pneumothorax). New research from the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has found that, in a model of open pneumothorax treated with a chest seal in which increments of air were added to the pleural space to simulate an air leak from an injured lung, use of a vented chest seal prevented the subsequent development of a tension pneumothorax, whereas use of a nonvented chest seal did not. The updated TCCC Guideline for the battlefield management of open pneumothorax is: ?All open and/ or sucking chest wounds should be treated by immediately applying a vented chest seal to cover the defect. If a vente chest seal is not available, use a non-vented chest seal. Monitor the casualty for the potential development of a subsequent tension pneumothorax. If the casualty develops increasing hypoxia, respiratory distress, or hypotension and a tension pneumothorax is suspected, treat by burping or removing the dressing or by needle decompression.? This recommendation was approved by the required two-thirds majority of the Committee on TCCC in June 2013. PMID:24048995

  14. Recovery of stepping and coordination in dogs following acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Rousse, C A; Olby, N J; Williams, K; Harris, T L; Griffith, E H; Mariani, C L; Muñana, K R; Early, P J

    2016-07-01

    Prospective data on the recovery of coordination in dogs suffering acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations (TL-IVDH) are limited. The purpose of this study was to use treadmill based and open field scores (OFS) to quantify recovery of stepping ability and forelimb, hindlimb coordination in the 6 weeks following surgical decompression of dogs with TL-IVDH. Sixty-three dogs were grouped at presentation as grades 3 (non-ambulatory paraparetic), 4 (paraplegic) or 5 (paraplegic without pain sensation) and were evaluated 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-operatively. Stepping scores and Regularity Index (RI), a measure of coordination, were calculated from treadmill walking, and an OFS incorporating supported and unsupported walking was assigned. Outcomes for the three measures were compared between groups and correlation between scoring methods was assessed. Grade 3 and 4 dogs recovered ambulation by 2 weeks, reaching median stepping scores of 96 and 90% by 6 weeks, respectively. Recovery of coordination differed between groups 3 and 4 with median RI scores of 93.9% and 63%, respectively, by 6 weeks. Eight grade 5 dogs failed to recover independent ambulation by 6 weeks. Nine dogs recovered with scores that were significantly worse than the grade 3 and 4 dogs at 6 weeks for stepping score (P < 0.001) and RI (P < 0.001). OFS correlated closely with stepping and RI scores and each group was significantly different using this ordinal scale. In conclusion, recovery of coordination was incomplete in dogs that showed good recovery of stepping. The data generated could be used for clinical trial design. PMID:27240917

  15. Mechanically induced sudden death in chest wall impact (commotio cordis).

    PubMed

    Link, Mark S

    2003-01-01

    Sudden death due to nonpenetrating chest wall impact in the absence of injury to the ribs, sternum and heart is known as commotio cordis. Although once thought rare, an increasing number of these events have been reported. Indeed, a significant percentage of deaths on the athletic field are due to chest wall impact. Commotio cordis is most frequently observed in young individuals (age 4-18 years), but may also occur in adults. Sudden death is instantaneous or preceded by several seconds of lightheadedness after the chest wall blow. Victims are most often found in ventricular fibrillation, and successful resuscitation is more difficult than expected given the young age, excellent health of the victims, and the absence of structural heart disease. Autopsy examination is notable for the lack of any significant cardiac or thoracic abnormalities. In an experimental model of commotio cordis utilizing anesthetized juvenile swine, ventricular fibrillation can be produced by a 30 mph baseball strike if the strike occurred during the vulnerable period of repolarization, on the upslope of the T-wave. Energy of the impact object was also found to be a critical variable with 40 mph baseballs more likely to cause ventricular fibrillation than velocities less or greater than 40 mph. In addition, more rigid impact objects and blows directly over the center of the chest were more likely to cause ventricular fibrillation. Peak left ventricular pressure generated by the chest wall blow correlated with the risk of ventricular fibrillation. Activation of the K(+)(ATP) channel is a likely cause of the ventricular fibrillation produced by chest wall blows. Successful resuscitation is attainable with early defibrillation. PMID:12732277

  16. Can domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use referential emotional expressions to locate hidden food?

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) use of human communicative cues, little is known about their use of humans' emotional expressions. We conducted a study following the general paradigm of Repacholi in Dev Psychol 34:1017-1025, (1998) and tested four breeds of dogs in the laboratory and another breed in the open air. In our study, a human reacted emotionally (happy, neutral or disgust) to the hidden contents of two boxes, after which the dog was then allowed to choose one of the boxes. Dogs tested in the laboratory distinguished between the most distinct of the expressed emotions (Happy-Disgust condition) by choosing appropriately, but performed at chance level when the two emotions were less distinct (Happy-Neutral condition). The breed tested in the open air passed both conditions, but this breed's differing testing setup might have been responsible for their success. Although without meaningful emotional expressions, when given a choice, these subjects chose randomly, their performance did not differ from that in the experimental conditions. Based on the findings revealed in the laboratory, we suggest that some domestic dogs recognize both the directedness and the valence of some human emotional expressions. PMID:22960805

  17. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes). PMID:24568806

  18. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  19. Evaluation and Management of Chest Pain in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rohit; Munoz, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Geriatric patients are at increased risk for serious morbidity and mortality from life-threatening causes of chest pain. This article covers 5 life-threatening causes of chest pain in the elderly: acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, and esophageal rupture. Atypical presentations, frailty, and significant comorbidities that characterize the elderly make the diagnosis and treatment of these already complicated conditions even more complicated. The emergency provider must be vigilant and maintain a low threshold to test. When a diagnosis is made, treatment must be aggressive. The elderly benefit from optimal care. PMID:27475013

  20. Computer Analysis Of ILO Standard Chest Radiographs Of Pneumoconiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. C.; Shu, David B. C.; Tai, H. T.; Hou, W.; Kunkle, G. A.; Wang, Y.; Hoy, R. J.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents study of computer analysis of the 1980 ILO standard chest radiographs of pneumoconiosis. Algorithms developed for detection of individual small rounded and irregular opacities have been experimented and evaluated on these standard radiographs. The density, shape, and size distribution of the detected objects in the lung field, in spite of false positives, can be used as indicators for the beginning of pneumoconiosis. This approach is potentially useful in computer-assisted screening and early detection process where the annual chest radiograph of each worker is compared with his (her) own normal radiograph obtained previously.

  1. Urinary tract manifestations of protothecosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Barrak M; Gookin, Jody L; Sykes, Jane E; Wolf, Alice M; Vaden, Shelly L

    2005-01-01

    Records of 13 dogs with systemic infection with Prototheca sp. from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Acute renal failure secondary to disseminated infection with Prototheca zopfii was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, acute renal failure developed during administration of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of anterior uveitis. During diagnostic evaluation of this dog, Prototheca sp. organisms were noted in urine sediment and renal biopsy specimens. In the 2nd dog, acute renal failure was diagnosed after treatment for bacterial cystitis. After diagnosis of protothecosis, organisms were successfully isolated by aerobic urine culture. Both dogs with acute renal failure did not respond to conventional medical therapy. In total, Prototheca sp. was noted in urine sediment in 4 of 8 dogs and successfully cultured from urine in 5 of 7 dogs. Four of 5 dogs had organisms noted in the kidneys on histopathologic examination. In all dogs, the species identified was P zopfii. Sensitivity testing of 3 isolates revealed wide differences in in vitro drug resistance. Examination and culture of urine is recommended as a practical method for diagnosis of systemic infection with Prototheca sp. PMID:15715059

  2. Parents’ perspectives on the value of assistance dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Louise; Dowling, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Connolly, Micaela; P Browne, John; Perry, Ivan J

    2014-01-01

    Objective While there is an emerging literature on the usefulness of assistance dogs for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is a dearth of quantitative data on the value of assistance dog interventions for the family unit and family functioning. Using previously validated scales and scales developed specifically for this study, we measured parents’/guardians’ perceptions of how having an assistance dog affects: (1) child safety from environmental dangers, (2) public reception of ASD and (3) levels of caregiver strain and sense of competence. We also obtained open-ended response data from parents/guardians on benefits and constraints of having an assistance dog. Setting This study was based in the primary care setting, within the context of a specific accredited assistance dog centre in Ireland. Participants A total of 134 parents/guardians with an assistance dog, and 87 parents of children on the waiting list were surveyed. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were scores on environmental hazards and public reception scales. The secondary outcome measures were scores on caregiver strain and competence scales. Results Parents/guardians of children who have ASD and an assistance dog rate their child as significantly safer from environmental dangers (p<0.001), perceive that the public act more respectfully and responsibly towards their child (p<0.001) and feel more competent about managing their child (p=0.023) compared with parents on the waiting list. There was a concentration of positive feeling towards assistance dog interventions with particular focus on safety and comfort for children, and a sense of freedom from family restrictions associated with ASD. The amount of dedication and commitment required to care for a dog were viewed as the primary constraints. Conclusions Our findings indicate that parents perceive that assistance dog interventions can be a valuable intervention for families with children who

  3. Use of a frameless computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy system for nasal biopsy in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Gregory M; Taylor, Amanda R; Thieman-Mankin, Kelley M; Griffin, Jay; Cook, Audrey K; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-04-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs (median age, 9 years; median body weight, 31 kg [68.2 lb]) with undefined nasal masses were examined after undergoing CT of the head and nasal biopsy via a rostral rhinoscopic or unaided (blind) approach because histologic results for collected biopsy specimens (inflammatory, necrotic, or hemorrhagic disease) suggested the specimens were nonrepresentative of the underlying disease process identified via CT (aggressive or malignant disease). CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical signs at the time dogs were evaluated included open-mouth breathing, sneezing, or unilateral epistaxis. Histologic findings pertaining to the original biopsy specimens were suggestive of benign processes such as inflammation. In an attempt to obtain better representative specimens, a frameless CT-guided stereotactic biopsy system (CTSBS) was used to collect additional biopsy specimens from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of the dogs. The second set of biopsy specimens was histologically evaluated. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens collected via the CTSBS revealed results suggestive of malignant neoplasia (specifically, chondrosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma) for 3 dogs, mild mixed-cell inflammation for 1 dog, and hamartoma for 1 dog. No complications were reported. These findings resulted in a change in treatment recommendations for 3 dogs and confirmed that no additional treatment was required for 1 dog (with hamartoma). For the remaining dog, in which CT findings and clinical history were strongly suggestive of neoplasia, the final diagnosis was rhinitis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Biopsy specimens were safely collected from masses within the nasal and sinus passages of dogs by use of a frameless CTSBS, allowing a definitive diagnosis that was unachievable with other biopsy approaches. PMID:27031420

  4. Short term consequences of preventing visitor access to kennels on noise and the behaviour and physiology of dogs housed in a rescue shelter.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Lynn F; Wright, Hannah F; Zulch, Helen E; Ellis, Sarah L H

    2014-06-22

    Re-homing centres present a range of potential stressors to kennelled dogs which are likely to impact negatively on their welfare. Despite the presence of visitors to the kennel often being considered a potential stressor, empirical investigation into their impact on the behaviour and welfare of kennelled dogs in re-homing centres is lacking. This study investigated the influence of changing visitor access policy from open access to prohibited viewing at kennels (with organised single meetings for viewing dogs outside of the kennel environment) on the welfare of 15 dogs housed in a dog-only re-homing facility. Data were collected across a number of domains comprising kennel noise levels, behavioural measures (activity, repetitive behaviour, response to human approach); physiological measures (urinary cortisol:creatinine ratios); sickness events and faecal scoring. The general kennel noise levels were significantly lower when visitor access to the kennel area was restricted. Furthermore, dogs were found to display behaviour indicative of improved welfare during this time period; dogs spent significantly more time sedentary, less time moving and exhibited significantly fewer episodes of repetitive behaviours. No significant change was seen in the urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio, nor in sickness behaviour, faecal scoring or response to a human approach test. Overall, the results from this study suggest that restricting visitors from viewing the dogs while in their kennels may be better for the dogs' short term welfare. PMID:24813703

  5. Chest pain due to Pinch-off syndrome: radiological findings and endovascular rescue.

    PubMed

    Viviani, E; Giribono, A M; Ferrara, D; Santagata, A; Narese, D; Midiri, F; Albano, D; Porcellini, M

    2016-01-01

    Port-a-cath is widely used as a route for administration of drugs in hematology and oncology patients and, recently, has been adapted also for hemodialysis patients. Major complications include infection, thrombosis, arrhythmia, and embolization. The Pinch-off-syndrome (POS) means the clavicle and the first rib compress the long-term central venous catheter. The reported incidence rate ranges from 1.4% to 4.1%. This syndrome can be recognized on chest radiography by observing a thinning of the catheter lumen through the passage between the clavicle and the first rib. Catheter fracture is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication that must be recognized and treated promptly. Management of dislodged ports includes percutaneous transcatheter retrieval, open thoracotomy retrieval and oral anticoagulant therapy. Among these techniques, percutaneous transcatheter retrieval is an easy, safe and efficient method. We report the successful percutaneous endovascular retrieval of dislodged intracardiac catheter, separated from its port, in a 58 year-old male patient who presented with chest pain. PMID:26980633

  6. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  7. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  8. Antinociceptive efficacy and plasma concentrations of transdermal buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Korbinian; Schuster, Tibor; Levionnois, Olivier; Matis, Ulrike; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    To assess the antinociceptive efficacy of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine (B) in dogs, a prospective, positive-controlled experimental study was performed in 10 healthy Beagles. In an open label crossover design, the dogs initially received intravenous B (IVB, 0.02 mg kg(-1)) as a positive control, followed by TDB (52.5 μg h(-1)) 4 months later. Blood was collected at regular intervals for determination of the plasma concentrations of B ([B]) and its metabolite norbuprenorphine. The antinociceptive efficacy was assessed using thermal and mechanical models of nociception. The peak concentration [B] was 1.54 ng mL(-1) (±1.98) 60 h after TDB application, although three dogs had no measurable [B] after TDB. Maximum thermal threshold (TT) was 52.6 °C (±0.48) at 1h after IVB administration and 51.63 °C (±1.01) 72 h after TDB application. The significant increase in TT indicated that effective antinociception was achieved beyond 36 h after the application of TDB, lasting until patch removal. There was hysteresis between [B] and the antinociceptive effect. PMID:20206560

  9. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  10. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs. PMID:19276068

  11. Chest wall reconstruction. Experience with 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, P G; Pairolero, P C

    1984-01-01

    Experience with 100 consecutive chest wall reconstructions during the past 7 years was reviewed. There were 52 female and 48 male patients with ages ranging from 13 to 78 years (average 53). Of the 100 patients, 42 had tumors of the chest wall, 19 had radiation necrosis, 24 had infected median sternotomies , and 15 had combinations of the three. Seventy-six patients underwent skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 5.7 ribs were resected in 63 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 29. Ninety-two patients underwent 142 muscle flaps: 77 pectoralis major, 29 latissimus dorsi, and 36 other muscles, including serratus anterior, rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles. The omentum was transposed in ten patients. Chest wall skeletal defects were closed with Prolene mesh in 29 patients and with autogenous ribs in 11. Eighty-nine patients underwent primary closure of the skin. The 100 patients underwent an average of 2.1 operations. Hospitalization averaged 17.5 days. There was one perioperative death (29 days). Two patients required tracheostomy. Follow-up averaged 21.6 months. There were 24 late deaths. All 99 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent results at the time of death or last follow-up. Images Figs. 2A-D. Figs. 3A-F. Figs. 4A-D. Figs. 4A-D. Fig. 5. Fig. 5. PMID:6732314

  12. Coal worker's lungs - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows coal worker's lungs. There are diffuse, small, light areas on both sides (1 to 3 mm) in ... the lungs. Diseases that may result in an x-ray like this include: simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - ...

  13. Lyme Myocarditis Presenting as Chest Pain in an Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Fishe, Jennifer N; Marchese, Ronald F; Callahan, James M

    2016-07-01

    A previously healthy adolescent girl presented to the emergency department with new onset chest and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Laboratory studies and imaging were consistent with myocarditis. She developed heart block after admission and required stabilization in the cardiac intensive care unit. Lyme serology returned positive, and her condition was diagnosed as Lyme disease-associated myocarditis. PMID:26945194

  14. Diagnosis of chest pain with foregut symptoms in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bo; Wang, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Yao-Guang; Tan, Qun-You; Liao, Xiang-Li; Zhou, Jing-Hai; Zhao, Yun-Ping; Gong, Tai-Qian; Ma, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnosis of chest pain with foregut symptoms in Chinese patients. METHODS: Esophageal manometric studies, 24-h introesophageal pH monitoring and 24-h electrocardiograms (Holter electrocardiography) were performed in 61 patients with chest pain. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were diagnosed with non-specific esophageal motility disorders (29 patients with abnormal gastroesophageal reflux and eight patients with myocardial ischemia). Five patients had diffuse spasm of the esophagus plus abnormal gastroesophageal reflux (two patients had concomitant myocardial ischemia), and one patient was diagnosed with nutcracker esophagus. CONCLUSION: The esophageal manometric studies, 24-h intra-esophageal pH monitoring and Holter electrocardiography are significant for the differential diagnosis of chest pain, particularly in patients with foregut symptoms. In cases of esophageal motility disorders, pathological gastroesophageal reflux may be a major cause of chest pain with non-specific esophageal motility disorders. Spasm of the esophageal smooth muscle might affect the heart-coronary smooth muscle, leading to myocardial ischemia. PMID:19222101

  15. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  16. Implementation of Chest X-ray Observation Report Entry System

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Suk-Tae; Park, Hee-Joon; Kim, Min Soo; Son, Chang-Sik; Park, Hyoung-Seob; Jeon, Hyo Chan; Jung, Chi Young

    2010-01-01

    Objectives X-rays are widely used in medical examinations. In particular, chest X-rays are the most frequent imaging test. However, observations are usually recorded in a free-text format. Therefore, it is difficult to standardize the information provided to construct a database for the sharing of clinical data. Here, we describe a simple X-ray observation entry system that can interlock with an electronic medical record system. Methods We investigated common diagnosis indices. Based on the indices, we have designed an entry system which consists of 5 parts: 1) patient lists, 2) image selection, 3) diagnosis result entry, 4) image view, and 5) main menu. The X-ray observation results can be extracted in an Excel format. Results The usefulness of the proposed system was assessed in a study using over 500 patients' chest X-ray images. The data was readily extracted in a format that allowed convenient assessment. Conclusions We proposed the chest X-ray observation entry system. The proposed X-ray observation system, which can be linked with an electronic medical record system, allows easy extraction of standardized clinical information to construct a database. However, the proposed entry system is limited to chest X-rays and it is impossible to interpret the semantic information. Therefore, further research into domains using other interpretation methods is required. PMID:21818450

  17. Chest radiographic data acquisition and quality assurance in multicenter studies

    PubMed Central

    Schluchter, Mark; Wood, Beverly P.; Berdon, Walter E.; Boechat, M. Ines; Easley, Kirk A.; Meziane, Moulay; Mellins, Robert B.; Norton, Karen I.; Singleton, Edward; Trautwein, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Multicenter studies rely on data derived from different institutions. Forms can be designed to standardize the reporting process allowing reliable comparison of data. Objective The purpose of the report is to provide a standardized method, developed as a part of a multicenter study of vertically transmitted HIV, for assessing chest radiographic results. Materials and methods Eight hundred and five infants and children were studied at five centers; 3057 chest radiographs were scored. Data were entered using a forced-choice, graded response for 12 findings. Quality assurance measures and inter- rater agreement statistics are reported. Results The form used for reporting chest radiographic results is presented. Inter-rater agreement was moderate to high for most findings, with the best correlation reported for the presence of bronchovascular markings and/or reticular densities addressed as a composite question (kappa = 0.71). The presence of nodular densities (kappa = 0.56) and parenchymal consolidation (kappa = 0.57) had moderate agreement. Agreement for lung volume was low. Conclusion The current tool, developed for use in the pediatric population, is applicable to any study involving the assessment of pediatric chest radiographs for a large population, whether at one or many centers. PMID:9361051

  18. Picture quiz: a case of sudden severe chest pain.

    PubMed

    Rabia, Mustafa Abu; Sullivan, P; Stivaros, Stavros M

    2007-01-01

    An 18-year-old male with no previous medical history presented to hospital with sudden onset of acute epigastric pain radiating to the anterior chest wall and both shoulders. There was no history of recent trauma and he had not been vomiting. PMID:21611610

  19. Noncardiac Chest Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Biopsychosocial Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Cassandra J.; White, Kamila S.; Grady, R. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric NCCP may be characterized by recurrent pain accompanied by emotional distress and functional impairment. This paper reviews and critiques literature on pediatric noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) and introduces a theoretical conceptualization to guide future study of NCCP in children and adolescents. A developmentally informed biopsychosocial…

  20. Eliminating rib shadows in chest radiographic images providing diagnostic assistance.

    PubMed

    Oğul, Hasan; Oğul, B Buket; Ağıldere, A Muhteşem; Bayrak, Tuncay; Sümer, Emre

    2016-04-01

    A major difficulty with chest radiographic analysis is the invisibility of abnormalities caused by the superimposition of normal anatomical structures, such as ribs, over the main tissue to be examined. Suppressing the ribs with no information loss about the original tissue would therefore be helpful during manual identification or computer-aided detection of nodules on a chest radiographic image. In this study, we introduce a two-step algorithm for eliminating rib shadows in chest radiographic images. The algorithm first delineates the ribs using a novel hybrid self-template approach and then suppresses these delineated ribs using an unsupervised regression model that takes into account the change in proximal thickness (depth) of bone in the vertical axis. The performance of the system is evaluated using a benchmark set of real chest radiographic images. The experimental results determine that proposed method for rib delineation can provide higher accuracy than existing methods. The knowledge of rib delineation can remarkably improve the nodule detection performance of a current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. It is also shown that the rib suppression algorithm can increase the nodule visibility by eliminating rib shadows while mostly preserving the nodule intensity. PMID:26775736

  1. Sudden chest pain and cardiac emergencies in the obstetric patient.

    PubMed

    Mabie, W C; Freire, C M

    1995-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and work-up of a patient with chest pain during pregnancy is presented in this article. This is followed by discussions of cardiac emergencies including hypertensive crisis, pulmonary edema, arrhythmias, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, myocardial infarction, and aortic dissection. PMID:7784039

  2. Chest xerotomography: evaluation of calcification within lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Penkrot, R J; Gordon, R

    1980-01-01

    Through the use of a chest phantom and beeswax nodules containing calcium, xerotomography is shown to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of calcifications within lung nodules. The technique gives superior definition of calcium, especially fine calcifications in the 1-2-mm, or less, range. Our results suggest that clinical trials should follow and clinicopathologic correlation be obtained. PMID:7203908

  3. Comparison of scanning equalization and conventional chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Wandtke, J C; Plewes, D B

    1989-09-01

    A clinical comparison study of scanning equalization radiography (SER) and conventional chest radiography was performed with the latest prototype SER system. Conventional chest radiography was performed at 120 kVp with Lanex regular screens (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) and Kodak Ortho-G or Ortho-C film (Eastman Kodak). The 253 volunteer patients were examined with both techniques. The chest radiographs were interpreted by four radiologists. The study group was composed of 58 normal and 195 abnormal posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs. In 31 cases there were two major radiologic diagnoses. The number of correct interpretations increased when the SER images were examined, compared with the conventional Ortho-G (chi 2 = 4.17, P less than .05) and conventional Ortho-C (chi 2 = 16.9, P less than .001) radiographs. The overall accuracy of disease detection improved for all radiologists with the SER system. There was no disease category in which the accuracy of interpretation decreased when the SER system was used. The SER system is a clinically reliable method of improving image quality and increasing diagnostic accuracy. PMID:2772170

  4. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  6. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Cholesteatomas in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Risselada, Marije

    2016-07-01

    Surgical intervention of aural cholesteatomas in dogs can be curative. Imaging findings include a soft tissue density in the middle ear and destruction of the bone of the bulla with characteristics of an aggressive lesion. Dogs with early stage disease have a better outcome than those with chronic disease, temporal bone involvement and neurologic signs. Dogs with recurrent disease can be reoperated or managed medically with long-term resolution or palliation of clinical signs. PMID:26972889

  8. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  9. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  10. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  11. Malicious paraquat poisoning in Oklahoma dogs.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K; Brizzee-Buxton, B; Gatto, N; Edwards, W C; Stair, E L; Logan, C

    1998-06-01

    Paraquat is a restricted use herbicide which is extremely toxic to companion animals when ingested. This report details one incident of malicious poisoning involving 6 dogs. All dogs were from the same geographic area, and 5 had pulmonary and renal lesions consistent with paraquat toxicosis. Diagnosis was initiated by a modified dithionite spot test on vomitus from 1 dog. Subsequent tissue paraquat levels ranged from non-detectable to 1 ppm. PMID:9610494

  12. Organ doses to adult patients for chest CT

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to estimate organ doses for chest CT examinations using volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) data as well as accounting for patient weight. Methods: A CT dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator) was used to compute organ doses for a 70 kg patient undergoing chest CT examinations, as well as volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) in a body CT dosimetry phantom at the same CT technique factors. Ratios of organ dose to CTDI{sub vol} (f{sub organ}) were generated as a function of anatomical location in the chest for the breasts, lungs, stomach, red bone marrow, liver, thyroid, liver, and thymus. Values of f{sub organ} were obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV for 1, 4, 16, and 64 slice CT scanners from two vendors. For constant CT techniques, we computed ratios of dose in water phantoms of differing diameter. By modeling patients of different weights as equivalent water cylinders of different diameters, we generated factors that permit the estimation of the organ doses in patients weighing between 50 and 100 kg who undergo chest CT examinations relative to the corresponding organ doses received by a 70 kg adult. Results: For a 32 cm long CT scan encompassing the complete lungs, values of f{sub organ} ranged from 1.7 (thymus) to 0.3 (stomach). Organs that are directly in the x-ray beam, and are completely irradiated, generally had f{sub organ} values well above 1 (i.e., breast, lung, heart, and thymus). Organs that are not completely irradiated in a total chest CT scan generally had f{sub organ} values that are less than 1 (e.g., red bone marrow, liver, and stomach). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV resulted in modest increases in f{sub organ} for the heart (9%) and thymus (8%), but resulted in larger increases for the breast (19%) and red bone marrow (21%). Adult patient chests have been modeled by water cylinders with diameters between

  13. Chest Compression-Only CPR: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hüpfl, Michael; Selig, Harald F; Nagele, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Evidence suggests that dispatcher-assisted chest compression-only bystander CPR may be superior to standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue ventilation) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, yet recent clinical trials did not observe improved outcomes. The goal of the study was to determine the association between chest compression-only CPR and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods Studies published until August 2010 were systematically searched and identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. For the primary meta-analysis only clinical trials were included that prospectively randomized dispatcher instructions to chest compression-only versus standard bystander CPR in out-of-hospital adult cardiac arrest patients; for the secondary meta-analysis observational cohort studies were included that distinguished between standard CPR and chest compression-only CPR. All studies were required to contain survival data. Data on study characteristics, methods and outcomes (return of spontaneous circulation, survival to discharge, 30-day survival, and favourable neurologic outcome) were extracted. A fixed-effects model was used for both meta-analyses for lack of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 0%). Findings All three published randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analyses shows that dispatcher-assisted chest compression-only bystander CPR for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was associated with a 22% improved chance of survival (risk ratio [RR] 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01 – 1.47]; I2, 0%) compared to standard CPR. The absolute increase in survival was 2.4%; the number needed to treat was 41. The secondary meta-analysis included seven observational studies of bystander-CPR (not dispatcher-assisted) and showed no difference between the two CPR techniques (RR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.83 – 1.11]; I2, 0%). Interpretation Dispatcher-assisted chest compression-only bystander CPR is associated with

  14. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Kazuki; AMANO, Shinjiro; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; KAGAWA, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  15. Coccygeal chordoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Brown, Cathy A; Weiss, Raul

    2003-05-01

    A 4-cm diameter spherical mass was removed from the region of the second coccygeal vertebra of a 6-year-old female Doberman Pinscher dog. The mass had been present for 7 months and was described as multilobular and smooth. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of small spindle-shaped cells surrounding lobules of large vacuolated polygonal cells. Mucin was present within most lobules. The large polygonal cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, and S-100 protein. Although the spindle-shaped cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, they only occasionally contained cytokeratin. The histology and immunohistochemistry are consistent with that reported for chordoma. Although 4 chordomas have previously been reported in dogs, this is the first case in which immunohistochemistry has been used to support the histological diagnosis. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was reported 10 months after surgical excision. PMID:12735353

  16. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  17. High-ratio grid considerations in mobile chest radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Alexander W.; Gauntt, David M.; Yester, Michael V.; Barnes, Gary T.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Grids are often not used in mobile chest radiography, and when used, they have a low ratio and are often inaccurately aligned. Recently, a mobile radiography automatic grid alignment system (MRAGA) was developed that accurately and automatically aligns the focal spot with the grid. The objective of this study is to investigate high-ratio grid tradeoffs in mobile chest radiography at fixed patient dose when the focal spot lies on the focal axis of the grid. Methods: The chest phantoms (medium and large) used in this study were modifications of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) chest phantom and consisted of layers of Lucite Trade-Mark-Sign , aluminum, and air. For the large chest phantom, the amount of Lucite and aluminum was increased by 50% over the medium phantom. Further modifications included a mediastinum insert and the addition of contrast targets in the lung and mediastinum regions. Five high-ratio grids were evaluated and compared to the nongrid results at x-ray tube potentials of 80, 90, 100, and 110 kVp for both phantoms. The grids investigated were from two manufacturers: 12:1 and 15:1 aluminum interspace grids from one and 10:1, 13:1, and 15:1 fiber interspace grids from another. MRAGA was employed to align the focal spot with the grid. All exposures for a given kVp and phantom size were made using the same current-time product (CTP). The phantom images were acquired using computed radiography, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and CNR improvement factors (k{sub CNR}) were determined from the resultant images. The noise in the targets and the contrast between the targets and their backgrounds were calculated using a local detrending correction, and the CNR was calculated as the ratio of the target contrast to the background noise. k{sub CNR} was defined as the ratio of the CNR imaged with the grid divided by the CNR imaged without a grid. Results: The CNR values obtained with a high-ratio grid were 4%-65% higher than those

  18. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  19. Essential thrombocythemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Takeshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Yasukawa, Kuniyoshi; Matumoto, Hidefumi; Matsumura, Shingo; Nagasaki, Teppei; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Shimoda, Tetsuya

    2006-11-01

    A two-year old male Welsh Corgi was referred for persistent thrombocytosis and occasional seizure. Hematological findings indicated marked thrombocytosis, eosinophilia, basophilia and moderate anemia. Bone marrow examination revealed marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia with morphologic abnormality. A diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia was made and the treatment was initiated with combination chemotherapy and maintained by prednisolone and busulfan. The dog successfully achieved complete remission on 100 days after initial presentation and has been good in health without chemotherapy since then. PMID:17146180

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Samara, E; Bialer, M; Mechoulam, R

    1988-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major nonpsychoactive cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa L. Recent studies have shown that CBD has a high protective index, comparable to that of phenobarbital and phenytoin. Because CBD has been reported to possess both anticonvulsant and antiepileptic activity, its pharmacokinetics were studied in dogs after the administration of two iv doses (45 and 90 mg) and one oral dose (180 mg) to dogs. After iv administration, CBD was rapidly distributed, followed by a prolonged elimination. It has a terminal half-life of 9 hr. CBD plasma levels declined in a triphasic fashion. The total body clearance of CBD was 17 liters/hr (after the 45-mg dose) and 16 liters/hr (after the 90-mg dose). This clearance value, after its normalization to blood clearance using mathematical equations, approaches the value of the hepatic blood flow; the extraction ratio in the liver is 0.74. CBD was observed to have a large volume of distribution, approximately 100 liters. In the dose range of 45 to 90 mg, the increase in the AUC was proportional to the dose, a fact that indicates that the pharmacokinetic profile of CBD in this dose range was not dose dependent. In three of the six dogs studied, CBD could not be detected in the plasma after oral administration. In the other three, the oral bioavailability ranged from 13 to 19%. The results of this study show that CBD is barely absorbed after oral administration to dogs. This low bioavailability may be due to a first pass effect. PMID:2900742