Science.gov

Sample records for open cut mines

  1. Australian open cut coal mine blasting practices and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Sengstock, G.W.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    During the last two decades, many advances have been made in open cut coal mining technology as new mines have come on stream and old mines have faced increasingly difficult mining and operational conditions. The need for close control of operating costs has necessitated consideration of modified excavation methods. Mining systems now often include: truck/shovel prestripping ahead of dragline operations; dragline high walls of 50 meters; total pit depths in excess of 80 meters; mining of multiple coal seams, thin seams and thin partings; more focus on (and measurement of) excavation equipment productivity; and/or conformance to strict environmental limitations. To meet these challenging requirements, innovative explosive products, initiating explosives and delivery systems have been developed. Suitable blasting techniques such as throw blasting also assist coal mining operations to maintain competitiveness in a tough economic environment. This paper examines some of the changes in blasting practices in both open pit and strip mines throughout the Australian coal industry and considers some of the trends for the future.

  2. Control of water erosion and sediment in open cut coal mines in tropical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, T.; Nugraha, C.; Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Ichinose, M.; Gottfried, J.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to reduce the environmental impacts from open cut mining in tropical areas, such as Indonesia and Vietnam. Research conducted on methods for the control of water erosion and sediment from open cut coal mines is described. Data were collected on climate and weathering in tropical areas, mechanism of water erosion and sedimentation, characteristics of rocks in coal measures under wet conditions, water management at pits and haul roads and ramps, and construction of waste dumps and water management. The results will be applied to the optimum control and management of erosion and sediments in open cut mining. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Measurements and modelling of self-heating in spoil piles from open-cut coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Carras, J.N.; Saghafi, A.; Bainbridge, N.W.

    1996-12-31

    Open-cut coal mining produces large quantities of spoil. Spoil consists of clays, rock, minerals and other carbonaceous materials (including thin coal seams) which have little or no economic value. When exposed to the elements, in spoil piles, the spoil interacts with water and air as part of the weathering process. Some interactions, for example those involving coal, carbonaceous materials, and pyrite are exothermic. If the rate at which heat is generated within the spoil is greater than the rate at which heat is liberated, the temperature of the spoil rises. If the heating remains unchecked spontaneous combustion can occur. This paper describes the major sources of heat in spoil piles from open cut coal mining and presents laboratory and field measurements of spoil heating. A numerical model of self-heating is described and an example of its use is presented.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: contribution from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation.

    PubMed

    Day, Stuart J; Carras, John N; Fry, Robyn; Williams, David J

    2010-07-01

    Spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation of waste coal and other carbonaceous material at open-cut coal mines are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the magnitude of these emissions is largely unknown. In this study, emissions from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation were estimated for six Australian open-cut coal mines with annual coal production ranging from 1.7 to more than 16 Mt. Greenhouse emissions from all other sources at these mines were also estimated and compared to those from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation. In all cases, fugitive emission of methane was the largest source of greenhouse gas; however, in some mines, spontaneous combustion accounted for almost a third of all emissions. For one mine, it was estimated that emissions from spontaneous combustion were around 250,000 t CO(2)-e per annum. The contribution from low-temperature oxidation was generally less than about 1% of the total for all six mines. Estimating areas of spoil affected by spontaneous combustion by ground-based surveys was prone to under-report the area. Airborne infrared imaging appears to be a more reliable method. PMID:19572109

  5. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mined lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants, termites and earthworms) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable and, in terms of habitat restoration and function, typically of great value. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration, seepage, runoff generation and soil erosion. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, the soil macrofauna is typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions and field trials on post-mining lands are required to quantify (i) macrofauna-soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  6. Quantification of the inevitable: the influence of soil macrofauna on soil water movement in rehabilitated open-cut mine land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, S.; Williams, E. R.

    2015-08-01

    Recolonisation of soil by macrofauna (especially ants and termites) in rehabilitated open-cut mine sites is inevitable. In these highly disturbed landscapes, soil invertebrates play a major role in soil development (macropore configuration, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, etc.) and can influence hydrological processes such as infiltration and seepage. Understanding and quantifying these ecosystem processes is important in rehabilitation design, establishment and subsequent management to ensure progress to the desired end-goal, especially in waste cover systems designed to prevent water reaching and transporting underlying hazardous waste materials. However, soil macrofauna are typically overlooked during hydrological modelling, possibly due to uncertainties on the extent of their influence, which can lead to failure of waste cover systems or rehabilitation activities. We propose that scientific experiments under controlled conditions are required to quantify (i) macrofauna - soil structure interactions, (ii) functional dynamics of macrofauna taxa, and (iii) their effects on macrofauna and soil development over time. Such knowledge would provide crucial information for soil water models, which would increase confidence in mine waste cover design recommendations and eventually lead to higher likelihood of rehabilitation success of open-cut mining land.

  7. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  8. Ensuring flat cuts in longwall mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Currie, J. R.; Deaton, E. T.; Kissel, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Minicomputer-controlled towed vehicle automatically determines flatness of wall of coal or other mineral as it is being cut by mining machine and allows machine operator to correct cut as necessary. Vehicle is used for longwall mining.

  9. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  10. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  11. Prospects for improvement of mining machines' cutting picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, S.; Kurzina, I.; Lesin, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of tangential rotary picks widely used in mining machines are described. A prospective line of picks design improvement has been found based on a change in the principle of destruction. A new design of blade-type cutting picks with a reinforcing tip is proposed having extended service life, requiring less energy for rock breaking, reducing yield of fine dust and increasing the grade of the mined coal.

  12. 30 CFR 717.14 - Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas. 717.14 Section 717.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS §...

  13. 30 CFR 717.14 - Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas. 717.14 Section 717.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS §...

  14. 30 CFR 717.14 - Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas. 717.14 Section 717.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS §...

  15. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity.

  16. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The audience applauds and enjoys the official opening of the E&O Building as the new site of the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the ELV Program. Cutting the ribbon for the event were Deputy Manager of the ELV and Payload Carrier Programs, Steve Francois; Director of ELV Launch Services, Michael Benik; Center Director Roy Bridges; Manager of the ELV and Payload Carrier Programs, Bobby Bruckner; and Senior Manager of the Boeing ELV Program Support office, Jim Schofield.

  17. Westfacing portal of South Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West-facing portal of South Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. 1 ( see HAER No. NJ-136-5. North Bergen Tunnel, for Open Cut No. 1 context), looking east - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Eastfacing portal of South Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East-facing portal of South Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. 1 ( see HAER No. NJ-136-5. North Bergen Tunnel, for Open Cut No. 1 context), looking west - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  19. Westfacing portal of North Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West-facing portal of North Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. 2 (see HAER No. NJ-137-7, South Bergen Tunnel, for Open Cut No. 2 context), looking east - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, North Bergen Tunnel, Through Bergen Hill from Prospect Street at Ogden Avenue to John F. Kennedy Boulevard at Beacon Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Eastfacing portal of North Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East-facing portal of North Bergen Tunnel within Open Cut No. 2 (see HAER No. NJ-137-7, South Bergen Tunnel, for Open Cut No. 2 context), looking west - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, North Bergen Tunnel, Through Bergen Hill from Prospect Street at Ogden Avenue to John F. Kennedy Boulevard at Beacon Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  2. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  3. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  4. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  5. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  6. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  7. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges welcomes the audience to a ribbon- cutting ceremony at the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  8. Ribbon cutting opens new ELV offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Bobby Bruckner, manager, ELV and Payload Carrier Programs, speaks at the ribbon-cutting ceremony of the E&O Building at KSC. Home for NASA's unmanned missions since 1964, the building has been renovated to house the Expendable Launch Vehicle Program.

  9. Testing of a diesel-powered impact cutting head for hard-rock mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the performance of a novel prototype kerf-cutting impact mining machine that was evaluated under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Bureau of Mines and RAMEX Systems, Bellevue, WA, while operating under conditions typical of normal tunnel entry development. Selected operating parameters were monitored concurrently to determine baseline operating conditions and to study relationships between operating parameters. Using the data obtained, the specific energy requirements of the impact mining machine were calculated and compared to specific energy requirements of tunnel boring machines cutting in rock having similar hardness. Tests results indicate that the kerf-cutting impact mining machine can provide a mechanical means for mining very hard rock that cannot be effectively mined using commercially available mechanical excavators.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  15. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Points Side Cuts (Rectangular Cut) 18a,...

  16. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  17. Ground control safety analysis of extended cut mining. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.R.; Pappas, D.M.; Listak, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of analyzing roof fall fatalities was to determine the roof falls resulting from extended cutting, then define specific characteristics of both extended and nonextended cut roof fall fatalities. All MSHA roof fall fatality reports for 1988 through 1992 were methodically reviewed. The results reported are based on the fatalities that occurred during this 5-year period, because all reports were available and the mines with extended cut approval were known.

  18. Eastfacing portals within Open Cut No. 2 (South Bergen Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East-facing portals within Open Cut No. 2 (South Bergen Tunnel on left, North Bergen Tunnel see HAER No. NJ-136 on right), from the South Bergen Tunnel tracks, looking west - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  19. Eastfacing portals within Open Cut No. 1 (South Bergen Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East-facing portals within Open Cut No. 1 (South Bergen Tunnel see HAER No. NJ-137 on left, North Bergen Tunnel on right), from the North Bergen Tunnel tracks, looking east - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, North Bergen Tunnel, Through Bergen Hill from Prospect Street at Ogden Avenue to John F. Kennedy Boulevard at Beacon Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Westfacing portals within Open Cut No. 1 (South Bergen Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West-facing portals within Open Cut No. 1 (South Bergen Tunnel see HAER No. NJ-137 on left, North Bergen Tunnel on right), from the North Bergen Tunnel tracks, looking west - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, North Bergen Tunnel, Through Bergen Hill from Prospect Street at Ogden Avenue to John F. Kennedy Boulevard at Beacon Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. Westfacing portals within Open Cut No. 2 (South Bergen Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West-facing portals within Open Cut No. 2 (South Bergen Tunnel on right, North Bergen Tunnel see HAER No. NJ-136) on left), from within the opposite portal of the South Bergen Tunnel, looking east - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  4. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20020 - Unattended mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unattended mine openings. 57.20020 Section 57.20020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  12. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4533 - Mine opening vicinity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine opening vicinity. 57.4533 Section 57.4533 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  17. Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

  18. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using...

  20. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts and Leading Edge Cut; Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using...

  1. Investigation and control of noise generated during coal cutting. Open File report, September 1978-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    The report presents the results of an extensive research and development program to reduce the noise generated during coal cutting. The characteristics and magnitude of continuous miner coal-cutting noise sources are defined. This work consisted of development of a simulated coal seam to facilitate above-ground coal cutting tests, noise measurements in a reverberant acoustic chamber during simulated mining operations of a continuous miner (cutting the simulated coal seam), and noise measurements in an underground coal mine during continuous miner operation. Methods to reduce coal cutting noise are presented. These methods take full advantage of the dynamic characteristics of the forces generated during coal cutting. Dynamic cutting force isolation was shown to be a very effective technique.

  2. Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Double Mine Building (N) wall showing clerestory slot windows opening above level of main roof. Note structure is built on poured concrete foundation partly buried in hillside; view in southeast - Fort McKinley, Double Mine Building, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  4. Shiftable belt conveyor systems in open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Weissflog, J.

    1983-10-01

    During recent years the open-cast mining scene in the USA has altered and the first steps towards continuous haulage have been made. The authors are of the opinion that this development will continue in the future due to the fact that governments, not only the American Government, have introduced environmental laws and regulations which require very high standards of reclamation of mined-out areas. To improve the strip mining system and to improve and to meet reclamation standards, many mining companies now start to operate with cross pit conveying or round the pit conveying systems.

  5. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  6. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  7. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  8. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  9. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  10. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  11. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  12. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  13. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  14. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open flames (IV mines). Smoking or open flames shall not be permitted in a face or raise, or during release...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22105 Smoking and open flames (IV mines). Smoking or open flames shall not be permitted in a face or raise, or during release...

  16. Mining chemical information from open patents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO), with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured. PMID:21999425

  17. Elements in the hair of non-mining workers of a lignite open mine in Neyveli.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Athimoolam; Subramanian, Ramachandran

    2003-04-01

    Trace elements are analyzed in the human scalp hair to assess the extent of body burden of pollution. The levels of seven elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the hair of fishermen from Pondicherry, students and businessmen from Madras and non-mining workers from Neyveli lignite open mine. When compared between them, significantly high concentrations of Cd in the non-mining workers from Neyveli and Pb in both the students and businessmen from Madras were observed, thereby indicating environmental source of Cd and Pb pollution. The low Zn level was observed in the fishermen indicating their low nutritional source. In addition to the different residential areas, age, diet, smoking habit and family income of subjects are other factors influencing the concentrations of elements in the hair. PMID:12725465

  18. 30 CFR 717.14 - Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain stability. (b) On approval by the regulatory authority and in order to conserve soil moisture, ensure stability, and control erosion on final graded slopes, cut-and-fill terraces may be allowed if the... feet unless specifically approved by the regulatory authority as necessary for stability...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22105 - Smoking and open flames (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking and open flames (IV mines). 57.22105 Section 57.22105 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never... Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. (a) Where a new... workings. (3) A statement as to when the operator obtained the right to mine the coal which the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never... Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. (a) Where a new... workings. (3) A statement as to when the operator obtained the right to mine the coal which the...

  9. 30 CFR 75.501-3 - New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. 75.501-3 Section 75.501-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.501-3 New openings; mines above water table and never classed gassy. (a) Where a...

  10. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  11. Forces and Straw Cutting Performance of Double Disc Furrow Opener in No-Till Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an “impossible to achieve” task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  12. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS. OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with tradition open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been dev...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 223 - Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening 17 Figure 17 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 223 - Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boone Wedge Cut Escape Opening 17 Figure 17 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF INNOVATIVE WATER MAIN REHABILITATION TECHNOLOGIES VS OPEN CUT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major benefit of trenchless rehabilitation technologies touted by many practitioners when comparing their products with traditional open cut construction methods is lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In an attempt to verify these claims, multiple tools have been d...

  17. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Michał; Blajer, Mateusz; Cyran, Katarzyna; D'obyrn, Kajetan

    2016-03-01

    Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  18. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  1. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  2. The Xenopus Oocyte Cut-open Vaseline Gap Voltage-clamp Technique With Fluorometry

    PubMed Central

    Rudokas, Michael W.; Varga, Zoltan; Schubert, Angela R.; Asaro, Alexandra B.; Silva, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The cut-open oocyte Vaseline gap (COVG) voltage clamp technique allows for analysis of electrophysiological and kinetic properties of heterologous ion channels in oocytes. Recordings from the cut-open setup are particularly useful for resolving low magnitude gating currents, rapid ionic current activation, and deactivation. The main benefits over the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) technique include increased clamp speed, improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to modulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu. Here, we employ the human cardiac sodium channel (hNaV1.5), expressed in Xenopus oocytes, to demonstrate the cut-open setup and protocol as well as modifications that are required to add voltage clamp fluorometry capability. The properties of fast activating ion channels, such as hNaV1.5, cannot be fully resolved near room temperature using TEVC, in which the entirety of the oocyte membrane is clamped, making voltage control difficult. However, in the cut-open technique, isolation of only a small portion of the cell membrane allows for the rapid clamping required to accurately record fast kinetics while preventing channel run-down associated with patch clamp techniques. In conjunction with the COVG technique, ion channel kinetics and electrophysiological properties can be further assayed by using voltage clamp fluorometry, where protein motion is tracked via cysteine conjugation of extracellularly applied fluorophores, insertion of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, or the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the region of interest1. This additional data yields kinetic information about voltage-dependent conformational rearrangements of the protein via changes in the microenvironment surrounding the fluorescent molecule. PMID:24637712

  3. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations and mine openings. (a) On the surface, no more than one day's supply of combustible materials shall...

  4. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ``to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.`` Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan.

  5. Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R.

    2007-01-15

    A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  7. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  8. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  9. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  10. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  11. Open intersection numbers, Kontsevich-Penner model and cut-and-join operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We continue our investigation of the Kontsevich-Penner model, which describes intersection theory on moduli spaces both for open and closed curves. In particular, we show how Buryak's residue formula, which connects two generating functions of intersection numbers, appears in the general context of matrix models and tau-functions. This allows us to prove that the Kontsevich-Penner matrix integral indeed describes open intersection numbers. For arbitrary N we show that the string and dilaton equations completely specifythe solution of the KP hierarchy. We derive a complete family of the Virasoro and W-constraints, and using these constraints, we construct the cut-and-join operators. The case N = 1, corresponding to open intersection numbers, is particularly interesting: for this case we obtain two different families of the Virasoro constraints, so that the difference between them describes the dependence of the tau-function on even times.

  12. Mining chemical patents with an ensemble of open systems

    PubMed Central

    Leaman, Robert; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Zou, Cherry; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The significant amount of medicinal chemistry information contained in patents makes them an attractive target for text mining. In this manuscript, we describe systems for named entity recognition (NER) of chemicals and genes/proteins in patents, using the CEMP (for chemicals) and GPRO (for genes/proteins) corpora provided by the CHEMDNER task at BioCreative V. Our chemical NER system is an ensemble of five open systems, including both versions of tmChem, our previous work on chemical NER. Their output is combined using a machine learning classification approach. Our chemical NER system obtained 0.8752 precision and 0.9129 recall, for 0.8937 f-score on the CEMP task. Our gene/protein NER system is an extension of our previous work for gene and protein NER, GNormPlus. This system obtained a performance of 0.8143 precision and 0.8141 recall, for 0.8137 f-score on the GPRO task. Both systems achieved the highest performance in their respective tasks at BioCreative V. We conclude that an ensemble of independently-created open systems is sufficiently diverse to significantly improve performance over any individual system, even when they use a similar approach. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmTools/. PMID:27173521

  13. Mining chemical patents with an ensemble of open systems.

    PubMed

    Leaman, Robert; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Zou, Cherry; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The significant amount of medicinal chemistry information contained in patents makes them an attractive target for text mining. In this manuscript, we describe systems for named entity recognition (NER) of chemicals and genes/proteins in patents, using the CEMP (for chemicals) and GPRO (for genes/proteins) corpora provided by the CHEMDNER task at BioCreative V. Our chemical NER system is an ensemble of five open systems, including both versions of tmChem, our previous work on chemical NER. Their output is combined using a machine learning classification approach. Our chemical NER system obtained 0.8752 precision and 0.9129 recall, for 0.8937 f-score on the CEMP task. Our gene/protein NER system is an extension of our previous work for gene and protein NER, GNormPlus. This system obtained a performance of 0.8143 precision and 0.8141 recall, for 0.8137 f-score on the GPRO task. Both systems achieved the highest performance in their respective tasks at BioCreative V. We conclude that an ensemble of independently-created open systems is sufficiently diverse to significantly improve performance over any individual system, even when they use a similar approach.Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmTools/. PMID:27173521

  14. Approaches to Post-Mining Land Reclamation in Polish Open-Cast Lignite Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the situation regarding the reclamation of post-mining land in the case of particular lignite mines in Poland until 2012 against the background of the whole opencast mining. It discusses the process of land purchase for mining operations and its sales after reclamation. It presents the achievements of mines in the reclamation and regeneration of post-mining land as a result of which-after development processes carried out according to European standards-it now serves the inhabitants as a recreational area that increases the attractiveness of the regions.

  15. Dust control considerations for deep-cut mining when utilizing exhaust ventilation and a scrubber. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    Colinet, J.F.; Jankowski, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a series of laboratory tests to investigate the effectiveness of using a flooded-bed scrubber with exhaust ventilation in deep-cut faces of up to 12.2 m in length. An experimental test program to determine the impact on respirable dust levels resulting from changes in face airflow, curtain setback distance, operator positioning, and operating parameters of the external spray system on the miner was completed. Gravimetric sampling was conducted in the immediate return and at three sampling locations on the off-curtain side of the entry. Statistically significant differences in dust levels on the order of 0.5 to 1.2 mg/cu m were observed between specific sampling locations and changes in several test parameters. Several of the statistically significant relationships were found at the inby operator position, which is the least desirable of the operator locations that were tested.

  16. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    SciTech Connect

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J.

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  17. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  18. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  19. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  20. "D.L.&W.R.R. New Bergen Tunnel...Detail of Open Cut Masonry" Plan Sheet. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "D.L.&W.R.R. New Bergen Tunnel...Detail of Open Cut Masonry" Plan Sheet. Revised December 22, 1906. On file at New Jersey Transit Corporation Headquarters, Newark, New Jersey - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, North Bergen Tunnel, Through Bergen Hill from Prospect Street at Ogden Avenue to John F. Kennedy Boulevard at Beacon Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. "D.L.&W. R.R. New Bergen Tunnel...Detail of Open Cut Masonry..." Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "D.L.&W. R.R. New Bergen Tunnel...Detail of Open Cut Masonry..." Plan Sheet. Revised December 22, 1906. On file at New Jersey Transit Corporation Headquarters, Newark, New Jersey - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, South Bergen Tunnel, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  2. Formation of the composition and properties of dumps on the open-pit mines of Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Y. V.; Luk'yanova, S. Y.; Tyuleneva, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the total volume of coal mining in the Kuzbass was about 200 million tons, including 116 million tons (60.3%) produced open way, Figure 1. In 2014, it was produced more than 203 million tons of coal. In addition, there is no reason to believe that in the near future volume of coal will decline. Accordingly, the volume of wastewater discharged by enterprises will increase. So, from 2006 to 2009 there was an increase of polluted water discharge coal mines from 217 to 245 million m3. Therefore, the problem of water pollution mines governmental waters and career is very important.

  3. Drug discovery applications for KNIME: an open source data mining platform.

    PubMed

    Mazanetz, Michael P; Marmon, Robert J; Reisser, Catherine B T; Morao, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in high-throughput screening methods, combinatorial chemistry and the design of virtual libraries have evolved in the pursuit of challenging drug targets. Over the last two decades a vast amount of data has been generated within these fields and as a consequence data mining methods have been developed to extract key pieces of information from these large data pools. Much of this data is now available in the public domain. This has been helpful in the arena of drug discovery for both academic groups and for small to medium sized enterprises which previously would not have had access to such data resources. Commercial data mining software is sometimes prohibitively expensive and the alternate open source data mining software is gaining momentum in both academia and in industrial applications as the costs of research and development continue to rise. KNIME, the Konstanz Information Miner, has emerged as a leader in open source data mining tools. KNIME provides an integrated solution for the data mining requirements across the drug discovery pipeline through a visual assembly of data workflows drawing from an extensive repository of tools. This review will examine KNIME as an open source data mining tool and its applications in drug discovery. PMID:23110532

  4. Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, C D; Makower, A D

    1983-01-01

    Until fairly recently the detection of heatings was based on men seeing or smelling smoke and the laboratory analysis of mine air samples. Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide by means of tube bundle systems has been a big step forward in detecting spontaneous combustion of coal and has found widespread acceptance in U.K. mines; general fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both are based on infra-red analysers like the Unor CO-analysers that can be installed underground. In recent years British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electro-chemical cells, thermistors, detection "thermal noise", infra-red imagers. All these instruments are briefly described by the authors in this paper presented by Mr. Makower. PMID:6414069

  5. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  6. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    PubMed

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining. PMID:17419090

  7. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  8. Two-step web-mining approach to study geology/geophysics-related open-source software projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Knut; Conze, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Geology/geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary science, overlapping with, for instance, physics, biology and chemistry. In today's software-intensive work environments, geoscientists often encounter new open-source software from scientific fields that are only remotely related to the own field of expertise. We show how web-mining techniques can help to carry out systematic discovery and evaluation of such software. In a first step, we downloaded ~500 abstracts (each consisting of ~1 kb UTF-8 text) from agu-fm12.abstractcentral.com. This web site hosts the abstracts of all publications presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2012, the world's largest annual geology/geophysics conference. All abstracts belonged to the category "Earth and Space Science Informatics", an interdisciplinary label cross-cutting many disciplines such as "deep biosphere", "atmospheric research", and "mineral physics". Each publication was represented by a highly structured record with ~20 short data attributes, the largest authorship-record being the unstructured "abstract" field. We processed texts of the abstracts with the statistics software "R" to calculate a corpus and a term-document matrix. Using R package "tm", we applied text-mining techniques to filter data and develop hypotheses about software-development activities happening in various geology/geophysics fields. Analyzing the term-document matrix with basic techniques (e.g., word frequencies, co-occurences, weighting) as well as more complex methods (clustering, classification) several key pieces of information were extracted. For example, text-mining can be used to identify scientists who are also developers of open-source scientific software, and the names of their programming projects and codes can also be identified. In a second step, based on the intermediate results found by processing the conference-abstracts, any new hypotheses can be tested in another webmining subproject: by merging the dataset with open data from github

  9. A Robot Laser As A Flexible Tool For Cutting Openings In The Car-Body On The Production Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felske, A.; Lunzmann, F.

    1986-11-01

    A flexible laser robot system is described which has been selected for the purpose of cutting additional openings in entire bodies in white on the conveyor. The lightweight CO2 400-W-laser generator is carried and moved computer-controlled by the VOLKSWAGEN robotic system with a fixed 3-mirror robot arm for minimizing losses of energy and for increasing quality and reliability. In a pilot project this technique is integrated in the production line at a final stage of production and can be started with the designation of the vehicle's body.

  10. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  11. Assessment of the possible reuse of MSW coming from landfill mining of old open dumpsites.

    PubMed

    Masi, S; Caniani, D; Grieco, E; Lioi, D S; Mancini, I M

    2014-03-01

    The present study addresses the theme of recycling potential of old open dumpsites by using landfill mining. Attention is focused on the possible reuse of the residual finer fraction (<4 mm), which constitutes more than 60% of the total mined material, sampled in the old open dumpsite of Lavello (Southern Italy). We propose a protocol of analysis of the landfill material that links chemical analyses and environmental bioassays. This protocol is used to evaluate the compatibility of the residual matrix for the disposal in temporary storages and the formation of "bio-soils" to be used in geo-environmental applications, such as the construction of barrier layers of landfills, or in environmental remediation activities. Attention is mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and on the possible interaction with test organisms. Chemical analyses of the residual matrix and leaching tests showed that the concentration of heavy metals is always below the legislation limits. Biological acute tests (with Lepidum sativum, Vicia faba and Lactuca sativa) do not emphasize adverse effects to the growth of the plant species, except the bioassay with V. faba, which showed a dose-response effect. The new developed chronic bioassay test with Spartium junceum showed a good adaptation to stress conditions induced by the presence of the mined landfill material. In conclusion, the conducted experimental activities demonstrated the suitability of the material to be used for different purposes. PMID:24412012

  12. Characterization of Aerosol Particles around an Open Pit Coal Mine in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Ebert, Doerthe; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    PM10 around open pit coal mines in Germany frequently exceeds the 24 hours limit value of 50 ?g/m3. To comply with current EU regulations appropriate mitigation strategies have to be developed. For this goal accurate source apportionment is an indispensable prerequisite. In this study characterization of the dust immission was performed by electronmicroscopic individual particle analysis. Particles were collected close to the open pit mine from January 2007 until February 2008 with a two stage cascade impactor (aerodynamic particle diameter: 0.4 - 1 μm and 1 - 10 μm). The size, shape, and chemical composition of more than 30,000 particles were determined by automated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The most abundant particle groups encountered are secondary aerosol particles, soot, silicates, silicate/coal mixtures, coal, sulfates, carbonates, Fe-rich particles and (aged) sea salt. The relative abundance of the different particle groups is highly variable as function of the specific meteorological conditions. It can be distinguished between at least three different scenarios, which were found to cause exceeding of the daily PM10 limit value. a) high concentrations of silicates and silicate/coal mixtures which can be assigned to mining activities, b) high concentrations of secondary aerosol particles and soot (urban background), occurring during inversion periods with stagnant air masses, and c) high concentrations of (aged) sea salt indicating direct transport of air masses from the North Sea. PM2.5 and PM1 are always dominated by urban background aerosol (secondary aerosol particles and soot). Following these results, significant reduction potentials for PM10 only exist for the contribution of the open pit mine (silicates, silicate/coal mixed particles) and for urban background aerosols (secondary aerosol particles and soot). As the contribution of the open pit mine is mainly apparent in the PM10-2.5 fraction

  13. A simplified economic filter for open-pit gold-silver mining in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Long, Keith R.

    1998-01-01

    In resource assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits and in the early stages of exploration, including planning, a need for prefeasibility cost models exists. In exploration, these models to filter economic from uneconomic deposits help to focus on targets that can really benefit the exploration enterprise. In resource assessment, these models can be used to eliminate deposits that would probably be uneconomic even if discovered. The U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) previously developed simplified cost models for such problems (Camm, 1991). These cost models estimate operating and capital expenditures for a mineral deposit given its tonnage, grade, and depth. These cost models were also incorporated in USBM prefeasibility software (Smith, 1991). Because the cost data used to estimate operating and capital costs in these models are now over ten years old, we decided that it was necessary to test these equations with more current data. We limited this study to open-pit gold-silver mines located in the United States.

  14. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  15. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children), micronucleus analysis (56 children), and hair Mn content (166 children). Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%). The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05), increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001) and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure. PMID:24149028

  16. Analysis of rock deformation and fracture induced by rock-cutting tools used in coal mining. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.

    1982-10-15

    Deformation induced in Carthage Limestone and Tennessee Sandstone by an Austin AP24 Flat Cutter in laboratory tests consists of four sets of extension fractures and gouge (fine-grained wear particles). The fracture array, inferred sequence of fracture development, and inferred stress field are independent of rock type and texture. The deformation is three-dimensional, extends laterally as much as 1.8 times the half-width of the tool on either side of the tool, and in depth, most of it is confined to the zone 0.07 in. (1.8 mm) below the base of the cutter. As the tool passes a given point the four sets of extension fractures are formed and subsequently the gouge is developed and reworked by shearing. The efficiency of the Austin cutter could be improved by kerfing and by employing water jets that would remove chips bounded by the fractures before energy was wasted grinding and regrinding the chips, fragments and the sides of the groove. Horizontal and vertical cutting forces decrease with increasing depth of cut and when divided by the area of material removed, they tentatively suggest an optimum depth of cut, namely 0.075 in. (1.9 mm). This interesting result needs to be tested much more extensively.

  17. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines "Kolubara", Serbia--risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ðurašević, M; Kandić, A; Stefanović, P; Vukanac, I; Sešlak, B; Milošević, Z; Marković, T

    2014-05-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and (40)K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines "Kolubara" and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. PMID:24360863

  18. [Energy requirements of miners engaged in open-pit coal mining].

    PubMed

    Pichkhadze, G M; Shalygin, A E; Zubtsov, Iu N

    1987-01-01

    It has been found that according to the value of daily energy consumption the coal miners engaged in open-cast mining should be referred to group III-IV of work intensity. The determining component of daily energy consumption is energy consumption during the working period the value of which depends on the character of working activity and duration of the working shift. The method of strict evaluation of the calorific value of the food taken and the control of body mass is acceptable for the assessment of daily energy consumption. PMID:2964122

  19. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  20. Quantification of water and sediment yield from small catchment in open mining areas: experience and results from Poro nickel mining basin in New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event

  1. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and

  2. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  3. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  4. A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

  5. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  6. Reconstructing past environments and societies - interdisciplinary research in the open cast mine Jänschwalde, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A.; Raab, T.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Müller, F.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany) are a controversial discussed issue. Though lignite mining destroys whole landscapes, it offers the opportunity to investigate prehistory and landscape development on a landscape scale. Since 2010 scientists from Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus and archaeologists from Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum (BLDAM) collaborate to study human-environment interactions. Our study area is the open cast mine Jänschwalde, one out of four active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia. The mine is situated c. 150 km southeast of Berlin. Archaeological excavations have been carried out in the prefield over many years and the outcome is manifold. Different approaches are combined for a comprehensive reconstruction: archaeological investigations, geomorphological/pedological studies and historical research. The archaeological fieldwork includes prospection, the opening of test trenches and area excavations. These outcrop situations provide a view into the stratigraphy and are to some extent commonly used for archaeological and sedimentological/pedological studies. In addition, chronological information is obtained by different methods of relative and absolute (14C, OSL, dendrochronological) age determination. To build up a model for the landscape development, data (topographical maps, historical maps, physiogeographical information, etc.) is gathered and processed. The initial situation for our research is the historic charcoal burning in the former "königliche Taubendorfer Forst" and its impact on the environment. In the study area, this trade was carried out from the c. 17th to the 19th century and is very well documented by about 700 excavated ground plans of circular upright kilns and another c. 300 prospected kilns. It is assumed that charcoal was produced for the smelter at Peitz nearby, where bog iron ore was processed since 1567. There is

  7. Executive summary of the US Bureau of Mines investigations in the Colville Mining District, Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    During 1991 through 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Bureau) - Alaska Field Operations Center (AFOC) in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - Arctic District Office and the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), conducted exploration, geological, geochemical, geophysical, mineral resource, and mineral potential investigations in the 6.7 million hectare Colville Mining District (CMD) study area. The document discusses the pertinent recent and historical information about the CMD, summarizes the findings of Bureau work performed in the CMD to date, and can be used as a principal reference to information on mineral resources within the CMD study area.

  8. Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  11. 3D Modeling of Landslide in Open-pit Mining on Basis of Ground-based LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope stability is not only an important problem which is related to production and safety in open-pit mining, but also very complex task. There are three main reasons which affect the slope stability as follows: geotechnical factors: Geological structure, lithologic characteristics, water, cohesion, friction, etc.; climate factors: Rainfall and temperature; and external factors: Open-pit mining process, explosion vibration, dynamic load, etc.. The 3rd reason, as a specially one in open-pit mining, not only causes some dynamic problems but also induces the fast geometry changing which must be considered in the following research using numerical simulation and stability analysis. Recently, LIDAR technology has been applied in many fields and places in the world wide. Ground-based LIDAR technology with high accuracy up to 3mm increasingly accommodates to monitoring landslides and detecting changing. LIDAR data collection and preprocessing research have been carried out by Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at RWTH Aachen University. LIDAR data, so-called a point-cloud of mass data in high density can be obtained in short time for the sensitive open-pit mining area by using ground-based LIDAR. To obtain a consistent surface model, it is necessary to set up multiple scans with the ground-based LIDAR. The framework of data preprocessing which can be implemented by Poly-Works is introduced as follows: gross error detection and elimination, integration of reference frame, model fusion of different scans (re-sampled in overlap region), data reduction without removing the useful information which is a challenge and research front in LIDAR data processing. After data preprocessing, 3D surface model can be directly generated in Poly-Works or generated in other software by building the triangular meshes. The 3D surface landslide model can be applied to further researches such as: real time landslide geometry monitoring due to the fast data collection and

  12. [Nitrogen fixation potential of biological soil crusts in Heidaigou open coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Lei; Hu, Yi-gang; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Yong-chen

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen limitation is common in terrestrial ecosystems, and it is particularly severe in damaged ecosystems in arid regions. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) , as a crucial component of recovered vegetation, play a vital role in nitrogen fixation during the ecological restoration processes of damaged ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, two dominant types of BSCs (i.e., cyanobacterial-algal crusts and moss crusts) that are widely distributed in the re-vegetated area of Heidaigou open pit coal mine were investigated. Samples were collected in the field and their nitrogenase activities (NA) were measured in the laboratory. The responses of NA to different hydro-thermal factors and the relationships between NA and herbs in addition to crust coverage were analyzed. The results indicated that BSCs under reconstructed vegetation at different succession stages, abandoned land and natural vegetation showed values of NA ranging from 9 to 150 µmol C2H4 . m-2 . h-1, and the NA value of algae crust (77 µmol C2H4 . m-2 . h-1) was markedly higher than that of moss crust (17 µmol C2H4 . m-2 . h-1). In the re-vegetated area, cyanobacterial-algal crust and moss crust under shrub-herb had higher NA values than those of crusts under arbor-shrnb and arbor-shrub-herb. The relationship between NA of the two BSCs and soil relative water content (10% - 100%) as well as culture temperature (5-45 °C) were of quadratic function. With elevated water content and cultural temperature, the NA values increased at the initial stage and then decreased, and reached the maximum value at 25 °C of cultural temperature and 60% or 80% of relative water content. The NA of cyanobacterial-algal crust had a significant quadratic function with herb coverage, as NA declined when herb coverage was higher than 20%. A significant negative correlation was observed between the NA of moss crusts and herb coverage. The NA values of the two types of BSCs had a significant positive correlation

  13. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  14. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  15. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  16. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor. PMID:24310366

  17. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  18. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  19. The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries. PMID:24423623

  20. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  1. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  2. A Data Mining Approach to Reveal Representative Collaboration Indicators in Open Collaboration Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaya, Antonio R.; Boticario, Jesus G.

    2009-01-01

    Data mining methods are successful in educational environments to discover new knowledge or learner skills or features. Unfortunately, they have not been used in depth with collaboration. We have developed a scalable data mining method, whose objective is to infer information on the collaboration during the collaboration process in a…

  3. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  4. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  5. Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy Using a Protective Cutting System: Technical Advancement for the Accuracy of the Osteotomy and Avoiding Intraoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Seo Goo; Elazab, Ashraf; Oh, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for medial unicompartmental arthritis of the knee joint is a successful treatment option but is associated with potential intraoperative complications such as tibial plateau fracture, dislocation of the osteotomy hinge, under- or over-correction of the posterior slope, and neurovascular injury. Therefore we devised a protective cutting system and describe our method for the prevention of these complications. The potential advantages of this system are protection of the posterior neurovascular structures using a curved protector, bone cutting along the natural tibial slope using a superior surface aligning with the natural tibial slope, and complete 1-plane sawing of the posterior wall before the lateral hinge. PMID:27073780

  6. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  7. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  8. Development of laser cutting/welding depth control using laser spectroscopy and open architecture control of a robotic system

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, G.R.; Meirans, L.; Schmitt, D.J.; Small, D.; Watterberg, P.A.; Siegel, S.

    1998-03-01

    This project was driven by the need to identify and provide unique, state-of-the-art solutions to the robotic path planning and precision motion execution problems that face automated processes such as welding and cutting using lasers. The initial LDRD proposal was for a full three years program with a schedule that would create a precision robotic platform capable of providing path planning and precision motion execution using sensor and graphical programming technologies as the first year milestone. Milestones for year two were centered in developing and deploying sensor technologies that support welding and cutting. And year three milestones included the integration of any developed sensors onto the robotic platform under software control to achieve autonomous control of laser welding and cutting processes. The work performed was directed at the goal of establishing a precision robotics platform with the capability to integrate graphical programming, CAD model based path planning, and motion execution under real-time sensor based control. This report covers the progress made toward that goal during the one year of funding.

  9. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  10. MINEs: Open access databases of computationally predicted enzyme promiscuity products for untargeted metabolomics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeffryes, James G.; Colastani, Ricardo L.; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Kind, Tobias; Niehaus, Thomas D.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Fiehn, Oliver; Tyo, Keith E. J.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-08-28

    Metabolomics have proven difficult to execute in an untargeted and generalizable manner. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has made it possible to gather data on thousands of cellular metabolites. However, matching metabolites to their spectral features continues to be a bottleneck, meaning that much of the collected information remains uninterpreted and that new metabolites are seldom discovered in untargeted studies. These challenges require new approaches that consider compounds beyond those available in curated biochemistry databases. Here we present Metabolic In silico Network Expansions (MINEs), an extension of known metabolite databases to include molecules that have not been observed, but are likelymore » to occur based on known metabolites and common biochemical reactions. We utilize an algorithm called the Biochemical Network Integrated Computational Explorer (BNICE) and expert-curated reaction rules based on the Enzyme Commission classification system to propose the novel chemical structures and reactions that comprise MINE databases. Starting from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) COMPOUND database, the MINE contains over 571,000 compounds, of which 93% are not present in the PubChem database. However, these MINE compounds have on average higher structural similarity to natural products than compounds from KEGG or PubChem. MINE databases were able to propose annotations for 98.6% of a set of 667 MassBank spectra, 14% more than KEGG alone and equivalent to PubChem while returning far fewer candidates per spectra than PubChem (46 vs. 1715 median candidates). Application of MINEs to LC–MS accurate mass data enabled the identity of an unknown peak to be confidently predicted. MINE databases are freely accessible for non-commercial use via user-friendly web-tools at http://minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov and developer-friendly APIs. MINEs improve metabolomics peak identification as compared to general chemical databases whose

  11. MINEs: Open access databases of computationally predicted enzyme promiscuity products for untargeted metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffryes, James G.; Colastani, Ricardo L.; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Kind, Tobias; Niehaus, Thomas D.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Fiehn, Oliver; Tyo, Keith E. J.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-08-28

    Metabolomics have proven difficult to execute in an untargeted and generalizable manner. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has made it possible to gather data on thousands of cellular metabolites. However, matching metabolites to their spectral features continues to be a bottleneck, meaning that much of the collected information remains uninterpreted and that new metabolites are seldom discovered in untargeted studies. These challenges require new approaches that consider compounds beyond those available in curated biochemistry databases. Here we present Metabolic In silico Network Expansions (MINEs), an extension of known metabolite databases to include molecules that have not been observed, but are likely to occur based on known metabolites and common biochemical reactions. We utilize an algorithm called the Biochemical Network Integrated Computational Explorer (BNICE) and expert-curated reaction rules based on the Enzyme Commission classification system to propose the novel chemical structures and reactions that comprise MINE databases. Starting from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) COMPOUND database, the MINE contains over 571,000 compounds, of which 93% are not present in the PubChem database. However, these MINE compounds have on average higher structural similarity to natural products than compounds from KEGG or PubChem. MINE databases were able to propose annotations for 98.6% of a set of 667 MassBank spectra, 14% more than KEGG alone and equivalent to PubChem while returning far fewer candidates per spectra than PubChem (46 vs. 1715 median candidates). Application of MINEs to LC–MS accurate mass data enabled the identity of an unknown peak to be confidently predicted. MINE databases are freely accessible for non-commercial use via user-friendly web-tools at http://minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov and developer-friendly APIs. MINEs improve metabolomics peak identification as compared to general chemical databases whose results

  12. Noise control of an auger miner cutting head

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The noise radiated by the cutting heads of continuous mining machines is a significant contributor to the unacceptably high noise levels often found in many coal mines. This paper describes the results of the US Bureau of Mines first concerted effort to develop methods of controlling cutting-head radiated noise. The program was directed specifically toward the development of a reduced-noise auger miner cutting head. The auger miner, equipped with standard cutting heads, exposes jacksetters, the workers nearest the cutting heads, to typical noise levels in excess of 105 dBA. Noise control techniques were developed which have general applicability to other continuous miner cutting heads.

  13. Sub-pixel method for analysis of optical data in determining the overburden dumps and open pit mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, D.; Nikolov, H.; Petkov, D.; Banushev, B.

    2011-11-01

    Mining plants are one of the factors having major negative impact on the area where they are situated. In our study this is the case of the mine production plant consisting of Elacite mine and Mirkovo floatation plant both located in central part of Stara Planina Mountain. In this study an attempt is made to delineate the overburden dumps and open pit mines by means of remotely sensed multispectral data with moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat TM/ETM+ 30m) is a challenging task. The major difficulties arise from: 1) large period using the dump (introducing the need for multitemporal data); 2) the unknown proportions of vegetation, soil and embedding rock samples in the boundary areas and their seasonal variations; 3) relatively restricted access to places of interest. A variety of methods have been proposed to overcome the problems with pixels corresponding to two or more end-members, but a promising one is the soft classification which assign single pixel to several land cover classes in proportion to the area of the pixel that each class covers. In this scenario for every pixel of the data the correct proportion of the end-members should be found and then co-registered with the corresponding original pixel. As a result this sub-pixel classification procedure generates a number of fraction images equal to the number of land cover classes (end-members). The sub-pixel mapping algorithms we have exploited so far have one property in common: accuracy assessment of sub-pixel mapping algorithms is not easy because of missing high resolution ground truth data. One possible solution is to incorporate in the method adopted additional ex-situ and in-situ measured data from field and laboratory spectrometers with bandwidth about 1 nm. This study presents a successful implementation of soft classification method with additional, precise spectrometric data for determination of dump areas of the copper plant and open ore mine. The results achieved are proving that the in

  14. Exposure to whole-body vibration in open-cast mines in the Barents region

    PubMed Central

    Burström, Lage; Hyvärinen, Ville; Johnsen, Magnar; Pettersson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to measure and evaluate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among drivers of mining vehicles in the Barents region. Study design In the period from November 2012 to August 2014, this cross-sectional study was carried out at 3 mines in Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. Methods Measurements of WBV were conducted on the surface of the driver's seat during normal work in accordance with international standards. Personal data on daily exposure times were collected by a questionnaire. Results Measurements were conducted on 95 different mining vehicles both as root mean square (RMS) value and vibration dose value (VDV) representing different manufacturers, models and capacities. Of the 453 miners who answered the questionnaire, 232 indicated that they were exposed to WBV during their working day. The results show that the mean daily exposure time varies between 1.9 and 6.7 h for different vehicles. The calculated mean A(8) could be found in an interval between 0.2 and 1.0 m/s2 and the corresponding 8-h VDV fell between 7 and 17 m/s1.75. Conclusions Exposure to WBV among operators of mining vehicles may be a serious health and safety problem in the mines studied. The employers ought, therefore, take active steps to reduce exposure in accordance with the European vibration directive. Moreover, since some groups of drivers are exposed to vibration that is close to or exceeds the exposure limit values, the employer should take immediate action to reduce exposure below these values. PMID:26864832

  15. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  16. 30 CFR 57.22103 - Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control §...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22103 - Open flames (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control §...

  18. [An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works. The evaluation of the work load in the basic jobs in an open-pit mine].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Deianov, Kh

    1995-01-01

    This occupational physiology study was undertaken within a wider applied-research framework designed to evaluate the occupational environment and its impact on workers at "Asarel" Mining and Milling Works. Analysis of activities showed physical effort (dynamic and static) to be the major problem at the open pit, though varying in extent between jobs (most prominent for blasters and bulldozerists). Nervous/emotional strain, while not leading, was sustained mostly by diggers and blasters, followed by drivers. Organization of work (shift regimen, no regulated breaks, stepwise schedule of days off work) was hardly appropriate and did not allow for recovery. Interviewed workers qualified working conditions as extremely unfavorable; they disapproved with the physical factors of the occupational environment, the workplace, the state of machines and devices, and remuneration for work performed. Exertion from work, assessed by pulse rate and energy expended, was moderate for most activities of diggers, drivers, and drillers. The burden of physical effort was great for blasters at the open pit and for diggers and drillers performing extra repair operations (pulse rate, 100-110 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.2-5.5 Kcal/min). Hardest and least attractive was the work of blasters at stores for explosive materials (pulse rate, 120-141 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.5-6.5 Kcal/min). These adverse factors of labor activities might produce a negative impact on worker health and performance, leading to occupational impairment of their musculoskeletal system, to labor-related disorders of their cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc. Preventive measures are thus necessary to limit physical exertion, optimize the work-and-rest regimen; also, there is a need for conducting pertinent preventive medical examinations, providing social measures (conditions for transportation, rest, nutrition, sports), etc. PMID:8524750

  19. 123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) UNDERGROUND VIEW SHOWING MINERS CUTTING MASS COPPER BY HAND. NOTE CANDLES USED FOR ILLUMINATION. MINING CAPTAIN IN WHITE. C. 1890. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  20. Evaluation of genetic damage in open-cast coal mine workers using the buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda R; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dos Santos, Carla E I; Dias, Johnny F; Kvitko, Kátia

    2013-01-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel source used for the generation of energy. However, coal extraction and its use constitute important pollution factors; thus, risk characterization and estimation are extremely important for the safety of coal workers and the environment. Candiota is located to the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and has the largest coal reserves in Brazil, and the largest thermal power complex in the state. In the open-cast mines, the coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust. The human buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay has been used widely to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death, and basal cell frequency in buccal cells. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged exposure to coal dust could lead to an increase in genomic instability, cell death, and frequency of basal cells using the BMCyt assay. In the analysis of epithelial cells, the exposed group (n = 41) presented with a significantly higher frequency of basal cells, micronuclei in basal and differentiated cells, and binucleated cells compared to the non-exposed group (n = 29). The exposed group showed a significantly lower frequency of condensed chromatin cells than the non-exposed group. However, we found no correlation between DNA damage and metal concentration in the blood of mine workers. DNA damage observed in the mine workers may be a consequence of oxidative damage resulting from exposure to coal residue mixtures. In addition, our findings confirm that the BMCyt assay can be used to identify occupational risk. PMID:23055270

  1. Geologic interpretation of seismic data relocation Route 1, cut, Stations 34-52, Copper Mine Road area and northern portion of Ballard Estate in Topsfield, Mass.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, James E.; Linehan, Rev. Daniel

    1950-01-01

    Relocation of the Newburyport Turnpike, Route 1, in Topsfield, Mass., will require a long relatively deep cut between stations 34 and 52. In order to obtain preliminary information on the depths to bedrock and on the nature of the subsurface materials at this site, reconnaissance seismic work was performed in October 1949. Because this reconnaissance work indicated that bedrock might be relatively near the surface over an extensive area where cuttings were to be made, a more detailed seismic study of the area was made in November 1949. The results of both the reconnaissance and detailed seismic work are included in this report. The work was done as part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  3. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  4. What's mine is yours-open source as a new paradigm for sustainable healthcare education.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel; Martin, Ross D

    2008-01-01

    Free and open access to information, and increasingly digital content and tools, is one of the defining characteristics of the Internet and as such it presents a challenge to traditional models of development and provision of educational materials and activities. Open source is a particular way of giving access to materials and processes in that the source material is available alongside the finished artifact, thereby allowing subsequent adaptation and redevelopment by anyone wishing to undertake the work. Open source is now being developed as a concept that can be applied in settings outside software development (Kelty 2005), and it is increasingly being linked to moral and ethical agendas about the nature of society itself (Lessig 2005). The open source movement also raises issues regarding authority challenging the role of the expert voice. The imperative of open source and associated economic and social factors all point to an opportunity-rich area for both reflection and development. This paper explores the open source phenomena and it will consider ways in which open source principles and ideas can benefit and extend the provision of a wide range of healthcare education services and activities. PMID:18464143

  5. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  6. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  7. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  8. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  9. Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2009-12-30

    In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters. PMID:19665290

  10. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  11. Language to Completion: Success in an Educational Data Mining Massive Open Online Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; McNamara, Danielle S.; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Barnes, Tiffany; Bergner, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Completion rates for massive open online classes (MOOCs) are notoriously low, but learner intent is an important factor. By studying students who drop out despite their intent to complete the MOOC, it may be possible to develop interventions to improve retention and learning outcomes. Previous research into predicting MOOC completion has focused…

  12. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  13. Application of ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis as a tool for optimizing the blast design in large open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explains the methodology for assessing the efficiency of rockmass fragmentation by explosive blasting, from ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis of the blast event. Explosives are used in the mining, quarrying and construction industries for fragmenting rockmass to a suitable size. When an explosive charge is detonated, in addition to fragmenting the rockmass, it will also generate ground vibration and air vibrations. Efficiency of a blast depend upon percentage of blast energy wasted in generating ground vibrations and air vibrations. This in turn will depend upon rockmass characteristics, amount of explosive energy used per delay and spatial distribution of explosive in the rockmass. Ground vibrations and air vibrations, arising out of explosive detonation in a rockmass, could be captured by micro-computer based engineering seismograph and sound level meter. Typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation for a particular rockmass can be identified from ground vibration frequency spectra analysis of the blast event on a personal computer applying Fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation depends upon rockmass impedance and can be estimated from rockmass characteristics and monitoring few trial blasts. Blast event efficiency is estimated by comparing the typical frequency range with the dominant frequency range of the blast event record. A large number of blast events monitored and analyzed by the author in different rockmass formations and correlation of the results with observations made while fragmented material is lifted and loaded into trucks indicated that ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis could be used as a reliable and cost effective tool for assessing the blasting efficiency and optimizing blast design in large open-pit mines.

  14. Mining the Geophysical Research Abstracts Corpus: Mapping the impact of Free and Open Source Software on the EGU Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    Text mining is commonly employed as a tool in data science to investigate and chart emergent information from corpora of research abstracts, such as the Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) published by Copernicus. In this context current standards, such as persistent identifiers like DOI and ORCID, allow us to trace, cite and map links between journal publications, the underlying research data and scientific software. This network can be expressed as a directed graph which enables us to chart networks of cooperation and innovation, thematic foci and the locations of research communities in time and space. However, this approach of data science, focusing on the research process in a self-referential manner, rather than the topical work, is still in a developing stage. Scientific work presented at the EGU General Assembly is often the first step towards new approaches and innovative ideas to the geospatial community. It represents a rich, deep and heterogeneous source of geoscientific thought. This corpus is a significant data source for data science, which has not been analysed on this scale previously. In this work, the corpus of the Geophysical Research Abstracts is used for the first time as a data base for analyses of topical text mining. For this, we used a sturdy and customizable software framework, based on the work of Schmitt et al. [1]. For the analysis we used the High Performance Computing infrastructure of the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam, Germany. Here, we report on the first results from the analysis of the continuous spreading the of use of Free and Open Source Software Tools (FOSS) within the EGU communities, mapping the general increase of FOSS-themed GRA articles in the last decade and the developing spatial patterns of involved parties and FOSS topics. References: [1] Schmitt, L. M., Christianson, K.T, Gupta R..: Linguistic Computing with UNIX Tools, in Kao, A., Poteet S.R. (Eds.): Natural Language processing and Text

  15. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  16. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

  17. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  18. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  19. Strata mechanics in coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book considers the following topics: coal measure; coal seam feature; roof and floor strata; virgin strata pressure; deformation and failure of structure; room and pillar mining; longwall mining; slice mining; open slope mining; sub-level caving; and coal pillar structure.

  20. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  1. Cut Costs without Cutting Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2000-01-01

    Districts can save 5 to 10 percent of budgets without damaging student services by adhering to certain principles: utilize public funds efficiently; set service-improvement and cost-cutting goals; involve and reward employees for improvement efforts; and use management systems, business techniques, and information technology. (MLH)

  2. A collection of open source applications for mass spectrometry data mining.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Óscar; Ovelleiro, David; Gay, Marina; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2014-10-01

    We present several bioinformatics applications for the identification and quantification of phosphoproteome components by MS. These applications include a front-end graphical user interface that combines several Thermo RAW formats to MASCOT™ Generic Format extractors (EasierMgf), two graphical user interfaces for search engines OMSSA and SEQUEST (OmssaGui and SequestGui), and three applications, one for the management of databases in FASTA format (FastaTools), another for the integration of search results from up to three search engines (Integrator), and another one for the visualization of mass spectra and their corresponding database search results (JsonVisor). These applications were developed to solve some of the common problems found in proteomic and phosphoproteomic data analysis and were integrated in the workflow for data processing and feeding on our LymPHOS database. Applications were designed modularly and can be used standalone. These tools are written in Perl and Python programming languages and are supported on Windows platforms. They are all released under an Open Source Software license and can be freely downloaded from our software repository hosted at GoogleCode. PMID:25055762

  3. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-22

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

  4. A Complex Use of the Materials Extracted from an Open-Cast Lignite Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryan, Petr; Bučko, Zdeněk; Mika, Petr

    2014-12-01

    The company Sokolovská uhelná, was the largest producer of city gas in the Czech Republic. After its substitution by natural gas the gasification technology became the basis of the production of electricity in the combine cycle power plant with total output 400 MW. For the possibility of gasification of liquid by- -products forming during the coal gasification a entrained-flow gasifier capable to process also alternative liquid fuels has been in installed. The concentrated waste gas with these sulphur compounds is conducted to the desulphurisation where the highly desired, pure, 96 % H2SO4 is produced. Briquettable brown coal is crushed, milled and dried and then it is passed into briquetting presses where briquettes, used mainly as a fuel in households, are pressed without binder in the punch under the pressure of 175 MPa. Fine brown coal dust (multidust) is commercially used for heat production in pulverized-coal burners. It forms not only during coal drying after separation on electrostatic separators, but it is also acquired by milling of dried coal in a vibratory bar mill. Slag from boilers of classical power plant, cinder form generators and ashes deposited at the dump are dehydrated and they are used as a quality bedding material during construction of communications in the mines of SUAS. Fly ash is used in building industry for partial substitution of cement in concrete. Flue gases after separation of fly ash are desulphurized by wet limestone method, where the main product is gypsum used, among others, in the building industry. Expanded clays from overburdens of coal seams, that are raw material for the production of "Liapor" artificial aggregate, are used heavily. This artificial aggregate is characterized by outstanding thermal and acoustic insulating properties. Przedsiębiorstwo Sokolovska uhelna jest największym producentem gazu miejskiego w Republice Czeskiej. Po jego zastąpieniu przez gaz ziemny, technologia gazyfikacji stała się podstawą do

  5. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  6. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  7. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  8. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  9. Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  10. Position monitor for mining machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubich, J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit at output of incremental transducer records progress of longwall shearer. In contrast to mechanical shaft encoders, electronic circuit can be easily packaged to withstand shock and vibration of mining machine as it cuts across coal seam.

  11. Skylab Exhibit Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A metal strap became tangled over one of the folded solar array panels when Skylab lost its micro meteoroid shield during its launch. Cutters like the ones used to free the solar array were used to cut the ribbon opening to the public a new full-scale Skylab cluster exhibit at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Wielding the cutters are (left to right): Alabama Senator James B. Allen; Marshall Space Flight Center director, Dr. William R. Lucas, Huntsville Mayor, Joe Davis; Madison County Commission Chairman, James Record (standing behind Mayor Davis); and chairman of the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission, Jack Giles. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin used the same type of tool in Earth orbit to cut the aluminum strap which jammed the Skylab solar array.

  12. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  13. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  14. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  15. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  16. US Bureau of Mines mineral investigations in the Unakwik Area Chugach National Forest, Alaska. Mining feasibility study for the Unakwik Area. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, C.H.; Balen, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey did a resource assessment of 40,500 ha (100,000 acre) between Unakwik Inlet and Columbia Glacier in the Chugach National Forest in South Central Alaska during 1992. The Bureau collected and evaluated data on 33 prospects, occurrences, and sample sites. The Bureau concluded that 30 sites have a low mineral development potential, two sites could not be evaluated because they were not found, and one site has an unknown mineral development potential because of limited data.

  17. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in...

  18. 49 CFR 236.52 - Relayed cut-section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relayed cut-section. 236.52 Section 236.52...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.52 Relayed cut-section. Where relayed cut-section is used in... shall be open and the track circuit shunted when the track relay at such cut-section is in...

  19. Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.

    PubMed

    Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

  20. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

    1999-03-01

    A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

  1. Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, H.L.; Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V.; Wang, Y.J.

    1998-12-31

    This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

  2. Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

  3. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  4. Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

    1983-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

  5. Mineral investigations in the Colville Mining District and Southern National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtak, J.M.; Hicks, R.W.; Werdon, M.B.; Meyer, M.P.; Mull, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a five-year mineral resource assessment of the 16.6 million acre Colville Mining District in northern Alaska, which includes part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. During fieldwork, 1593 rock, soil, and stream sediment samples were collected and four bulk samples taken for beneficiation studies. A total of 40 mineral occurrences were documented, including 27 which were previously undescribed. Moderate potential exists for development of zinc-lead-silver, barite, and phosphate deposits.

  6. Feasibility of a machine-mounted scrubber system for ventilating coal-mine working faces. Open File report

    SciTech Connect

    Halfinger, G.

    1984-06-01

    Underground testing was carried out to determine the effectiveness of a machine-mounted scrubber system for ventilating the face during deep cutting. A continuous miner equipped with an integral flooded-bed dust scrubber system was instrumented. Methane and respirable dust data were collected at brattice setbacks of 25 ft (standard), 35 ft, and 50 ft (blowing ventilation) during production shifts.

  7. ESTIMATION OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A SURFACE COAL MINE USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

  8. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  9. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  10. Accuracy of land use change detection using support vector machine and maximum likelihood techniques for open-cast coal mining areas.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-08-01

    One objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based image classification technique with the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) technique for a rapidly changing landscape of an open-cast mine. The other objective was to assess the change in land use pattern due to coal mining from 2006 to 2016. Assessing the change in land use pattern accurately is important for the development and monitoring of coalfields in conjunction with sustainable development. For the present study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of 2006 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data of 2016 of a part of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India, were used. The SVM classification technique provided greater overall classification accuracy when compared to the MLC technique in classifying heterogeneous landscape with limited training dataset. SVM exceeded MLC in handling a difficult challenge of classifying features having near similar reflectance on the mean signature plot, an improvement of over 11 % was observed in classification of built-up area, and an improvement of 24 % was observed in classification of surface water using SVM; similarly, the SVM technique improved the overall land use classification accuracy by almost 6 and 3 % for Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, respectively. Results indicated that land degradation increased significantly from 2006 to 2016 in the study area. This study will help in quantifying the changes and can also serve as a basis for further decision support system studies aiding a variety of purposes such as planning and management of mines and environmental impact assessment. PMID:27461425

  11. Assessment of soil characteristics in the vicinity of open cast coal mine and its suitability for vegetative reclamation in Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Prathap, Amudala; Kujur, Vivek; Chakraborty, Sukalyaon; Bhattacharya, Tanushree

    2016-07-01

    Coal mining is inevitable for economic growth of a country, but at the same time deteriorates the quality of the environment. Open cast mine, especially affects the top soil most negatively. In the present study, soil samples from three representative areas of mining viz proposed, operational and abandoned sites from Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters and metals with an objective to determine their suitability for vegetative reclamation. Soil samples appeared to be slightly acidic (5.97 ± 0.66) with low EC values (101 ± 76 μScm(-1)), total organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.35 %), organic matter (1.34 ± 0.66%) and overall nutrient, especially nitrogen (167 ± 64 kg ha(-1)) contents than required for reclamation by revegetation. However, bulk density was found conducive for reclamation. Total Cr (317 ± 287 to 417 ± 393 mg kg(-1)), Cu (121 ± 72 to 344 ± 143 mg kg(-1)), Ni (171 ± 46 to 373 ± 134 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (114 ± 115 to 182 ± 145 mg kg(-1)) content were found to be higher in soil. Sitewise variation was also significant for Cu and Ni. Pearson's correlation suggested significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive inter elemental correlation between Cr-Fe, Cr-Mn, Cu-Ni, Fe-Mn and Mn-Ni. Positive geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for all the metals except Fe, overall contamination degree of 31.10 and significant enrichment factor indicated considerable contamination. This baseline data could be utilized for vegetative reclamation planning of the study area in future. PMID:27498496

  12. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  13. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  14. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  15. Ventilating the box cut of a two-pass 40-ft extended cut

    SciTech Connect

    Thimons, E.D.; Taylor, C.D.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    On a continuous miner coal face methane concentrations are affected by the quantity of fresh intake air reaching the face. When mining the box cut on a 12.2-m (40-ft) two-pass extended cut face, the continuous miner is always at the point of deepest penetration, and operation of the machine-mounted dust scrubber and water spray system improve the flow of fresh air to the end of the box cut. However, when the continuous miner leaves the box cut to begin cutting the 40-ft slab, little is known about how much ventilation air reaches the end of the box cut. The Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a full-scale study to answer this question. Tests were run to determine how much ventilation air reaches the end of the box cut with the continuous miner at three locations in the 40-ft two-pass extended cut mining sequence; at the end of the 40-ft box cut, at the start of the 40-ft slab cut, and 6.1 m (20 ft) into the slab cut. During these tests, methane gas was uniformly released at the end of the 40-ft box cut. Methane concentrations measured 0.3 m (1 ft) from the roof and face of the box cut were used to estimate face airflow quantities. Fresh airflow rates of 1.89 and 4.72 m{sup 3}/sec (4,000 and 10,000 cfm), scrubber flow rates of 0, 4,000 and 10,000 cfm, water spray pressures of 0 and 827 kPa (0 and 120 psi), and a blowing curtain setback position of 15.2 m (50 ft) were used during these tests. To improve ventilation to the end of the 40-ft box cut when the continuous miner was staging the 40-ft slab cut and 20 ft into the slab cut, the blowing curtain was advanced from its 50-ft setback to locations 40-ft and then 8.5 m (28 ft) from the face.

  16. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  17. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  18. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  19. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  20. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  1. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  2. 30 CFR 75.386 - Final mining of pillars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final mining of pillars. 75.386 Section 75.386... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.386 Final mining of pillars. When only one mine opening is available due to final mining of pillars, no more than 20 miners at a time...

  3. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  4. Methods for assessing critical nonroutine mine health and safety skills. Open File Report, October 1984-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, H.P.; Berger, P.K.; Vaught, C.; Lacefield, W.G.; Wasielewski, R.D.

    1988-03-01

    A comprehensive review of published research was carried out to identify methods for teaching and assessing critical but nonroutine skills needed for coping with emergency situations. Specific methods for assessing critical skills proficiency in aviation, medicine, organization management, the military, and other industrial/technical workplaces are described. The potential application of these methods for teaching and assessing (1) critical first aid and (2) self-rescue and escape skills to underground coal miners in annual refresher training is explored. Research and development activities that may improve mine health and safety training are suggested. Most of these research and development activities were completed later in the project. The additional work is reported in the project technical report No. 2 and the final report. The research reported in the present document was completed in 1984-85. Many of the initial findings reported in the document are updated in the later project final report.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1112 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1112 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame; safeguards. (a) When welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame near...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting,...