Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems
Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen
Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2
Scarring in open quantum systems.
Wisniacki, Diego; Carlo, Gabriel G
2008-04-01
We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map. PMID:18517679
Simulation of open quantum systems
Florian Mintert; Eric J. Heller
2008-03-27
We present an approach for the semiclassical treatment of open quantum systems. An expansion into localized states allows restriction of a simulation to a fraction of the environment that is located within a predefined vicinity of the system. Adding and dropping environmental particles during the simulation yields an effective reduction of the size of the system that is being treated.
Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
Isar, Aurelian
2008-01-24
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, the master equation for two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment is solved in the asymptotic long-time regime. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that in the long-time regime they manifest non-local quantum correlations. We calculate also the logarithmic negativity characterizing the degree of entanglement of the asymptotic state.
Hypothesis testing with open quantum systems
Klaus Molmer
2015-02-09
Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment.
Hypothesis Testing with Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mølmer, Klaus
2015-01-01
Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment.
Hypothesis testing with open quantum systems.
Mølmer, Klaus
2015-01-30
Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment. PMID:25679881
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Super-radiance and open quantum systems
Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2005-07-08
Quantum wires, loosely bound nuclei, molecules in chemical reactions and exotic narrow pentaquark states are different examples of open quantum mesoscopic systems. The coupling with and through continuum is their common feature. We discuss general properties of quantum systems in the regime of strong continuum coupling, when the mechanism of Dicke super-radiance changes intrinsic dynamics, signatures of quantum chaos, lifetime of unstable states and reaction cross sections. The examples are shown for various areas of mesoscopic physics.
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Level shift operators for open quantum systems
Marco Merkli
2006-01-07
Level shift operators describe the second order displacement of eigenvalues under perturbation. They play a central role in resonance theory and ergodic theory of open quantum systems at positive temperatures. We exhibit intrinsic properties of level shift operators, properties which stem from the structure of open quantum systems at positive temperatures and which are common to all such systems. They determine the geometry of resonances bifurcating from eigenvalues of positive temperature Hamiltonians and they relate the Gibbs state, the kernel of level shift operators, and zero energy resonances. We show that degeneracy of energy levels of the small part of the open quantum system causes the Fermi Golden Rule Condition to be violated and we analyze ergodic properties of such systems.
Scattering Theory for Open Quantum Systems
J. Behrndt; M. M. Malamud; H. Neidhardt
2006-10-31
Quantum systems which interact with their environment are often modeled by maximal dissipative operators or so-called Pseudo-Hamiltonians. In this paper the scattering theory for such open systems is considered. First it is assumed that a single maximal dissipative operator $A_D$ in a Hilbert space $\\sH$ is used to describe an open quantum system. In this case the minimal self-adjoint dilation $\\widetilde K$ of $A_D$ can be regarded as the Hamiltonian of a closed system which contains the open system $\\{A_D,\\sH\\}$, but since $\\widetilde K$ is necessarily not semibounded from below, this model is difficult to interpret from a physical point of view. In the second part of the paper an open quantum system is modeled with a family $\\{A(\\mu)\\}$ of maximal dissipative operators depending on energy $\\mu$, and it is shown that the open system can be embedded into a closed system where the Hamiltonian is semibounded. Surprisingly it turns out that the corresponding scattering matrix can be completely recovered from scattering matrices of single Pseudo-Hamiltonians as in the first part of the paper. The general results are applied to a class of Sturm-Liouville operators arising in dissipative and quantum transmitting Schr\\"{o}dinger-Poisson systems.
Open quantum systems with loss and gain
Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter
2015-04-13
We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system. Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-06-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states.
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems.
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states. PMID:26099840
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
Yu-Ran Zhang; Heng Fan
2015-06-25
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information, in which a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise affecting the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states.
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states. PMID:26099840
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
Ryan Sweke; Ilya Sinayskiy; Denis Bernard; Francesco Petruccione
2015-07-02
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension $d$, we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by $d^2-3$ continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a $d$ dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems
Isar, Aurelian [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-6 (Romania)
2011-10-03
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Chaitanya Joshi; Jonas Larson; Timothy P. Spiller
2015-09-11
We investigate a possibility to generate non-classical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems - the Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment induced dissipation drives the system into non-equilibrium steady states. Explicitly, for the Rabi model the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Mulhall, Declan [Department of Physics/Engineering, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510-4642 (United States)
2014-10-15
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Open quantum systems and Random Matrix Theory
Declan Mulhall
2015-01-09
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with Random Matrix Theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the $\\Delta_3(L)$ statistic, width distribution and level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. A super-radiant transition is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and $\\Delta_3(L)$ statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: spin-qubit systems
Kishore Thapliyal; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak; S. Omkar; V. Ravishankar
2015-04-08
Quasiprobability distributions (QDs) in open quantum systems are investigated for $SU(2)$, spin like systems, having relevance to quantum optics and information. In this work, effect of both quantum non-demolition (QND) and dissipative open quantum systems, on the evolution of a number of spin QDs are investigated. Specifically, compact analytic expressions for the $W$, $P$, $Q$, and $F$ functions are obtained for some interesting single, two and three qubit states, undergoing general open system evolutions. Further, corresponding QDs are reported for an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system. The existence of nonclassical characteristics are observed in all the systems investigated here. The study leads to a clear understanding of quantum to classical transition in a host of realistic physical scenarios. Variation of the amount of nonclassicality observed in the quantum systems, studied here,are also investigated using nonclassical volume.
Control landscapes for open system quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel
2012-12-01
The reliable realization of control operations is a key component of quantum information applications. In practice, meeting this goal is very demanding for open quantum systems. This paper investigates the landscape defined as the fidelity J between the desired and achieved quantum operations with an open system. The goal is to maximize J as a functional of the control variables. We specify the complete set of critical points of the landscape function in the so-called kinematic picture. An associated Hessian analysis of the landscape reveals that, upon the satisfaction of a particular controllability criterion, the critical topology is dependent on the particular environment, but no false traps (i.e. suboptimal solutions) exist. Thus, a gradient-type search algorithm should not be hindered in searching for the ultimate optimal solution with such controllable systems. Moreover, the maximal fidelity is proven to coincide with Uhlmann’s fidelity between the environmental initial states associated with the achieved and desired quantum operations, which provides a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem in terms of Kraus maps.
Random Control over Quantum Open Systems
Jun Jing; C. Allen Bishop; Lian-Ao Wu
2014-07-03
Parametric fluctuations or stochastic signals are introduced into the control pulse sequence to investigate the feasibility of random control over quantum open systems. In a large parameter error region, the out-of-order control pulses work as well as the regular pulses for dynamical decoupling and dissipation suppression. Calculations and analysis are based on a non-perturbative control approach allowed by an exact quantum-state-diffusion equation. When the average frequency and duration of the pulse sequence take proper values, the random control sequence is robust, fault- tolerant, and insensitive to pulse strength deviations and interpulse temporal separation in the quasi-periodic sequence. This relaxes the operational requirements placed on quantum control experiments to a great deal.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Zehua Tian; Jieci Wang; Heng Fan; Jiliang Jing
2015-01-27
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187
Relativistic quantum metrology in open system dynamics.
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187
Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
Isar, A. [National Institute of Physics Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-6 (Romania)
2010-08-04
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.
Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isar, A.
2010-08-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.
Inverse Engineering Control in Open Quantum Systems
Jun Jing; Lian-Ao Wu; Marcelo S. Sarandy; J. Gonzalo Muga
2013-12-10
We propose a scheme for inverse engineering control in open quantum systems. Starting from an undetermined time evolution operator, a time-dependent Hamiltonian is derived in order to guide the system to attain an arbitrary target state at a predefined time. We analyze the fidelity of our control protocol under noise with respect to the stochastic fluctuation of the linear parameters of the Hamiltonian during the time evolution. For a special family of Hamiltonians for two-level systems, we show that the control evolution of the system under noise can be categorized into two standard decohering processes: dephasing and depolarization, for both Markovian and non- Markovian conditions. In particular, we illustrate our formalism by analysing the robustness of the engineered target state.
Quantum Arrival Time For Open Systems
J. M. Yearsley
2012-02-09
We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of Lindblad form. We specialise to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localisation time the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a POVM, which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time of arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localisation time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy, $\\delta t$, with which they can be specified which obeys $E\\delta t>>\\hbar$. We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.
Identification of open quantum systems from observable time traces
Jun Zhang; Mohan Sarovar
2015-07-04
Estimating the parameters that dictate the dynamics of a quantum system is an important task for quantum information processing and quantum metrology, as well as fundamental physics. In this paper we develop a method for parameter estimation for Markovian open quantum systems using a temporal record of measurements on the system. The method is based on system realization theory and is a generalization of our previous work on identification of Hamiltonian parameters [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 080401 (2014)].
Fluctuation theorems in driven open quantum systems
Peter Talkner; Michele Campisi; Peter Hänggi
2009-01-01
The characteristic function for the joint measurement of the changes of two or more commuting observables upon an external forcing of a quantum system is derived. In particular, the statistics of the internal energy, the exchanged heat and the work of a quantum system that weakly couples to its environment are determined in terms of the energy changes of the
Reduced Operator Approximation for Modelling Open Quantum Systems
Agnieszka Werpachowska
2015-08-05
We present the Reduced Operator Approximation: a simple, physically transparent and computationally efficient method of modelling open quantum systems. It employs the Heisenberg picture of the quantum dynamics, which allows us to focus on the system degrees of freedom in a natural and easy way. We describe different variants of the method, low- and high-order in the system-bath interaction operators, defining them for either general quantum harmonic oscillator baths or specialising them for independent baths with Lorentzian spectral densities. Its wide applicability is demonstrated on the examples of systems coupled to different baths (with varying system-bath interaction strength and bath memory length), and compared with the exact pseudomode and the popular quantum state diffusion approach. The method captures the decoherence of the system interacting with the bath, while conserving the total energy. Our results suggest that quantum coherence effects persist in open quantum systems for much longer times than previously thought.
Quantum coherence and noise in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazir, Ahsan
2013-03-01
Recent experiments demonstrating signatures of quantum coherence in the excitonic energy transfer dynamics of a variety of systems have sparked renewed interest in the theoretical modelling of energy transfer processes within a dissipative environment. A major challenge remains the development of techniques that allow one to probe the diverse parameter regimes relevant to such systems. Master equation methods provide useful tools with which to efficiently analyse energy transfer dynamics in open quantum systems. However, they are often valid only in rather restrictive parameter regimes, limiting their applicability in the present context. Here, I shall present a versatile variational master equation approach to the non-equilibrium dynamics of dissipative excitonic quantum systems, which allows for the exploration of a wide range of parameter regimes within a single formalism. Derived through the combination of a variationally optimised unitary transformation and the time-local projection operator technique, the master equation can be applied to a range of bath spectral densities, temperatures, and system-bath coupling strengths, and accounts for both non-Markovian and non-equilibrium environmental effects. Applying the formalism in the case of excitonic energy transfer, I shall show that while it correctly reproduces Redfield, polaron, and Foerster dynamics in the appropriate limits, it can also be used in intermediate regimes where none of these theories may be applicable. I shall also discuss the extension of the theory to many-site energy transfer systems Variational master equations thus represent a promising avenue for the exploration of (essentially non-perturbative) dissipative dynamics in a variety of physical systems.
Complete Positivity and Thermodynamics in a Driven Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argentieri, Giuseppe; Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Pezzutto, Marco
2015-06-01
While it is well known that complete positivity guarantees the fulfilment of the second law of thermodynamics, its possible violations have never been proposed as a check of the complete positivity of a given open quantum dynamics. We hereby consider an open quantum micro-circuit, effectively describable as a two-level open quantum system, whose asymptotic current might be experimentally accessible. This latter could indeed be used to discriminate between its possible non-completely positive Redfield dynamics and a completely positive one obtained by standard weak-coupling limit techniques, at the same time verifying the fate of the second law of thermodynamics in such a context.
Open Quantum Systems at Low Temperature
Johan F. Triana
2015-08-25
It is known that the origin of the deviations from standard thermodynamics proceed from the strong coupling to the bath. Here, it is shown that these deviations are related to the power spectrum of the bath. Specifically, it is shown that the system thermal-equilibrium-state cannot be characterized by the canonical Boltzmann's distribution in quantum mechanics. This is because the uncertainty principle imposed a lower bound of the dispersion of the total energy of the system that is dominated by the spectral density of the bath. However, in the classical case, for a wide class of systems that interact via central forces with pairwise-self-interacting environment, the system thermal equilibrium state is exactly characterized by the canonical Boltzmann distribution. As a consequence of this analysis and taking into account all energy scales in the system and reservoir interaction, an effective coupling to the environment is introduced. Sample computations in different regimes predicted by this effective coupling are shown. Specifically, in the strong coupling effective regime, the system exhibits deviations from standard thermodynamics and in the weak coupling effective regime, quantum features such as stationary entanglement are possible at high temperatures. Moreover, it is known that the spectrum of thermal baths depends on the non-Markovian character. Hence, non-Markovian interactions have a important role in the thermal equilibrium state of physical systems. For example, in quantum optomechanics is looked up to cool the mechanical system through an auxiliary system which generally is a cavity. This cooling process takes into account the non-Markovian interaction and as it is shown here, it is more effective than if we use only the Markovian approximation in the equation of motion for the different modes.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems
Vitalii Semin; Francesco Petruccione
2014-11-11
Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local in time master equation that provides a direct connection of dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated with the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and non-equilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.
Nonequilibrium-thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semin, Vitalii; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-11-01
Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local-in-time master equation that provides a direct connection for dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated by the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system, resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and nonequilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.
Geometric phase for open quantum systems and stochastic unravelings
Bassi, Angelo; Ippoliti, Emiliano [Mathematisches Institut, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 39, 80333 Munich (Germany) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2006-06-15
We analyze the geometric phase for an open quantum system when computed by resorting to a stochastic unraveling of the reduced density matrix (quantum jump approach or stochastic Schroedinger equations). We show that the resulting phase strongly depends on the type of unraveling used for the calculations: as such, this phase is not a geometric object since it depends on nonphysical parameters, which are not related to the path followed by the density matrix during the evolution of the system.
Integrable Systems on Open Chains with Quantum Supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Links, J. R.; Gould, M. D.
It is demonstrated how one may derive quantum supersymmetric integrable models on an open chain corresponding to (affinizable) irreducible representations of a quantum superalgebra. A new procedure for constructing the transfer matrix is obtained and an expression for the Hamiltonian is given. Applications to Uq(gl(m|n)) invariant systems are discussed in detail. As examples, the q-analogues of several known integrable correlated electron models are presented.
Ground-state Stabilization of Open Quantum Systems by Dissipation
Yu Pan; Valery Ugrinovskii; Matthew R. James
2015-02-19
Control by dissipation, or environment engineering, constitutes an important methodology within quantum coherent control which was proposed to improve the robustness and scalability of quantum control systems. The system-environment coupling, often considered to be detrimental to quantum coherence, also provides the means to steer the system to desired states. This paper aims to develop the theory for engineering of the dissipation, based on a ground-state Lyapunov stability analysis of open quantum systems via a Heisenberg-picture approach. Algebraic conditions concerning the ground-state stability and scalability of quantum systems are obtained. In particular, Lyapunov stability conditions expressed as operator inequalities allow a purely algebraic treatment of the environment engineering problem, which facilitates the integration of quantum components into a large-scale quantum system and draws an explicit connection to the classical theory of vector Lyapunov functions and decomposition-aggregation methods for control of complex systems. The implications of the results in relation to dissipative quantum computing and state engineering are also discussed in this paper.
Jun Li; Dawei Lu; Zhihuang Luo; Raymond Laflamme; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du
2015-08-04
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic open quantum systems is one of the most challenging and exciting frontiers in quantum sciences and technologies. In this Letter, we present methods of approximately computing reachable sets for coherently controlled dissipative systems, which is very useful for assessing control performances. We apply this to a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system and implement some tasks of quantum control in open systems at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudo-pure states. Our work shows interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Dynamics of initially entangled open quantum systems
Thomas F. Jordan; Anil Shaji; E. C. G. Sudarshan
2004-07-12
Linear maps of matrices describing evolution of density matrices for a quantum system initially entangled with another are identified and found to be not always completely positive. They can even map a positive matrix to a matrix that is not positive, unless we restrict the domain on which the map acts. Nevertheless, their form is similar to that of completely positive maps. Only some minus signs are inserted in the operator-sum representation. Each map is the difference of two completely positive maps. The maps are first obtained as maps of mean values and then as maps of basis matrices. These forms also prove to be useful. An example for two entangled qubits is worked out in detail. Relation to earlier work is discussed.
Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzano, Daniel; Hurtado, Pablo I.
2014-09-01
Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.
Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems
Daniel Manzano; Pablo I. Hurtado
2014-09-25
Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.
Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems
Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2008-02-15
A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suomela, S.; Salmilehto, J.; Savenko, I. G.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Möttönen, M.
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
S. Suomela; J. Salmilehto; I. G. Savenko; T. Ala-Nissila; M. Möttönen
2015-03-27
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems.
Suomela, S; Salmilehto, J; Savenko, I G; Ala-Nissila, T; Möttönen, M
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions. PMID:25768477
Resonance distribution in open quantum chaotic systems
Nonnenmacher, Stéphane
2008-01-01
We use quantum maps as a model to study the resonance spectra of chaotic cavities subject to some damping, which can be due to absorption or partial refraction at the boundaries. In the high-frequency limit, the distribution of quantum decay rates clusters near a ``typical'' value, generally larger than the classical decay rate. The resonant modes exhibit fractal structures in phase space, governed by the unstable and stable manifolds, but our study seems to exclude the possibility of ``strong scars'' on periodic orbits.
Understanding Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems
Yu Hongwei; Zhang Jialin
2008-01-15
We study the Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems by examining the time evolution of a detector (modeled by a two-level atom) interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields. The dynamics of the detector is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom from the complete system. The nonunitary effects are studied by analyzing the time behavior of a particular observable of the detector, i.e., its admissible state, in the Unruh, Hartle-Hawking, as well as Boulware vacua outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the detector in both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua would spontaneously excite with a nonvanishing probability the same as what one would obtain if there is thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole, thus reproducing the basic results concerning the Hawking effect in the framework of open quantum systems.
Coherently tracking the covariance matrix of an open quantum system
Zibo Miao; Michael R. Hush; Matthew James
2015-02-13
Coherent feedback control of quantum systems has demonstrable advantages over measurement-based control, but so far there has been little work done on coherent estimators and more specifically coherent observers. Coherent observers are input the coherent output of a specified quantum plant, and are designed such that some subset of the observer and plant's expectation values converge in the asymptotic limit. We previously developed a class of mean tracking (MT) observers for open harmonic oscillators that only converged in mean position and momentum; Here we develop a class of covariance matrix tracking (CMT) coherent observers that track both the mean and covariance matrix of a quantum plant. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a CMT observer, and find there are more restrictions on a CMT observer than there are on a MT observer. We give examples where we demonstrate how to design a CMT observer and show it can be used to track properties like the entanglement of a plant. As the CMT observer provides more quantum information than a MT observer, we expect it will have greater application in future coherent feedback schemes mediated by coherent observers. Investigation of coherent quantum estimators and observers is important in the ongoing discussion of quantum measurement; As they provide estimation of a system's quantum state without explicit use of the measurement postulate in their derivation.
Coherently tracking the covariance matrix of an open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Zibo; Hush, Michael R.; James, Matthew R.
2015-07-01
Coherent feedback control of quantum systems has demonstrable advantages over measurement-based control, but so far there has been little work done on coherent estimators and more specifically coherent observers. Coherent observers are input the coherent output of a specified quantum plant and are designed such that some subset of the observer's and plant's expectation values converge in the asymptotic limit. We previously developed a class of mean tracking (MT) observers for open harmonic oscillators that only converged in mean position and momentum; here we develop a class of covariance matrix tracking (CMT) coherent observers that track both the mean and the covariance matrix of a quantum plant. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a CMT observer and find that there are more restrictions on a CMT observer than there are on a MT observer. We give examples where we demonstrate how to design a CMT observer and show that it can be used to track properties like the entanglement of a plant. As the CMT observer provides more quantum information than a MT observer, we expect it will have greater application in future coherent feedback schemes mediated by coherent observers. Investigation of coherent quantum estimators and observers is important in the ongoing discussion of quantum measurement because they provide an estimation of a system's quantum state without explicit use of the measurement postulate in their derivation.
Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-10-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.
Stochastic theory of non-Markovian open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xinyu
In this thesis, a stochastic approach to solving non-Markovian open quantum system called "non-Markovian quantum state diffusion" (NMQSD) approach is discussed in details. The NMQSD approach can serve as an analytical and numerical tool to study the dynamics of the open quantum systems. We explore three main topics of the NMQSD approach. First, we extend the NMQSD approach to many-body open systems such as two-qubit system and coupled N-cavity system. Based on the exact NMQSD equations and the corresponding master equations, we investigate several interesting non-Markovian features due to the memory effect of the environment such as the entanglement generation in two-qubit system and the coherence and entanglement transfer between cavities. Second, we extend the original NMQSD approach to the case that system is coupled to a fermionic bath or a spin bath. By introducing the anti-commutative Grassmann noise and the fermionic coherent state, we derive a fermionic NMQSD equation and the corresponding master equation. The fermionic NMQSD is illustrated by several examples. In a single qubit dissipative example, we have explicitly demonstrated that the NMQSD approach and the ordinary quantum mechanics give rise to the exactly same results. We also show the difference between fermionic bath and bosonic bath. Third, we combine the bosonic and fermionic NMQSD approach to develop a unified NMQSD approach to study the case that an open system is coupled to a bosonic bath and a fermionic bath simultaneously. For all practical purposes, we develop a set of useful computer programs (NMQSD Toolbox) to implement the NMQSD equation in realistic computations. In particular, we develop an algorithm to calculate the exact O operator involved in the NMQSD equation. The NMQSD toolbox is designed to be user friendly, so it will be especially valuable for a non-expert who has interest to employ the NMQSD equation to solve a practical problem. Apart from the central topics on the NMQSD approach, we also study the environment-assisted error correction (EAEC) scheme. We have proposed two new schemes beyond the original EAEC scheme. Our schemes can be used to recover an unknown entangled initial state for a dephasing channel and recover an arbitrary unknown initial state for a dissipative channel using a generalized quantum measurement.
Open system dynamics with non-Markovian quantum jumps
J. Piilo; K. Harkonen; S. Maniscalco; K. -A. Suominen
2009-06-25
We discuss in detail how non-Markovian open system dynamics can be described in terms of quantum jumps [J. Piilo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 180402 (2008)]. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to have a jump description contained in the physical Hilbert space of the reduced system. The developed non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) approach is a generalization of the Markovian Monte Carlo Wave Function (MCWF) method into the non-Markovian regime. The method conserves both the probabilities in the density matrix and the norms of the state vectors exactly, and sheds new light on non-Markovian dynamics. The dynamics of the pure state ensemble illustrates how local-in-time master equation can describe memory effects and how the current state of the system carries information on its earlier state. Our approach solves the problem of negative jump probabilities of the Markovian MCWF method in the non-Markovian regime by defining the corresponding jump process with positive probability. The results demonstrate that in the theoretical description of non-Markovian open systems, there occurs quantum jumps which recreate seemingly lost superpositions due to the memory.
Complementarity in Generic Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R.
We develop a unified, information theoretic interpretation of the number-phase complementarity that is applicable both to finite-dimensional (atomic) and infinite-dimensional (oscillator) systems, with number treated as a discrete Hermitian observable and phase as a continuous positive operator valued measure (POVM). The relevant uncertainty principle is obtained as a lower bound on entropy excess, X, the difference between the entropy of one variable, typically the number, and the knowledge of its complementary variable, typically the phase, where knowledge of a variable is defined as its relative entropy with respect to the uniform distribution. In the case of finite-dimensional systems, a weighting of phase knowledge by a factor ? (> 1) is necessary in order to make the bound tight, essentially on account of the POVM nature of phase as defined here. Numerical and analytical evidence suggests that ? tends to 1 as the system dimension becomes infinite. We study the effect of non-dissipative and dissipative noise on these complementary variables for an oscillator as well as atomic systems.
Avoided level crossings in open quantum systems
Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter
2012-06-11
At high level density, two states avoid usually crossing at the critical value $a_{\\rm cr}$ of the parameter $a$ by which the system is controlled. The wavefunctions of the two states are mixed in a finite parameter range around $a_{\\rm cr}$. This holds true for discrete states as well as for narrow resonance states which are coupled via the environment of scattering wavefunctions. We study the influence of avoided level crossings onto four overlapping complex eigenvalues of a symmetric non-Hermitian operator. The mixing of the two wavefunctions around $a_{\\rm cr}$ is simulated, in each case, by assuming a Gaussian distribution around $a_{\\rm cr}$. At high level density, the Gaussian distributions related to avoided crossings of different levels may overlap. Here, new effects arise, especially from the imaginary part of the coupling term via the environment. The results show, moreover, the influence of symmetries onto the multi-level avoided crossing phenomenon.
Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems
P. D. Nation
2015-04-25
We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterations using the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method outperform generalized minimal residual methods. In contrast, minimal residual methods work best for solvers based on direct LU decomposition. This work serves as a guide for solving the steady-state density matrix of an arbitrary quantum optical system, and points to several avenues of future research that will extend the applicability of these classical algorithms in absence of a quantum computer.
Boundary driven open quantum many-body systems
Prosen, Tomaž
2014-01-08
In this lecture course I outline a simple paradigm of non-eqjuilibrium quantum statistical physics, namely we shall study quantum lattice systems with local, Hamiltonian (conservative) interactions which are coupled to the environment via incoherent processes only at the system's boundaries. This is arguably the simplest nontrivial context where one can study far from equilibrium steady states and their transport properties. We shall formulate the problem in terms of a many-body Markovian master equation (the so-called Lindblad equation, and some of its extensions, e.g. the Redfield eqaution). The lecture course consists of two main parts: Firstly, and most extensively we shall present canonical Liouville-space many-body formalism, the so-called 'third quantization' and show how it can be implemented to solve bi-linear open many-particle problems, the key peradigmatic examples being the XY spin 1/2 chains or quasi-free bosonic (or harmonic) chains. Secondly, we shall outline several recent approaches on how to approach exactly solvable open quantum interacting many-body problems, such as anisotropic Heisenberg ((XXZ) spin chain or fermionic Hubbard chain.
Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Verrucchi, Paola
2013-01-01
The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables , and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of ?, whereas as a function of ? is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-? function in the classical limit. In such limit, because ? is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field. PMID:23572581
Semiclassical mechanism for the quantum decay in open chaotic systems.
Waltner, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Martha; Goussev, Arseni; Richter, Klaus
2008-10-24
We address the decay in open chaotic quantum systems and calculate semiclassical corrections to the classical exponential decay. We confirm random matrix predictions and, going beyond, calculate Ehrenfest time effects. To support our results we perform extensive numerical simulations. Within our approach we show that certain (previously unnoticed) pairs of interfering, correlated classical trajectories are of vital importance. They also provide the dynamical mechanism for related phenomena such as photoionization and photodissociation, for which we compute cross-section correlations. Moreover, these orbits allow us to establish a semiclassical version of the continuity equation. PMID:18999749
Nontrivial Eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Ruri; Hatano, Naomichi; Petrosky, Tomio
2011-04-01
We present methods of finding complex eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an open quantum system. The goal is to find eigenvalues that cannot be predicted from the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonian. Our model is a T-type quantum dot with an infinitely long lead. We suggest the existence of the non-trivial eigenvalues of the Liouvillian in two ways: one way is to show that the original problem reduces to the problem of a two-particle Hamiltonian with a two-body interaction and the other way is to show that diagram expansion of the Green's function has correlation between the bra state and the ket state. We also introduce the integral equations equivalent to the original eigenvalue problem.
Quantum-speed-limit time for multiqubit open systems
Chen Liu; Zhen-Yu Xu; Shiqun Zhu
2015-03-17
Quantum-speed-limit (QSL) time captures the intrinsic minimal time interval for a quantum system evolving from an initial state to a target state. In single qubit open systems, it was found that the memory (non-Markovian) effect of environment plays an essential role in shortening QSL time or, say, increasing the capacity for potential speedup. In this paper, we investigate the QSL time for multiqubit open systems. We find that for a certain class of states the memory effect still acts as the indispensable requirement for cutting the QSL time down, while for another class of states this takes place even when the environment is of no memory. In particular, when the initial state is in product state |111...1>, there exists a sudden transition from no capacity for potential speedup to potential speedup in a memoryless environment. In addition, we also display evidence for the subtle connection between QSL time and entanglement that weak entanglement may shorten QSL time even more.
Quantum-speed-limit time for multiqubit open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chen; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Zhu, Shiqun
2015-02-01
Quantum-speed-limit (QSL) time captures the intrinsic minimal time interval for a quantum system evolving from an initial state to a target state. In single qubit open systems, it was found that the memory (non-Markovian) effect of environment plays an essential role in shortening QSL time or, say, increasing the capacity for potential speedup. In this paper, we investigate the QSL time for multiqubit open systems. We find that for a certain class of states the memory effect still acts as the indispensable requirement for cutting the QSL time down, while for another class of states this takes place even when the environment is of no memory. In particular, when the initial state is in product state |111 ⋯1 > , there exists a sudden transition from no capacity for potential speedup to potential speedup in a memoryless environment. In addition, we also display evidence for the subtle connection between QSL time and entanglement that weak entanglement may shorten QSL time even more.
Landauer's Principle in Multipartite Open Quantum System Dynamics.
Lorenzo, S; McCloskey, R; Ciccarello, F; Paternostro, M; Palma, G M
2015-09-18
We investigate the link between information and thermodynamics embodied by Landauer's principle in the open dynamics of a multipartite quantum system. Such irreversible dynamics is described in terms of a collisional model with a finite temperature reservoir. We demonstrate that Landauer's principle holds, for such a configuration, in a form that involves the flow of heat dissipated into the environment and the rate of change of the entropy of the system. Quite remarkably, such a principle for heat and entropy power can be explicitly linked to the rate of creation of correlations among the elements of the multipartite system and, in turn, the non-Markovian nature of their reduced evolution. Such features are illustrated in two exemplary cases. PMID:26430974
Landauer's principle in multipartite open quantum system dynamics
S. Lorenzo; R. McCloskey; F. Ciccarello; M. Paternostro; G. M. Palma
2015-08-12
We investigate the link between information and thermodynamics embodied by Landauer's principle in the open dynamics of a multipartite quantum system. Such irreversible dynamics is described in terms of a collisional model with a finite temperature reservoir. We demonstrate that Landauer's principle holds, for such a configuration, in a form that involves the flow of heat dissipated into the environment and the rate of change of the entropy of the system. Quite remarkably, such a principle for {\\it heat and entropy power} can be explicitly linked to the rate of creation of correlations among the elements of the multipartite system and, in turn, the non-Markovian nature of their reduced evolution. Such features are illustrated in two exemplary cases.
Open system dynamics with non-Markovian quantum trajectories
Walter T Strunz; Lajos Diosi; Nicolas Gisin
1998-03-27
A non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equation for a quantum system coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators is presented. Its solutions, when averaged over the noise, reproduce the standard reduced density operator without any approximation. We illustrate the power of this approach with several examples, including exponentially decaying bath correlations and extreme non-Markovian cases, where the `environment' consists of only a single oscillator. The latter case shows the decay and revival of a `Schroedinger cat' state. For strong coupling to a dissipative environment with memory, the asymptotic state can be reached in a finite time. Our description of open systems is compatible with different positions of the `Heisenberg cut' between system and environment.
Born-Oppenheimer approximation for open quantum systems within the quantum trajectory approach
Huang, X. L.; Wu, S. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2010-05-15
Using the quantum trajectory approach, we extend the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation from closed to open quantum systems, where the open quantum system is described by a master equation in Lindblad form. The BO approximation is defined and the validity condition is derived. We find that the dissipation in fast variables improves the BO approximation, unlike the dissipation in slow variables. A detailed comparison is presented between this extension and our previous approximation based on the effective Hamiltonian approach [X. L. Huang and X. X. Yi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032108 (2009)]. Several additional features and advantages are analyzed, which show that the two approximations are complementary to each other. Two examples are described to illustrate our method.
Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system
Wang Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)
2011-06-15
In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment, and their interaction: One basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system + environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.
Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems
Carole Addis; Teiko Heinosaari; Jukka Kiukas; Elsi-Mari Laine; Sabrina Maniscalco
2015-08-19
The non-classical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the non-classicality of a quantum system cannot be encapsulated as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the non-classicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and, further, how a non-Markovian environment may help us in maintaining the measurement resources.
Dynamics of quantum tomography in an open system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchiyama, Chikako
2015-06-01
In this study, we provide a way to describe the dynamics of quantum tomography in an open system with a generalized master equation, considering a case where the relevant system under tomographic measurement is influenced by the environment. We apply this to spin tomography because such situations typically occur in ?SR (muon spin rotation/relaxation/resonance) experiments where microscopic features of the material are investigated by injecting muons as probes. As a typical example to describe the interaction between muons and a sample material, we use a spin-boson model where the relevant spin interacts with a bosonic environment. We describe the dynamics of a spin tomogram using a time-convolutionless type of generalized master equation that enables us to describe short time scales and/or low-temperature regions. Through numerical evaluation for the case of Ohmic spectral density with an exponential cutoff, a clear interdependency is found between the time evolution of elements of the density operator and a spin tomogram. The formulation in this paper may provide important fundamental information for the analysis of results from, for example, ?SR experiments on short time scales and/or in low-temperature regions using spin tomography.
Non-Markovianity and memory effects in quantum open systems
S. C. Hou; S. L. Liang; X. X. Yi
2015-01-27
Although a number of measures for quantum non-Markovianity have been proposed recently, it is still an open question whether these measures directly characterize the memory effect of the environment, i.e., the dependence of a quantum state on its past in a time evolution. In this paper, we present a criterion and propose a measure for non-Markovianity with clear physical interpretations of the memory effect. The non-Markovianity is defined by the inequality $T(t_2,t_0)\
Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems
Shabani, A.
We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to ...
Minimal evolution time and quantum speed limit of non-Markovian open systems
Xiangyi Meng; Chengjun Wu; Hong Guo
2015-04-05
We derive a new sharp bound as the quantum speed limit (QSL) for the minimal evolution time of quantum open systems in the non-Markovian strong-coupling regime with initial mixed states by considering the effects of both renormalized Hamiltonian and dissipator. We find that the minimal evolution time and its QSL can decrease steeply by adjusting the coupling strength of the dissipator, which thus provides potential improvements of efficiency in many quantum physics and quantum information areas.
On the relationship between quantum entanglement and classical synchronization in open systems
E. D. Vol
2010-04-30
We propose a simple model of classical open system consisting of two subsystems all stationary states of which correspond to phase synchronization between the subsystems. The model is generalized to quantum systems in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. The analysis of the simplest two qubit version of the quantum model shows that all its stationary states are nonseparable.
Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems
S. Gasparinetti; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti
2014-07-29
As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here we set up a formalism that allows to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreshkov, Ognyan
This thesis examines seven topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems. The first one concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum measurements. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be decomposed into a sequence of weak measurements which allows us to think of measurements as resulting form continuous stochastic processes. The second topic concerns an application of the decomposition into weak measurements to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived, and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic examines the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic studies continuous quantum error-correction in the case of non-Markovian decoherence. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous quantum error correction may exhibit a quadratic improvement if the time resolution of the error-correcting operations is sufficiently high. The fifth topic concerns conditions for correctability of subsystem codes in the case of continuous decoherence. The obtained conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian can be thought of as generalizations of the previously known conditions for noiseless subsystems to the case where the subsystem is time-dependent. The sixth topic examines the robustness of quantum error-correcting codes against initialization errors. It is shown that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard error-correction conditions. For this purpose, a new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and its properties are discussed. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum computation and stabilizer codes. A fault-tolerant scheme for holonomic computations is presented, demonstrating the scalability of the holonomic method. The scheme opens the possibility for combining the benefits of error correction with the inherent resilience of the holonomic approach.
Thermalization and ergodicity in many-body open quantum systems
Znidaric, Marko; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Rossini, Davide
2009-01-01
We study thermalization in many-body quantum systems locally coupled to an external bath. It is shown that quantum chaotic systems do thermalize, that is, they exhibit relaxation to an invariant ergodic state which, in the bulk, is well approximated by the grand canonical state. Moreover, the resulting ergodic state in the bulk does not depend on the details of the baths. On the other hand, for integrable systems the invariant state does depend on the bath and is different from the grand canonical state.
Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems
Ognyan Oreshkov
2008-12-27
This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic is a study of the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic investigates continuous QEC in the presence of non-Markovian noise. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous QEC exhibits a quadratic improvement for a sufficiently high time resolution of the error-correcting operations. The fifth topic studies the conditions for correctability of subsystem codes under continuous dynamics. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian are derived. The sixth topic examines the robustness of operator QEC codes against initialization errors. A new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and is used to show that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard operator QEC conditions. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum computation (HQC) and stabilizer codes. A fault-tolerant scheme for HQC is presented, proving the scalability of the holonomic approach.
QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
J. R. Johansson; P. D. Nation; Franco Nori
2011-11-22
We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte-Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well-suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction.
Quantum states and phases in driven open quantum systems with cold atoms
Loss, Daniel
the dissipative terms. The quantum jump operators c are system operators as they appear in the interaction jump) of the system associated with the emission of a quantum into the harmonic oscillator bath of the set of quantum jump operators with zero eigenvalue, that is, (1) c |D = 0, which is compatible
A mesoscopic magnetron as an open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudlik, Tadeusz; Castro Neto, Antonio; Campbell, David
2015-03-01
The emergence of materials with room temperature electron mean free paths of a micron or more opens up new possibilities in the design of solid state devices. One such potential new paradigm are solid state quasi-free electron devices, which promise to combine the wide frequency tunability of classical vacuum tube devices with the small size and low costs of semiconductor technology. As a step towards realistic models of these devices, we develop a quantum mechanical description of a mesoscopic magnetron, in which the vacuum chamber of traditional magnetron is replaced with a semiconductor. We show that the problem can be mapped to a Bose-Hubbard dimer coupled to a dissipative bath and study the effect of the band structure of the medium on device performance.
Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems
Mohseni, M; Lloyd, S; Omar, Y; Rabitz, H
2013-01-01
We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A and 50 A, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain 7 and 14 chromophores respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in (Fenna-Matthews-Olson) FMO protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential nat...
Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems
M. Mohseni; A. Shabani; S. Lloyd; Y. Omar; H. Rabitz
2012-12-31
We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A and 50 A, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain 7 and 14 chromophores respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in (Fenna-Matthews-Olson) FMO protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential natural optimization with respect to chromophoric density.
Open system quantum annealing in mean field models with exponential degeneracy
Kostyantyn Kechedzhi; Vadim N. Smelyanskiy
2015-05-21
Real life quantum computers are inevitably affected by intrinsic noise resulting in dissipative non-unitary dynamics realized by these devices. We consider an open system quantum annealing algorithm optimized for a realistic analog quantum device which takes advantage of noise-induced thermalization and relies on incoherent quantum tunneling at finite temperature. We analyze the performance of this algorithm considering a p-spin model which allows for a mean field quasicalssical solution and at the same time demonstrates the 1st order phase transition and exponential degeneracy of states. We demonstrate that finite temperature effects introduced by the noise are particularly important for the dynamics in presence of the exponential degeneracy of metastable states. We determine the optimal regime of the open system quantum annealing algorithm for this model and find that it can outperform simulated annealing in a range of parameters.
Mappings of open quantum systems onto chain representations and Markovian embeddings
M. P. Woods; R. Groux; A. W. Chin; S. F. Huelga; M. B. Plenio
2012-11-04
We derive a sequence of measures whose corresponding Jacobi matrices have special properties and a general mapping of an open quantum system onto 1D semi infinite chains with only nearest neighbour interactions. Then we proceed to use the sequence of measures and the properties of the Jacobi matrices to derive an expression for the spectral density describing the open quantum system when an increasing number of degrees of freedom in the environment have been embedded into the system. Finally, we derive convergence theorems for these residual spectral densities.
Entanglement and discord in two-mode Gaussian open quantum systems
Aurelian Isar
2013-01-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems, we give a description of quantum entanglement and quantum discord for two non-interacting modes embedded in a thermal environment. We describe the evolution of entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable squeezed thermal state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for non-zero temperatures of the environment. The Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the state, including entanglement, decays asymptotically in time.
Dattani, Nikesh S
2012-01-01
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled by the Feynman-Vernon model. The user gives the program a vector describing the coordinate of an open quantum system, a hamiltonian matrix describing its energy, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment's influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system's intial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all (or some) moments specified by that grid of times. This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time-propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup ...
Nikesh S. Dattani
2012-05-31
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled by the Feynman-Vernon model. The user gives the program a vector describing the coordinate of an open quantum system, a hamiltonian matrix describing its energy, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment's influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system's intial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all (or some) moments specified by that grid of times. This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time-propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integal actually becomes the rate limiting step for most cases tested so far. The overhead of transfrring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU.
Exact quantum jump approach to open systems in bosonic and spin baths
Heinz-Peter Breuer
2004-01-01
A general method is developed which enables the exact treatment of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems through a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The method is based on a stochastic formulation of the von Neumann equation of the composite system and employs a pair of product states following a Markovian random jump process. The performance of the method is
Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase
Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Moettoenen, M.
2010-12-15
We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.
Quantum response theory for open systems and its application to Hall conductance
H. Z. Shen; M. Qin; Y. H. Zhou; X. Q. Shao; X. X. Yi
2015-05-07
Quantum linear response theory considers only the response of a closed quantum system to a perturbation up to first order in the perturbation. This theory breaks down when the system subjects to environments and the response up to second order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a quantum nonlinear response theory for open systems. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, then apply it to deriving the Hall conductance for the open system at finite temperature. Taking the two-band model as an example, we derive the Hall conductance for the two-band model. We calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model via different expressions for $d_{\\alpha}(\\vec p), \\ \\alpha=x,y,z$. The results show that the transition points of topological phase almost remain unchanged in the presence of environments.
Equivalence of matrix product ensembles of trajectories in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiukas, Jukka; GuÅ£?, M?d?lin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-07-01
The equivalence of thermodynamic ensembles is at the heart of statistical mechanics and central to our understanding of equilibrium states of matter. Recently, a formal connection has been established between the dynamics of open quantum systems and statistical mechanics in an extra dimension: an open system dynamics generates a matrix product state (MPS) encoding all possible quantum jump trajectories which allows to construct generating functions akin to partition functions. For dynamics generated by a Lindblad master equation, the corresponding MPS is a so-called continuous MPS which encodes the set of continuous measurement records terminated at some fixed total observation time. Here, we show that if one instead terminates trajectories after a fixed total number of quantum jumps, e.g., emission events into the environment, the associated MPS is discrete. The continuous and discrete MPS correspond to different ensembles of quantum trajectories, one characterized by total time, the other by total number of quantum jumps. Hence, they give rise to quantum versions of different thermodynamic ensembles, akin to "grand canonical" and "isobaric," but for trajectories. Here, we prove that these trajectory ensembles are equivalent in a suitable limit of long time or large number of jumps. This is in direct analogy to equilibrium statistical mechanics where equivalence between ensembles is only strictly established in the thermodynamic limit. An intrinsic quantum feature is that the equivalence holds only for all observables that commute with the number of quantum jumps.
Equivalence of matrix product ensembles of trajectories in open quantum systems.
Kiukas, Jukka; Gu??, M?d?lin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P
2015-07-01
The equivalence of thermodynamic ensembles is at the heart of statistical mechanics and central to our understanding of equilibrium states of matter. Recently, a formal connection has been established between the dynamics of open quantum systems and statistical mechanics in an extra dimension: an open system dynamics generates a matrix product state (MPS) encoding all possible quantum jump trajectories which allows to construct generating functions akin to partition functions. For dynamics generated by a Lindblad master equation, the corresponding MPS is a so-called continuous MPS which encodes the set of continuous measurement records terminated at some fixed total observation time. Here, we show that if one instead terminates trajectories after a fixed total number of quantum jumps, e.g., emission events into the environment, the associated MPS is discrete. The continuous and discrete MPS correspond to different ensembles of quantum trajectories, one characterized by total time, the other by total number of quantum jumps. Hence, they give rise to quantum versions of different thermodynamic ensembles, akin to "grand canonical" and "isobaric," but for trajectories. Here, we prove that these trajectory ensembles are equivalent in a suitable limit of long time or large number of jumps. This is in direct analogy to equilibrium statistical mechanics where equivalence between ensembles is only strictly established in the thermodynamic limit. An intrinsic quantum feature is that the equivalence holds only for all observables that commute with the number of quantum jumps. PMID:26274149
Real-time transport in open quantum systems from PT-symmetric quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elenewski, Justin E.; Chen, Hanning
2014-08-01
Nanoscale electronic transport is of intense technological interest, with applications ranging from semiconducting devices and molecular junctions to charge migration in biological systems. Most explicit theoretical approaches treat transport using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions. This is a static formalism, with dynamic response properties accommodated only through complicated extensions. To circumvent this limitation, the carrier density may be propagated using real-time time-dependent DFT (RT-TDDFT), with boundary conditions corresponding to an open quantum system. Complex absorbing potentials can emulate outgoing particles at the simulation boundary, although these do not account for introduction of charge density. It is demonstrated that the desired positive particle flux is afforded by a class of PT-symmetric generating potentials that are characterized by anisotropic transmission resonances. These potentials add density every time a particle traverses the cell boundary, and may be used to engineer a continuous pulse train for incident packets. This is a first step toward developing a complete transport formalism unique to RT-TDDFT.
Garrahan, Juan P.
2012-01-01
, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom (Received 26 June 2012; published 19 December 2012) We apply a large-deviation method to study the diffusive trajectories of the quadratures of light emitted from open quantum systems. We formulate the study of quadrature trajectories in terms
E. B. Fel'dman; A. I. Zenchuk
2015-02-10
Although quantum correlations in a quantum system are characterized by the evolving quantities (which are entanglement and discord usually), we reveal such basis (i.e. the set of virtual particles) for the representation of the density matrix that the entanglement and/or discord between any two virtual particles in such representation are stationary. In particular, dealing with the nearest neighbor approximation, this system of virtual particles is represented by the $\\beta$-fermions of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. Such systems are important in quantum information devices because the evolution of quantum entanglement/discord leads to the problems of realization of quantum operations. The advantage of stationary entanglement/discord is that they are completely defined by the initial density matrix and by the Hamiltonian governing the quantum dynamics in the system under consideration. Moreover, using the special initial condition together with the special system's geometry, we construct large cluster of virtual particles with the same pairwise entanglement/discord. In other words, the measure of quantum correlations is stationary in this system and correlations are uniformly "distributed" among all virtual particles. As examples, we use both homogeneous and non-homogeneous spin-1/2 open chains with XY-interaction although other types of interactions might be also of interest.
QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco
2012-08-01
We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction. Catalogue identifier: AEMB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 16 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 213 438 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python Computer: i386, x86-64 Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7 External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.org/), Matplotlib (http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems. Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad master equation or Monte Carlo wave function method. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of minutes, depending on size of underlying Hilbert space.
Open quantum system stochastic dynamics with and without the RWA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, Y. B.
2015-02-01
We study the dynamics of a two-level quantum system interacting with a single frequency electromagnetic field and a stochastic magnetic field, with and without making the rotating wave approximation (RWA). The transformation to the rotating frame does not commute with the stochastic Hamiltonian if the stochastic field has nonvanishing components in the transverse direction, hence, applying the RWA requires transformation of the stochastic terms in the Hamiltonian. For Gaussian white noise, the master equation is derived from the stochastic Schrödinger–Langevin equations, with and without the RWA. With the RWA, the master equation for the density matrix has Lindblad terms with coefficients that are time-dependent (i.e., the master equation is time-local). An approximate analytic expression for the density matrix is obtained with the RWA. For Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise, as well as other types of colored noise, in contradistinction to the Gaussian white noise case, the non-commutation of the RWA transformation and the noise Hamiltonian can significantly affect the RWA dynamics when ? {{? }corr} 1, where ? is the electromagnetic field frequency and {{? }corr} is the stochastic magnetic field correlation time.
Chain representations of Open Quantum Systems and Lieb-Robinson like bounds for the dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woods, Mischa
2013-03-01
This talk is concerned with the mapping of the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems onto chain representations, which forms the basis for a rigorous theory of the interaction of a system with its environment. This mapping progresses as an interaction which gives rise to a sequence of residual spectral densities of the system. The rigorous mathematical properties of this mapping have been unknown so far. Here we develop the theory of secondary measures to derive an analytic, expression for the sequence solely in terms of the initial measure and its associated orthogonal polynomials of the first and second kind. These mappings can be thought of as taking a highly nonlocal Hamiltonian to a local Hamiltonian. In the latter, a Lieb-Robinson like bound for the dynamics of the open quantum system makes sense. We develop analytical bounds on the error to observables of the system as a function of time when the semi-infinite chain in truncated at some finite length. The fact that this is possible shows that there is a finite ``Speed of sound'' in these chain representations. This has many implications of the simulatability of open quantum systems of this type and demonstrates that a truncated chain can faithfully reproduce the dynamics at shorter times. These results make a significant and mathematically rigorous contribution to the understanding of the theory of open quantum systems; and pave the way towards the efficient simulation of these systems, which within the standard methods, is often an intractable problem. This talk is concerned with the mapping of the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems onto chain representations, which forms the basis for a rigorous theory of the interaction of a system with its environment. This mapping progresses as an interaction which gives rise to a sequence of residual spectral densities of the system. The rigorous mathematical properties of this mapping have been unknown so far. Here we develop the theory of secondary measures to derive an analytic, expression for the sequence solely in terms of the initial measure and its associated orthogonal polynomials of the first and second kind. These mappings can be thought of as taking a highly nonlocal Hamiltonian to a local Hamiltonian. In the latter, a Lieb-Robinson like bound for the dynamics of the open quantum system makes sense. We develop analytical bounds on the error to observables of the system as a function of time when the semi-infinite chain in truncated at some finite length. The fact that this is possible shows that there is a finite ``Speed of sound'' in these chain representations. This has many implications of the simulatability of open quantum systems of this type and demonstrates that a truncated chain can faithfully reproduce the dynamics at shorter times. These results make a significant and mathematically rigorous contribution to the understanding of the theory of open quantum systems; and pave the way towards the efficient simulation of these systems, which within the standard methods, is often an intractable problem. EPSRC CDT in Controlled Quantum Dynamics, EU STREP project and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
Exact quantum jump approach to open systems in Bosonic and spin baths
Heinz-Peter Breuer
2003-08-09
A general method is developed which enables the exact treatment of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems through a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The method is based on a stochastic formulation of the von Neumann equation of the composite system and employs a pair of product states following a Markovian random jump process. The performance of the method is illustrated by means of stochastic simulations of the dynamics of open systems interacting with a Bosonic reservoir at zero temperature and with a spin bath in the strong coupling regime.
Exact quantum jump approach to open systems in bosonic and spin baths
Breuer, Heinz-Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)
2004-02-01
A general method is developed which enables the exact treatment of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems through a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The method is based on a stochastic formulation of the von Neumann equation of the composite system and employs a pair of product states following a Markovian random jump process. The performance of the method is illustrated by means of stochastic simulations of the dynamics of open systems interacting with a Bosonic reservoir at zero temperature and with a spin bath in the strong coupling regime.
Dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of correlations in open quantum systems
Bruno Bellomo; Rosario Lo Franco; Giuseppe Compagno
2012-06-28
We extend the Hilbert-Schmidt (square norm) distance, previously used to define the geometric quantum discord, to define also geometric quantifiers of total and classical correlations. We then compare the dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of the different kinds of correlations in a non-Markovian open two-qubit system under local dephasing. We find that qualitative differences occur only for quantum discords. This is taken to imply that geometric and entropic discords are not, in general, equivalent in describing the dynamics of quantum correlations. We then show that also geometric and entropic quantifiers of total correlations present qualitative disagreements in the state space. This aspect indicates that the differences found for quantum discord are not attributable to a different separation, introduced by each measure, between the quantum and classical parts of correlations. Finally, we find that the Hilbert-Schmidt distance formally coincides with a symmetrized form of linear relative entropy.
Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms
Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M.
2011-01-15
The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam.
Demonstration of Open Quantum System Optimal Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Sarah Sheldon; David G. Cory
2015-07-20
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. The resulting nuclear polarization enhancement can, in theory, be two or three orders of magnitude depending on the sample. In solid state systems, however, there are competing mechanisms of DNP, which, when occurring simultaneously, reduce the net polarization enhancement of the nuclear spin. We present a simple quantum description of DNP and apply optimal control theory (OCT) with an open quantum system framework to design pulses that select one DNP process and suppress the others. We demonstrate experimentally an order of magnitude improvement in the DNP enhancement using OCT pulses.
Superradiance, disorder, and the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in open quantum systems
Celardo, G. L.; Biella, A.; Giusteri, G. G.; Mattiotti, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica and Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Advanced Materials Physics, Università Cattolica, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Zhang, Y.; Kaplan, L. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)
2014-10-15
We first briefly review the non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian approach to open quantum systems and the associated phenomenon of superradiance. We next discuss the superradiance crossover in the presence of disorder and the relationship between superradiance and the localization transition. Finally, we investigate the regime of validity of the energy-independent effective Hamiltonian approximation and show that the results obtained by these methods are applicable to realistic physical systems.
Effect of high frequency modes of medium on an open quantum system
Nirupam Dutta; A. K. Chaudhuri; P. K. Panigrahi
2014-09-09
We present a method to calculate the real time effective propagator of a generic open quantum system, immersed in a medium using a wave function based framework. The medium is characterised by a set of harmonic oscillators having a continuous span of frequencies. This technique has been applied to the Caldeira-Leggett model showing that high frequency modes of the medium do not contribute towards decay of the population of states of the open system. In fact, they cause a Rabi type oscillation. Moreover, our wave function based approach provides an excellent alternative to conventional formalisms involving the density matrix.
Dynamics and thermodynamics of linear quantum open systems.
Martinez, Esteban A; Paz, Juan Pablo
2013-03-29
We analyze the evolution of the quantum state of networks of quantum oscillators coupled with arbitrary external environments. We show that the reduced density matrix of the network always obeys a local master equation with a simple analytical solution. We use this to study the emergence of thermodynamical laws in the long time regime demonstrating two main results: First, we show that it is impossible to build a quantum absorption refrigerator using linear networks (thus, nonlinearity is an essential resource for such refrigerators recently studied by Levy and Kosloff [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070604 (2012)] and Levy et al. [Phys. Rev. B 85, 061126 (2012)]). Then, we show that the third law imposes constraints on the low frequency behavior of the environmental spectral densities. PMID:23581302
Absorption and injection models for open time-dependent quantum systems.
Traversa, F L; Zhan, Z; Oriols, X
2014-08-01
In the time-dependent simulation of pure states dealing with transport in open quantum systems, the initial state is located outside of the active region of interest. Using the superposition principle and the analytical knowledge of the free time evolution of such a state outside the active region, together with absorbing layers and remapping, a model for a very significant reduction of the computational burden associated with the numerical simulation of open time-dependent quantum systems is presented. The model is specially suited to study (many-particle and high-frequency effects) quantum transport, but it can also be applied to any other research field where the initial time-dependent pure state is located outside of the active region. From numerical simulations of open quantum systems described by the (effective mass) Schrödinger and (atomistic) tight-binding equations, a reduction of the computational burden of about two orders of magnitude for each spatial dimension of the domain with a negligible error is presented. PMID:25215848
Open Quantum Systems and the Parametric Representation: From Entanglement to Berry's Phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Verrucchi, Paola
2014-10-01
Open quantum systems (OQS) are usually treated, in particular in the realm of quantum information theory and quantum computation, in terms of reduced density matrices, which provide a definition of the state of the principal system via the partial trace operation over the environment. This approach is a powerful tool to investigate relevant features of the open system evolution, especially when the physical situation allows for Markovian-like approximation schemes. On the other hand, the density matrix formulation and the subsequent approximation schemes induce an uncontrollable loss of information about the environmental structure, preventing some phenomena to be properly described. In this work we propose an alternative description of OQS, based on a parametric representation of the environment, as obtained in terms of generalized coherent states. The representation is used to describe a prototypical composite system, made of a spin- (the principal system) and a spin- S (the environment), interacting via a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. The resulting description shows that the emergence of a geometric (Berry) phase for a spin in an external magnetic field does follow from the fact that the true physical set up, of which the "spin in a field" is just a semiclassical-like parametric representation, is that of a quantum composite system in an entangled state. In fact, the Von Neumann entropy of the spin-, which is finite due to the existence of the environment (the spin- S), turns out to be the binary entropy of the normalized Berry's phase.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Broadbent, Curtis J., E-mail: curtis.broadbent@rochester.edu [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)] [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Eberly, Joseph H. [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)] [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)
2012-08-15
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.
A probability current analysis of energy transport in open quantum systems
Jan J. J. Roden; K. Birgitta Whaley
2015-01-24
We introduce a probability current analysis of excitation energy transfer between states of an open quantum system. Expressing the energy transfer through currents of excitation probability between the states in a site representation enables us to gain key insights into the energy transfer dynamics. It allows to, i) identify the pathways of energy transport in large networks of sites and to quantify their relative weights, ii) quantify the respective contributions of unitary dynamics, dephasing, and relaxation/dissipation processes to the energy transfer, and iii) quantify the contribution of coherence to the energy transfer. Our analysis is general and can be applied to a broad range of open quantum system descriptions (with coupling to non-Markovian environments) in a straightforward manner.
The Rotating-Wave Approximation: Consistency and Applicability from an Open Quantum System Analysis
Chris Fleming; N. I. Cummings; Charis Anastopoulos; B. L. Hu
2010-03-08
We provide an in-depth and thorough treatment of the validity of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) in an open quantum system. We find that when it is introduced after tracing out the environment, all timescales of the open system are correctly reproduced, but the details of the quantum state may not be. The RWA made before the trace is more problematic: it results in incorrect values for environmentally-induced shifts to system frequencies, and the resulting theory has no Markovian limit. We point out that great care must be taken when coupling two open systems together under the RWA. Though the RWA can yield a master equation of Lindblad form similar to what one might get in the Markovian limit with white noise, the master equation for the two coupled systems is not a simple combination of the master equation for each system, as is possible in the Markovian limit. Such a naive combination yields inaccurate dynamics. To obtain the correct master equation for the composite system a proper consideration of the non-Markovian dynamics is required.
Optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum systems via feedback
Zairong Xi; Wei Cui; Yu Pan
2010-04-26
The problem of optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum system via weak measurement is presented. Based on the non-Markovian master equation, we evaluate exactly the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the system of interest interacting with a dissipative reservoir. We find that the non-Markovian reservoir has dual effects on the system: dissipation and backaction. The dissipation exhausts the coherence of the quantum system, whereas the backaction revives it. Moreover, we design the control Hamiltonian with the control laws attained by the stochastic optimal control and the corresponding optimal principle. At last, we considered the exact decoherence dynamics of a qubit in a dissipative reservoir composed of harmonic oscillators, and demonstrated the effectiveness of our optimal control strategy. Simulation results showed that the coherence will completely lost in the absence of control neither in non-Markovian nor Markovian system. However, the optimal feedback control steers it to a stationary stochastic process which fluctuates around the target. In this case the decoherence can be controlled effectively, which indicates that the engineered artificial reservoirs with optimal feedback control may be designed to protect the quantum coherence in quantum information and quantum computation.
Brownian motion on Lie groups and open quantum systems
P. Aniello; A. Kossakowski; G. Marmo; F. Ventriglia
2010-02-18
We study the twirling semigroups of (super)operators, namely, certain quantum dynamical semigroups that are associated, in a natural way, with the pairs formed by a projective representation of a locally compact group and a convolution semigroup of probability measures on this group. The link connecting this class of semigroups of operators with (classical) Brownian motion is clarified. It turns out that every twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional representation is a random unitary semigroup, and, conversely, every random unitary semigroup arises as a twirling semigroup. Using standard tools of the theory of convolution semigroups of measures and of convex analysis, we provide a complete characterization of the infinitesimal generator of a twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional unitary representation of a Lie group.
Bound states, scattering states and resonant states in PT-symmetric open quantum systems
Savannah Garmon; Mariagiovanna Gianfreda; Naomichi Hatano
2015-08-03
We study a simple open quantum system with a PT-symmetric defect potential as a prototype to illustrate general features of PT-symmetric open quantum systems; however, the potential could be mimicked by a number of recent PT experiments. One key feature is the resonance in continuum (RIC), which appears in both the discrete spectrum and scattering spectrum. The RIC forms a standing wave extending throughout the spatial extent of the system, representing a resonance between the open environment and the central PT-symmetric potential. We illustrate that as one deforms the system parameters, the RIC may exit the continuum by splitting into a bound state and a virtual bound state at the band edge, a process that should be experimentally observable. We also study the exceptional points (EPs) at which two eigenvalues coalesce; we categorize these as either EP2As, at which two real-valued solutions coalesce before becoming complex-valued, or EP2Bs, for which the two solutions are complex on either side of the EP. The EP2As are associated with PT-symmetry breaking; we argue that these are more stable against parameter perturbation than the EP2Bs. We also study complex-valued solutions of the discrete spectrum for which the wave function is nevertheless spatially localized, something not allowed in traditional open quantum systems; we illustrate that these may form quasi-bound states in continuum (QBICs) under some circumstances. We also study the scattering properties of the system, including states that support invisible propagation and some general features of perfect transmission states. We finally construct scattering states that satisfy PT-symmetric boundary conditions; while these states do not conserve the traditional probability current, we introduce the PT-current that is preserved. The perfect transmission states appear as a special case of the PT-symmetric scattering states.
S. Salimi; S. Haseli; A. S. Khorashad
2015-04-19
In the theory of open quantum systems interaction is a fundamental concepts in the review of the dynamics of open quantum systems. Correlation, both classical and quantum one, is generated due to interaction between system and environment. Here, we recall the quantity which well known as total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between system an environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity.
Kinematic Effect of Indistinguishability and Its Application to Open Quantum Systems
P. W. Bryant
2011-11-01
In quantum mechanics, useful experiments require multiple measurements performed on the identically prepared physical objects composing experimental ensembles. Experimental systems also suffer from environmental interference, and one should not assume that all objects in the experimental ensemble suffer interference identically from a single, uncontrolled environment. Here we present a framework for treating multiple quantum environments and fluctuations affecting only subsets of the experimental ensemble. We also discuss a kinematic effect of indistinguishability not applicable to closed systems. As an application, we treat inefficient photon scattering as an open system. We also create a toy model for the environmental interference suffered by systems undergoing Rabi oscillations, and we find that this kinematic effect may explain the puzzling Excitation Induced Dephasing generally measured in experiments.
Intermittency and dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickey, James M.; Flindt, Christian; Garrahan, Juan P.
2014-12-01
We use high-order cumulants to investigate the Lee-Yang zeros of generating functions of dynamical observables in open quantum systems. At long times the generating functions take on a large-deviation form with singularities of the associated cumulant generating functions—or dynamical free energies—signifying phase transitions in the ensemble of dynamical trajectories. We consider a driven three-level system as well as the dissipative Ising model. Both systems exhibit dynamical intermittency in the statistics of quantum jumps. From the short-time behavior of the dynamical Lee-Yang zeros, we identify critical values of the counting field which we attribute to the observed intermittency and dynamical phase coexistence. Furthermore, for the dissipative Ising model we construct a trajectory phase diagram and estimate the value of the transverse field where the stationary state changes from being ferromagnetic (inactive) to paramagnetic (active).
Lei, Chan U [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Zhang Weimin [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)
2011-11-15
In this paper, we provide a mechanism of decoherence suppression for open quantum systems in general and that for a ''Schroedinger cat-like'' state in particular, through strong couplings to non-Markovian reservoirs. Different from the usual strategies in the literature of suppressing decoherence by decoupling the system from the environment, here the decoherence suppression employs a strong back-reaction from non-Markovian reservoirs. The mechanism relies on the existence of the singularities (bound states) of the nonequilibrium retarded Green function, which completely determines the dissipation and decoherence dynamics of open systems. As an application, we examine the decoherence dynamics of a photonic crystal nanocavity that is coupled to a waveguide. The strong non-Markovian suppression of decoherence for the ''optical cat'' state is attained.
Recent Progress in the Physics of Open Quantum Systems: Theory and Experiment
I. Rotter; J. P. Bird
2015-07-30
This Report explores recent advances in our understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs) which consist of some localized region that is coupled to an external environment. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics including mesoscopic physics that provides the main focus of this review. We provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of OQSs in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region ($Q$), embedded into a well-defined environment ($P$) of scattering wavefunctions (with $Q+P=1$). The $Q$ subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of $Q$; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. In addition to discussing experiments on mesoscopic quantum point contacts, we also review manifestations of DPTs in mesoscopic devices and other systems. Other possible manifestations of this phenomenon are presented. From these discussions a generic picture of OQSs emerges in which the environmentally-mediated coupling between different quantum states plays a critical role in governing the system behavior.
Fano-Liouville Spectral Signatures in Open Quantum Systems
Daniel Finkelstein-Shapiro; Ines Urdaneta; Monica Calatayud; Osman Atabek; Vladimiro Mujica; Arne Keller
2015-07-07
The scattering amplitude from a set of discrete states coupled to a continuum became known as the Fano profile, characteristic for its asymmetric lineshape and originally investigated in the context of photoionization. The generality of the model, and the proliferation of engineered nanostructures with confined states gives immense success to the Fano lineshape, which is invoked whenever an asymmetric lineshape is encountered. However, many of these systems do not conform to the initial model worked out by Fano in that i) they are subject to dissipative processes and ii) the observables are not entirely analogous to the ones measured in the original photoionization experiments. In this letter, we work out the full optical response of a Fano model with dissipation. We find that the exact result for absorption, Raman, Rayleigh and fluorescence emission is a modified Fano profile where the typical lineshape has an additional Lorentzian contribution. Expressions to extract model parameters from a set of relevant observables are given.
Gennady P. Berman; Fausto Borgonovi; Diego A. R. Dalvit
2008-01-29
We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We show that non-quadratic (nonlinear) terms in a Hamiltonian provide a singular "quantum" perturbation for observables in some "mesoscopic" region of parameters. In particular, quantum effects result in secular terms in the dynamical evolution, that grow in time. We argue that even for open quantum nonlinear systems in the deep quasi-classical region, these quantum effects can survive after decoherence and relaxation processes take place. We demonstrate that these quantum effects in open quantum systems can be observed, for example, in the frequency Fourier spectrum of the dynamical observables, or in the corresponding spectral density of noise. Estimates are presented for Bose-Einstein condensates, low temperature mechanical resonators, and nonlinear optical systems prepared in large amplitude coherent states. In particular, we show that for Bose-Einstein condensate systems the characteristic time of deviation of quantum dynamics for observables from the corresponding classical dynamics coincides with the characteristic time-scale of the well-known quantum nonlinear effect of phase diffusion.
GaussDal: An open source database management system for quantum chemical computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsberg, Bjørn K.; Bjerke, Håvard; Navestad, Gunn M.; Åstrand, Per-Olof
2005-09-01
An open source software system called GaussDal for management of results from quantum chemical computations is presented. Chemical data contained in output files from different quantum chemical programs are automatically extracted and incorporated into a relational database (PostgreSQL). The Structural Query Language (SQL) is used to extract combinations of chemical properties (e.g., molecules, orbitals, thermo-chemical properties, basis sets etc.) into data tables for further data analysis, processing and visualization. This type of data management is particularly suited for projects involving a large number of molecules. In the current version of GaussDal, parsers for Gaussian and Dalton output files are supported, however future versions may also include parsers for other quantum chemical programs. For visualization and analysis of generated data tables from GaussDal we have used the locally developed open source software SciCraft. Program summaryTitle of program: GaussDal Catalogue identifier: ADVT Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVT Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Any Operating system under which the system has been tested: Linux Programming language used: Python Memory required to execute with typical data: 256 MB No. of bits in word: 32 or 64 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc: 543 531 No. of bytes in distribution program, including test data, etc: 7 718 121 Distribution format: tar.gzip file Nature of physical problem: Handling of large amounts of data from quantum chemistry computations. Method of solution: Use of SQL based database and quantum chemistry software specific parsers. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: Program is currently limited to Gaussian and Dalton output, but expandable to other formats. Generates subsets of multiple data tables from output files.
Fano-Liouville Spectral Signatures in Open Quantum Systems.
Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Urdaneta, Ines; Calatayud, Monica; Atabek, Osman; Mujica, Vladimiro; Keller, Arne
2015-09-11
The scattering amplitude from a set of discrete states coupled to a continuum became known as the Fano profile, characteristic for its asymmetric line shape and originally investigated in the context of photoionization. The generality of the model and the proliferation of engineered nanostructures with confined states gives immense success to the Fano line shape, which is invoked whenever an asymmetric line shape is encountered. However, many of these systems do not conform to the initial model worked out by Fano in that (i) they are subject to dissipative processes and (ii) the observables are not entirely analogous to the ones measured in the original photoionization experiments. In this Letter, we work out the full optical response of a Fano model with dissipation. We find that the exact result for the excited population, Raman, Rayleigh, and fluorescence emission is a modified Fano profile where the typical line shape has an additional Lorentzian contribution. Expressions to extract model parameters from a set of relevant observables are given. PMID:26406830
Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms.
Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M
2011-01-01
The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam. PMID:21405757
How many bits does it take to track an open quantum system?
Karasik, R I; Wiseman, H M
2011-01-14
A D-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general, these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states. Here we show that, for any ergodic master equation, one can expect to find an adaptive monitoring scheme on the bath that can confine the system state to jumping between only K states, for some K ? (D - 1)(2) + 1. For D = 2 we explicitly construct a two-state ensemble for any ergodic master equation, showing that one bit is always sufficient to track a qubit. PMID:21405209
Quantum chaos of a mixed, open system of kicked cold atoms
Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M
2010-01-01
The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Lochshmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasi-energies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a gaussian light beam.
Enhancing quantum correlation in open-system dynamics by reliable quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jia Dong; Wang, Dong; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu
2015-06-01
We investigate the decoherence to generate quantum discord between two separable qubits of an unentangled mixed state and propose a series of feasible schemes to enhance quantum discord by means of reliable quantum operations. By combing our schemes with the previous proposal, one can note that the generated quantum discord can be greatly enhanced. Moreover, our success probability entirely depends on the quantum measurement strength.
Enhancing quantum correlation in open-system dynamics by reliable quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jia Dong; Wang, Dong; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu
2015-09-01
We investigate the decoherence to generate quantum discord between two separable qubits of an unentangled mixed state and propose a series of feasible schemes to enhance quantum discord by means of reliable quantum operations. By combing our schemes with the previous proposal, one can note that the generated quantum discord can be greatly enhanced. Moreover, our success probability entirely depends on the quantum measurement strength.
Bound states, scattering states, and resonant states in PT -symmetric open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi
2015-08-01
We study a simple open quantum system with a PT -symmetric defect potential as a prototype in order to illustrate a number of general features of PT -symmetric open quantum systems; however, the potential itself could be mimicked by a number of PT systems that have been experimentally studied quite recently. One key feature is the resonance in continuum (RIC), which appears in both the discrete spectrum and the scattering spectrum of such systems. The RIC wave function forms a standing wave extending throughout the spatial extent of the system and in this sense represents a resonance between the open environment associated with the leads of our model and the central PT -symmetric potential. We also illustrate that as one deforms the system parameters, the RIC may exit the continuum by splitting into a bound state and a virtual bound state at the band edge, a process which should be experimentally observable. We also study the exceptional points appearing in the discrete spectrum at which two eigenvalues coalesce; we categorize these as either EP2As, at which two real-valued solutions coalesce before becoming complex-valued, and EP2Bs, for which the two solutions are complex on either side of the exceptional point. The EP2As are associated with PT -symmetry breaking; we argue that these are more stable against parameter perturbation than the EP2Bs. We also study complex-valued solutions of the discrete spectrum for which the wave function is nevertheless spatially localized, something that is not allowed in traditional open quantum systems; we illustrate that these may form quasibound states in continuum under some circumstances. We also study the scattering properties of the system, including states that support invisible propagation and some general features of perfect transmission states. We finally use our model as a prototype for the construction of scattering states that satisfy PT -symmetric boundary conditions; while these states do not conserve the traditional probability current, we introduce the PT current which is preserved. The perfect transmission states appear as a special case of the PT -symmetric scattering states.
Real-time approach to tunnelling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Verdaguer, Enric
2006-07-01
Macroscopic quantum tunnelling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunnelling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunnelling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers-like equation describing thermal activation due to the zero point fluctuations of the quantum environment. The effect of anomalous diffusion can be dealt with perturbatively and its overall effect is to inhibit tunnelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, C. H.; Hu, B. L.
2012-04-01
We treat several key stochastic equations for non-Markovian open quantum system dynamics and present a formalism for finding solutions to them via canonical perturbation theory, without making the Born-Markov or rotating wave approximations (RWA). This includes master equations of the (asymptotically) stationary, periodic, and time-nonlocal type. We provide proofs on the validity and meaningfulness of the late-time perturbative master equation and on the preservation of complete positivity despite a general lack of Lindblad form. More specifically, we show how the algebraic generators satisfy the theorem of Lindblad and Gorini, Kossakowski and Sudarshan, even though the dynamical generators do not. These proofs ensure the mathematical viability and physical soundness of solutions to non-Markovian processes. Within the same formalism we also expand upon known results for non-Markovian corrections to the quantum regression theorem. Several directions where these results can be usefully applied to are also described, including the analysis of near-resonant systems where the RWA is inapplicable and the calculation of the reduced equilibrium state of open systems.
The quantum bit commitment: a finite open system approach for a complete classification of protocols
Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano
2002-09-26
Mayers, Lo and Chau argued that all quantum bit commitment protocols are insecure, because there is no way to prevent an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) cheating attack. However, Yuen presented some protocols which challenged the previous impossibility argument. Up to now, it is still debated whether there exist or not unconditionally secure protocols. In this paper the above controversy is addressed. For such purpose, a complete classification of all possible bit commitment protocols is given, including all possible cheating attacks. Focusing on the simplest class of protocols (non-aborting and with complete and perfect verification), it is shown how naturally a game-theoretical situation arises. For these protocols, bounds for the cheating probabilities are derived, involving the two quantum operations encoding the bit values and their respective alternate Kraus decompositions. Such bounds are different from those given in the impossibility proof. The whole classification and analysis has been carried out using a "finite open system" approach. The discrepancy with the impossibility proof is explained on the basis of the implicit adoption of a "closed system approach"--equivalent to modeling the commitment as performed by two fixed machines interacting unitarily in a overall "closed system"--according to which it is possible to assume as "openly known" both the initial state and the probability distributions for all secret parameters, which can be then "purified". This approach is also motivated by existence of unitary extensions for any open system. However, it is shown that the closed system approach for the classification of commitment protocols unavoidably leads to infinite dimensions, which then invalidate the continuity argument at the basis of the impossibility proof.
General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.
2013-01-01
We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.
Entanglement transfer from electrons to photons in quantum dots: an open quantum system approach.
Budich, Jan C; Trauzettel, Björn
2010-07-01
We investigate entanglement transfer from a system of two spin-entangled electron-hole pairs, each placed in a separate single mode cavity, to the photons emitted due to cavity leakage. Dipole selection rules and a splitting between the light hole and the heavy hole subbands are the crucial ingredients establishing a one-to-one correspondence between electron spins and circular photon polarizations. To account for the measurement of the photons as well as dephasing effects, we choose a stochastic Schrödinger equation and a conditional master equation approach, respectively. The influence of interactions with the environment as well as asymmetries in the coherent couplings on the photon entanglement is analysed for two concrete measurement schemes. The first one is designed to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, while the second one employs the visibility of interference fringes to prove the entanglement of the photons. Because of the spatial separation of the entangled electronic system over two quantum dots, a successful verification of entangled photons emitted by this system would imply the detection of nonlocal spin entanglement of massive particles in a solid state structure. PMID:20571188
Ultracold Mixtures of Rubidium and Ytterbium for Open Quantum System Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herold, Creston David
Exquisite experimental control of quantum systems has led to sharp growth of basic quantum research in recent years. Controlling dissipation has been crucial in producing ultracold, trapped atomic samples. Recent theoretical work has suggested dissipation can be a useful tool for quantum state preparation. Controlling not only how a system interacts with a reservoir, but the ability to engineer the reservoir itself would be a powerful platform for open quantum system research. Toward this end, we have constructed an apparatus to study ultracold mixtures of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb). We have developed a Rb-blind optical lattice at 423.018(7) nm, which will enable us to immerse a lattice of Yb atoms (the system) into a Rb BEC (superfluid reservoir). We have produced Bose-Einstein condensates of 170Yb and 174Yb, two of the five bosonic isotopes of Yb, which also has two fermionic isotopes. Flexible optical trapping of Rb and Yb was achieved with a two-color dipole trap of 532 and 1064 nm, and we observed thermalization in ultracold mixtures of Rb and Yb. Using the Rb-blind optical lattice, we measured very small light shifts of 87Rb BECs near the light shift zero-wavelengths adjacent the 6p electronic states, through a coherent series of lattice pulses. The positions of the zero-wavelengths are sensitive to the electric dipole matrix elements between the 5s and 6p states, and we made the first experimental measurement of their strength. By measuring a light shift, we were not sensitive to excited state branching ratios, and we achieved a precision better than 0.3%.
Dephasing and decoherence in open quantum systems: A Dyson's equation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardamone, David Michael
In this work, the Dyson's equation formalism is outlined and applied to several open quantum systems. These systems are composed of a core, quantum-mechanical set of discrete states and several continua, representing macroscopic systems. The macroscopic systems introduce decoherence, as well as allowing the total particle number in the system to change. Dyson's equation, an expansion in terms of proper self-energy terms, is derived. The hybridization of two quantum levels is reproduced in this formalism, and it is shown that decoherence follows naturally when one of the levels is replaced by a continuum. The work considers three physical systems in detail. The first, quantum dots coupled in series with two leads, is presented in a realistic two-level model. Dyson's equation is used to account for the leads exactly to all orders in perturbation theory, and the time dynamics of a single electron in the dots is calculated. It is shown that decoherence from the leads damps the coherent Rabi oscillations of the electron. Several regimes of physical interest are considered, and it is shown that the difference in couplings of the two leads plays a central role in the decoherence processes. The second system relates to the decay-out of superdeformed nuclei. In this case, decoherence is provided by coupling to the electromagnetic field. Two, three, and infinite-level models are considered within the discrete system. It is shown that the two-level model is usually sufficient to describe decay-out for the classic regions of nuclear superdeformation. Furthermore, a statistical model for the normal-deformed states allows extraction of parameters of interest to nuclear structure from the two-level model. An explanation for the universality of decay profiles is also given in that model. The final system is a proposed small molecular transistor. The Quantum Interference Effect Transistor is based on a single monocyclic aromatic annulene molecule, with two leads arranged in the meta configuration. This device is shown to be completely opaque to charge carriers, due to destructive interference. This coherence effect can be tunably broken by introducing new paths with a real or imaginary self-energy, and an excellent molecular transistor is the result.
Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)
2012-09-15
It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.
Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-04-21
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin
2014-04-01
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: Stability analysis
Karasik, R. I.; Wiseman, H. M.
2011-11-15
A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct adaptive monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a finite state machine as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.
Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: stability analysis
Raisa I. Karasik; Howard M. Wiseman
2011-06-21
A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{106}, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct {\\em adaptive} monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a {\\em finite state machine} as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable, and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.
Information propagation in a quantum system. Examples of open spin-1/2 chains
A. I. Zenchuk
2012-02-23
If the information is encoded into the state of the subsystem $S$ of a quantum system initially (at $t=0$), then it becomes distributed over the whole quantum system at $t>0$ due to the quantum interactions. Consequently, this information, in general, can be extracted, either completely or partially, from any subsystem of a quantum system. {We suggest a method of extraction of information, which is based on the polarization measurements on the receiver $R$}.
Jump-like unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems
Jay Gambetta; T. Askerud; H. M. Wiseman
2007-04-06
Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be `unraveled' into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schr\\"odinger equation, as introduced by Di\\'osi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jump-like unravelings. To illustrate the jump-like behavior we consider a simple system: A classically driven (at Rabi frequency $\\Omega$) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, $\\omega_0$, and the two side bands have frequencies $\\omega_0\\pm\\Omega$. In the large $\\Omega$ limit we observed that the jump-like behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However the length of time for which the Markovian-like behaviour persists depends upon {\\em which} jump-like unraveling is used.
Real-time dynamics of open quantum spin systems driven by dissipative processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebenstreit, F.; Banerjee, D.; Hornung, M.; Jiang, F.-J.; Schranz, F.; Wiese, U.-J.
2015-07-01
We study the real-time evolution of large open quantum spin systems in two spatial dimensions, whose dynamics is entirely driven by a dissipative coupling to the environment. We consider different dissipative processes and investigate the real-time evolution from an ordered phase of the Heisenberg or XY model towards a disordered phase at late times, disregarding unitary Hamiltonian dynamics. The corresponding Kossakowski-Lindblad equation is solved via an efficient cluster algorithm. We find that the symmetry of the dissipative process determines the time scales, which govern the approach towards a new equilibrium phase at late times. Most notably, we find a slow equilibration if the dissipative process conserves any of the magnetization Fourier modes. In these cases, the dynamics can be interpreted as a diffusion process of the conserved quantity.
Time-reversal symmetric expansion of the time evolution operator of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatano, Naomichi; Ordonez, Gonzalo
2014-03-01
We here consider open quantum systems of the tight-binding model, specifically a tight-binding chain with a scatter in the center. We succeeded in deriving a new expansion of the time evolution operator only with respect to the states of point spectra (bound, anti-bound, resonant and anti-resonant states), without the background integral over the continuum spectrum of scattering states. Since the expansion has no arbitrariness of the integration contour upon including decaying states, the expansion is perfectly symmetric under the time reversal. Among the expansion terms, the decaying resonant states naturally survive when we consider the time evolution from an initial condition, while the growing anti-resonant states naturally survive when we consider the time evolution to a terminal condition. This clearly shows that the emergence of the arrow of time is due to the choice of initial or terminal conditions, that it is not embedded in the time evolution itself.
Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model
Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)
2011-11-15
In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.
Real-time dynamics of open quantum spin systems driven by dissipative processes
Florian Hebenstreit; Debasish Banerjee; Manes Hornung; Fu-Jiun Jiang; Franziska Schranz; Uwe-Jens Wiese
2015-07-10
We study the real-time evolution of large open quantum spin systems in two spatial dimensions, whose dynamics is entirely driven by a dissipative coupling to the environment. We consider different dissipative processes and investigate the real-time evolution from an ordered phase of the Heisenberg or XY-model towards a disordered phase at late times, disregarding unitary Hamiltonian dynamics. The corresponding Kossakowski-Lindblad equation is solved via an efficient cluster algorithm. We find that the symmetry of the dissipative process determines the time scales which govern the approach towards a new equilibrium phase at late times. Most notably, we find a slow equilibration if the dissipative process conserves any of the magnetization Fourier modes. In these cases, the dynamics can be interpreted as a diffusion process of the conserved quantity.
Quantum speed-up of multiqubit open system via dynamical decoupling pulses
Ya-Ju Song; Qing-Shou Tan; Le-Man Kuang
2015-08-19
We present a method to accelerate the dynamical evolution of multiqubit open system by employing dynamical decoupling pulses (DDPs) when the qubits are initially in W-type states. It is found that this speed-up evolution can be achieved in both of the weak-coupling regime and the strong-coupling regime. The physical mechanism behind the acceleration evolution is explained as the result of the joint action of the non-Markovianity of reservoirs and the excited-state population of qubits. It is shown that both of the non-Markovianity and the excited-state population can be controlled by DDPs to realize the quantum speed-up.
Larsen, Ask Hjorth; De Giovannini, Umberto; Rubio, Angel
2016-01-01
We present a review of different computational methods to describe time-dependent phenomena in open quantum systems and their extension to a density-functional framework. We focus the discussion on electron emission processes in atoms and molecules addressing excited-state lifetimes and dissipative processes. Initially we analyze the concept of an electronic resonance, a central concept in spectroscopy associated with a metastable state from which an electron eventually escapes (electronic lifetime). Resonances play a fundamental role in many time-dependent molecular phenomena but can be rationalized from a time-independent context in terms of scattering states. We introduce the method of complex scaling, which is used to capture resonant states as localized states in the spirit of usual bound-state methods, and work on its extension to static and time-dependent density-functional theory. In a time-dependent setting, complex scaling can be used to describe excitations in the continuum as well as wave packet dynamics leading to electron emission. This process can also be treated by using open boundary conditions which allow time-dependent simulations of emission processes without artificial reflections at the boundaries (i.e., borders of the simulation box). We compare in detail different schemes to implement open boundaries, namely transparent boundaries using Green functions, and absorbing boundaries in the form of complex absorbing potentials and mask functions. The last two are regularly used together with time-dependent density-functional theory to describe the electron emission dynamics of atoms and molecules. Finally, we discuss approaches to the calculation of energy and angle-resolved time-dependent pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular systems. PMID:25860253
Optimal control in an open quantum system : selecting DNP pathways in an electron-nuclear system
Sheldon, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)
2013-01-01
There is much interest in improving quantum control techniques for the purposes of quantum information processing. High fidelity control is necessary for the future of quantum computing. Optimal control theory has been ...
Spectral problems in open quantum chaos
Stéphane Nonnenmacher
2011-11-03
This review article will present some recent results and methods in the study of 1-particle quantum or wave scattering systems, in the semiclassical/high frequency limit, in cases where the corresponding classical/ray dynamics is chaotic. We will focus on the distribution of quantum resonances, and the structure of the corresponding metastable states. Our study includes the toy model of open quantum maps, as well as the recent quantum monodromy operator method.
Spectral problems in open quantum chaos
Nonnenmacher, Stéphane
2011-01-01
This review article will present some recent results and methods in the study of 1-particle quantum or wave scattering systems, in the semiclassical/high frequency limit, in cases where the corresponding classical/ray dynamics is chaotic. We will focus on the distribution of quantum resonances, and the structure of the corresponding metastable states. Our study includes the toy model of open quantum maps, as well as the recent quantum monodromy operator method.
Effect of control procedures on the evolution of entanglement in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Ghosh, Sibasish
2012-01-01
The effect of a number of mechanisms designed to suppress decoherence in open quantum systems are studied with respect to their effectiveness at slowing down the loss of entanglement. The effect of photonic band-gap materials and frequency modulation of the system-bath coupling are along expected lines in this regard. However, other control schemes, like resonance fluorescence, achieve quite the contrary: increasing the strength of the control leads to a faster decay of entanglement. The effect of dynamic decoupling schemes on two qualitatively different system-bath interactions are studied in depth. Dynamic decoupling control has the expected effect of slowing down the decay of entanglement in a two-qubit system coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath under a nondemolition interaction. However, nontrivial phenomena are observed when a Josephson charge qubit, strongly coupled to a random telegraph noise bath, is subject to decoupling pulses. The most striking of these reflects the resonance fluorescence scenario, in that an increase in the pulse strength decreases decoherence but also speeds up the sudden death of entanglement. This demonstrates that the behavior of decoherence and entanglement in time can be qualitatively different in the strong-coupling non-Markovian regime.
Tunneling Theory for Tunable Open Quantum Systems of Ultracold Atoms in One-Dimensional Traps
R. Lundmark; C. Forssén; J. Rotureau
2015-03-26
The creation of tunable open quantum systems is becoming feasible in current experiments with ultracold atoms in low-dimensional traps. In particular, the high degree of experimental control over these systems allows detailed studies of tunneling dynamics, e.g., as a function of the trapping geometry and the interparticle interaction strength. In order to address this exciting opportunity we present a theoretical framework for two-body tunneling based on the rigged Hilbert space formulation. In this approach, bound, resonant and scattering states are included on an equal footing, and we argue that the coupling of all these components is vital for a correct description of the relevant threshold phenomena. In particular, we study the tunneling mechanism for two-body systems in one-dimensional traps and different interaction regimes. We find a strong dominance of sequential tunneling of single particles for repulsive and weakly attractive systems, while there is a signature of correlated pair tunneling in the calculated many-particle flux for strongly attractive interparticle interaction.
Quantum Limit for Driven Linear Non-Markovian Open-Quantum-Systems
Andres F. Estrada; Leonardo A. Pachon
2015-04-08
The interplay between non-Markovian dynamics and driving fields in the survival of entanglement between two non-degenerate oscillators is considered here. Based on exact analytical results for the non-Markovian dynamics of two parametrically coupled non-degenerate oscillators in contact to non-identical independent thermal baths, the out-of-equilibrium quantum limit derived in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180501 (2010)] is generalized to the non-Markovian regime. Specifically, it is shown that non-Markovian dynamics, when compared to the Markovian case, allow for the survival of stationary entanglement at higher temperatures, with larger coupling strength to the baths and at smaller driving rates. The effect of the asymmetry of the (i) coupled oscillators, (ii) coupling strength to the baths at equal temperature and (iii) temperature at equal coupling strength is discussed.
Recent Progress in the Physics of Open Quantum Systems: Theory and Experiment
Rotter, I
2015-01-01
This Report explores recent advances in our understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs) which consist of some localized region that is coupled to an external environment. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics including mesoscopic physics that provides the main focus of this review. We provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of OQSs in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region ($Q$), embedded into a well-defined environment ($P$) of scattering wavefunctions (with $Q+P=1$). The $Q$ subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of $Q$; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamica...
Controlling the dynamics of an open many-body quantum system with localized dissipation
G. Barontini; R. Labouvie; F. Stubenrauch; A. Vogler; V. Guarrera; H. Ott
2012-12-19
We experimentally investigate the action of a localized dissipative potential on a macroscopic matter wave, which we implement by shining an electron beam on an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We measure the losses induced by the dissipative potential as a function of the dissipation strength observing a paradoxical behavior when the strength of the dissipation exceeds a critical limit: for an increase of the dissipation rate the number of atoms lost from the BEC becomes lower. We repeat the experiment for different parameters of the electron beam and we compare our results with a simple theoretical model, finding excellent agreement. By monitoring the dynamics induced by the dissipative defect we identify the mechanisms which are responsible for the observed paradoxical behavior. We finally demonstrate the link between our dissipative dynamics and the measurement of the density distribution of the BEC allowing for a generalized definition of the Zeno effect. Due to the high degree of control on every parameter, our system is a promising candidate for the engineering of fully governable open quantum systems.
Semiclassical wavefunctions for open quantum billiards
Fabian Lackner; Iva Brezinova; Florian Libisch; Joachim Burgdörfer
2013-03-15
We present a semiclassical approximation to the scattering wavefunction $\\Psi(\\mathbf{r},k)$ for an open quantum billiard which is based on the reconstruction of the Feynman path integral. We demonstrate its remarkable numerical accuracy for the open rectangular billiard and show that the convergence of the semiclassical wavefunction to the full quantum state is controlled by the path length or equivalently the dwell time. Possible applications include leaky billiards and systems with decoherence present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dattani, Nikesh S.
2013-12-01
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: MATLAB R2012a. Computer: See “Operating system”. Operating system: Any operating system that can run MATLAB R2007a or above. Classification: 4.4. Nature of problem: Calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator of an open quantum system. Solution method: Numerical Feynman integral. Running time: Depends on the input parameters. See the main text for examples.
Entanglement transfer from electrons to photons in quantum dots: An open quantum system approach
Budich, Jan C
2009-01-01
We investigate entanglement transfer from a system of two spin-entangled electron-hole pairs, each placed in a separate single mode cavity, to the photons emitted during their recombination process. Dipole selection rules and a splitting between the light-hole and the heavy-hole subbands are the crucial ingredients establishing a one-to-one correspondence between electron spins and circular photon polarizations. To account for the measurement of the photons as well as dephasing effects, we choose a stochastic Schroedinger equation and a conditional master equation approach, respectively. The influence of interactions with the environment as well as asymmetries in the coherent couplings on the photon-entanglement is analyzed for two concrete measurement schemes. The first one is designed to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, while the second one employs the visibility of interference fringes to prove the entanglement of the photons. Because of the spatial separation of the entangled elec...
Akinori Nishino; Takashi Imamura; Naomichi Hatano
2009-10-30
We obtain an exact many-body scattering eigenstate in an open quantum dot system. The scattering state is not in the form of the Bethe eigenstate in the sense that the wave-number set of the incoming plane wave is not conserved during the scattering and many-body bound states appear. By using the scattering state, we study the average nonequilibrium current through the quantum dot under a finite bias voltage. The current-voltage characteristics that we obtained by taking the two-body bound state into account is qualitatively similar to several known results.
On the critical exponent of a quantum noise driven phase transition: the open system Dicke-model
Nagy, D; Domokos, P
2011-01-01
The quantum phase transition of the Dicke-model has been observed recently in a system formed by motional excitations of a laser-driven Bose--Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity [1]. The cavity-based system is intrinsically open: photons can leak out of the cavity where they are detected. Even at zero temperature, the continuous weak measurement of the photon number leads to an irreversible dynamics towards a steady-state which exhibits a dynamical quantum phase transition. However, whereas the critical point and the mean field is only slightly modified with respect to the phase transition in the ground state, the entanglement and the critical exponents of the singular quantum correlations are significantly different in the two cases.
QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco
2013-04-01
We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [J.R. Johansson, P.D. Nation, F. Nori, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1760.], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version. Catalog identifier: AEMB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33625 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 410064 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: i386, x86-64. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX. RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7. External routines: NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, Cython Catalog identifier of previous version: AEMB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1760 Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, and Bloch-Redfield master equations, as well as the Monte Carlo wave function method. Reasons for new version: Compared to the preceding version we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, or Bloch-Redfield form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of hours, depending on size of the underlying Hilbert space.
Hu Jie; Luo Meng; Jiang Feng; Xu Ruixue; Yan Yijing
2011-06-28
Pade spectrum decomposition is an optimal sum-over-poles expansion scheme of Fermi function and Bose function [J. Hu, R. X. Xu, and Y. J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 101106 (2010)]. In this work, we report two additional members to this family, from which the best among all sum-over-poles methods could be chosen for different cases of application. Methods are developed for determining these three Pade spectrum decomposition expansions at machine precision via simple algorithms. We exemplify the applications of present development with optimal construction of hierarchical equations-of-motion formulations for nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum transport dynamics. Numerical demonstrations are given for two systems. One is the transient transport current to an interacting quantum-dots system, together with the involved high-order co-tunneling dynamics. Another is the non-Markovian dynamics of a spin-boson system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jie; Luo, Meng; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Rui-Xue; Yan, YiJing
2011-06-01
Padé spectrum decomposition is an optimal sum-over-poles expansion scheme of Fermi function and Bose function [J. Hu, R. X. Xu, and Y. J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 101106 (2010)], 10.1063/1.3484491. In this work, we report two additional members to this family, from which the best among all sum-over-poles methods could be chosen for different cases of application. Methods are developed for determining these three Padé spectrum decomposition expansions at machine precision via simple algorithms. We exemplify the applications of present development with optimal construction of hierarchical equations-of-motion formulations for nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum transport dynamics. Numerical demonstrations are given for two systems. One is the transient transport current to an interacting quantum-dots system, together with the involved high-order co-tunneling dynamics. Another is the non-Markovian dynamics of a spin-boson system.
Experimental Investigation of the Evolution of Gaussian Quantum Discord in an Open System
Lars S. Madsen; Adriano Berni; Mikael Lassen; Ulrik L. Andersen
2012-04-12
Gaussian quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations in Gaussian systems. Using Gaussian discord we quantify the quantum correlations of a bipartite entangled state and a separable two-mode mixture of coherent states. We experimentally analyze the effect of noise addition and dissipation on Gaussian discord and show that the former noise degrades the discord while the latter noise for some states leads to an increase of the discord. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the near-death of discord by noisy evolution and its revival through dissipation.
Experimental Investigation of the Evolution of Gaussian Quantum Discord in an Open System
Madsen, Lars S; Lassen, Mikael; Andersen, Ulrik L
2012-01-01
Gaussian quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations in Gaussian systems. Using Gaussian discord we quantify the quantum correlations of a bipartite entangled state and a separable two-mode mixture of coherent states. We experimentally analyze the effect of noise addition and dissipation on Gaussian discord and show that the former noise degrades the discord while the latter noise for some states leads to an increase of the discord. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the near-death of discord by noisy evolution and its revival through dissipation.
Experimental investigation of the evolution of gaussian quantum discord in an open system.
Madsen, Lars S; Berni, Adriano; Lassen, Mikael; Andersen, Ulrik L
2012-07-20
Gaussian quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlations in gaussian systems. Using gaussian discord, we quantify the quantum correlations of a bipartite entangled state and a separable two-mode mixture of coherent states. We experimentally analyze the effect of noise addition and dissipation on gaussian discord and show that the former noise degrades the discord, while the latter noise for some states leads to an increase of the discord. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the near death of discord by noisy evolution and its revival through dissipation. PMID:22861828
Entanglement Relativity in the Foundations of The Open Quantum Systems Theory
M. Arsenijevic; J. Jeknic-Dugic; D. Todorovic; M. Dugic
2015-04-22
Realistic many-particle systems dynamically exchange particles with their environments. In classical physics, small variations in the number of constituent particles are commonly considered practically irrelevant. However, in the quantum mechanical context, such and similar structural variations are generically taxed due to the so-called Entanglement Relativity. In this paper we point out difficulties in deriving master equation for a subsystem of an alternative partition of the closed quantum system. We find that the Nakajima-Zwanzig projection method cannot be straightforwardly used to solve the problem. The emerging tasks and prospects for the consistent foundations are examined.
Optical Signatures of Non-Markovian Behaviour in Open Quantum Systems
McCutcheon, Dara P S
2015-01-01
We derive an extension to the quantum regression theorem which facilitates the calculation of two-time correlation functions and emission spectra for systems undergoing non-Markovian evolution. The derivation exploits projection operator techniques, with which we obtain explicit equations of motion for the correlation functions, making only a second order expansion in the system-environment coupling strength, and invoking the Born approximation at a fixed initial time. The results are used to investigate a driven semiconductor quantum dot coupled to an acoustic phonon bath, where we find the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics has observable signatures in the form of phonon sidebands in the resonance fluorescence emission spectrum.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isar, Aurelian
1995-01-01
The harmonic oscillator with dissipation is studied within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. By using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method, the Fokker-Planck equation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator, is solved for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the delta-function type of initial conditions. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths. Then a closed expression for the density operator is extracted. The entropy of the system is subsequently calculated and its temporal behavior shows that this quantity relaxes to its equilibrium value.
KNIT : An open source code for quantum transport in multi-terminal systems
Rychkova, Irina; Kazymyrenko, Kyryl; Borlenghi, Simone; Waintal, Xavier
2010-01-01
This paper is the documentation for a numerical code for quantum transport called KNIT. The KNIT library implements a generalization of the well known recursive Green function technique for a large class of multi-terminal mesoscopic systems with arbitrary geometries, topology and dimension. The systems are described by tight-biding Hamiltonians (with arbitrary internal degree of freedom like spin, electron/hole grading, orbitals...) and the calculation done within the non equilibrium Green function formalism (equivalent to the Landauer-Buttiker Scattering approach). KNIT can (and has) been applied to many different physical systems including quantum Hall effect, topological insulators, graphene ribbons, hybrid superconducting systems and ferromagnetic multilayers. KNIT main functionality is written in C++ and wrapped into Python, providing a simple and flexible interface for the user. Usual "input files" of numerical codes are replaced by small python scripts where the user builds the system and then computes...
Open quantum dots: II. Probing the classical to quantum transition.
Brunner, R; Ferry, D K; Akis, R; Meisels, R; Kuchar, F; Burke, A M; Bird, J P
2012-08-29
Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. An important question concerns the manner in which these classical states evolve into the set of quantum states that populate the dot in the quantum limit. In the reverse direction, the manner in which the quantum states evolve to the classical world is governed strongly by Zurek's decoherence theory. This was discussed from the quantum perspective in an earlier review (Ferry et al 2011 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26 043001). Here, we discuss the nature of the various classical states, how they are formed, how they progress to the quantum world, and the signatures that they create in magnetotransport and general conductance studies of these dots. PMID:22871799
Open quantum dots: II. Probing the classical to quantum transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunner, R.; Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Burke, A. M.; Bird, J. P.
2012-08-01
Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. An important question concerns the manner in which these classical states evolve into the set of quantum states that populate the dot in the quantum limit. In the reverse direction, the manner in which the quantum states evolve to the classical world is governed strongly by Zurek’s decoherence theory. This was discussed from the quantum perspective in an earlier review (Ferry et al 2011 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26 043001). Here, we discuss the nature of the various classical states, how they are formed, how they progress to the quantum world, and the signatures that they create in magnetotransport and general conductance studies of these dots.
Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems
Luciano Silvestri; Kurt Jacobs; Vanja Dunjko; Maxim Olshanii
2014-04-09
There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time-dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the EM field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open-systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady-state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization".
Communication: Conditions for one-photon coherent phase control in isolated and open quantum systems
Spanner, Michael; Arango, Carlos A.; Brumer, Paul [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics Theory Group, and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2010-10-21
Coherent control of observables using the phase properties of weak light that induces one-photon transitions is considered. Measurable properties are shown to be categorizable as either class A, where control is not possible, or class B, where control is possible. Using formal arguments, we show that phase control in open systems can be environmentally assisted.
New openings for porous systems research from intermolecular double-quantum NMR.
Capuani, S; Alesiani, M; Branca, R T; Maraviglia, B
2004-01-01
It has been recently recognized that residual intermolecular double-quantum coherences (iDQcs) provide a novel contrast mechanism to study heterogeneity in liquid systems. This is of much interest in the field of the physics of matter and biomedicine. Nowadays, literature concerning the behaviour of the iDQc signal originated by highly heterogeneous systems such as fluids in porous media is scarce. In this paper, we report and discuss our principal results about iDQc signal behaviour in confined liquid systems (trabecular bone, travertine, porous standard systems) and also some new results obtained on doped water in glass capillary pipes. PMID:14698403
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segnorile, Héctor H.; Zamar, Ricardo C.
2011-12-01
Explanation of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in systems with few degrees of freedom demands a deep theoretical analysis that considers the observed system as an open quantum system. In this work, we study the problem of decoherence of an observed system of quantum interacting particles, coupled to a quantum lattice. Our strategy is based on treating the environment and the system-environment Hamiltonians fully quantum mechanically, which yields a representation of the time evolution operator useful for disentangling the different time scales underlying in the observed system dynamics. To describe the possible different stages of the dynamics of the observed system, we introduce quantum mechanical definitions of essentially isolated, essentially adiabatic, and thermal-contact system-environment interactions. This general approach is then applied to the study of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) of nematic liquid crystals. A summary of the original results of this work is as follows. We calculate the decoherence function and apply it to describe the evolution of a coherent spin state, induced by the coupling with the molecular environment, in absence of spin-lattice relaxation. By assuming quantum energy conserving or non-demolition interactions, we identify an intermediate time scale, between those controlled by self-interactions and thermalization, where coherence decays irreversibly. This treatment is also adequate for explaining the buildup of quasi-equilibrium of the proton spin system, via the process we called eigen-selectivity. By analyzing a hypothetical time reversal experiment, we identify two sources of coherence loss which are of a very different nature and give rise to distinct time scales of the spin dynamics: (a) reversible or adiabatic quantum decoherence and (b) irreversible or essentially adiabatic quantum decoherence. Local irreversibility arises as a consequence of the uncertainty introduced by the coupling with an infinite quantum environment. The reversible part can be represented by a semiclassical model, similar to standard line-shape adiabatic models. By exploiting the separation existing between the time scales of the spin coherences and the irreversible decoherence, we present a novel technique to obtain the orientational molecular distribution function for a nematic liquid crystal. The procedure is based on the comparison of the observed coherence time evolution and numerical calculation under the adiabatic quantum decoherence approach. As an example, it is used the experimental free induction decay from a nematic PAAd6 sample to extract such an orientational distribution. This is the first theoretical description of the experimental liquid crystal NMR signal in the time domain. On the contrary, the irreversible decoherence is intrinsically full-quantum mechanical, as it is governed by the commutation properties of the environment and the spin-lattice Hamiltonians. Consistently, it depends on the molecular correlation in a decisive way, since it vanishes under a mean-field model for the molecular dynamics. The results of this work can contribute to the understanding of the open question of the applicability of the spin-temperature concept in spin systems with few degrees of freedom.
Lattice mapping for many-body open quantum systems and its application to atoms in photonic cystals
Ines de Vega
2014-10-17
We present a derivation that maps the original problem of a many body open quantum system (OQS) coupled to a harmonic oscillator reservoir into that of a many body OQS coupled to a lattice of harmonic oscillators. The present method is particularly suitable to analyse the dynamics of atoms arranged in a periodic structure and coupled the EM field within a photonic crystal. It allows to solve the dynamics of a many body OQS with methods alternative to the commonly used master, stochastic Schr\\"{o}dinger and Heisenberg equations, and thus to reach regimes well beyond the weak coupling and Born-Markov approximations.
Memory effects and nonequilibrium transport in open many-particle quantum systems.
Knezevic, Irena; Ferry, David K
2003-06-01
Full understanding of the relaxation mechanisms and far-from-equilibrium transport in modern mesoscopic structures requires that such systems be treated as open. We therefore generalize some of the core elements of the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, inherently formulated for closed systems, to treatment of an open system, coupled with its environment. We define the two-time correlation functions and analyze the influence of the memory effects on the open-system transport. In the transient regime, the two-time correlation functions clearly show four distinct terms: a closed-system-like term, an entanglement term, and two memory terms that depend explicitly on the initial state of the environment. We show that it is not possible to completely eliminate the influence of the environment by a fortunate choice of the initial state, and approximating the system as closed is valid only in the limit of negligible system-environment coupling, which is never the case in the transient regime. We derive the transport equations for transients that properly account for the system-environment coupling. On the other hand, we address the important issue of transport in a far-from-equilibrium steady state. We show that, once a steady state is reached, the balance between the driving and relaxation forces implies that the two-time correlation functions regain a closed-system-like form, but with an effective, modified system Hamiltonian, and with the system statistical operator unrelated to that of the initial state. We emphasize that the difference between the transient and the far-from-equilibrium steady-state regimes, crucial for theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium quasiparticle transport, effectively lies within the different relative magnitude of the combined entanglement and memory terms with respect to the closed-system-like term in two-time correlation functions. PMID:16241319
Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G
2014-01-01
We compare two approaches to open quantum systems, namely, the non-Hermitian dynamics and the Lindblad master equation. In order to deal with more general dissipative phenomena, we propose the unified master equation that combines the characteristics of both of these approaches. This allows us to assess the differences between them as well as to clarify which observed features come from the Lindblad or the non-Hermitian part, when it comes to experiment. Using a generic two-mode single-atom laser system as a practical example, we analytically solve the dynamics of the normalized density matrix operator. We study the two-level model in a number of cases (depending on parameters and types of dynamics), compute different observables and study their physical properties. It turns out that one is able not only to describe the different types of damping in dissipative quantum optical systems but also to mimic the undamped anharmonic oscillatory phenomena which happen in quantum systems with more than two levels (whi...
Semiclassical wave functions for open quantum billiards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lackner, Fabian; B?ezinová, Iva; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian
2013-08-01
We present a semiclassical approximation to the scattering wave function ?(r,k) for an open quantum billiard, which is based on the reconstruction of the Feynman path integral. We demonstrate its remarkable numerical accuracy for the open rectangular billiard and show that the convergence of the semiclassical wave function to the full quantum state is controlled by the mean path length or equivalently the dwell time for a given scattering state. In the numerical implementation a cutoff length in the maximum path length or, equivalently, a maximum dwell time ?max included implies a finite energy resolution ?E˜?max-1. Possible applications include leaky billiards and systems with decoherence present.
Semiclassical wave functions for open quantum billiards.
Lackner, Fabian; B?ezinová, Iva; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian
2013-08-01
We present a semiclassical approximation to the scattering wave function ?(r,k) for an open quantum billiard, which is based on the reconstruction of the Feynman path integral. We demonstrate its remarkable numerical accuracy for the open rectangular billiard and show that the convergence of the semiclassical wave function to the full quantum state is controlled by the mean path length or equivalently the dwell time for a given scattering state. In the numerical implementation a cutoff length in the maximum path length or, equivalently, a maximum dwell time ?(max) included implies a finite energy resolution ?E~?(max)(-1). Possible applications include leaky billiards and systems with decoherence present. PMID:24032910
Multiscale dynamics of open three-level quantum systems with two quasi-degenerate levels
Marco Merkli; Haifeng Song; Gennady Berman
2015-07-03
We consider a three-level quantum system interacting with a bosonic thermal reservoir. Two energy levels of the system are nearly degenerate but well separated from the third one. The system-reservoir interaction constant is larger than the energy difference of the degenerate levels, but it is smaller than the separation between the latter and the remaining level. We show that the quasi-degeneracy of energy levels leads to the existence of a manifold of quasi-stationary states, and the dynamics exhibits two characteristic time scales. On the first, shorter one, initial states approach the quasi-stationary manifold. Then, on the much longer second time scale, the final unique equilibrium is reached.
Multiscale dynamics of open three-level quantum systems with two quasi-degenerate levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkli, Marco; Song, Haifeng; Berman, Gennady P.
2015-07-01
We consider a three-level quantum system interacting with a bosonic thermal reservoir. Two energy levels of the system are nearly degenerate but well separated from the third one. The system-reservoir interaction constant is larger than the energy difference of the degenerate levels, but it is smaller than the separation between the latter and the remaining level. We show that the quasi-degeneracy of energy levels leads to the existence of a manifold of quasi-stationary states, and the dynamics exhibits two characteristic time scales. On the first, shorter one, initial states approach the quasi-stationary manifold. Then, on the much longer second time scale, the final unique equilibrium is reached.
Rotter, I
2001-09-01
A relation between the eigenvalues of an effective Hamilton operator and the poles of the S matrix is derived that holds for isolated as well as for overlapping resonance states. The system may be a many-particle quantum system with two-body forces between the constituents or it may be a quantum billiard without any two-body forces. Avoided crossings of discrete states as well as of resonance states are traced back to the existence of branch points in the complex plane. Under certain conditions, these branch points appear as double poles of the S matrix. They influence the dynamics of open as well as of closed quantum systems. The dynamics of the two-level system is studied in detail analytically as well as numerically. PMID:11580428
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario; ?ugiewicz, Piotr; Olkiewicz, Robert
Quantum mechanics is the greatest revision of our conception of the character of the physical world since Newton. Consequently, David Hilbert was very interested in quantum mechanics. He and John von Neumann discussed it frequently during von Neumann's residence in Göttingen. He published in 1932 his book Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. In Hilbert's opinion it was the first exposition of quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way. The pioneers of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg and Dirac, neither had use for rigorous mathematics nor much interest in it. Conceptually, quantum theory as developed by Bohr and Heisenberg is based on the positivism of Mach as it describes only observable quantities. It first emerged as a result of experimental data in the form of statistical observations of quantum noise, the basic concept of quantum probability.
From open quantum walks to unitary quantum walks
Chaobin Liu
2015-02-05
We present an idea to convert to a unitary quantum walk any open quantum walk which is defined on lattices as well as on finite graphs. This approach generalizes to the domain of open quantum walks (or quantum Markov chains) the framework introduced by Szegedy for quantizing Markov chains. For the unitary quantum walks formulated in this article, we define the probability and the mean probability of finding the walk at a node, then derive the asymptotic mean probability.
Humberto G. Laguna; Robin P. Sagar; David D. Tempel; Alan Aspuru-Guzik
2015-10-02
The effects of bath coupling on an interacting two-particle quantum system are studied using tools from information theory. Shannon entropies of the one (reduced) and two-particle distribution functions in position, momentum and separable phase-space are examined. Results show that the presence of the bath leads to a delocalization of the distribution functions in position space, and a localization in momentum space. This can be interpreted as a loss of information in position space and a gain of information in momentum space. The entropy sum of the system, in the presence of a bath, is shown to be dependent on the strength of the interparticle potential and also on the strength of the coupling to the bath. The statistical correlation between the particles, and its dependence on the bath and interparticle potential, is examined using mutual information. A stronger repulsive potential between particles, in the presence of the bath, yields a smaller correlation between the particles positions, and a larger one between their momenta.
Weyl laws for partially open quantum maps
Emmanuel Schenck
2009-04-03
We study a toy model for "partially open" wave-mechanical system, like for instance a dielectric micro-cavity, in the semiclassical limit where ray dynamics is applicable. Our model is a quantized map on the 2-dimensional torus, with an additional damping at each time step, resulting in a subunitary propagator, or "damped quantum map". We obtain analogues of Weyl's laws for such maps in the semiclassical limit, and draw some more precise estimates when the classical dynamic is chaotic.
Error-suppression by energy-gap protection for quantum computation in open systems
Zhou, Xiang-Yu (Xiang-Yu Leo)
2014-01-01
Adiabatic Quantum Computation, while attractive due to its "hands-off" approach and intrinsic tolerance of noise, has not been shown to be fully fault-tolerant in a satisfying manner. The protection of the evolution from ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florez, Carlos; Pachón, Leonardo
2015-03-01
The study of quantum dissipation and non-local dynamics in phase space demands an extension of the Ullersma-Caldeira-Leggett framework to include non-linearities either in the system or the bath or even in the couplings between them. In this work, the special case of a linear open system interacting with a harmonic thermal bath by means of non-linear couplings is considered. This framework is constructed by extending the path integral formulation into phase space and applying the Feynam-Vernon influence functional theory to study the perturbative regime at different orders in the couplings. In doing so, the formal correspondence between the perturbative contributions and the Feynman diagrams that arise from the n-point correlation functions in the canonical variables are used. The effect of the non-local behavior induced by the non-linear contributions on the dissipative and decohering mechanisms are analyzed. The main features are the presence of non-Gaussian statistics and multiplicative, instead of additive, noises.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Gelfand, I.; Zenone, T.; Cui, M.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.
2012-12-01
The ambient concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth most abundant greenhouse gas, is rapidly increasing with emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources [1]. Soil and aquatic areas are important sources and sinks for N2O due to complicated biogenic processes. However, N2O emissions are poorly constrained in space and time, despite its importance to global climate change and ozone depletion. We report our recent N2O emission measurements with an open-path quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based sensor for ecological systems. The newly emergent QCLs have been used to build compact, sensitive trace gas sensors in the mid-IR spectral region. A compact open-path QCL based sensor was developed to detect atmospheric N2O and CO at ~ 4.5 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to achieve a sensitivity of 0.26 ppbv of N2O and 0.24 ppbv of CO in 1 s with a power consumption of ~50 W [2]. This portable sensor system has been used to perform N2O emission flux measurement both with a static flux chamber and on an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower. In the flux chamber measurements, custom chambers were used to host the laser sensor, while gas samples for gas chromatograph (GC) were collected at the same time in the same chamber for validation and comparison. Different soil treatments have been applied in different chambers to study the relationship between N2O emission and the amount of fertilizer (and water) addition. Measurements from two methods agreed with each other (95% or higher confidence interval) for emission flux results, while laser sensor gave measurements with a much high temporal resolution. We have also performed the first open-path eddy covariance N2O flux measurement at Kellogg research station, Michigan State University for a month in June, 2012. Our sensor was placed on a 4-meter tower in a corn field and powered by batteries (connected with solar panels). We have observed the diurnal cycle of N2O flux. During this deployment, an inter-comparison between our sensor and a commercial gas sensor was done to check the sensor's performance. Overall, our sensor showed a good performance with both static chamber measurement and EC flux measurement of N2O. Its open-path, compact and portable design with low power consumption provides lots of advantages for N2O emission flux measurement in the ecological systems. [1] S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, "Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change," Nature 476, 43-50 (2011). [2] L. Tao, K, Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan and M.A. Zondlo, "Optimizations for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser," CLEO, 2012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayers, J.; Reiter, G.
2012-09-01
Dreismann, Gray and Blach (DGB) have claimed that neutron scattering from molecular hydrogen at energy transfers E sufficiently large to break the H-H bond, gives E ˜3% larger than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB presented this claim as the first experimental evidence for energetic consequences of decoherence of quantum entangled particles due to interactions with the environment. It is shown here this claim is entirely spurious. DGB obtained disagreement with conventional theory by changing the geometrical description of the Vesuvio instrument at ISIS, they used to collect their data. Instead of using the default scattering angles obtained from neutron diffraction, DGB used scattering angles obtained using a steel rule and protractor. DGB then manufactured apparent but in fact completely spurious evidence for quantum decoherence effects from the large measurement errors in the scattering angles they used. These give shifts to both higher and lower E than predicted by conventional quantum theory. DGB simply ignored detectors giving shifts to lower values of E. DGB also ignored previously published H2 data that clearly contradict their claim.
Self-consistent three-dimensional models for quantum ballistic transport in open systems
E. Polizzi; N. Ben Abdallah
2002-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional model for quantum ballistic transport in nanostructures is proposed. The model goes beyond the Thomas-Fermi approximation and is numerically more tractable than the full three-dimensional Schrödinger-Poisson model. Its derivation relies on the strong confinement of electrons at the heterojunction which allows us to split the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation into a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for the confined direction and
{open_quotes}Plug and play{close_quotes} systems for quantum cryptography
Muller, A.; Herzog, T.; Huttner, B.; Tittel, W.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.
1997-02-01
We present a time-multiplexed interferometer based on Faraday mirrors, and apply it to quantum key distribution. The interfering pulses follow exactly the same spatial path, ensuring very high stability and self balancing. The use of Faraday mirrors compensates automatically any birefringence effects and polarization dependent losses in the transmitting fiber. First experimental results show a fringe visibility of 0.9984 for a 23-km-long interferometer, based on installed telecom fibers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
J. R. Johansson; P. D. Nation; Franco Nori
2012-11-28
We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1760], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version.
Non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems without rotating wave approximation
Ming-Jia Tang; Yu-Kai Wu; Ming Lyu; Jia-Nan Tang; Zhen Guo; Tian Chen; Xiang-Bin Wang
2014-07-22
We study the non-Markovian dynamics of a damped oscillator coupled with a reservoir. We present exact formulas for the oscillator's evolution directly from the BCH formula by series expansion with neither Markovian nor rotating wave approximation (RWA). Based on these, we show the existence of the non-Markovian feature of the system's evolution for the damped oscillator. By numerical simulation we find that the non-Markovian feature exists within a wide range of the coupling strength, even when the coupling strength is very small. To this problem, prior art results have assumed RWA and the existence of non-Markovian feature was found when the system-reservoir coupling is strong enough. However, as we show, given such a strong coupling, the original Hamiltonian without RWA is actually not physical. Therefore, our exact study here has thoroughly concluded the issue of non-Markovian feature.
Florian A. Y. N. Schröder; Alex W. Chin; Richard H. Friend
2015-07-08
Many-body approaches to open quantum systems have recently become powerful tools for investigating the detailed role of dissipative environments in diverse non-equilibrium molecular and condensed matter processes. Here, we report the development of an efficient algorithm that utilises a time-dependent variational principle for matrix product states to evolve large system-environment states. By thus capturing all system-environment correlations, we reproduce the highly non-perturbative, quantum-critical dynamics of the zero temperature spin-boson model, and then exploit the many-body information to output a complete time-frequency spectrum of the environmental excitations. We highlight how theoretical 'environmental spectra' could yield valuable insights into a wide range of complex dissipative processes, by showing that correlated motion of modes entangled with the spin can appear with persistent vibrational coherence, in spite of incoherent spin relaxation.
Mappings of open quantum systems onto chain representations and Markovian embeddings
Woods, M. P., E-mail: mischa.woods05@imperial.ac.uk [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Groux, R. [Lycée Polyvalent Rouvière, Rue Sainte Claire Deville. BP 1205, 83070 Toulon (France)] [Lycée Polyvalent Rouvière, Rue Sainte Claire Deville. BP 1205, 83070 Toulon (France); Chin, A. W.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B. [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2014-03-15
We study systems coupled linearly to a bath of oscillators. In an iterative process, the bath is transformed into a chain of oscillators with nearest neighbour interactions. A systematic procedure is provided to obtain the spectral density of the residual bath in each step, and it is shown that under general conditions these data converge. That is, the asymptotic part of the chain is universal, translation invariant with semicircular spectral density. The methods are based on orthogonal polynomials, in which we also solve the outstanding so-called “sequence of secondary measures problem” and give them a physical interpretation.
Quantum electromechanical systems
Miles Blencowe
2004-01-01
Quantum electromechanical systems are nano-to-micrometer (micron) scale mechanical resonators coupled to electronic devices of comparable dimensions, such that the mechanical resonator behaves in a manifestly quantum manner. We review progress towards realising quantum electromechanical systems, beginning with the phononic quantum of thermal conductance for suspended dielectric wires. We then describe efforts to reach the quantum zero-point displacement uncertainty detection limit
Deformation Quantization of a Class of Open Systems
Becher, Florian; Waldmann, Stefan
2009-01-01
We give an approach to open quantum systems based on well-known results of formal deformation quantization. It is shown that a certain class of classical open systems can be systematically quantized (in the sense of formal deformation quantization) into a quantum open system preserving the complete positivity of the open time evolution. The usual example of linearly coupled harmonic oscillators shows that some convergent models are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrega, M.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.; Weiss, U.
2015-04-01
We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system (TSS). We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the TSS and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.
Generalized open quantum walks on Apollonian networks
?. Pawela; P. Gawron; J. A. Miszczak; P. Sadowski
2015-03-24
We introduce the model of generalized open quantum walks on networks using the Transition Operation Matrices formalism. We focus our analysis on the mean first passage time and the average return time in Apollonian networks. These results differ significantly from a classical walk on these networks. We show a comparison of the classical and quantum behaviour of walks on these networks.
Open FRW model in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Lukasz Szulc
2008-01-29
Open FRW model in Loop Quantum Cosmology is under consideration. The left and right invariant vector fields and holonomies along them are studied. It is shown that in the hyperbolic geometry of $k=-1$ it is possible to construct a suitable loop which provides us with quantum scalar constraint originally introduced by Vandersloot. The quantum scalar constraint operator with negative cosmological constant is proved to be essentially self-adjoint.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, S.; Ravishankar, V.; Srikanth, R.
2010-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of entanglement in a two-qubit system interacting with an initially squeezed thermal environment via a quantum nondemolition system-reservoir interaction, with the system and reservoir assumed to be initially separable. We compare and contrast the decoherence of the two-qubit system in the case where the qubits are mutually close-by (`collective regime') or distant (`localized regime') with respect to the spatial variation of the environment. Sudden death of entanglement (as quantified by concurrence) is shown to occur in the localized case rather than in the collective case, where entanglement tends to `ring down'. A consequence of the QND character of the interaction is that the time-evolved fidelity of a Bell state never falls below 1/sqrt{2}, a fact that is useful for quantum communication applications like a quantum repeater. Using a novel quantification of mixed state entanglement, we show that there are noise regimes where even though entanglement vanishes, the state is still available for applications like NMR quantum computation, because of the presence of a pseudo-pure component.
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis
2014-12-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum {{H}? } optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.
G. Nenciu
2006-10-26
A general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open noninteracting mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-Buettiker formula is pointed out. Time reversal symmetry is not assumed. As a consequence it follows that, as far as the system has a nontrivial scattering theory and the reservoirs have different temperatures and/or chemical potentials, the entropy production is strictly positive.
John A. Sidles; Joseph L. Garbini; Lee E. Harrell; Alfred O. Hero; Jonathan P. Jacky; Joseph R. Malcomb; Anthony G. Norman; Austin M. Williamson
2008-05-13
This article presents numerical recipes for simulating high-temperature and non-equilibrium quantum spin systems that are continuously measured and controlled. The notion of a spin system is broadly conceived, in order to encompass macroscopic test masses as the limiting case of large-j spins. The simulation technique has three stages: first the deliberate introduction of noise into the simulation, then the conversion of that noise into an equivalent continuous measurement and control process, and finally, projection of the trajectory onto a state-space manifold having reduced dimensionality and possessing a Kahler potential of multi-linear form. The resulting simulation formalism is used to construct a positive P-representation for the thermal density matrix. Single-spin detection by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is simulated, and the data statistics are shown to be those of a random telegraph signal with additive white noise. Larger-scale spin-dust models are simulated, having no spatial symmetry and no spatial ordering; the high-fidelity projection of numerically computed quantum trajectories onto low-dimensionality Kahler state-space manifolds is demonstrated. The reconstruction of quantum trajectories from sparse random projections is demonstrated, the onset of Donoho-Stodden breakdown at the Candes-Tao sparsity limit is observed, a deterministic construction for sampling matrices is given, and methods for quantum state optimization by Dantzig selection are given.
Quantum Open-Closed Homotopy Algebra and String Field Theory
Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs
2011-10-19
We reformulate the algebraic structure of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory in terms of homotopy algebras. We call it the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra (QOCHA) which is the generalization of the open-closed homotopy algebra (OCHA) of Kajiura and Stasheff. The homotopy formulation reveals new insights about deformations of open string field theory by closed string backgrounds. In particular, deformations by Maurer Cartan elements of the quantum closed homotopy algebra define consistent quantum open string field theories.
Hewitt, Carl E.
1987-02-01
This paper takes a prescriptive stance on how to establish the information-processing foundations for taking action and making decisions in office work from an open system perspective. We propose due process as a ...
M. Carrega; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti; U. Weiss
2014-12-22
We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The general method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system. We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the two-state system and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, Reginald T.
2002-10-01
So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the new notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a stochastic neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is an information theory of reality in which space and quantum phenomena are emergent, and so indicates the deep origins of quantum phenomena. Analogous complex stochastic dynamical systems have recently been proposed within neurobiology to deal with the emergent complexity of biosystems, particularly the biodynamics of higher brain function. The reasons for analogous discoveries in fundamental physics and neurobiology are discussed.
Open quantum reaction-diffusion dynamics: Absorbing states and relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Horssen, Merlijn; Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-03-01
We consider an extension of classical stochastic reaction-diffusion (RD) dynamics to open quantum systems. We study a class of models of hard-core particles on a one-dimensional lattice whose dynamics is generated by a quantum master operator. Particle hopping is coherent while reactions, such as pair annihilation or pair coalescence, are dissipative. These are quantum open generalizations of the A +A ?? and A +A ?A classical RD models. We characterize the relaxation of the state towards the stationary regime via a decomposition of the system Hilbert space into transient and recurrent subspaces. We provide a complete classification of the structure of the recurrent subspace (and the nonequilibrium steady states) in terms of the dark states associated to the quantum master operator and its general spectral properties. We also show that, in one dimension, relaxation towards these absorbing dark states is slower than that predicted by a mean-field analysis due to fluctuation effects, in analogy with what occurs in classical RD systems. Numerical simulations of small systems suggest that the decay of the density in one dimension, in both the open quantum A +A ?? and A +A ?A systems, behaves asymptotically as t-b with 1 /2
Open Source Physics: Quantum Spins
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Christian, Wolfgang
OSP Spins is an interactive computer program that simulates Stern-Gerlach-type measurements on spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles. This package provides the user with a sequence of tutorials and exercises to help them explore the physics of quantum spin. Fundamental issues such as incompatible observables, eigenstate expansions, interference, and quantum dynamics are included.
Open systems storage platforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Kirby
1992-01-01
The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, B.; Salimi, S.; Khorashad, A. S.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we investigate tunneling of conduction band electrons in a system of an asymmetric double quantum dot which interacts with an environment. First we consider the case in which the system only interacts with the environment and demonstrate that as time goes to infinity they both reach an equilibrium, which is expected, and there is always a maximum and minimum for the populations of the states of the system. Then we investigate the case in which an external resonant optical pulse (a laser) is applied to the system interacting with the environment. However, in this case for different intensities we have different populations of the states in equilibrium and as the intensity of the laser gets stronger, the populations of the states in equilibrium approach the same constant.
Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan
2012-01-01
Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement. PMID:22567645
Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks
Przemys?aw Sadowski; ?ukasz Pawela
2014-12-16
In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. Furthermore, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a uniform distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.
Complementary Subalgebras in Finite Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petz, D.; Szántó, A.
2011-01-01
While the notion of complementarity in quantum systems goes back to the beginning of quantum theory, the concept of complementary subalgebras is quite new. Here we overview the recent developments of the field, characterizations of complementarity and complementary decompositions are reviewed, and we point to some still open questions.
Tunneling phenomena in the open elliptic quantum billiard.
Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C
2012-07-01
The study of open quantum billiards has gained popularity in the last decades, including different common and uncommon geometries such as the circular and stadium billiards. We present an extensive analysis of the elliptic quantum billiard with hyperbolic channels. We concentrate on the tunneling through an elliptic resonator-like structure. We analyze three different variations of the system: the first configuration has horizontal channels, then we study the system with vertical leads, and finally we displace both channels by the same angle to gain a more general perspective. We observed a very unusual phase distribution in the resonator cavity when there is no tunneling through the system. PMID:23005510
Tunneling phenomena in the open elliptic quantum billiard
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.
2012-07-01
The study of open quantum billiards has gained popularity in the last decades, including different common and uncommon geometries such as the circular and stadium billiards. We present an extensive analysis of the elliptic quantum billiard with hyperbolic channels. We concentrate on the tunneling through an elliptic resonator-like structure. We analyze three different variations of the system: the first configuration has horizontal channels, then we study the system with vertical leads, and finally we displace both channels by the same angle to gain a more general perspective. We observed a very unusual phase distribution in the resonator cavity when there is no tunneling through the system.
Some Open Problems in Quantum Information Theory
Mary Beth Ruskai
2007-08-14
Some open questions in quantum information theory (QIT) are described. Most of them were presented in Banff during the BIRS workshop on Operator Structures in QIT 11-16 February 2007. New material has been added in view of the recent counter-examples to p-norm multiplicativity.
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system.
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.
1995-04-01
In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.
Daniel Burgarth; Kazuya Yuasa
2011-04-04
The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.
Opening and Closing in Open Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klapp, Orrin E.
In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…
Fractal Weyl Laws for Chaotic Open Systems S. Sridhar,1
Sridhar, Srinivas
Fractal Weyl Laws for Chaotic Open Systems W.T. Lu,1 S. Sridhar,1 and Maciej Zworski2 1 Department a conjecture relating the density of quantum resonances for an open chaotic system to the fractal dimension. A notable example is the conjecture by Berry [2] for the density of states of closed systems with fractal
Microscopic derivation of open quantum walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2015-09-01
Open quantum walks (OQWs) are exclusively driven by dissipation and are formulated as completely positive trace-preserving (CPTP) maps on underlying graphs. The microscopic derivation of discrete and continuous-in-time OQWs is presented. It is assumed that connected nodes are weakly interacting via a common bath. The resulting reduced master equation of the quantum walker on the lattice is in the generalized master equation form. The time discretization of the generalized master equation leads to the OQW formalism. The explicit form of the transition operators establishes a connection between dynamical properties of the OQWs and thermodynamical characteristics of the environment. The derivation is demonstrated for the examples of the OQW on a circle of nodes and on a finite chain of nodes. For both examples, a transition between diffusive and ballistic quantum trajectories is observed and found to be related to the temperature of the bath.
Naval open systems architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia
2013-05-01
For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.
Magmatic "Quantum-Like" Systems
Elemer E Rosinger
2008-12-16
Quantum computation has suggested, among others, the consideration of "non-quantum" systems which in certain respects may behave "quantum-like". Here, what algebraically appears to be the most general possible known setup, namely, of {\\it magmas} is used in order to construct "quantum-like" systems. The resulting magmatic composition of systems has as a well known particular case the tensor products.
Danilov, Viatcheslav; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab
2011-11-01
Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.
Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A., E-mail: damazz@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-03-28
We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502–R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C{sub 2}, CN, Cr {sub 2}, and NO {sub 2}.
Adiabatic approximation for weakly open systems
Thunstroem, Patrik; Aaberg, Johan; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2005-08-15
We generalize the adiabatic approximation to the case of open quantum systems, in the joint limit of slow change and weak open system disturbances. We show that the approximation is 'physically reasonable' as under wide conditions it leads to a completely positive evolution, if the original master equation can be written on a time-dependent Lindblad form. We demonstrate the approximation for a non-Abelian holonomic implementation of the Hadamard gate, disturbed by a decoherence process. We compare the resulting approximate evolution with numerical simulations of the exact equation.
Complementarity in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petz, Dénes
2007-04-01
Reduction of a state of a quantum system to a subsystem gives partial quantum information about the true state of the total system. Two subalgebras A1 and A2 of B( H) are called complementary if the traceless subspaces of A1 and A2 are orthogonal (with respect to the Hilbert Schmidt inner product). When both subalgebras are maximal Abelian, then the concept reduces to complementary observables or mutually unbiased bases. In the paper several characterizations of complementary subalgebras are given in the general case and several examples are presented. For a 4-level quantum system, the structure of complementary subalgebras can be described very well, the Cartan decomposition of unitaries plays a role. It turns out that a measurement corresponding to the Bell basis is complementary to any local measurement of the two-qubit system.
Witness for initial system-environment correlations in open system dynamics
Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Heinz-Peter Breuer
2010-04-13
We study the evolution of a general open quantum system when the system and its environment are initially correlated. We show that the trace distance between two states of the open system can increase above its initial value, and derive tight upper bounds for the growth of the distinguishability of open system states. This represents a generalization of the contraction property of quantum dynamical maps. The obtained inequalities can be interpreted in terms of the exchange of information between the system and the environment, and lead to a witness for system-environment correlations which can be determined through measurements on the open system alone.
Engineering quantum communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Armando N.; Almeida, Álvaro J.; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; Martins, Luis M.
2012-06-01
Quantum communications can provide almost perfect security through the use of quantum laws to detect any possible leak of information. We discuss critical issues in the implementation of quantum communication systems over installed optical fibers. We use stimulated four-wave mixing to generate single photons inside optical fibers, and by tuning the separation between the pump and the signal we adjust the average number of photons per pulse. We report measurements of the source statistics and show that it goes from a thermal to Poisson distribution with the increase of the pump power. We generate entangled photons pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing. We report results for different type of fibers to approach the maximum value of the Bell inequality. We model the impact of polarization rotation, attenuation and Raman scattering and present optimum configurations to increase the degree of entanglement. We encode information in the photons polarization and assess the use of wavelength and time division multiplexing based control systems to compensate for the random rotation of the polarization during transmission. We show that time division multiplexing systems provide a more robust solution considering the values of PMD of nowadays installed fibers. We evaluate the impact on the quantum channel of co-propagating classical channels, and present guidelines for adding quantum channels to installed WDM optical communication systems without strongly penalizing the performance of the quantum channel. We discuss the process of retrieving information from the photons polarization. We identify the major impairments that limit the speed and distance of the quantum channel. Finally, we model theoretically the QBER and present results of an experimental performance assessment of the system quality through QBER measurements.
Universal Control of Decoupled Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza; Lloyd, Seth; Knill, Emanuel
1999-12-01
We show that if one can perform a restricted set of fast manipulations on a quantum system, one can implement a large class of dynamical evolutions by effectively removing or introducing selected Hamiltonians. The procedure can be used to achieve universal noise-tolerant control based on purely unitary open-loop transformations of the dynamics. As a result, it is in principle possible to perform noise-protected universal quantum computation using no extra space resources.
Hong-Bin Chen; Jiun-Yi Lien; Guang-Yin Chen; Yueh-Nan Chen
2015-05-01
In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the construction of a proper measure of quantum non-Markovianity. However, those proposed measures are shown to be at variance with different situations. In this work, we utilize the theory of $k$-positive maps to generalize a hierarchy of $k$-divisibility and develop a powerful tool, called $k$-divisibility phase diagram, which can provide a further insight into the nature of quantum non-Markovianity. By exploring the phase diagram with several paradigms, we can explain the origin of the discrepancy between two frequently used measures and find the condition under which the two measures coincide with each other.
Micheli, Fiorenza de; Zanelli, Jorge
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
Quantum states and potentialities of quantum systems
Malin, S.
1986-12-01
In a previous article it was shown that in general quantum states represent perspectives on the potentialities of quantum systems, rather than the potentialities themselves. In the present paper the following questions are investigated in the context of this result: How do quantum states which undergo collapse transform under pure translations. Under what conditions do quantum states represent the potentialities themselves. Two alternatives are presented in response to the first question: Quantum states are scalars under translations. The collapse of a quantum state propagates between frames of reference at the speed of light. The advantages and disadvantages of the two alternatives are discussed. The response to the second question is shown to depend on the chosen alternative. In addition, the second alternative is shown to lead to a consistent view of quantum states as ''potential perspectives on potentialities.''
Classical and quantum massive cosmology for the open FRW universe
Babak Vakili; Nima Khosravi
2012-04-28
In an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space background, we study the classical and quantum cosmological models in the framework of the recently proposed nonlinear massive gravity theory. Although the constraints which are present in this theory prevent it from admitting the flat and closed FRW models as its cosmological solutions, for the open FRW universe, it is not the case. We have shown that, either in the absence of matter or in the presence of a perfect fluid, the classical field equations of such a theory adopt physical solutions for the open FRW model, in which the mass term shows itself as a cosmological constant. These classical solutions consist of two distinguishable branches: One is a contacting universe which tends to a future singularity with zero size, while another is an expanding universe having a past singularity from which it begins its evolution. A classically forbidden region separates these two branches from each other. We then employ the familiar canonical quantization procedure in the given cosmological setting to find the cosmological wave functions. We use the resulting wave function to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects. It is shown that the quantum expectation values of the scale factor, although they have either contracting or expanding phases like their classical counterparts, are not disconnected from each other. Indeed, the classically forbidden region may be replaced by a bouncing period in which the scale factor bounces from the contraction to its expansion eras. Using the Bohmian approach of quantum mechanics, we also compute the Bohmian trajectory and the quantum potential related to the system, which their analysis shows are the direct effects of the mass term on the dynamics of the universe.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-01-26
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.
Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition
Scacchi, Walt
Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition Final Report follows. 2 #12;Open Acquisition: Combining Open Source Software Development with System Acquisition Walt to the combination of best practices from open source software development (OSSD) projects with emerging capabilities
Quantum iterated function systems.
?ozi?ski, Artur; Zyczkowski, Karol; S?omczy?ski, Wojciech
2003-10-01
An iterated function system (IFS) is defined by specifying a set of functions in a classical phase space, which act randomly on an initial point. In an analogous way, we define a quantum IFS (QIFS), where functions act randomly with prescribed probabilities in the Hilbert space. In a more general setting, a QIFS consists of completely positive maps acting in the space of density operators. This formalism is designed to describe certain problems of nonunitary quantum dynamics. We present exemplary classical IFSs, the invariant measure of which exhibits fractal structure, and study properties of the corresponding QIFSs and their invariant states. PMID:14683005
Quasiperiodically kicked quantum systems
Milonni, P.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Goggin, M.E.
1987-02-15
We consider a two-state system kicked quasiperiodically by an external force. When the two kicking frequencies assumed for the force are incommensurate, there can be quantum chaos in the sense that (a) the autocorrelation function of the state vector decays, (b) the power spectrum of the state vector is broadband, and (c) the motion on the Bloch sphere is ergodic. The time evolution of the state vector is nevertheless dynamically stable in the sense that memory of the initial state is retained. We also consider briefly the kicked quantum rotator and find, in agreement with Shepelyansky (Physica 8D, 208 (1983)), that the quantum localization effect is greatly weakened by the presence of two incommensurate driving frequencies.
Quantum game theory and open access publishing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt
2007-08-01
The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.
Hackenbroich, Gregor
Quantum statistics of overlapping modes in open resonators Gregor Hackenbroich, Carlos Viviescas, Fritz Haake Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen, Germany (Dated: September 2 descrip- tion of the quantum statistics of overlapping modes. A few example systems were discussed [8, 9
Open Systems: A Second Opinion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rice, James
1987-01-01
Describes the advantages of the development of open systems, i.e., a configuration which combines software and hardware from separate vendors into a single system, as a means of increasing the possible applications of library automation. (CLB)
Classical transients and the support of open quantum maps.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Wisniacki, D A; Ermann, Leonardo; Benito, R M; Borondo, F
2013-01-01
The basic ingredients in a semiclassical theory are the classical invariant objects serving as a support for quantization. Recent studies, mainly obtained on quantum maps, have led to the commonly accepted belief that the classical repeller-the set of nonescaping orbits in the future and past evolution-is the object that suitably plays this role in open scattering systems. In this paper we present numerical evidence warning that this may not always be the case. For this purpose we study recently introduced families of tribaker maps [L. Ermann, G. G. Carlo, J. M. Pedrosa, and M. Saraceno, Phys. Rev. E 85, 066204 (2012)], which share the same asymptotic properties but differ in their short-time behavior. We have found that although the eigenvalue distribution of the evolution operator of these maps follows the fractal Weyl law prediction, the theory of short periodic orbits for open maps fails to describe the resonance eigenfunctions of some of them. This is a strong indication that new elements must be included in the semiclassical description of open quantum systems. We provide an interpretation of the results in order to have hints about them. PMID:23410406
Quantum simulations of one dimensional quantum systems
Rolando D. Somma
2015-03-21
We present several quantum algorithms for the simulation of quantum systems in one spatial dimension. First, we provide a method to simulate the evolution of the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) and compute scattering amplitudes using a discrete QHO. To achieve precision \\epsilon, it suffices to choose the dimension of the Hilbert space of the discrete system, N, proportional to N' and logarithmic in |t|/\\epsilon, where N' is the largest eigenvalue in the spectral decomposition of the initial state, and t is the evolution time. We then present a Trotter-Suzuki product formula to approximate the evolution. The number of terms in the product is subexponential, and the complexity of simulating the evolution on a quantum computer is O(|t| \\exp( \\gamma \\sqrt{\\log(N' |t|/\\epsilon)})), where \\gamma >0 is constant. Our results suggest a superpolynomial speedup. Next, we describe a quantum algorithm to prepare the ground state of the discrete QHO with complexity polynomial in \\log(1/\\epsilon) and \\log (N). Such a quantum algorithm may be of independent interest, as it gives a way to prepare states of Gaussian-like amplitudes. Other eigenstates can be prepared by evolving with a Hamiltonian that is a discrete version of the Jaynes-Cummings model, with complexity polynomial in \\log (N) and 1/\\epsilon. We then study a quantum system with a quartic potential and numerically show that the evolution operator can be approximated using the Trotter-Suzuki formula, where the number of terms scales as N^{q}, for q simulating a large class of one-dimensional quantum systems, and describe a quantum algorithm of complexity almost linear in N|t| and logarithmic in 1/\\epsilon. We discuss further applications of our results, in particular with regards to the fractional Fourier transform.
General System theory, Like-Quantum Semantics and Fuzzy Sets
Ignazio Licata
2007-03-31
It is outlined the possibility to extend the quantum formalism in relation to the requirements of the general systems theory. It can be done by using a quantum semantics arising from the deep logical structure of quantum theory. It is so possible taking into account the logical openness relationship between observer and system. We are going to show how considering the truth-values of quantum propositions within the context of the fuzzy sets is here more useful for systemics . In conclusion we propose an example of formal quantum coherence.
Nature computes: information processing in quantum dynamical systems.
Wiesner, Karoline
2010-09-01
Nature intrinsically computes. It has been suggested that the entire universe is a computer, in particular, a quantum computer. To corroborate this idea we require tools to quantify the information processing. Here we review a theoretical framework for quantifying information processing in a quantum dynamical system. So-called intrinsic quantum computation combines tools from dynamical systems theory, information theory, quantum mechanics, and computation theory. We will review how far the framework has been developed and what some of the main open questions are. On the basis of this framework we discuss upper and lower bounds for intrinsic information storage in a quantum dynamical system. PMID:20887080
Hybrid Quantum Systems of Atoms and Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2015-09-01
In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.
Fingerprints of Classical Instability in Open Quantum Dynamics
Paul A. Miller; Sarben Sarkar
1998-07-03
The dynamics near a hyperbolic point in phase space is modelled by an inverted harmonic oscillator. We investigate the effect of the classical instability on the open quantum dynamics of the oscillator, introduced through the interaction with a thermal bath, using both the survival probability function and the rate of von Neumann entropy increase, for large times. In this parameter range we prove, using influence functional techniques, that the survival probability function decreases exponentially at a rate, K', depending not only on the measure of instability in the model but also on the strength of interaction with the environment. We also show that K' determines the rate of von Neumann entropy increase and that this result is independent of the temperature of the environment. This generalises earlier results which are valid in the limit of vanishing dissipation. The validity of inferring similar rates of survival probability decrease and entropy increase for quantum chaotic systems is also discussed.
Open Subsystems of Conservative Systems
Alexander Figotin; Stephen P. Shipman
2006-01-12
The subject under study is an open subsystem of a larger linear and conservative system and the way in which it is coupled to the rest of system. Examples are a model of crystalline solid as a lattice of coupled oscillators with a finite piece constituting the subsystem, and an open system such as the Helmholtz resonator as a subsystem of a larger conservative oscillatory system. Taking the view of an observer accessing only the open subsystem we ask, in particular, what information about the entire system can be reconstructed having such limited access. Based on the unique minimal conservative extension of an open subsystem, we construct a canonical decomposition of the conservative system describing, in particular, its parts coupled to and completely decoupled from the open subsystem. The coupled one together with the open system constitute the unique minimal conservative extension. Combining this with an analysis of the spectral multiplicity, we show, for the lattice model in particular, that only a very small part of all possible oscillatory motion of the entire crystal, described canonically by the minimal extension, is coupled to the finite subsystem.
Quantum coherence in multipartite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yao; Xiao, Xing; Ge, Li; Sun, C. P.
2015-08-01
Within the unified framework of exploiting the relative entropy as a distance measure of quantum correlations, we make explicit the hierarchical structure of quantum coherence, quantum discord, and quantum entanglement in multipartite systems. On this basis, we define a basis-independent measure of quantum coherence and prove that it is exactly equivalent to quantum discord. Furthermore, since the original relative entropy of coherence is a basis-dependent quantity, we investigate the local and nonlocal unitary creation of quantum coherence, focusing on the two-qubit unitary gates. Intriguingly, our results demonstrate that nonlocal unitary gates do not necessarily outperform the local unitary gates. Finally, the additivity relationship of quantum coherence in tripartite systems is discussed in detail, where the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy plays an essential role.
Repeatable procedures and maps in open quantum dynamics
Thomas F. Jordan; Anil Shaji
2009-03-26
Examples of repeatable procedures and maps are found in the open quantum dynamics of one qubit that interacts with another qubit. They show that a mathematical map that is repeatable can be made by a physical procedure that is not.
Quantum states of hierarchic systems
M. V. Altaisky
2003-01-01
The density matrix formalism which is widely used in the theory of measurements, quantum computing, quantum description of chemical and biological systems always imply the averaging over the states of the environment. In practice this is impossible because the environment $U\\\\setminusS$ of the system $S$ is the complement of this system to the whole Universe and contains infinitely many degrees
Quantum Effects in Communications Systems
J. P. Gordon
1962-01-01
The information capacity of various communications systems is considered. Quantum effects are taken fully into account. The entropy of an electromagnetic wave having the quantum statistical properties of white noise in a single transmission mode is found, and from it the information efficiency of various possible systems may be derived. The receiving systems considered include amplifiers, heterodyne and homodyne converters
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-25
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing. PMID:26451540
Experimental test of Jarzynski equality in a quasi-open quantum using a trapped ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yao; An, Shuoming; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Quan, H. T.; Smith, A. M.; Jarzynski, Christopher; Kim, Kihwan
2015-05-01
We report on an experimental test of the Jarzynski equality in a quantum system consisting of a single 171Yb+ ion that undergoes dephasing. The Jarzynski equality, which relates equilibrium free energy differences to nonequilibrium work distributions, has been tested in many classical open systems and recently in isolated quantum systems. For open quantum systems, however, the definitions of work and heat are not fully settled, which hinders experimental verification. Here, we study a quantum system that interacts with an environment which causes dephasing (or decoherence) without dissipation. We observe that although the work distribution varies with the strength of dephasing, the Jarzynski equality remains valid. Our investigation constitutes the first experimental test of the quantum Jarzynski equality in an effectively open quantum system. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grants No. 2011CBA00300 (No. 2011CBA00301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 11374178 and 11375012, and the US National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR 1206971.
Localization in chaotic systems with a single-channel opening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippolis, Domenico; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Sang Wook
2015-07-01
We introduce a single-channel opening in a random Hamiltonian and a quantized chaotic map: localization on the opening occurs as a sensible deviation of the wave-function statistics from the predictions of random matrix theory, even in the semiclassical limit. Increasing the coupling to the open channel in the quantum model, we observe a similar picture to resonance trapping, made of a few fast-decaying states, whose left (right) eigenfunctions are entirely localized on the (preimage of the) opening, and plentiful long-lived states, whose probability density is instead suppressed at the opening. For the latter, we derive and test a linear relation between the wave-function intensities and the decay rates, similar to the Breit-Wigner law. We then analyze the statistics of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding (discretized) classical propagator, finding a similar behavior to the quantum system only in the weak-coupling regime.
OpenSees: Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees) is a project of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. OpenSees is an open source "software framework for developing applications to simulate the performance of structural and geotechnical systems subjected to earthquakes." The project's homepage maintains resources for users and developers, including downloadable source code, extensive documentation, and instructions on how to contribute code. Several links to other research projects that are using the OpenSees tool are provided. Additionally, an OpenSees user's workshop was held in August 2003, and the presentations from the event are available.
Scalable cavity quantum electrodynamics system for quantum computing
Mohammad Hasan Aram; Sina Khorasani
2015-07-18
We introduce a new scalable cavity quantum electrodynamics platform which can be used for quantum computing. This system is composed of coupled photonic crystal (PC) cavities which their modes lie on a Dirac cone in the whole super crystal band structure. Quantum information is stored in quantum dots that are positioned inside the cavities. We show if there is just one quantum dot in the system, energy as photon is exchanged between the quantum dot and the Dirac modes sinusoidally. Meanwhile the quantum dot becomes entangled with Dirac modes. If we insert more quantum dots into the system, they also become entangled with each other.
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-01-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Rapid readout of a register of qubits using open loop quantum control
Joshua Combes; Aaron Denney; Howard M. Wiseman
2014-10-30
Measurements are a primitive for characterizing quantum systems. Reducing the time taken to perform a measurement may be beneficial in many areas of quantum information processing. We show that permuting the eigenvalues of the state matrix in the logical basis, using open loop control, provides a $O(n)$ reduction in the measurement time, where $n$ is the number of qubits in the register. This reduction is of the same order as the (previously introduced) locally optimal feedback protocol. The advantage of the open loop protocol is that it is far less difficult experimentally. Because the control commutes with the measured observable at all times, our rapid measurement protocol could be used for characterizing a quantum system, by state or process tomography, or to implement measurement-based quantum error correction.
Rapid readout of a register of qubits using open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, Joshua; Denney, Aaron; Wiseman, Howard M.
2015-02-01
Measurements are a primitive for characterizing quantum systems. Reducing the time taken to perform a measurement may be beneficial in many areas of quantum information processing. We show that permuting the eigenvalues of the state matrix in the logical basis, using open-loop control, provides an O (n ) reduction in the measurement time, where n is the number of qubits in the register. This reduction is of the same order as the (previously introduced) locally optimal feedback protocol. The advantage of the open-loop protocol is that it is far less difficult experimentally. Because the control commutes with the measured observable at all times, our rapid measurement protocol could be used for characterizing a quantum system, by state or process tomography, or to implement measurement-based quantum error correction.
Ultracold Quantum Gases and Lattice Systems: Quantum Simulation of Lattice Gauge Theories
Wiese, U -J
2013-01-01
Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are of central importance in many areas of physics. In condensed matter physics, Abelian U(1) lattice gauge theories arise in the description of certain quantum spin liquids. In quantum information theory, Kitaev's toric code is a Z(2) lattice gauge theory. In particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, is non-perturbatively regularized on a lattice. Quantum link models extend the concept of lattice gauge theories beyond the Wilson formulation, and are well suited for both digital and analog quantum simulation using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices. Since quantum simulators do not suffer from the notorious sign problem, they open the door to studies of the real-time evolution of strongly coupled quantum systems, which are impossible with classical simulation methods. A plethora of interesting lattice gauge theories suggests itself for quantum simulation, which should al...
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
A logic for probability in quantum systems Ron van der Meyden and Manas Patra
van der Meyden, Ron
A logic for probability in quantum systems Ron van der Meyden and Manas Patra School of Computer,manasp}@cse.unsw.edu.au Abstract. Quantum computation deals with projective measurements and unitary transformations in finite of cases. Keywords:Probability logic, quantum computing. 1 Introduction Quantum computing promises to open
Experimental Quantum Teleportation of a Two-Qubit Composite System
Qiang Zhang; Alexander Goebel; Claudia Wagenknecht; Yu-Ao Chen; Bo Zhao; Tao Yang; Alois Mair; Joerg Schmiedmayer; Jian-Wei Pan
2006-09-18
Quantum teleportation, a way to transfer the state of a quantum system from one location to another, is central to quantum communication and plays an important role in a number of quantum computation protocols. Previous experimental demonstrations have been implemented with photonic or ionic qubits. Very recently long-distance teleportation and open-destination teleportation have also been realized. Until now, previous experiments have only been able to teleport single qubits. However, since teleportation of single qubits is insufficient for a large-scale realization of quantum communication and computation2-5, teleportation of a composite system containing two or more qubits has been seen as a long-standing goal in quantum information science. Here, we present the experimental realization of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system. In the experiment, we develop and exploit a six-photon interferometer to teleport an arbitrary polarization state of two photons. The observed teleportation fidelities for different initial states are all well beyond the state estimation limit of 0.40 for a two-qubit system. Not only does our six-photon interferometer provide an important step towards teleportation of a complex system, it will also enable future experimental investigations on a number of fundamental quantum communication and computation protocols such as multi-stage realization of quantum-relay, fault-tolerant quantum computation, universal quantum error-correction and one-way quantum computation.
Approximation, Proof Systems, and Correlations in a Quantum World
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharibian, Sevag
2013-01-01
This thesis studies three topics in quantum computation and information: The approximability of quantum problems, quantum proof systems, and non-classical correlations in quantum systems. In the first area, we demonstrate a polynomial-time (classical) approximation algorithm for dense instances of the canonical QMA-complete quantum constraint satisfaction problem, the local Hamiltonian problem. In the opposite direction, we next introduce a quantum generalization of the polynomial-time hierarchy, and define problems which we prove are not only complete for the second level of this hierarchy, but are in fact hard to approximate. In the second area, we study variants of the interesting and stubbornly open question of whether a quantum proof system with multiple unentangled quantum provers is equal in expressive power to a proof system with a single quantum prover. Our results concern classes such as BellQMA(poly), and include a novel proof of perfect parallel repetition for SepQMA(m) based on cone programming duality. In the third area, we study non-classical quantum correlations beyond entanglement, often dubbed "non-classicality". Among our results are two novel schemes for quantifying non-classicality: The first proposes the new paradigm of exploiting local unitary operations to study non-classical correlations, and the second introduces a protocol through which non-classical correlations in a starting system can be "activated" into distillable entanglement with an ancilla system. An introduction to all required linear algebra and quantum mechanics is included.
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
G. Kurizki; P. Bertet; Y. Kubo; K. Mølmer; D. Petrosyan; P. Rabl; J. Schmiedmayer
2015-04-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for information processing, secure communication and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multi-tasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and the challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection), Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)
2012-09-01
We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.
Quantum models of classical systems
Petr Hajicek
2015-08-06
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
Quantum models of classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hájí?ek, P.
2015-07-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
Open system evolution and 'memory dressing'
Knezevic, Irena; Ferry, David K.
2004-01-01
Due to recent advances in quantum information, as well as in mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, the interest in the theory of open systems and decoherence has significantly increased. In this paper, we present an interesting approach to solving a time-convolutionless equation of motion for the open system reduced density matrix beyond the limit of weak coupling with the environment. Our approach is based on identifying an effective, memory-containing interaction in the equations of motion for the representation submatrices of the evolution operator (these submatices are written in a special basis, adapted for the 'partial-trace-free' approach, in the system+environment Liouville space). We then identify the 'memory dressing', a quantity crucial for solving the equation of motion for the reduced density matrix, which separates the effective from the real physical interaction. The memory dressing obeys a self-contained nonlinear equation of motion, which we solve exactly. The solution can be represented in a diagrammatic fashion after introducing an 'information exchange propagator', a quantity that describes the transfer of information to and from the system, so the cumulative effect of the information exchange results in the memory dressing. In the case of weak system-environment coupling, we present the expansion of the reduced density matrix in terms of the physical interaction up to the third order. However, our approach is capable of going beyond the weak-coupling limit, and we show how short-time behavior of an open system can be analyzed for arbitrary coupling strength. We illustrate the approach with a simple numerical example of single-particle level broadening for a two-particle interacting system on short time scales. Furthermore, we point out a way to identify the structure of decoherence-free subspaces using the present approach.
Non-Markovian Dynamics of Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chru?ci?ski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
We analyze a local approach to the non-Markovian evolution of open quantum systems. It turns out that any dynamical map representing evolution of such a system may be described either by non-local master equation with memory kernel or equivalently by equation which is local in time. The price one pays for the local approach is that the corresponding generator might be highly singular and it keeps the memory about the starting point 't0'. Remarkably, singularities of generator may lead to interesting physical phenomena like revival of coherence or sudden death and revival of entanglement.
Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2007-09-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.
Quantum statistics of overlapping modes in open resonators
Hackenbroich, Gregor; Viviescas, Carlos; Haake, Fritz
2003-12-01
We study the quantum dynamics of optical fields in weakly confining resonators with overlapping modes. Employing a recently developed quantization scheme involving a discrete set of resonator modes and continua of external modes we derive Langevin equations and a master equation for the resonator modes. Langevin dynamics and the master equation are proved to be equivalent in the Markovian limit. Our open-resonator dynamics may be used as a starting point for a quantum theory of random lasers.
Replacing quantum feedback with open-loop control and quantum filtering
Combes, Joshua; Wiseman, Howard M.; Scott, A. J.
2010-02-15
Feedback control protocols can stabilize and enhance the operation of quantum devices, however, unavoidable delays in the feedback loop adversely affect their performance. We introduce a quantum control methodology, combining open-loop control with quantum filtering, which is not constrained by feedback delays. For the problems studied (rapid purification and rapid measurement) we analytically derive lower bounds on the control performance that are comparable with the best corresponding bounds for feedback protocols.
Amplification and suppression of system-bath correlation effects in an open many-body system
Adam Zaman Chaudhry; Jiangbin Gong
2012-11-21
Understanding the rich dynamics of open quantum systems is of fundamental interest to quantum control and quantum information processing. By considering an open system of many identical two-level atoms interacting with a common bath, we show that effects of system-bath correlations are amplified in a many-body system via the generation of a short time scale inversely proportional to the number of atoms. Effects of system-bath correlations are therefore considerable even when each individual atom interacts with the bath weakly. We further show that correlation-induced dynamical effects may still be suppressed via the dynamical decoupling approach, but they present a challenge for quantum state protection as the number of atom increases.
Open quantum random walks, hitting times, gambler's ruin and potential theory
Carlos F. Lardizabal
2015-07-02
We consider a model of open quantum random walk and together with a quantum trajectory approach we are able to examine a notion of hitting time. We see that many constructions, such as minimal solutions to hitting time problems, are variations of well-known classical probability results, but the density matrix degree of freedom on each site gives rise to systems which are seen to be nonclassical. As a more specific application we study the collection of walks induced by normal commuting contractions, for which the corresponding probability expressions are obtained. We examine quantum versions of the gambler's ruin, birth-and-death chain and a basic theorem on potential theory.
Smart Nanostructures and Synthetic Quantum Systems
Reginald T. Cahill
2001-11-05
So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is a semantic information theory of reality in which space and quantum phenomena are emergent.
The scalable quantum computation based on quantum dot systems
Jian-Qi Zhang; Ya-Fei Yu; Xun-Li Feng; Zhi-Ming Zhang
2011-01-20
We propose a scheme for realizing the scalable quantum computation based on nonidentical quantum dots trapped in a single-mode waveguide. In this system, the quantum dots simultaneously interact with a large detuned waveguide and classical light fields. During the process, neither the waveguide mode nor the quantum dots are excited, while the sub-system composed of any two quantum dots can acquire phases conditional upon the states of these two quantum dots and the certain detunings between the waveguide mode and corresponding external light fields. Therefore, it can be used to realize selective quantum phase gates, graph states, $N$-qubit controlled phase $\\pi $ gates, and cluster states.
Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems.
Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K
2014-06-20
Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful. PMID:24996074
Adaptive Hybrid Optimal Quantum Control for Imprecisely Characterized Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.
2014-06-01
Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful.
Open Multi-Agent Systems: Agent
Utrecht, Universiteit
. We define an abstract programming lan- guage for open multi-agent systems that is based on conceptsOpen Multi-Agent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration Rogier M. van Eijk, Frank S. de Boer, Wiebe van der Hoek and John-Jules Ch. Meyer UU-CS-1999-17 #12;#12;Open Multi-Agent Systems: Agent
Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems
H. Z. Shen; W. Wang; X. X. Yi
2014-10-07
The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of the quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for a quantum system without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formalism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance for a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory of open system. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.
Transient features of quantum open maps.
Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G; Pedrosa, Juan M; Saraceno, Marcos
2012-06-01
We study families of open chaotic maps that classically share the same asymptotic properties--forward and backward trapped sets, repeller dimensions, and escape rate--but differ in their short time behavior. When these maps are quantized we find that the fine details of the distribution of resonances and the corresponding eigenfunctions are sensitive to the initial shape and size of the openings. We study phase space localization of the resonances with respect to the repeller and find strong delocalization effects when the area of the openings is smaller than ?. PMID:23005193
Decoherence in open Majorana systems
Earl T. Campbell
2015-07-01
Coupling to a thermal bath leads to decoherence of stored quantum information. For a system of Gaussian fermions, the fermionic analog of linear or Gaussian optics, these dynamics can be elegantly and efficiently described by evolution of the system's covariance matrix. Taking both system and bath to be Gaussian fermionic, we observe that decoherence occurs at a rate that is independent of the bath temperature. Furthermore, we also consider a weak coupling regime where the dynamics are Markovian. We present a microscopic derivation of Markovian master equations entirely in the language of covariance matrices, where temperature independence remains manifest. This is radically different from behaviour seen in other scenarios, such as when fermions interact with a bosonic bath. Our analysis applies to many Majorana fermion systems that have been heralded as very robust, topologically protected, qubits. In these systems, it has been claimed that thermal decoherence can be exponentially suppressed by reducing temperature, but we find Gaussian decoherence cannot be cooled away.
Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks
Samuel J. Lomonaco; Louis H. Kauffman
2009-10-30
Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice ambient group represents all possible ways of moving a rope around in 3-space without cutting the rope, and without letting the rope pass through itself. We then investigate those quantum observables of the quantum knot system which are knot invariants. We also study Hamiltonians associated with the generators of the lattice ambient group. We conclude with a list of open questions.
Quantum proof systems and entanglement theory
Abolfathe Beikidezfuli, Salman
2009-01-01
Quantum complexity theory is important from the point of view of not only theory of computation but also quantum information theory. In particular, quantum multi-prover interactive proof systems are defined based on ...
Theory of Ostwald ripening for open systems
C. W. J. Beenakker; John Ross
1985-01-01
Diffusion-controlled coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of a precipitate is analyzed for the case of an open system, immersed in a reservoir of constant solute concentration. Equivalence of the evolution of such open systems and closed systems studied previously is established in the limit of infinite systems. The cause of this equivalence is screening of the bulk of the system from the
Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information. PMID:25811809
The classical skeleton of open quantum chaotic maps
Lisandro A. Raviola; Alejandro M. F. Rivas; Gabriel G. Carlo
2011-08-16
We have studied two complementary decoherence measures purity and fidelity for a generic diffusive noise in two different chaotic systems (the baker and the cat maps). For both quantities, we have found classical structures in quantum mechanics - the scar functions - that are specially stable when subjected to environmental perturbations. We show that these quantum states constructed on classical invariants are the most robust significant quantum distributions in generic dissipative maps.
Open quantum dynamics via environmental monitoring
Klaus Hornberger
2007-04-23
A general method is discussed to obtain Markovian master equations which describe the interaction with the environment in a microscopic and non-perturbative fashion. It is based on combining time-dependent scattering theory with the concept of continuous quantum measurements. The applications to the case of a Brownian point particle and to the case of a complex molecule, both in the presence of a gaseous environment, are outlined.
Synthesis of linear quantum stochastic systems via quantum feedback networks
H. I. Nurdin
2009-05-06
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of coherent feedback control, the feedback control of a quantum system with another quantum system, has raised the important problem of how to synthesize a class of quantum systems, called the class of linear quantum stochastic systems, from basic quantum optical components and devices in a systematic way. The synthesis theory sought in this case can be naturally viewed as a quantum analogue of linear electrical network synthesis theory and as such has potential for applications beyond the realization of coherent feedback controllers. In earlier work, Nurdin, James and Doherty have established that an arbitrary linear quantum stochastic system can be realized as a cascade connection of simpler one degree of freedom quantum harmonic oscillators, together with a direct interaction Hamiltonian which is bilinear in the canonical operators of the oscillators. However, from an experimental perspective and based on current methods and technologies, direct interaction Hamiltonians are challenging to implement for systems with more than just a few degrees of freedom. In order to facilitate more tractable physical realizations of these systems, this paper develops a new synthesis algorithm for linear quantum stochastic systems that relies solely on field-mediated interactions, including in implementation of the direct interaction Hamiltonian. Explicit synthesis examples are provided to illustrate the realization of two degrees of freedom linear quantum stochastic systems using the new algorithm.
Homogeneous Open Quantum Random Walks on a Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan
2015-09-01
We study open quantum random walks (OQRWs) for which the underlying graph is a lattice, and the generators of the walk are homogeneous in space. Using the results recently obtained in Carbone and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré, 2015), we study the quantum trajectory associated with the OQRW, which is described by a position process and a state process. We obtain a central limit theorem and a large deviation principle for the position process. We study in detail the case of homogeneous OQRWs on the lattice , with internal space.
Quantum Bi-Hamiltonian Systems
José F. Cariñena; Janusz Grabowski; Giuseppe Marmo
2006-10-06
We define quantum bi-Hamiltonian systems, by analogy with the classical case, as derivations in operator algebras which are inner derivations with respect to two compatible associative structures. We find such structures by means of the associative version of Nijenhuis tensors. Explicit examples, e.g. for the harmonic oscillator, are given.
Non-Markovian Dynamical Maps: Numerical Processing of Open Quantum Trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerrillo, Javier; Cao, Jianshu
2014-03-01
The initial stages of the evolution of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn can predict the trajectory at later stages. We propose a general approach based on non-Markovian dynamical maps to extract this information from the initial trajectories and compress it into non-Markovian transfer tensors. Assuming time-translational invariance, the tensors can be used to accurately and efficiently propagate the state of the system to arbitrarily long time scales. The non-Markovian transfer tensor method (TTM) demonstrates the coherent-to-incoherent transition as a function of the strength of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system-bath entanglement. TTM is equivalent to solving the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and, therefore, can be used to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories obtained in simulations or experiments. The concept underlying the approach can be generalized to physical observables with the goal of learning and manipulating the trajectories of an open quantum system.
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
An eigenvalue method for open-boundary quantum transmission problems
Zhi-an Shao; Wolfgang Porod; Craig S. Lent; David J. Kirkner
1995-01-01
We present a numerical technique for open-boundary quantum transmission problems which yields, as the direct solutions of appropriate eigenvalue problems, the energies of (i) quasi-bound states and transmission poles, (ii) transmission ones, and (iii) transmission zeros. The eigenvalue problem results from reducing the inhomogeneous transmission problem to a homogeneous problem by forcing the in-coming source term to zero. This homogeneous
Quantum gate entangler for general multipartite systems
Hoshang Heydari
2007-02-09
We construct quantum gate entangler for general multipartite states based on topological unitary operators. We show that these operators can entangle quantum states if they satisfy the separability condition that is given by the complex multi-projective Segre variety. We also in detail discuss the construction of quantum gate entangler for higher dimensional bipartite and three-partite quantum systems.
System identification for passive linear quantum systems
Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto
2014-08-27
System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.
2014-12-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.
Quantum Annealing and Quantum Fluctuation Effect in Frustrated Ising Systems
Shu Tanaka; Ryo Tamura
2012-02-27
Quantum annealing method has been widely attracted attention in statistical physics and information science since it is expected to be a powerful method to obtain the best solution of optimization problem as well as simulated annealing. The quantum annealing method was incubated in quantum statistical physics. This is an alternative method of the simulated annealing which is well-adopted for many optimization problems. In the simulated annealing, we obtain a solution of optimization problem by decreasing temperature (thermal fluctuation) gradually. In the quantum annealing, in contrast, we decrease quantum field (quantum fluctuation) gradually and obtain a solution. In this paper we review how to implement quantum annealing and show some quantum fluctuation effects in frustrated Ising spin systems.
Quantum theory of a two-mode open-cavity laser
V. Eremeev; S. E. Skipetrov; M. Orszag
2011-08-25
We develop the quantum theory of an open-cavity laser assuming that only two modes compete for gain. We show that the modes interact to build up a collective mode that becomes the lasing mode when pumping exceeds a threshold. This collective mode exhibits all the features of a typical laser mode, whereas its precise behavior depends explicitly on the openness of the cavity. We approach the problem by using the density-matrix formalism and derive the master equation for the light field. Our results are of particular interest in the context random laser systems.
Quantum variance: a measure of quantum coherence and quantum correlations for many-body systems
Irénée Frérot; Tommaso Roscilde
2015-09-22
Quantum coherence is a fundamental common trait of quantum phenomena, from the interference of matter waves to quantum degeneracy of identical particles. Despite its importance, estimating and measuring quantum coherence in generic, mixed many-body quantum states remains a formidable challenge, with fundamental implications in areas as broad as quantum condensed matter, quantum information, quantum metrology, and quantum biology. Here we provide a quantitative definition of the variance of quantum coherent fluctuations (the \\emph{quantum variance}) of any observable on generic quantum states. The quantum variance generalizes the concept of thermal de Broglie wavelength (for the position of a free quantum particle) to the space of eigenvalues of any observable, quantifying the degree of coherent delocalization in that space. The quantum variance is generically measurable and computable as the difference between the static fluctuations and the static susceptibility of the observable, despite its simplicity, it is found to provide a tight lower bound to most widely accepted estimators of "quantumness" of observables (both as a feature as well as a resource), such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information and the quantum Fisher information. When considering bipartite fluctuations in an extended quantum system, the quantum variance expresses genuine quantum correlations (of discord type) among the two parts. In the case of many-body systems it is found to obey an area law at finite temperature, extending therefore area laws of entanglement and quantum fluctuations of pure states to the mixed-state context. Hence the quantum variance paves the way to the measurement of macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum correlations in most complex quantum systems.
Stability of Local Quantum Dissipative Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David
2015-08-01
Open quantum systems weakly coupled to the environment are modeled by completely positive, trace preserving semigroups of linear maps. The generators of such evolutions are called Lindbladians. In the setting of quantum many-body systems on a lattice it is natural to consider Lindbladians that decompose into a sum of local interactions with decreasing strength with respect to the size of their support. For both practical and theoretical reasons, it is crucial to estimate the impact that perturbations in the generating Lindbladian, arising as noise or errors, can have on the evolution. These local perturbations are potentially unbounded, but constrained to respect the underlying lattice structure. We show that even for polynomially decaying errors in the Lindbladian, local observables and correlation functions are stable if the unperturbed Lindbladian has a unique fixed point and a mixing time that scales logarithmically with the system size. The proof relies on Lieb-Robinson bounds, which describe a finite group velocity for propagation of information in local systems. As a main example, we prove that classical Glauber dynamics is stable under local perturbations, including perturbations in the transition rates, which may not preserve detailed balance.
Universal quantum computation in integrable systems
Seth Lloyd; Simone Montangero
2014-08-03
Quantized integrable systems can be made to perform universal quantum computation by the application of a global time-varying control. The action-angle variables of the integrable system function as qubits or qudits, which can be coupled selectively by the global control to induce universal quantum logic gates. By contrast, chaotic quantum systems, even if controllable, do not generically allow quantum computation under global control.
Simultaneous sharp measurability of position and momentum in infinite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breuer, Thomas
1994-12-01
Joint position-momentum observables are defined to be covariant POV measures on the group openR3×openR3^ of space translations and boosts. For elementary or finite quantum systems, it is shown that there is no covariant PV measure on openR3×openR3^ into the von Neumann algebra generated by average position and momentum. So these cannot be measured sharply at the same time. For an infinite quantum system, we construct a covariant PV measure on openR3×openR3^ into the von Neumann algebra generated by average position and momentum. Therefore average position and momentum of an infinite quantum system can be measured sharply at the same time.
The ALPS project release 2.0: Open source software for strongly correlated systems
A. Feiguin; S. Fuchs; L. Gamper; R. Igarashi; L. Pollet; U. Schollwock; S. Todo; S. Trebst; M. Troyer; P. Werner; S. Wessel; M. L. Wall; Bela Bauer; Hans Gerd Evertz; Juliana Freire; Jan Gukelberger; Emanuel Gull; Siegfried Guertler; Sergei V. Isakov; David Koop; Brigitte Surer; Claudio T. Silva; Emanuele Santos; Jean-David Picon; Grzegorz Paw?owski; Olivier Parcollet; Ping Nang Ma; Haruhiko Matsuo
2011-01-01
We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify
The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems
B Bauer; L D Carr; H G Evertz; A Feiguin; J Freire; S. Fuchse; L Gamper; J Gukelberger; E Gull; S Guertler; A Hehn; R Igarashi; S V Isakov; D Koop; P N Ma; P Mates; H Matsuo; O Parcollet; G Paw?owski; J D Picon; L Pollet; E Santos; V W Scarola; U Schollwöck; C Silva; B Surer; S Todo; S Trebst; M Troyer; M L Wall; P Werner; S Wessel
2011-01-01
We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify
Open Problems for Usable and Secure Open Systems
Adam J. Lee; Marianne Winslett
In open computing systems, resources are shared across or- ganizational boundaries in an effort to allow for greater ac- cess to information and easier collaboration between geogra- phically and administratively dispersed groups. Designing adequate access control solutions for these types of systems is a challenging task, as traditional solutions tend to exhi- bit failures or other undesirable behaviors in the
Quantum Systems in Bernoulli Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, Michael
Quantum mechanics is a theory developed to explain both particle and wave-like properties of small matter such as light and electrons. The consequences of the theory can be counter-intuitive but lead to mathematical and physical theory rich in fascinating phenomena and challenging questions. This dissertation investigates the nature of quantum systems in Bernoulli distributed random potentials for systems on the one dimensional lattice {0, 1,..., L, L + 1} ? Z in the large system limit where L ? infinity. For single particle systems, the behavior of the low energy states is shown to be approximated by systems where positive potential is replaced by infinite potential. The approximate shape of these states is described, the asymptotics of their eigenvalues are calculated in the large system limit where L ? infinity, and a Lifschitz tail estimate on the sparsity of low energy states is proven. For interacting multi-particle systems, a Lieb-Liniger model with Bernoulli distributed potential is studied in the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. First, to investigate localization in these settings, a general inequality is proven to bound from below the support of the mean-field. The bound depends on the per particle energy, number of particles, and interaction strength. Then, the ground state for the one-dimensional lattice with Bernoulli potential is studied in the large system limit. Specifically, the case where the product of interaction strength and particle density is near zero is considered to investigate whether localization can be recovered.
78 FR 11988 - Open Video Systems
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-02-21
...47 CFR Part 76 [CS Docket No. 96-46, FCC 96-334] Open Video Systems AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...The final rules modified rules and policies concerning Open Video Systems. DATES: The amendments to 47 CFR 76.1505(d)...
Knowledge in Quantum Systems (Extended Abstract)
van der Meyden, Ron
Knowledge in Quantum Systems (Extended Abstract) R. van der Meyden Manas Patra School of Computer computing literature, including protocols for quantum key distribution and teleportation. 1 Introduction The prospect that quantum computing and communications systems potentially have capa- bilities going beyond
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have consistently solved the control dynamics of open quantum systems using this stochastic QSD approach. By implementing the QSD equation, our numerical results have revealed that how the control efficacy depends on the designed time points and shapes of the applied control pulses, and the environment memory time scale.
A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN OPEN
#12;#12;A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN OPEN DATA/METADATABASE ARCHITECTURE Jos´e Laurindo, Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands. #12;A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM
Dissipative quantum metrology in manybody systems of identical particles
F. Benatti; S. Alipour; A. T. Rezakhani
2013-08-24
Estimation of physical parameters is a must in almost any part of science and technology. The enhancement of the performances in this task, e.g., beating the standard classical shot-noise limit, using available physical resources is a major goal in metrology. Quantum metrology in closed systems has indicated that entanglement in such systems may be a useful resource. However, it is not yet fully understood whether in open quantum systems such enhancements may still show up. Here, we consider a dissipative (open) quantum system of identical particles in which a parameter of the open dynamics itself is to be estimated. We employ a recently-developed dissipative quantum metrology framework, and investigate whether the entanglement produced in the course of the dissipative dynamics may help the estimation task. Specifically, we show that even in a Markovian dynamics, in which states become less distinguishable in time, at small enough times entanglement generated by the dynamics may offer some advantage over the classical shot-noise limit.
Dynamical Universal Behavior in Quantum Chaotic Systems
Hongwei Xiong; Biao Wu
2010-07-12
We discover numerically that a moving wave packet in a quantum chaotic billiard will always evolve into a quantum state, whose density probability distribution is exponential. This exponential distribution is found to be universal for quantum chaotic systems with rigorous proof. In contrast, for the corresponding classical system, the distribution is Gaussian. We find that the quantum exponential distribution can smoothly change to the classical Gaussian distribution with coarse graining.
A hazard of open quantum dynamics: Markov approximations encounter map domains
Thomas F. Jordan; Anil Shaji; E. C. G. Sudarshan
2008-01-23
A Markov approximation in open quantum dynamics can give unphysical results when a map acts on a state that is not in its domain. This is examined here in a simple example, an open quantum dynamics for one qubit in a system of two interacting qubits, for which the map domains have been described quite completely. A time interval is split into two parts and the map from the exact dynamics for the entire interval is replaced by the conjunction of that same map for both parts. If there is any correlation between the two qubits, unphysical results can appear as soon as the map conjunction is used, even for infinitesimal times. If the map is repeated an unlimited number of times, every state is at risk of being taken outside the bounds of physical meaning. Treatment by slippage of initial conditions is discussed.
Characterizing quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations.
Ringbauer, M; Wood, C J; Modi, K; Gilchrist, A; White, A G; Fedrizzi, A
2015-03-01
We fully characterize the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system initially correlated with its environment. Using a photonic qubit coupled to a simulated environment, we tomographically reconstruct a superchannel-a generalized channel that treats preparation procedures as inputs-from measurement of the system alone. We introduce novel quantitative measures for determining the strength of initial correlations, and to allow an experiment to be optimized in regard to its environment. PMID:25793785
Characterizing quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations
Martin Ringbauer; Christopher J. Wood; Kavan Modi; Alexei Gilchrist; Andrew G. White; Alessandro Fedrizzi
2014-10-21
We fully characterize the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system initially correlated with its environment. Using a photonic qubit coupled to a simulated environment we tomographically reconstruct a superchannel---a generalised channel that treats preparation procedures as inputs---from measurement of the system alone, despite its coupling to the environment. We introduce novel quantitative measures for determining the strength of initial correlations, and to allow an experiment to be optimised in regards to its environment.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
Helena C. Braga; Clodoaldo C. Rulli; Thiago R. de Oliveira; Marcelo S. Sarandy
2014-12-09
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability of implementing classical or quantum conditional dynamics, respectively. Then, for an n-partite system (A_1, A_2, ..., A_n), we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n-partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2014-10-01
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Enhanced autocompensating quantum cryptography system.
Bethune, Donald S; Navarro, Martha; Risk, William P
2002-03-20
We have improved the hardware and software of our autocompensating system for quantum key distribution by replacing bulk optical components at the end stations with fiber-optic equivalents and implementing software that synchronizes end-station activities, communicates basis choices, corrects errors, and performs privacy amplification over a local area network. The all-fiber-optic arrangement provides stable, efficient, and high-contrast routing of the photons. The low-bit error rate leads to high error-correction efficiency and minimizes data sacrifice during privacy amplification. Characterization measurements made on a number of commercial avalanche photodiodes are presented that highlight the need for improved devices tailored specifically for quantum information applications. A scheme for frequency shifting the photons returning from Alice's station to allow them to be distinguished from backscattered noise photons is also described. PMID:11921790
Abdel-Baset A. Mohamed
2013-01-30
The quantum correlations, including entanglement and discord with its geometric measure, and classical correlation are studied for a bipartite partition of a open or closed quantum system. It is found that the purity of the initial state plays an important role in the dynamics of quantum and classical correlations. In the dephasing model, the quantum correlations loss and the classical correlation gain are instantaneously happen. While, the purity of the initial state destroys the quantum correlations which is resulted by the unitary interaction. Therefore, with the purity parameter, a particular region in which there is no state have quantum correlations can be determined.
Work, heat and entropy production in bipartite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossein-Nejad, Hoda; O’Reilly, Edward J.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra
2015-07-01
In bipartite quantum systems commutation relations between the Hamiltonian of each subsystem and the interaction impose fundamental constraints on the dynamics of each partition. Here we investigate work, heat and entropy production in bipartite systems characterized by particular commutators between their local Hamiltonians and the interaction operator. We consider the formalism of (Weimer et al 2008 Europhys. Lett. 83 30008), in which heat (work) is identified with energy changes that (do not) alter the local von Neumann entropy, as observed in an effective local measurement basis. We demonstrate the consequences of the commutation relations on the work and heat fluxes into each partition, and extend the formalism to open quantum systems where one, or both, partitions are subject to a Markovian thermal bath. We also discuss the relation between heat and entropy in bipartite quantum systems out of thermal equilibrium, and reconcile the aforementioned approach with the second law of thermodynamics.
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
J. S. Dehesa; D. Manzano; P. S. Sánchez-Moreno; R. J. Yáñez
2010-09-14
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Work, heat and entropy production in bipartite quantum systems
Hoda Hossein-Nejad; Edward J. O'Reilly; Alexandra Olaya-Castro
2015-07-02
In bipartite quantum systems commutation relations between the Hamiltonian of each subsystem and the interaction impose fundamental constraints on the dynamics of each partition. Here we investigate work, heat and entropy production in bipartite systems characterized by particular commutators between their local Hamiltonians and the interaction operator. We consider the formalism of [Weimer, EPL, 83:30008, 2008], in which heat (work) is identified with energy changes that (do not) alter the local von Neumann entropy, as observed in an effective local measurement basis. We demonstrate the consequences of the commutation relations on the work and heat fluxes into each partition, and extend the formalism to open quantum systems where one, or both, partitions are subject to a Markovian thermal bath. We also discuss the relation between heat and entropy in bipartite quantum systems out of thermal equilibrium, and reconcile the aforementioned approach with the second law of thermodynamics.
Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems
Bennett, Steven D.
Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems Steven D. Bennett Deptartment of Physics questions in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. These are systems where a mechanical oscillator of the coupled system. First, we study the full charge transfer statistics and correlations in a tunnel junction
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Naoki
2014-10-01
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Coherent versus measurement feedback: Linear systems theory for quantum information
Naoki Yamamoto
2014-10-10
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages/disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal, hence their comparison in several situation is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals; back-action evasion (BAE), generation of a quantum non-demolished (QND) variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem (DFS), all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Then some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand it is shown that, for each control goal, there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of BAE, QND, and DFS in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems
2011-01-01
Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469
Javad Sharifi; Hamidreza Momeni
2009-07-20
the stability criterion is constructed for open quantum systems which govern by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDE) both for quantum observable flow and the stochastic density operator. We derive stability criteria (local, asymptotic and exponential stability) for those QSDE.
QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials
Paolo Giannozzi; Stefano Baroni; Nicola Bonini; Matteo Calandra; Roberto Car; Carlo Cavazzoni; Davide Ceresoli; Guido L. Chiarotti; Matteo Cococcioni; Ismaila Dabo; Andrea Dal Corso; Stefano de Gironcoli; Stefano Fabris; Guido Fratesi; Ralph Gebauer; Uwe Gerstmann; Christos Gougoussis; Anton Kokalj; Michele Lazzeri; Layla Martin-Samos; Nicola Marzari; Francesco Mauri; Riccardo Mazzarello; Stefano Paolini; Alfredo Pasquarello; Lorenzo Paulatto; Carlo Sbraccia; Sandro Scandolo; Gabriele Sclauzero; Ari P. Seitsonen; Alexander Smogunov; Paolo Umari; Renata M. Wentzcovitch
2009-01-01
QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General
Thermodynamics of weakly measured quantum systems
Jose Joaquin Alonso; Eric Lutz; Alessandro Romito
2015-08-03
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superpositions of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Optimized control of multistate quantum systems by composite pulse sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genov, G. T.; Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.
2011-12-01
We introduce a technique for derivation of high-fidelity composite pulse sequences for two types of multistate quantum systems: systems with the SU(2) and Morris-Shore dynamic symmetries. For the former type, we use the Majorana decomposition to reduce the dynamics to an effective two-state system, which allows us to find the propagator analytically and use the pool of available composite pulses for two-state systems. For the latter type of multistate systems, we use the Morris-Shore decomposition, which reduces the multistate dynamics to a set of two-state systems. We present examples which demonstrate that the multistate composite sequences open a variety of possibilities for coherent control of quantum systems with multiple states.
Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution
Aurel Bulgac; Michael McNeil Forbes; Kenneth J. Roche; Gabriel Wlaz?owski
2013-05-29
We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
P. A. Ivanov; D. Porras
2013-05-24
We show that the quasi-adiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, that leads to the collapse of the wavefunciton into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final state properties with the number of atoms and with the intensity of the symmetry breaking field, can be interpreted in terms of the precession time of an effective quantum metrological protocol. We show that our ideas can be tested with spin-phonon interactions in trapped ion setups. Our work points to a classification of quantum phase transitions in terms of the capability of many-body quantum systems for parameter estimation.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-05-01
During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamio?kowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems often result in very large symbolic expressions that dramatically slow down the evaluation of measures or other quantities. In these cases, MAPLE's assume facility sometimes helps to reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions, but often only numerical evaluation is possible. Since the complexity of the FEYNMAN commands is very different, no general scaling law for the CPU time and memory usage can be given. No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 799 265 No. of lines in distributed program including test data, etc.: 18 589 Distribution format: tar.gz Reasons for new version: While the previous program versions were designed mainly to create and manipulate the state of quantum registers, the present extension aims to support quantum operations as the essential ingredient for studying the effects of noisy environments. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Today, entanglement is identified as the essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. In most practical implementations of quantum information protocols, however, decoherence typically limits the lifetime of entanglement. It is therefore necessary and highly desirable to understand the evolution of entanglement in noisy environments. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers as well as (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act on the quantum registers. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems in ideal and nonideal quantum circuits.
Entanglement rates for bipartite open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vershynina, Anna
2015-08-01
We provide an upper bound on the maximal rate at which irreversible quantum dynamics can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. The generator of irreversible dynamics consists of a Hamiltonian and dissipative terms in Lindblad form. The relative entropy of entanglement is chosen as a measure of entanglement in an ancilla-free system. We provide an upper bound on the entangling rate which has a logarithmic dependence on a dimension of a smaller system in a bipartite cut. We also investigate the rate of change of quantum mutual information in an ancilla-assisted system and provide an upper bound independent of dimension of ancillas.
Quantum Coherence Effects in Novel Quantum Optical Systems
Sete, Eyob Alebachew
2012-10-19
Optical response of an active medium can substantially be modified when coherent superpositions of states are excited, that is, when systems display quantum coherence and interference. This has led to fascinating applications in atomic and molecular...
The Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems
Jordan Horowitz; Kurt Jacobs
2015-09-03
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state, the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.
Photodissociation in quantum chaotic systems: Random-matrix theory of cross-section fluctuations
Fyodorov, Y.V.; Alhassid, Y.
1998-11-01
Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2008-11-01
Entanglement is known today as a key resource in many protocols from quantum computation and quantum information theory. However, despite the successful demonstration of several protocols, such as teleportation or quantum key distribution, there are still many open questions of how entanglement affects the efficiency of quantum algorithms or how it can be protected against noisy environments. The investigation of these and related questions often requires a search or optimization over the set of quantum states and, hence, a parametrization of them and various other objects. To facilitate this kind of studies in quantum information theory, here we present an extension of the FEYNMAN program that was developed during recent years as a toolbox for the simulation and analysis of quantum registers. In particular, we implement parameterizations of hermitian and unitary matrices (of arbitrary order), pure and mixed quantum states as well as separable states. In addition to being a prerequisite for the study of many optimization problems, these parameterizations also provide the necessary basis for heuristic studies which make use of random states, unitary matrices and other objects. Program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 231 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 416 085 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 11 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Linux Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decades, quantum information science has contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics and has provided also new and efficient protocols, based on the use of entangled quantum states. To determine the behavior and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be applied in order to analyze how these quantum information protocols work and which role the entanglement plays hereby. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act upon the quantum registers. With the parameterization of various frequently-applied objects, that are implemented in the present version, the program now facilitates a wider range of symbolic and numerical studies. All commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: In the first version of the FEYNMAN program [1], we implemented the data structures and tools that are necessary to create, manipulate and to analyze the state of quantum registers. Later [2,3], support was added to deal with quantum operations (noisy channels) as an ingredient which is essential for studying the effects of decoherence. With the present extension, we add a number of parametrizations of objects frequently utilized in decoherence and entanglement studies, such that as hermitian and unitary matrices, probability distributions, or various kinds of quantum states. This extension therefore provides the basis, for example, for the optimization of a given function over the set of pure states or the simple generation of random objects. Running time: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2GHz or newer, and about 5-20 MB of working memory (in addition to the memory for the
Geometric phases in open tripod systems
Moeller, Ditte; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Moelmer, Klaus
2008-02-15
We first consider stimulated Raman adiabatic passages in a closed four-level tripod system. In this case, the adiabatic eigenstates of the system acquire real geometric phases. When the system is open and subject to decoherence they acquire complex geometric phases that we determine by a Monte Carlo wave function approach. We calculate the geometric phases and the state evolution in the closed as well as in the open system cases and describe the deviation between these in terms of the phases acquired. When the system is closed, the adiabatic evolution implements a Hadamard gate. The open system implements an imperfect gate and hence has a fidelity below unity. We express this fidelity in terms of the acquired geometric phases.
Sparse Control of Quantum Systems
Gero Friesecke; Felix Henneke; Karl Kunisch
2015-07-02
A new class of cost functionals for optimal control of quantum systems which produces controls which are sparse in frequency and smooth in time is proposed. This is achieved by penalizing a suitable time-frequency representation of the control field, rather than the control field itself, and by employing norms which are of $L^1$ or measure form with respect to frequency but smooth with respect to time. A mathematical framework is developed which yields existence of optimal controls and necessary optimality conditions of the resulting nonsmooth, nonconvex optimization problem. The framework covers the important systems of physical interest, including (infinite-dimensional) Schr\\"odinger dynamics on multiple potential energy surfaces as arising in laser control of chemical reactions. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the optimal controls, unlike those obtained with the usual $L^2$ or $H^1$ costs, concentrate on just a few frequencies, even in the infinite-dimensional case of laser-controlled chemical reactions.
Extracting work from quantum systems
Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu
2013-02-12
We consider the task of extracting work from quantum systems in the resource theory perspective of thermodynamics, where free states are arbitrary thermal states, and allowed operations are energy conserving unitary transformations. Taking as our work storage system a 'weight' we prove the second law and then present simple protocols which extract average work equal to the free energy change of the system - the same amount as in classical thermodynamics. Crucially, for systems in 'classical' states (mixtures of energy eigenstates) our protocol works on a single copy of the system. This is in sharp contrast to previous results, which showed that in case of almost-deterministic work extraction, collective actions on multiple copies are necessary to extract the free energy. This establishes the fact that free energy is a meaningful notion even for individual systems in classical states. However, for non-classical states, where coherences between energy levels exist, we prove that collective actions are necessary, so long as no external sources of coherence are used.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n
Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.
Belavkin, V P
2012-11-28
A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one. PMID:23091216
Quantum teleportation in one-dimensional quantum dots system Hefeng Wang, Sabre Kais *
Kais, Sabre
Quantum teleportation in one-dimensional quantum dots system Hefeng Wang, Sabre Kais * Department of quantum teleportation protocol based on one-dimensional quantum dots system. Three quantum dots with three electrons are used to perform teleportation, the unknown qubit is encoded using one electron spin on quantum
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio
Quantum Heat Engine With Multi-Level Quantum Systems
H. T. Quan; P. Zhang; C. P. Sun
2005-10-11
By reformulating the first law of thermodynamics in the fashion of quantum-mechanical operators on the parameter manifold, we propose a universal class of quantum heat engines (QHE) using the multi-level quantum system as the working substance. We obtain a general expression of work for the thermodynamic cycle with two thermodynamic adiabatic processes, which are microscopically quantum adiabatic processes. We also classify the conditions for a 3-level QHE to extract positive work from a heat bath. Our result is counter-intuitively different from that of a 2-level system. As a more realistic illustration, a 3-level atom system with dark state configuration manipulated by classical light is used to demonstrate our central idea.
Quantum computing and information extraction for a dynamical quantum system
Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Simone Montangero
2004-02-02
We discuss the simulation of a complex dynamical system, the so-called quantum sawtooth map model, on a quantum computer. We show that a quantum computer can be used to efficiently extract relevant physical information for this model. It is possible to simulate the dynamical localization of classical chaos and extract the localization length of the system with quadratic speed up with respect to any known classical computation. We can also compute with algebraic speed up the diffusion coefficient and the diffusion exponent both in the regimes of Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Finally, we show that it is possible to extract the fidelity of the quantum motion, which measures the stability of the system under perturbations, with exponential speed up.
TRIQS: A Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems
Parcollet, Olivier; Ayral, Thomas; Hafermann, Hartmut; Krivenko, Igor; Messio, Laura; Seth, Priyanka
2015-01-01
We present the TRIQS library, a Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems. It is an open-source, computational physics library providing a framework for the quick development of applications in the field of many-body quantum physics, and in particular, strongly-correlated electronic systems. It supplies components to develop codes in a modern, concise and efficient way: e.g. Green's function containers, a generic Monte Carlo class, and simple interfaces to HDF5. TRIQS is a C++/Python library that can be used from either language. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv3). State-of-the-art applications based on the library, such as modern quantum many-body solvers and interfaces between density-functional-theory codes and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) codes are distributed along with it.
Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2014-01-15
This paper is concerned with translation invariant networks of linear quantum stochastic systems with nearest neighbour interaction mediated by boson fields. The systems are associated with sites of a one-dimensional chain or a multidimensional lattice and are governed by coupled linear quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs). Such interconnections of open quantum systems are relevant, for example, to the phonon theory of crystalline solids, atom trapping in optical lattices and quantum metamaterials. In order to represent a large-scale open quantum harmonic oscillator, the coefficients of the coupled QSDEs must satisfy certain physical realizability conditions. These are established in the form of matrix algebraic equations for the parameters of an individual building block of the network and its interaction with the neighbours and external fields. We also discuss the computation of mean square performance functionals with block Toeplitz weighting matrices for such systems in the thermodynamic limit per site for unboundedly increasing fragments of the lattice.
Paul A. Miller; Sarben Sarkar
1998-11-27
The von Neumann entropy production for a quantum mechanical kicked rotor coupled to a thermal environment is calculated. This rate of entropy increase is shown to be a good criterion to distinguish between quantum mechanical counterparts of chaotic and regular classical motion. We show that for high temperatures the entropy production rate increases linearly with the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the classical system. However, for lower temperatures we also show that there are fluctuations in this linear behaviour due to dynamical localization.
Classical and Quantum Surgery of Geometries in an Open Inflationary Universe
Sang Pyo Kim
2000-05-09
We study classically and quantum mechanically the Euclidean geometries compatible with an open inflationary universe of a Lorentzian geometry. The Lorentzian geometry of the open universe with an ordinary matter state matches either an open or a closed Euclidean geometry at the cosmological singularity. With an exotic matter state it matches only the open Euclidean geometry and describes a genuine instanton regular at the boundary of a finite radius. The wave functions are found that describe the quantum creation of the open inflationary universe.
Hamiltonian engineering for quantum systems
Sonia G Schirmer
2006-05-21
We describe different strategies for using a semi-classical controller to engineer quantum Hamiltonians to solve control problems such as quantum state or process engineering or optimization of observables.
Chaos and Quantum Chaos in Nuclear Systems
Luca Salasnich
1995-10-15
The presence of chaos and quantum chaos is shown in two different nuclear systems. We analyze the chaotic behaviour of the classical SU(2) Yang--Mills--Higgs system, and then we study quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model calculating the spectral statistics of $A=46$--$50$ atomic nuclei.
Dispersive Quantum Systems: a class of isolated non-time reversal quantum systems
Lúcio Fassarella
2011-09-02
A "dispersive quantum system" is a quantum system which is both isolated and non-time reversal invariant. This article presents precise definitions for those concepts and also a characterization of dispersive quantum systems within the class of completely positive Markovian quantum systems in finite dimension (through a homogeneous linear equation for the non-Hamiltonian part of the system's Liouvillian). To set the framework, the basic features of quantum mechanics are reviewed focusing on time evolution and also on the theory of completely positive Markovian quantum systems, including Kossakowski-Lindblad's standard form for Liouvillians. After those general considerations, I present a simple example of dispersive two-level quantum system and apply that to describe neutrino oscillation.
Hartman effect and dissipative quantum systems
Samyadeb Bhattacharya; Sisir Roy
2012-10-25
The dwell time for dissipative quantum system is shown to increase with barrier width. It clearly precludes Hartman effect for dissipative systems. Here calculation has been done for inverted parabolic potential barrier.
Weyl asymptotics: from closed to open systems.
Potzuweit, A; Weich, T; Barkhofen, S; Kuhl, U; Stöckmann, H-J; Zworski, M
2012-12-01
We present microwave experiments on the symmetry reduced five-disk billiard studying the transition from a closed to an open system. The measured microwave reflection signal is analyzed by means of the harmonic inversion and the counting function of the resulting resonances is studied. For the closed system this counting function shows the Weyl asymptotic with a leading exponent equal to 2. By opening the system successively this exponent decreases smoothly to a noninteger value. For the open systems the extraction of resonances by the harmonic inversion becomes more challenging and the arising difficulties are discussed. The results can be interpreted as a first experimental indication for the fractal Weyl conjecture for resonances. PMID:23368022
Weyl asymptotics: From closed to open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potzuweit, A.; Weich, T.; Barkhofen, S.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Zworski, M.
2012-12-01
We present microwave experiments on the symmetry reduced five-disk billiard studying the transition from a closed to an open system. The measured microwave reflection signal is analyzed by means of the harmonic inversion and the counting function of the resulting resonances is studied. For the closed system this counting function shows the Weyl asymptotic with a leading exponent equal to 2. By opening the system successively this exponent decreases smoothly to a noninteger value. For the open systems the extraction of resonances by the harmonic inversion becomes more challenging and the arising difficulties are discussed. The results can be interpreted as a first experimental indication for the fractal Weyl conjecture for resonances.
Open-PEA Space Charge Measurement System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imai, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Fukao, Tadashi; Takada, Tatsuo; Maeno, Takashi
The pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method has been widely used to observe space charge phenomena in dielectric materials. There have been awaited demands for monitoring space charge phenomena under electron beam or radioactive rays irradiations, or during plasma processing. Therefore we have developed a new PEA space charge measurement system that can observe space charge distributions under such severe conditions. This system uses an open upper electrode that can measure surface and internal space charge profiles at the same time. This paper introduces the 'Open-PEA system' with experimental results obtained during electron irradiation in vacuum.
Observation of quantum stochastic synchronization in a dissipative quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, G. M.; Gong, Ming; Xu, H. K.; Liu, W. Y.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Yu, H. F.; Yu, Yang; Zheng, D. N.; Zhao, S. P.; Han, Siyuan
2014-12-01
We report the observation of quantum stochastic synchronization (QSS) in a dissipative quantum system—a moderately damped current-biased Josephson junction. We show that when the junction is biased subcritically by a combination of a constant current and a small sinusoidal modulation signal, forced phase synchronization between the otherwise random, incoherent quantum tunneling and the signal may arise as a consequence of the interplay between quantum fluctuation and the weak periodic drive. It is found that optimal synchronization occurs at a signal frequency fQSS that is comparable to the quantum tunneling rate. We also find a phenomenon called "modulation induced suppression of quantum noise": for signal frequency well below fQSS, the power spectral density of escape time distribution of the junction could be reduced substantially from the floor level of the unmodulated system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the application of a small signal with proper phase can suppress the average tunneling rate and enhance the stability of the metastable system. Our experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations without the use of adjustable parameters.
Quantum Quenches in Topological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kells, Graham; Sen, Diptiman; Slingerland, J. K.; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2014-03-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of quenching through a quantum critical point in topological systems, focusing on one of their characteristic features, namely, ground state degeneracies, and associated topological sectors. We present the notion of ``topological blocking,'' experienced by the dynamics due to the mismatch in degeneracies between two phases. We demonstrate the interplay between quenching and topology in two extensively studied systems, the transverse Ising chain and the Kitaev honeycomb model. Casting these systems in the language of fermionic spinless p-wave paired superconductors enables us to cleanly address degeneracies, subtle issues of fermion occupation and parity, and mismatches between topological sectors. We show that several features of the quench, which are related to Kibble-Zurek physics, are sensitive to the topological sector being probed. Supported by DST, India under Project No. SR/S2/JCB-44/2010, NSF under grant DMR 0644022-CAR, the Simons Foundation under Grant No.229047 and Science Foundation Ireland Awards 08/IN.1/I1961, 10/IN.1/I3013 and 12/IA/1697.
Maximal atom-photon entanglement in a double- quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordi, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad
2015-06-01
The atom-photon entanglement of a dressed atom and its spontaneous emission in a double- closed-loop atomic system is studied under multi-photon resonance condition. It is shown that even in the absence of quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission, the von Neumann entropy is phase-sensitive and it can be controlled by either intensity or relative phase of the applied fields. It is demonstrated that for the special case of Rabi frequency of the applied fields, the system is maximally entangled. Moreover, an open-loop configuration is considered, and it is shown that the degree of entanglement can be controlled by intensity of the applied fields. Furthermore, in electromagnetically induced transparency condition, the system is disentangled. Such a system can be used for quantum information processing via entanglement using optical switching.
Rewriting Modulo SMT and Open System Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rocha, Camilo; Meseguer, Jose; Munoz, Cesar
2014-01-01
This paper proposes rewriting modulo SMT, a new technique that combines the power of SMT solving, rewriting modulo theories, and model checking. Rewriting modulo SMT is ideally suited to model and analyze infinite-state open systems, i.e., systems that interact with a non-deterministic environment. Such systems exhibit both internal non-determinism, which is proper to the system, and external non-determinism, which is due to the environment. In a reflective formalism, such as rewriting logic, rewriting modulo SMT can be reduced to standard rewriting. Hence, rewriting modulo SMT naturally extends rewriting-based reachability analysis techniques, which are available for closed systems, to open systems. The proposed technique is illustrated with the formal analysis of: (i) a real-time system that is beyond the scope of timed-automata methods and (ii) automatic detection of reachability violations in a synchronous language developed to support autonomous spacecraft operations.
Stability of persistent currents in open dissipative quantum fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guangyao; Fraser, Michael D.; Yakimenko, Alexander; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.
2015-05-01
The phenomenon of stable persistent currents is central to the studies of superfluidity in a range of physical systems. While most of the previous theoretical studies of superfluid flows in annular geometries concentrated on conservative systems, here we extend the dynamical stability analysis of persistent currents to open dissipative exciton-polariton superfluids. By considering an exciton-polariton condensate in an optically induced annular trap, we determine dynamical stability conditions for an initially imposed flow with a nonzero orbital angular momentum. We show, theoretically and numerically, that the system can sustain metastable persistent currents in a large parameter region, and describe scenarios of the supercurrent decay due to the dynamical instability.
Slightly anharmonic systems in quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimov, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Sergey M.
1995-01-01
We consider an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atom or many such atoms) interacting with a strong resonant quantum field. The approximate evolution operator for a quantum field case can be produced from the atomic evolution operator in an external classical field by a 'quantization prescription', passing the operator arguments to Wigner D-functions. Many important phenomena arising from the quantum nature of the field can be described by such a way.
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system
Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S.U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sillanpää, M.A.
2015-01-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum–mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation–pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion. PMID:25912295
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S. U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Hakonen, P. J.; Sillanpää, M. A.
2015-04-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum-mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation-pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion.
Large-scale quantum effects in biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mesquita, Marcus V.; Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Luzzi, Roberto; Mascarenhas, Sergio
Particular aspects of large-scale quantum effects in biological systems, such as biopolymers and also microtubules in the cytoskeleton of neurons which can have relevance in brain functioning, are discussed. The microscopic (quantum mechanical) and macroscopic (quantum statistical mechanical) aspects, and the emergence of complex behavior, are described. This phenomena consists of the large-scale coherent process of Fröhlich-Bose-Einstein condensation in open and sufficiently far-from-equilibrium biopolymers. Associated with this phenomenon is the presence of Schrödinger-Davydov solitons, which propagate, undistorted and undamped, when embedded in the Fröhlich-Bose-Einstein condensate, thus allowing for the transmission of signals at long distances, involving a question relevant to bioenergetics.
Advances in quantum Monte Carlo for quantum critical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandvik, Anders
2000-03-01
During the past few years, there has been significant progress in efficient quantum Monte Carlo methods for certain classes of spin systems and other lattice many-body problems. Cluster updates have been developed that speed up the sampling by several orders of magnitude, and schemes to avoid the systematic errors of the traditionally used Trotter decomposition have been deviced. Thanks to these developments, quantum critical phenomena (for systems where there are no sign problems) can now be investigated to a level of accuracy approaching classical simulation studies. I will discuss an approach to quantum simulations which is particularly efficient for (unfrustrated) S=1/2 Heisenberg models; the stochastic series expansion (SSE) method incorporating a cluster update for sampling the power series expansion of exp(-? H) to all contributing orders [A. W. Sandvik, Phys. Rev. B 59 R14157 (1999)]. I will also discuss high-precision calculations using the SSE algorithm for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a bilayer. This model can be tuned through a quantum critical point by varying the ratio of the inter-plane (J_?) to in-plane interaction (J), and has been very useful for testing predictions for quantum critical behavior in two-dimensional antiferromagnets. I will discuss finite-size scaling of ground state data, as well as the finite-temperature quantum critical behavior.
Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Bij, E.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.; Cattin, M.; Gousiou, E.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Boccardi, A.; Voumard, N.; Penacoba, G.
2012-01-01
The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an `Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Travis S. Humble; Ronald J. Sadlier
2014-10-20
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that software-defined quantum communication provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.
OPEN PROBLEM: Spatially localized structures in dissipative systems: open problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knobloch, E.
2008-04-01
Stationary spatially localized structures, sometimes called dissipative solitons, arise in many interesting and important applications, including buckling of slender structures under compression, nonlinear optics, fluid flow, surface catalysis, neurobiology and many more. The recent resurgence in interest in these structures has led to significant advances in our understanding of the origin and properties of these states, and these in turn suggest new questions, both general and system-specific. This paper surveys these results focusing on open problems, both mathematical and computational, as well as on new applications.
Protective Measurements: Probing Single Quantum Systems
Tabish Qureshi; N. D. Hari Dass
2015-05-07
Making measurements on single quantum systems is considered difficult, almost impossible if the state is a-priori unknown. Protective measurements suggest a possibility to measure single quantum systems and gain some new information in the process. Protective measurement is described, both in the original and generalized form. The degree to which the system and the apparatus remain entangled in a protective measurement, is assessed. A possible experimental test of protective measurements is discussed.
Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems
Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Genovese, Marco [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Olivares, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)
2011-09-15
Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.
Local Unitary Invariants for Multipartite Quantum Systems
Jing Wang; Ming Li; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost
2014-10-23
We present an approach of constructing invariants under local unitary transformations for multipartite quantum systems. The invariants constructed in this way can be complement to that in [Science 340 (2013) 1205-1208]. Detailed examples are given to compute such invariant in detail. It is shown that these invariants can be used to detect the local unitary equivalence of degenerated quantum states.
Is the Universe a Quantum System?
Helmut Fink; Hajo Leschke
2000-05-23
In order to relate the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory uniquely to measurement results, one has to conceive of an ensemble of identically prepared copies of the quantum system under study. Since the universe is the total domain of physical experience, it cannot be copied, not even in a thought experiment. Therefore, a quantum state of the whole universe can never be made accessible to empirical test. Hence the existence of such a state is only a metaphysical idea. Despite prominent claims to the contrary, recent developments in the quantum-interpretation debate do not invalidate this conclusion.
Quantum discord for a two-parameter class of states in $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems
Mazhar Ali
2010-08-24
Quantum discord witnesses the nonclassicality of quantum states even when there is no entanglement in these quantum states. This type of quantum correlation also has some interesting and significant applications in quantum information processing. Quantum discord has been evaluated explicitly only for certain class of two-qubit states. We extend the previous studies to $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems and derive an analytical expression for quantum discord for a two-parameter class of states for $d \\geq 3$. We compare quantum discord, classical correlation, and entanglement for qubit-qutrit systems to demonstrate that different measures of quantum correlation are not identical and conceptually different.
Controlling the dynamics of classical and quantum information in spin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalal, Parin B.
The precise, human control of quantum systems, by its definition, must combine models of the classical and the quantum world into a calculus that supports both. Open, irreversible quantum systems must interact with closed, reversible quantum systems to predict evolutions that are partially open and closed. Inevitably, the problems of quantum measurement, the assumptions of scattering, and the role of spacetime comes under scrutiny. Such considerations have extraordinary practical value: the precise control of a quantum information is the cornerstone of scalable quantum computing. Traditionally, quantum control theory as well as a formalism of redundancy and partial measurements, known as quantum error correction, attempt to remedy systematic quantum-noise and random quantum-noise respectively, but have had mixed success. This dissertation examines how the imprecision of control in quantum and classical spin systems affects the flow of select information to a receiver and how such systems may be optimized against the imprecise scattering of control fields and spins. To this end, this dissertation intertwines the physics of state evolution with the physics of information control in classical and quantum systems. First in classical systems, a method for encoding and decoding classical spin-processing information provides an example of information flow. Then an analytic calculation of a semi-conductor spin channel's information capacity is performed. The results limit the rate of information processing and inform the design of materials for optimal spintronic information-processing in semiconductors. Next, noisy quantum interactions are described, so that the complexities of correcting small, random phase errors using traditional control theory and quantum error correction may be explained. How these noisy processes affect the relevant information flow of a quantum algorithm (derivatives of the Quantum Fourier Transform and Grover Search) is considered, several novel methods of source-coding for these quantum channels are presented and their efficacy calculated. These methods include Unitary-Fault Tolerance, Clifford operations of locally-variant basis, and an entropic controller. Together they show classical systems in the steady state can be used to control scalable, high-precision quantum-computing machines, and ultimately may eliminate all temporal control from quantum operations.
Transition Phenomena in Networks of Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraus, B.; Törmä, P.
The advances in experimental manipulation and theoretical understanding of single quantum systems has fed the interest in quantum networks: quantum computers, quantum communication networks and multimode interferometers. According to statistical physics, a set of probabilistically behaving individual systems can exhibit critical behaviour when connected. In this paper we show that transition phenomena exist also in networks which behave probabilistically not because of finite temperature but due to their quantum nature1. We define a model which carries in its structure a formal analogy to the two-dimensional Ising-model. Such networks can be experimentally realized by various active (non-unitary) and passive (unitary) components. We give physical meaning to the transitions found. In the case of active components, such as amplifiers, the transition point coincides with the fundamental cloning limit given by quantum mechanics. We indicate how the transition phenomena could be observed, and discuss their significance and connection to quantum information related issues such as quantum computation and quantum cellular automata.
Quantum correlations in a clusterlike system
Chen Yixin; Li Shengwen [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yin Zhi [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Science, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315000 (China)
2010-11-15
We discuss a clusterlike one-dimensional system with triplet interaction. We study the topological properties of this system. We find that the degeneracy depends on the topology of the system and is well protected against external local perturbations. All these facts show that the system is topologically ordered. We also find a string order parameter to characterize the quantum phase transition. Besides, we investigate two-site correlations including entanglement, quantum discord, and mutual information. We study the different divergence behaviors of the correlations. The quantum correlation decays exponentially in both topological and magnetic phases, and diverges in reversed power law at the critical point. And we find that in topological order systems, the global difference of topology induced by dimension can be reflected in local quantum correlations.
Mapping the Schrodinger picture of open quantum dynamics
Thomas F. Jordan; Anil Shaji; E. C. G. Sudarshan
2005-11-28
For systems described by finite matrices, an affine form is developed for the maps that describe evolution of density matrices for a quantum system that interacts with another. This is established directly from the Heisenberg picture. It separates elements that depend only on the dynamics from those that depend on the state of the two systems. While the equivalent linear map is generally not completely positive, the homogeneous part of the affine maps is, and is shown to be composed of multiplication operations that come simply from the Hamiltonian for the larger system. The inhomogeneous part is shown to be zero if and only if the map does not increase the trace of the square of any density matrix. Properties are worked out in detail for two-qubit examples.
Open Systems Viewed Through Their Conservative Extensions
Alexander Figotin; Stephen P. Shipman
2006-03-13
A typical linear open system is often defined as a component of a larger conservative one. For instance, a dielectric medium, defined by its frequency dependent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability is a part of a conservative system which includes the matter with all its atomic complexity. A finite slab of a lattice array of coupled oscillators modelling a solid is another example. Assuming that such an open system is all one wants to observe, we ask how big a part of the original conservative system (possibly very complex) is relevant to the observations, or, in other words, how big a part of it is coupled to the open system? We study here the structure of the system coupling and its coupled and decoupled components, showing, in particular, that it is only the system's unique minimal extension that is relevant to its dynamics, and this extension often is tiny part of the original conservative system. We also give a scenario explaining why certain degrees of freedom of a solid do not contribute to its specific heat.
Thermalization in closed quantum systems: Semiclassical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosme, J. G.; Fialko, O.
2014-11-01
Thermalization in closed quantum systems can be understood either by means of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis or the concept of canonical typicality. Both concepts are based on quantum-mechanical formalism, such as spectral properties of the eigenstates or entanglement between subsystems, respectively. Here we study instead the onset of thermalization of Bose particles in a two-band double-well potential using the truncated Wigner approximation. This allows us to use the familiar classical formalism to understand quantum thermalization in this system. In particular, we demonstrate that sampling of an initial quantum state mimics a statistical mechanical ensemble, while subsequent chaotic classical evolution turns the initial quantum state into the thermal state.
Black Holes and Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems
Nickel, Marcel Dominik Johannes
We describe black holes in d+3 dimensions, whose thermodynamic properties correspond to those of a scale-invariant nonrelativistic (d+1)-dimensional quantum system with a dynamical exponent z=2. The gravitational model ...
Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg
1994-01-01
Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)
Compositional Modeling of Reactive Systems Using Open Nets
Baldan, Paolo
Compositional Modeling of Reactive Systems Using Open Nets P. Baldan1, A. Corradini1, H. Ehrig2 of open concurrent systems by means of Petri nets, we introduce open Petri nets, a generalization semantics for open nets by extending the Goltz-Reisig process semantics of Petri nets. We introduce
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J
2013-01-01
We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.
Quantum reference systems: reconciling locality with quantum mechanics
Gyula Bene
2000-08-30
The status of locality in quantum mechanics is analyzed from a nonstandard point of view. It is assumed that quantum states are relative, they depend on and are defined with respect to some bigger physical system which contains the former system as a subsystem. Hence, the bigger system acts as a reference system. It is shown that quantum mechanics can be reformulated in accordance with this new physical assumption. There is an important consequence of this dependence: states may not be comparable, i.e., they cannot be checked by suitable measurements simultaneously. This special circumstance is fully reflected mathematically by the theory. Especially, it is shown that certain joint probabilities (or the corresponding combined events) which play a vital role in any proof of Bell's theorem do not exist. The conclusion is that the principle of locality is fully valid in quantum mechanics, and one has to give up instead of locality an intuitively natural-looking feature of realism, namely, the comparability of existing states.
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
K. Urbanowski
2015-10-08
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.
Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.
2015-05-01
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Superconducting Circuitry for Quantum Electromechanical Systems
Matthew D. LaHaye; Francisco Rouxinol; Yu Hao; Seung-Bo Shim; Elinor K. Irish
2015-04-11
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and efforts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Combinatorial approach to modeling quantum systems
Vladimir V. Kornyak
2015-07-30
Using the fact that any linear representation of a group can be embedded into permutations, we propose a constructive description of quantum behavior that provides, in particular, a natural explanation of appearance of complex numbers and unitarity in the formalism of quantum mechanics. In our approach, the quantum behavior can be explained by the fundamental impossibility to trace identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution. Any observation only provides information about the invariant relations between such objects. The trajectory of a quantum system is a sequence of unitary evolutions interspersed with observations -- non-unitary projections. We suggest a scheme to construct combinatorial models of quantum evolution. The principle of selection of the most likely trajectories in such models via the large numbers approximation leads in the continuum limit to the principle of least action with the appropriate Lagrangians and deterministic evolution equations.
Open systems for plant process computers
Norris, D.L. [Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pate, R.L. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)
1995-03-01
Arizona Public Service (APS) Company recently upgraded the Emergency Response Facility (ERF) computer at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Stations (PVNGS). The project was initiated to provide the ability to record and display plant data for later analysis of plant events and operational problems (one of the great oversights at nearly every nuclear plant constructed) and to resolve a commitment to correct performance problems on the display side of the system. A major forming objective for the project was to lay a foundation with ample capability and flexibility to provide solutions for future real-time data needs at the plants. The Halliburton NUS Corporation`s Idaho Center (NUS) was selected to develop the system. Because of the constant changes occurring in the computer hardware and software industry, NUS designed and implemented a distributed Open Systems solution based on the UNIX Operating System. This Open System is highly portable across a variety of computer architectures and operating systems and is based on NUS` R*TIME{reg_sign}, a mature software system successfully operating in 14 nuclear plants and over 80 fossil plants. Along with R*TIME, NUS developed two Man-Machine Interface (MMI) versions: R*TIME/WIN, a Microsoft Windows application designed for INTEL-based personal computers operating either Microsoft`s Windows 3.1 or Windows NT operating systems; and R*TIME/X, based on the standard X Window System utilizing the Motif Window Manager.
Open Source CRM Systems for SMEs
Tereso, Marco
2011-01-01
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems are very common in large companies. However, CRM systems are not very common in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Most SMEs do not implement CRM systems due to several reasons, such as lack of knowledge about CRM or lack of financial resources to implement CRM systems. SMEs have to start implementing Information Systems (IS) technology into their business operations in order to improve business values and gain more competitive advantage over rivals. CRM system has the potential to help improve the business value and competitive capabilities of SMEs. Given the high fixed costs of normal activity of companies, we intend to promote free and viable solutions for small and medium businesses. In this paper, we explain the reasons why SMEs do not implement CRM system and the benefits of using open source CRM system in SMEs. We also describe the functionalities of top open source CRM systems, examining the applicability of these tools in fitting the needs of SMEs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Quantum Attacks on Classical Proof Systems The Hardness of Quantum Rewinding
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Quantum Attacks on Classical Proof Systems The Hardness of Quantum Rewinding Andris Ambainis University of Latvia and Institute for Advanced Study Princeton Ansis Rosmanis Institute for Quantum, 2014 Abstract. Quantum zero-knowledge proofs and quantum proofs of knowledge are inherently difficult
Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder
Kais, Sabre
Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder We study the entanglement of formation and quantum phase transition in a one-dimensional quantum dots, for certain parameters, the entanglement is negligible up to a critical point Uc, where a quantum phase
From: Subject: [cnssec] Faculty openings, Systems Neuroscience, Rutgers-Newark
Pillow, Jonathan
From: Subject: [cnssec] Faculty openings, Systems Neuroscience-To: The Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience at Rutgers University has TWO openings for tenure-track Assistant Professors in SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE. Applicants should hold
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
W. Wang; J. Shen; X. X. Yi
2009-06-05
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
Wang, W; Yi, X X
2009-01-01
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Experimental recovery of quantum correlations in absence of system-environment back-action
Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Guo, Guang-Can; Andersson, Erika; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties. PMID:24287554
Equilibration of quantum systems and subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Short, Anthony J.
2011-05-01
We unify two recent results concerning equilibration in quantum theory. We first generalize a proof of Reimann (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 190403), that the expectation value of 'realistic' quantum observables will equilibrate under very general conditions, and discuss its implications for the equilibration of quantum systems. We then use this to re-derive an independent result of Linden et al (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 061103), showing that small subsystems generically evolve to an approximately static equilibrium state. Finally, we consider subspaces in which all initial states effectively equilibrate to the same state.
Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems
Sandvik, Anders W
2011-01-01
These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.
Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems
Anders W. Sandvik
2011-01-17
These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.
Zero forcing, linear and quantum controllability for systems evolving on networks
Daniel Burgarth; Domenico D'Alessandro; Leslie Hogben; Simone Severini; Michael Young
2011-11-07
We study the dynamics of systems on networks from a linear algebraic perspective. The control theoretic concept of controllability describes the set of states that can be reached for these systems. Under appropriate conditions, there is a connection between the quantum (Lie theoretic) property of controllability and the linear systems (Kalman) controllability condition. We investigate how the graph theoretic concept of a zero forcing set impacts the controllability property. In particular, we prove that if a set of vertices is a zero forcing set, the associated dynamical system is controllable. The results open up the possibility of further exploiting the analogy between networks, linear control systems theory, and quantum systems Lie algebraic theory. This study is motivated by several quantum systems currently under study, including continuous quantum walks modeling transport phenomena. Additionally, it proposes zero forcing as a new notion in the analysis of complex networks.
Development of the Open Items Tracking System
Riggi, V.
1994-06-01
The West Valley Demonstration Project, located on the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in USA, has the directed objectives of solidifying the high-level radioactive waste into a durable, solid form for shipment; decontaminating and decommissioning the tanks and facilities; and disposing of the resulting low-level and transuranic wastes. Since an escalating trend of open work items was noticed in the Fall of 1988, and there was no control mechanism for tracking and closing the open items, a Work Control System was developed for this purpose. It is self-contained system on a mainframe ARTEMIS 9000, which tracks, monitors, and closes out external commitments in a timely manner. Audits, surveillances, site appraisals, preventive maintenance, instrument calibration recall, and scheduling are covered.
Multiagent Learning for Open Systems: A Study in Opponent Classification
Rovatsos, Michael
adaptive agents that can operate in open systems in fact, the amount of potentially "missing" knowledgeMultiagent Learning for Open Systems: A Study in Opponent Classification Michael Rovatsos, Gerhard of Munich 85748 Garching bei München Germany Abstract. Open systems are becoming increasingly important
First experimental evidence for quantum echoes in scattering systems.
Dembowski, C; Dietz, B; Friedrich, T; Gräf, H-D; Heine, A; Mejía-Monasterio, C; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A; Seligman, T H
2004-09-24
A self-pulsing effect termed quantum echoes has been observed in experiments with an open superconducting and a normal conducting microwave billiard whose geometry provides soft chaos, i.e., a mixed phase space portrait with a large stable island. For such systems a periodic response to an incoming pulse has been predicted. Its period has been associated with the degree of development of a horseshoe describing the topology of the classical dynamics. The experiments confirm this picture and reveal the topological information. PMID:15524724
X/Open Preliminary Specification File System Safe UCS
Kuhn, Markus
X/Open Preliminary Specification File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSSUTF) X/OpenCompany Ltd. #12; Ó May 1993, X/Open Company Limited All rights reserved. No part of this publication may, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owners. X/Open
An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging
Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei
2013-01-01
Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570
An open system for intravascular ultrasound imaging.
Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei
2012-10-01
Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMNPT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570
Localised Systems in Relativistic Quantum Information
Antony Richard Lee
2013-09-20
This thesis collects my own and collaborative work I have been involved with finding localised systems in quantum field theory that are useful for quantum information. It draws from many well established physical theories such as quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, quantum optics and Gaussian state quantum information. The results are split between three chapters. For the first results, we set-up the basic framework for working with quantum fields confined to cavities. By considering the real Klein-Gordon field, we describe how to model the non-uniform motion of a rigid cavity through spacetime. We employ the use of Bogoliubov transformations to describe the effects of changing acceleration. The second set of results investigate how the Dirac field can be confined to a cavity for quantum information purposes. By again considering Bogoliubov transformations, we thoroughly investigate how the entanglement shared between two cavities is affected by non-uniform motion. It is shown that different types of Dirac field states are more robust against motion than others. The final results look at using our second notion of localisation, Unruh- DeWitt detectors. We investigate how allowing for a "non-point-like" spatial profile of the Unruh-DeWitt detector affects how it interacts with a quantum field around it. By engineering suitable detector-field interactions, we use techniques from symplectic geometry to compute the dynamics of a quantum state beyond commonly used perturbation theory. There is also a conclusions chapter at the end of the thesis which summarises the results presented and suggestions of possible new directions of research in relativistic quantum information are made.
Quantum field theory of relic nonequilibrium systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Underwood, Nicolas G.; Valentini, Antony
2015-09-01
In terms of the de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave formulation of quantum theory, we develop field-theoretical models of quantum nonequilibrium systems which could exist today as relics from the very early Universe. We consider relic excited states generated by inflaton decay, as well as relic vacuum modes, for particle species that decoupled close to the Planck temperature. Simple estimates suggest that, at least in principle, quantum nonequilibrium could survive to the present day for some relic systems. The main focus of this paper is to describe the behavior of such systems in terms of field theory, with the aim of understanding how relic quantum nonequilibrium might manifest experimentally. We show by explicit calculation that simple perturbative couplings will transfer quantum nonequilibrium from one field to another (for example from the inflaton field to its decay products). We also show that fields in a state of quantum nonequilibrium will generate anomalous spectra for standard energy measurements. Possible connections to current astrophysical observations are briefly addressed.
Quantum Flexoelectricity in Low Dimensional Systems
Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL
2008-01-01
Symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces and the capability to support large strain gradients in nanoscale systems enable new forms of electromechanical coupling. Here we introduce the concept of quantum flexoelectricity, a phenomenon that is manifested when the mechanical deformation of non-polar quantum systems results in the emergence of net dipole moments and hence linear electromechanical coupling proportional to local curvature. The concept is illustrated in carbon systems, including polyacetylene and nano graphitic ribbons. Using density functional theory calculations for systems made of up to 400 atoms, we determine the flexoelectric coefficients to be of the order of ~ 0.1 e, in agreement with the prediction of linear theory. The implications of quantum flexoelectricity on electromechanical device applications, and physics of carbon based materials are discussed.
Repeated Interaction Quantum Systems: Van Hove Limits and Asymptotic States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, Rodrigo
2008-11-01
We establish the existence of two weak coupling regime effective dynamics for an open quantum system of repeated interactions (vanishing strength and individual interaction duration, respectively). This generalizes known results (Attal and Joye in J. Stat. Phys. 126:1241-1283, 2007) in that the von Neumann algebras describing the system and the chain element may not be of finite type. Then (but now assuming that the small system is of finite type), we prove that both effective dynamics capture the long-term behavior of the system: existence of a unique asymptotic state for them implies the same property for the respective exact dynamics—provided that the perturbation parameter is sufficiently small. The zero-th order term in a power series expansion in the perturbation parameter of such an asymptotic state is given by the asymptotic state of the effective dynamics. We conclude by working out the case in which the small system and the chain element are spins.
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos.
García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A
2015-01-01
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is--to say the least--fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system. PMID:25679559
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.
2015-01-01
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.
Quantum discord in matrix product systems
Sun Zhaoyu; Li Liang; Du Guihuan; Yao Kailun; Liu Jiwei; Luo Bo; Li Neng; Li Haina
2010-09-15
We consider a class of quantum systems with spin-flip symmetry and derive the quantum correlation measured by the quantum discord (QD). As an illustration, we investigate the QD in a three-body interaction model and an XYZ interaction model, whose ground states can be expressed as matrix product states, and the QD is exactly soluble. We show that the QD behaves differently than the quantum entanglement (QE) in many ways; for example, they may show opposite monotonicity and completely different finite-size effects. Furthermore, we compare the capability of the QD and the QE to detect quantum phase transitions (QPTs) and find that the QD is more reliable than the QE for signaling QPTs in these models: In the three-body interaction model, the QE is singular at the quantum critical point, however, it exhibits an additional singularity in the noncritical region, while the analyticity of the QD can be used to identify the quantum critical point perfectly; and in the XYZ interaction model, the QE vanishes in the thermodynamic limit, thus losing its ability to detect QPTs, while the QD still functions very well.
OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tkachuk, Oksana
2014-01-01
To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.
Intrinsic and extrinsic properties of quantum systems
P. Hajicek; J. Tolar
2008-02-06
The paper attempts to convince that the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics does not contradict philosophical realism by throwing light onto certain properties of quantum systems that seem to have escaped attention as yet. The exposition starts with the philosophical notions of realism. Then, the quantum mechanics as it is usually taught is demoted to a mere part of the theory called phenomenology of observations, and the common impression about its contradiction to realism is explained. The main idea of the paper, the physical notion of intrinsic properties, is introduced and many examples thereof are given. It replaces the irritating dichotomy of quantum and classical worlds by a much softer difference between intrinsic and extrinsic properties, which concern equally microscopic and macroscopic systems. Finally, the classicality and the quantum measurement are analyzed and found to present some still unsolved problems. A possible way of dealing with the Schr\\"{o}dinger cat is suggested that is based on the intrinsic properties. A simple quantum model of one classical property illustrates how our philosophy may work.
METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Entropy and information of open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimontovich, Yu L.
1999-04-01
Of the two definitions of 'information' given by Shannon and employed in the communication theory, one is identical to that of Boltzmann's entropy and gives in fact a measure of statistical uncertainty. The other involves the difference of unconditional and conditional entropies and, if properly specified, allows the introduction of a measure of information for an open system depending on the values of the system's control parameters. Two classes of systems are identified. For those in the first class, an equilibrium state is possible and the law of conversation of information and entropy holds. When at equilibrium, such systems have zero information and maximum entropy. In self-organization processes, information increases away from the equilibrium state. For the systems of the other class, the equilibrium state is impossible. For these, the so-called 'chaoticity norm' is introduced and also two kinds of self-organization processes are considered and the concept of information is appropriately defined. Common information definitions are applied to classical and quantum physical systems as well as to medical and biological systems.
Theory of control of quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schirmer, Sonja G.
2000-08-01
We investigate the problem of optimal control of mixed- state quantum systems using a quantum statistical mechanics model and a Liouville space formulation of Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics. The problem of optimal control is formulated as a problem of maximization of the ensemble average of an observable of the system, subject to certain constraints. In chapter two, we address the question of kinematical constraints on the evolution of the system and derive bounds on the expectation value of arbitrary observables for mixed-state quantum systems. The issue of dynamical realizability of the kinematical bounds is discussed and results on controllability of quantum systems are summarized in chapter three. In chapter four, we present, an efficient, rapidly convergent feedback algorithm for constructing optimal controls numerically and prove its convergence properties. Finally, we apply our results on kinematical bounds and controllability, as well as the algorithm presented in chapter four, to several optimal control problems, including maximization of the vibrational energy of a molecular bond, maximization of the top-level population for a three-level system with and without dissipation, and maximization of the energy for systems consisting of non-interacting subsystems, and discuss the results.
Driving Quantum System into Decoherence-free Subspaces by Lyapunov Control
Yi, X X; Wu, Chunfeng; Oh, C H
2009-01-01
We present a scheme to drive a finite-dimensional quantum system into the decoherence-free subspaces(DFS) by Lyapunov control. Control fields are established by Lyapunov function. This proposal works well for both closed and open quantum systems, with replacing the DFS by desired subspaces for closed systems. An example which consists of a four-level system with three degenerate states driven by three lasers is presented to gain further insight of the scheme, numerical simulations for the dynamics of the system are performed and the results are good.
Quantum dynamics of nonlinear cavity systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nation, Paul David
In this work we investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. We begin by carrying out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprising a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing an external flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we consider the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. We will show that biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. As a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process. Finally, we investigate a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviation occurs once the pump mode (black hole) has released nearly half of its initial energy in the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.
Charge Transport in a Quantum Electromechanical System
D. Wahyu Utami; Hsi-Sheng Goan; G. J. Milburn
2004-06-04
We describe a quantum electromechanical system(QEMS) comprising a single quantum dot harmonically bound between two electrodes and facilitating a tunneling current between them. An example of such a system is a fullerene molecule between two metal electrodes [Park et al., Nature, 407, 57 (2000)]. The description is based on a quantum master equation for the density operator of the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom and thus incorporates the dynamics of both diagonal (population) and off diagonal (coherence) terms. We derive coupled equations of motion for the electron occupation number of the dot and the vibrational degrees of freedom, including damping of the vibration and thermo-mechanical noise. This dynamical description is related to observable features of the system including the stationary current as a function of bias voltage.
Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz
Buller, Gerald S.
Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz Karen J. Gordon, Veronica Fernandez, Gerald S, Ireland http://www.phy.hw.ac.uk/resrev/photoncounting/index.html Abstract: An improved quantum key-based quantum key distribution test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error
University of California, Santa Barbara Optimal Control of Quantum Systems
Bamieh, Bassam
.1 Introduction to quantum systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 Quantum Mechanics at a glanceUniversity of California, Santa Barbara Optimal Control of Quantum Systems PhD Thesis Symeon;Abstract Motivated by developments and problems in a number of disciplines in- cluding Quantum Chemistry
Rotter, I; Sadreev, A F
2005-03-01
We study the spectrum of an open double quantum dot as a function of different system parameters in order to receive information on the geometric phases of branch points in the complex plane (BPCP). We relate them to the geometrical phases of the diabolic points (DPs) of the corresponding closed system. The double dot consists of two single dots and a wire connecting them. The two dots and the wire are represented by only a single state each. The spectroscopic values follow from the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian describing the double dot system. They are real when the system is closed, and complex when the system is opened by attaching leads to it. The discrete states as well as the narrow resonance states avoid crossing. The DPs are points within the avoided level crossing scenario of discrete states. At the BPCP, width bifurcation occurs. Here, different Riemann sheets evolve and the levels do not cross anymore. The BPCP are physically meaningful. The DPs are unfolded into two BPCP with different chirality when the system is opened. The geometric phase that arises by encircling the DP in the real plane, is different from the phase that appears by encircling the BPCP. This is found to be true even for a weakly opened system and the two BPCP into which the DP is unfolded. PMID:15903566
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotter, I.; Sadreev, A. F.
2005-03-01
We study the spectrum of an open double quantum dot as a function of different system parameters in order to receive information on the geometric phases of branch points in the complex plane (BPCP). We relate them to the geometrical phases of the diabolic points (DPs) of the corresponding closed system. The double dot consists of two single dots and a wire connecting them. The two dots and the wire are represented by only a single state each. The spectroscopic values follow from the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian describing the double dot system. They are real when the system is closed, and complex when the system is opened by attaching leads to it. The discrete states as well as the narrow resonance states avoid crossing. The DPs are points within the avoided level crossing scenario of discrete states. At the BPCP, width bifurcation occurs. Here, different Riemann sheets evolve and the levels do not cross anymore. The BPCP are physically meaningful. The DPs are unfolded into two BPCP with different chirality when the system is opened. The geometric phase that arises by encircling the DP in the real plane, is different from the phase that appears by encircling the BPCP. This is found to be true even for a weakly opened system and the two BPCP into which the DP is unfolded.
Structure of amplitude correlations in open chaotic systems.
Ericson, Torleif E O
2013-02-01
The Verbaarschot-Weidenmüller-Zirnbauer (VWZ) model is believed to correctly represent the correlations of two S-matrix elements for an open quantum chaotic system, but the solution has considerable complexity and is presently only accessed numerically. Here a procedure is developed to deduce its features over the full range of the parameter space in a transparent and simple analytical form preserving accuracy to a considerable degree. The bulk of the VWZ correlations are described by the Gorin-Seligman expression for the two-amplitude correlations of the Ericson-Gorin-Seligman model. The structure of the remaining correction factors for correlation functions is discussed with special emphasis of the rôle of the level correlation hole both for inelastic and elastic correlations. PMID:23496591
Nucleus as an Open System: New Effects and Theoretical Challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2012-10-01
As nuclear science moves in the direction of nuclei far from stability, the studies of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions become more and more interrelated. The main theoretical challenge is to find a consistent description of the nucleus as an open mesoscopic system coupled with continuum through real decay channels and through virtual excitations. The method using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian [see review article: N. Auerbach and V. Zelevinsky, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 106301 (2011)] is one of the most promising theoretical approaches; it can be strictly derived from quantum many-body theory, it allows for calculating bound states, resonances and reaction cross sections in the unified framework, and it is quite flexible in practical applications. After explaining the main features of this theory, I will show the method at work (continuum shell model with predictions recently confirmed by the experiments with exotic oxygen isotopes, phenomenon of super-radiance, relation to the idea of doorway states, quantum signal transmission through mesoscopic systems) and discuss new theoretical challenges.
Evaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems
Cordy, James R.
using traditional management techniques, or with the large scale open source software systems (LSOSSS). However, there is to our knowledge little or no work that has considered small scale open source softwareEvaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems Chanchal Kumar Roy and James R
Quons in a Quantum Dissipative System
Lee, Taejin
2015-01-01
String theory proves to be an imperative tool to explore the critical behavior of the quantum dissipative system. We discuss the quantum particles moving in two dimensions, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field, subject to a periodic potential and a dissipative force, which are described by the dissipative Wannier-Azbel-Hofstadter (DWAH) model. Using string theory formulation of the model, we find that the elementary excitations of the system at the generic points of the off-critical regions, in the zero temperature limit are quons, which satisfy q-deformed statistics.
Quantum statistics of interacting dimer spin systems.
Rüegg, Ch; Normand, B; Matsumoto, M; Niedermayer, Ch; Furrer, A; Krämer, K W; Güdel, H-U; Bourges, Ph; Sidis, Y; Mutka, H
2005-12-31
The compound TlCuCl(3) represents a model system of dimerized quantum spins with strong interdimer interactions. We investigate the triplet dispersion as a function of temperature by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. By comparison with a number of theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the description of Troyer, Tsunetsugu, and Würtz [Phys. Rev. B 50, 13 515 (1994)10.1103/Phys. Rev. B 50, 13515] provides an appropriate quantum statistical model for dimer spin systems at finite temperatures, where many-body correlations become particularly important. PMID:16486391
Quantum Statistics of Interacting Dimer Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüegg, Ch.; Normand, B.; Matsumoto, M.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Furrer, A.; Krämer, K. W.; Güdel, H.-U.; Bourges, Ph.; Sidis, Y.; Mutka, H.
2005-12-01
The compound TlCuCl3 represents a model system of dimerized quantum spins with strong interdimer interactions. We investigate the triplet dispersion as a function of temperature by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. By comparison with a number of theoretical approaches we demonstrate that the description of Troyer, Tsunetsugu, and Würtz [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO0163-1829 50, 13 515 (1994)10.1103/PhysRevB.50.13515] provides an appropriate quantum statistical model for dimer spin systems at finite temperatures, where many-body correlations become particularly important.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yu; Amini, Hadis; Miao, Zibo; Gough, John; Ugrinovskii, Valery; James, Matthew R.
2014-06-01
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Open-system dynamics of entanglement:a key issues review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors. In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information.
Quantum Langevin equations for optomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barchielli, Alberto; Vacchini, Bassano
2015-08-01
We provide a fully quantum description of a mechanical oscillator in the presence of thermal environmental noise by means of a quantum Langevin formulation based on quantum stochastic calculus. The system dynamics is determined by symmetry requirements and equipartition at equilibrium, while the environment is described by quantum Bose fields in a suitable non-Fock representation which allows for the introduction of temperature. A generic spectral density of the environment can be described by introducing its state through a suitable P-representation. Including interaction of the mechanical oscillator with a cavity mode via radiation pressure we obtain a description of a simple optomechanical system in which, besides the Langevin equations for the system, one has the exact input–output relations for the quantum noises. The whole theory is valid at arbitrarily low temperature. This allows the exact calculation of the stationary value of the mean energy of the mechanical oscillator, as well as both homodyne and heterodyne spectra. The present analysis allows in particular to study possible cooling scenarios and to obtain the exact connection between observed spectra and fluctuation spectra of the position of the mechanical oscillator.
Identities for Entropy Change Associated with the Time-Evolution of an Open System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majima, Hiroki; Suzuki, Akira
2015-08-01
A general relation between entropy and an evolutionary superoperator is derived based on the theory of the real-time formulation. The formulation establishing the relation relies only on the framework of quantum statistical mechanics and the standard definition of the von Neumann entropy. Applying the theory of the imaginary-time formulation, a similar relation is obtained for the entropy change due to the change in reservoir temperatures. To show the usefulness of these formulas, we derived the expression for the entropy production induced by some dissipation in an open quantum system as the exemplary model system.
Exact non-Markovian master equations for multiple qubit systems: quantum trajectory approach
Yusui Chen; J. Q. You; Ting Yu
2014-08-07
A wide class of exact master equations for a multiple qubit system can be explicitly constructed by using the corresponding exact non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equations. These exact master equations arise naturally from the quantum decoherence dynamics of qubit system as a quantum memory coupled to a collective colored noisy source. The exact master equations are also important in optimal quantum control, quantum dissipation and quantum thermodynamics. In this paper, we show that the exact non-Markovian master equation for a dissipative N-qubit system can be derived explicitly from the statistical average of the corresponding non-Markovian quantum trajectories. We illustrated our general formulation by an explicit construction of a three-qubit system coupled to a non-Markovian bosonic environment. This multiple qubit master equation offers an accurate time evolution of quantum systems in various domains, and paves a way to investigate the memory effect of an open system in a non-Markovian regime without any approximation.
Quantum weak chaos in a degenerate system
V. Ya. Demikhovskii; D. I. Kamenev; G. A. Luna-Acosta
1998-09-27
Quantum weak chaos is studied in a perturbed degenerate system --- a charged particle interacting with a monochromatic wave in a transverse magnetic field. The evolution operator for an arbitrary number of periods of the external field is built and its structure is explored in terms of the QE (quasienergy eigenstates) under resonance condition (wave frequency $=$ cyclotron frequency) in the regime of weak classical chaos. The new phenomenon of diffusion via the quantum separatrices and the influence of chaos on diffusion are investigated and, in the quasi classical limit, compared with its classical dynamics. We determine the crossover from purely quantum diffusion to a diffusion which is the quantum manifestation of classical diffusion along the stochastic web. This crossover results from the non-monotonic dependence of the characteristic localization length of the QE states on the wave amplitude. The width of the quantum separatrices was computed and compared with the width of the classical stochastic web. We give the physical parameters which can be realized experimentally to show the manifestation of quantum chaos in nonlinear acoustic resonance.
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
Anastopoulos, Charis, E-mail: anastop@physics.upatras.gr; Savvidou, Ntina, E-mail: ksavvidou@physics.upatras.gr
2013-09-15
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation
Kalai, Gil
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes superior compared to digital computers. The idea was that since computations in quantum physics require
Jung, Paul
NSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum for participants is available through an NSF grant. Graduate students, women, and under-represented minority groups
Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems
Milonni, P.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Goggin, M.E.
1987-01-01
This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs. (JDH)
Quantum information processing in multi-spin systems
Cappellaro, Paola
2006-01-01
Coherence and entanglement in multi-spin systems are valuable resources for quantum information processing. In this thesis, I explore the manipulation of quantum information in complex multi-spin systems, with particular ...
Semiclassical analysis of quantum systems with constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsobanjan, Artur
This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing true degrees of freedom in quantum mechanical systems with constraints. The method developed relies on assuming the behavior of the system of interest is "nearly classical", or semiclassical, in a precise quantitative sense. The approximation is formulated as a perturbative hierarchy of the expectation values of quantum observables and their non-linear combinations, such as spreads and correlations. We formulate the constraint conditions and additional quantum gauge transformations that arise directly on the aforementioned quantities. We specialize this framework to several situations of particular interest. The first situation considered is the case of a constraint that commutes with all quantum observables, which is appropriate for quantization of a Lie algebra with a single Casimir polynomial. Through explicit order-by order counting argue that the true degrees of freedom are captured correctly at each order of the approximation. The rest of the models considered are motivated by the canonical approach to quantizing general relativity. The homogeneous sector of general relativity splits into classes of models, according to topology, which are described by a finite number of degrees of freedom and can therefore be quantized as quantum mechanical systems, making our construction directly applicable. In the Hamiltonian formulation the dynamics of these systems is governed by the Hamiltonian constraint, which, in the quantum theory, gives rise to several conceptual and technical issues collectively known as the Problem of Time. One of the aspects of this problem that does not possess a general solution is the dynamical interpretation of the theory. We use our construction, truncated at the leading order in quantum corrections, together with the intuition gained from dealing with constrained systems in classical mechanics, to define local notion of dynamics relative to a chosen configuration clock variable. We consider a class of models, where the chosen clock in not globally valid, eventually leading to singular dynamics. Within these models we construct an explicit transformation between dynamical evolution relative to two distinct clocks, thus providing a consistent local dynamical interpretation of the true degrees of freedom of the quantum theory.
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
A. Leviatan
2006-12-05
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
Quantum coherence of biophotons and living systems.
Bajpai, R P
2003-05-01
Coherence is a property of the description of the system in the classical framework in which the subunits of a system act in a cooperative manner. Coherence becomes classical if the agent causing cooperation is discernible otherwise it is quantum coherence. Both stimulated and spontaneous biophoton signals show properties that can be attributed to the cooperative actions of many photon-emitting units. But the agents responsible for the cooperative actions of units have not been discovered so far. The stimulated signal decays with non-exponential character. It is system and situation specific and sensitive to many physiological and environmental factors. Its measurable holistic parameters are strength, shape, relative strengths of spectral components, and excitation curve. The spontaneous signal is non-decaying with the probabilities of detecting various number of photons to be neither normal nor Poisson. The detected probabilities in a signal of Parmelia tinctorum match with probabilities expected in a squeezed state of photons. It is speculated that an in vivo nucleic acid molecule is an assembly of intermittent quantum patches that emit biophoton in quantum transitions. The distributions of quantum patches and their lifetimes determine the holistic features of biophoton signals, so that the coherence of biophotons is merely a manifestation of the coherence of living systems. PMID:15244274
Hidden supersymmetry in quantum bosonic systems
Francisco Correa; Mikhail S. Plyushchay
2006-12-11
We show that some simple well studied quantum mechanical systems without fermion (spin) degrees of freedom display, surprisingly, a hidden supersymmetry. The list includes the bound state Aharonov-Bohm, the Dirac delta and the Poschl-Teller potential problems, in which the unbroken and broken N=2 supersymmetry of linear and nonlinear (polynomial) forms is revealed.
Chiral boundary conditions for quantum Hall systems
E. Akkermans; R. Narevich
1998-01-01
A quantum mesoscopic billiard can be viewed as a bounded electronic system due to some external confining potential. Because, in general, we do not have access to the exact expression of this potential, it is usually replaced by a set of boundary conditions. We discuss, in addition to the standard Dirichlet choice, the other possibilities of boundary conditions which might
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Coherent control in simple quantum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prants, Sergey V.
1995-01-01
Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.
Wu, Chia-Ching; Liou, Jian-Chiun; Diao, Chien-Chen
2015-08-14
A self-powered complementary electrochromic device (CECD) driven by a high open-circuit voltage InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell has been designed. The coloration and bleaching time of the system were 5 and 8 s, respectively. PMID:26158586
Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system.
Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J; Saito, Shiro
2014-01-01
The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792
Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system
Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro
2014-01-01
The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792
Quantum chaos and thermalization in gapped systems
Rigol, Marcos [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Santos, Lea F. [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)
2010-07-15
We investigate the onset of thermalization and quantum chaos in finite one-dimensional gapped systems of hard-core bosons. Integrability in these systems is broken by next-nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, which also generate a superfluid to insulator transition. By employing full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that with increasing system size, chaotic behavior is seen over a broader range of parameters and, in particular, deeper into the insulating phase. Concomitantly, we observe that, as the system size increases, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis extends its range of validity inside the insulating phase and is accompanied by the thermalization of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharchev, S.; Lebedev, D.
2001-03-01
The integral representations for the eigenfunctions of N particle quantum open and periodic Toda chains are constructed within the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method. Both periodic and open N-particle solutions have essentially the same structure, being written as a generalized Fourier transform over the eigenfunctions of the N-1 particle open Toda chain with the kernels satisfying the Baxter equations of second and first order, respectively. In the latter case this leads to recurrent relations which result in a representation of Mellin-Burnes-type solutions of an open chain. As a byproduct, we obtain the Gindikin-Karpelevich formula for the Harish-Chandra function in the case of the {GL}(N,R) group.
Resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in SQUID systems
Silvestrini, P.; Ruggiero, B.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.
1996-07-01
A detailed theoretical analysis of the resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting quantum interference device systems is presented. Our approach allows us to include the effect of both temperature and sweeping rate of the external flux, and to study the phenomenon both in quasistationary and nonstationary conditions, which can be induced by a fast sweep of the external bias. Moreover we compare our theory with the experimental data of Rouse, Han, and Lukens [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 75}, 1614 (1995)] referring to the quasistationary case, while other observable effects are predicted in the nonstationary case. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Thermodynamics of quantum systems under dynamical control
D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Gershon Kurizki
2015-03-04
In this review the debated rapport between thermodynamics and quantum mechanics is addressed in the framework of the theory of periodically-driven/controlled quantum-thermodynamic machines. The basic model studied here is that of a two-level system (TLS), whose energy is periodically modulated while the system is coupled to thermal baths. When the modulation interval is short compared to the bath memory time, the system-bath correlations are affected, thereby causing cooling or heating of the TLS, depending on the interval. In steady state, a periodically-modulated TLS coupled to two distinct baths constitutes the simplest quantum heat machine (QHM) that may operate as either an engine or a refrigerator, depending on the modulation rate. We find their efficiency and power-output bounds and the conditions for attaining these bounds. An extension of this model to multilevel systems shows that the QHM power output can be boosted by the multilevel degeneracy. These results are used to scrutinize basic thermodynamic principles: (i) Externally-driven/modulated QHMs may attain the Carnot efficiency bound, but when the driving is done by a quantum device ("piston"), the efficiency strongly depends on its initial quantum state. Such dependence has been unknown thus far. (ii) The refrigeration rate effected by QHMs does not vanish as the temperature approaches absolute zero for certain quantized baths, e.g., magnons, thous challenging Nernst's unattainability principle. (iii) System-bath correlations allow more work extraction under periodic control than that expected from the Szilard-Landauer principle, provided the period is in the non-Markovian domain. Thus, dynamically-controlled QHMs may benefit from hitherto unexploited thermodynamic resources.
Overcoming erasure errors in quantum memories with multilevel systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Wen, Jianming; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
We propose the usage of highly efficient error correcting codes of multilevel systems to encode quantum memories that suffer from erasure errors and introduce efficient hardware to repetitively correct these errors. Our scheme makes use of quantum polynomial codes to encode a quantum memory and generalized one-bit teleportation circuits for multilevel systems to repetitively correct photon erasure errors and operation errors in a fault-tolerant manner. We compare our scheme with earlier known schemes to encode quantum memories that use quantum parity codes and surface codes respectively and discuss the application of our encoded quantum memories for one-way quantum repeaters and show that they achieve a superior performance.
Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system: ORCAS.
Naivar, Mark A; Parson, Jimmie D; Wilder, Mark E; Habbersett, Robert C; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry; Nolan, John P; Graves, Steven W; Martin, John C; Jett, James H; Freyer, James P
2007-11-01
A digital signal processing (DSP)-based digital data acquisition system has been developed to support novel flow cytometry efforts. The system flexibility includes how it detects, captures, and processes event data. Custom data capture boards utilizing analog to digital converters (ADCs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) detect events and capture correlated event data. A commercial DSP board processes the captured data and sends the results over the IEEE 1394 bus to the host computer that provides a user interface for acquisition, display, analysis, and storage. The system collects list mode data, correlated pulse shapes, or streaming data from a variety of detector types using Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows host computers. It extracts pulse features not found on commercial systems with excellent sensitivity and linearity over a wide dynamic range. List mode data are saved in FCS 3.0 formatted files while streaming or correlated waveform data are saved in custom format files for postprocessing. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system is compact, scaleable, flexible, and modular. Programmable feature extraction algorithms have exciting possibilities for both new and existing applications. The recent availability of a commercial data capture board will enable general availability of similar systems. PMID:17680705
Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems
G. Van Hooydonk
2005-12-03
A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.
Alternative descriptions and bipartite compound quantum systems
G. Scolarici; L. Solombrino
2008-11-10
We analyze some features of alternative Hermitian and quasi-Hermitian quantum descriptions of simple and bipartite compound systems. We show that alternative descriptions of two interacting subsystems are possible if and only if the metric operator of the compound system can be obtained as tensor product of positive operators on component spaces. Some examples also show that such property could be strictly connected with symmetry properties of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian.
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)
1998-01-01
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.
1998-03-24
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.
Perfect eavesdropping on a quantum cryptography system
Gerhardt, Ilja; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Skaar, Johannes; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim
2010-01-01
The stated goal of quantum key distribution (QKD) is to grow a secret key securely between two parties with a minimum of additional assumptions. The number of assumptions has been continuously reduced, from requiring the validity of quantum mechanics in early QKD, to more general constraints on the laws of physics in device-independent QKD. Despite steady theoretical progress in dealing with known limitations of current technology, in practice the security of QKD relies not only on the quantum protocol but on the physical implementation. A variety of attacks have been conceived to exploit weaknesses of current systems. Here we demonstrate the first full field implementation of an eavesdropper attacking an established QKD connection. The eavesdropper obtains the complete 'secret' key, while none of the results measured by the legitimate parties indicate a breach in security. This confirms that non-idealities in physical implementations of QKD can be fully exploitable.
Improving the Coherence Time of a Quantum System via a Coupling to a Short-Lived System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Zhu, Xiaobo; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Toida, Hiraku; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro
2015-03-01
In this Letter, we propose a counterintuitive use of a hybrid system where the coherence time of a quantum system can be significantly improved by coupling it with a system of a shorter coherence time. Coupling a two-level system with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV- ) center, a dark state of the NV- center naturally forms after the hybridization. We show that this dark state becomes robust against noise due to the coupling even when the coherence time of the two-level system is much shorter than that of the NV- center. Our proposal opens a new way to use a quantum hybrid system for the realization of robust quantum information processing.
An exactly solvable system from quantum optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz
2015-07-01
We investigate a generalisation of the Rabi system in the Bargmann-Fock representation. In this representation the eigenproblem of the considered quantum model is described by a system of two linear differential equations with one independent variable. The system has only one irregular singular point at infinity. We show how the quantisation of the model is related to asymptotic behaviour of solutions in a vicinity of this point. The explicit formulae for the spectrum and eigenfunctions of the model follow from an analysis of the Stokes phenomenon. An interpretation of the obtained results in terms of differential Galois group of the system is also given.
Quantum Correlations in Qutrit-Qutrit Systems under Local Quantum Noise Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doustimotlagh, Nasibollah; Guo, Jin-Liang; Wang, Shuhao
2015-06-01
Due to decoherence, realistic quantum systems inevitably interact with the environment when quantum information is processed, which causes the loss of quantum properties. As a fundamental issue of quantum properties, quantum correlations have attracted a lot of interests in recent years. Because of the importance of high dimensional systems in quantum information, in this work, we study the quantum correlations affected by the Markovian environment by considering the quantum correlations of qutrit-qutrit quantum systems measured by the negativity and the geometric discord. The local noise channels covered in this work include dephasing, trit-flip, trit-phase-flip, and depolarising channels. We have also investigated the cases where the local decoherence channels of two sides are identical and non-identical.
Thermalization of field driven quantum systems
Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.
2014-01-01
There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404
Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2012-05-16
This paper is concerned with a stochastic dissipativity theory using quadratic-exponential storage functions for open quantum systems with canonically commuting dynamic variables governed by quantum stochastic differential equations. The system is linearly coupled to external boson fields and has a quadratic Hamiltonian which is perturbed by nonquadratic functions of linear combinations of system variables. Such perturbations are similar to those in the classical Lur'e systems and make the quantum dynamics nonlinear. We study their effect on the quantum expectation of the exponential of a positive definite quadratic form of the system variables. This allows conditions to be established for the risk-sensitive stochastic storage function of the quantum system to remain bounded, thus securing boundedness for the moments of system variables of arbitrary order. These results employ a noncommutative analogue of the Doleans-Dade exponential and a multivariate partial differential version of the Gronwall-Bellman lemma.
Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems
Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2013-01-15
General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.
Quantum Chaos & Quantum Computers
D. L. Shepelyansky
2000-06-15
The standard generic quantum computer model is studied analytically and numerically and the border for emergence of quantum chaos, induced by imperfections and residual inter-qubit couplings, is determined. This phenomenon appears in an isolated quantum computer without any external decoherence. The onset of quantum chaos leads to quantum computer hardware melting, strong quantum entropy growth and destruction of computer operability. The time scales for development of quantum chaos and ergodicity are determined. In spite the fact that this phenomenon is rather dangerous for quantum computing it is shown that the quantum chaos border for inter-qubit coupling is exponentially larger than the energy level spacing between quantum computer eigenstates and drops only linearly with the number of qubits n. As a result the ideal multi-qubit structure of the computer remains rather robust against imperfections. This opens a broad parameter region for a possible realization of quantum computer. The obtained results are related to the recent studies of quantum chaos in such many-body systems as nuclei, complex atoms and molecules, finite Fermi systems and quantum spin glass shards which are also reviewed in the paper.
Ronnie Kosloff
2013-05-10
Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations. We claim that inconsistency is the result of faulty analysis pointing to flaws in approximations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti
Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems Job Opening
Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems Job Opening Optics Scientist or Research Engineer, optical design and system implementation, telescopes and astronomical camera systems, plus an open mind, or Python. Good project management skills, and the ability to get a job done. Good English skills; German
Open ended systems, dynamic bisimulation and tile logic
Bruni, Roberto
with such axioms and with the speci#12;cation of open ended systems, where states can be recon#12;gured at run by tile logic is suitable to deal with structural axioms and open ended systems speci#12;cations, allowing transition systems (lts) whose states are terms over a certain algebra and whose labels describe some
Open MultiAgent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration
Utrecht, Universiteit
multiagent systems that is based on concepts and mechanisms as introduced and studied in concurrencyOpen MultiAgent Systems: Agent Communication and Integration Rogier M. van Eijk, Frank S. de Boer, we study the openended nature of multiagent systems, which refers to the property to allow
GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System
Chen, Sheng-Wei
, C. 2013.GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Com, to the cloud servers. With cloud gaming systems, users can: (i) avoid upgrading their computers, for the latest1 GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System CHUN-YING HUANG, National Taiwan Ocean
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Li-Ming Si; Ji-Xuan Hou
2008-10-20
In this paper we study the quantum phase transition and entanglement in s1=1/2 and s2=1 spin pair system by the exact diagonalization method. We show that, for this exactly solvable quantum bi-spin system, entanglement appears before quantum phase transition and disappears after it. Moreover, we show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, can reveal quantum phase transition in this system.