Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems
Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen
Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2
Control of open quantum systems
Boulant, Nicolas
2005-01-01
This thesis describes the development, investigation and experimental implementation via liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques of new methods for controlling open quantum systems. First, methods that improve ...
A. Isar; A. Sandulescu; H. Scutaru; E. Stefanescu; W. Scheid
2004-11-26
The damping of the harmonic oscillator is studied in the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. A generalization of the fundamental constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients which appear in the master equation for the damped quantum oscillator is presented; the Schr\\"odinger, Heisenberg and Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representations of the Lindblad equation are given explicitly. On the basis of these representations it is shown that various master equations for the damped quantum oscillator used in the literature are particular cases of the Lindblad equation and that not all of these equations are satisfying the constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients. The master equation is transformed into Fokker-Planck equations for quasiprobability distributions and a comparative study is made for the Glauber $P$ representation, the antinormal ordering $Q$ representation and the Wigner $W$ representation. The density matrix is represented via a generating function, which is obtained by solving a time-dependent linear partial differential equation derived from the master equation. The damped harmonic oscillator is applied for the description of the charge equilibration mode observed in deep inelastic reactions. For a system consisting of two harmonic oscillators the time dependence of expectation values, Wigner function and Weyl operator are obtained and discussed. In addition models for the damping of the angular momentum are studied. Using this theory to the quantum tunneling through the nuclear barrier, besides Gamow's transitions with energy conservation, additional transitions with energy loss, are found. When this theory is used to the resonant atom-field interaction, new optical equations describing the coupling through the environment are obtained.
Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
Isar, Aurelian [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)
2008-01-24
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, the master equation for two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment is solved in the asymptotic long-time regime. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that in the long-time regime they manifest non-local quantum correlations. We calculate also the logarithmic negativity characterizing the degree of entanglement of the asymptotic state.
Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.
Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens
2014-01-01
The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607
Adiabatic approximation in open quantum systems
M. S. Sarandy; D. A. Lidar
2005-02-01
We generalize the standard quantum adiabatic approximation to the case of open quantum systems. We define the adiabatic limit of an open quantum system as the regime in which its dynamical superoperator can be decomposed in terms of independently evolving Jordan blocks. We then establish validity and invalidity conditions for this approximation and discuss their applicability to superoperators changing slowly in time. As an example, the adiabatic evolution of a two-level open system is analysed.
Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walls, Jamie D.
2010-03-01
In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, ???(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of ???(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.
Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems
Walls, Jamie D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 (United States)
2010-03-15
In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, L-circumflex-circumflex(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of L-circumflex-circumflex(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Control of the quantum open system via quantum generalized measurement
Zhang Ming; Zhu Xiaocai; Li Xingwei; Hu Dewen [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Dai Hongyi [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)
2006-03-15
For any specified pure state of quantum open system, we can construct a kind of quantum generalized measurement (QGM) that the state of the system after measurement will be deterministically collapsed into the specified pure state from any initial state. In other words, any pure state of quantum open system is reachable by QGM. Subsequently, whether the qubit is density matrix controllable is discussed in the case of pure dephasing. Our results reveal that combining QGM with coherent control will enhance the ability of controlling the quantum open system. Furthermore, it is found that the ability to perform QGM on the quantum open system, combined with the ability of coherence control and conditions of decoherence-free subspace, allows us to suppress quantum decoherence.
Emergent unitarity in open quantum systems
David Layden; Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Achim Kempf
2015-06-22
We show that when a generic quantum system is coupled to a rapid succession of ancillas, the system's open dynamics can become unitary, evolving according to an effective Hamiltonian. This phenomenon can be used to simulate a broad family of unitary evolutions, and in many cases, to provide universal control of the system.
Quantum Speed Limits in Open System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Campo, A.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Plenio, M. B.; Huelga, S. F.
2013-02-01
Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.
Open Quantum Systems with Loss and Gain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid
2014-10-01
We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system.Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states. PMID:26099840
Randomized control of open quantum systems
Lorenza Viola
2006-01-16
The problem of open-loop dynamical control of generic open quantum systems is addressed. In particular, I focus on the task of effectively switching off environmental couplings responsible for unwanted decoherence and dissipation effects. After revisiting the standard framework for dynamical decoupling via deterministic controls, I describe a different approach whereby the controller intentionally acquires a random component. An explicit error bound on worst-case performance of stochastic decoupling is presented.
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweke, Ryan; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Bernard, Denis; Petruccione, Francesco
2015-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension d , we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by d2-3 continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a d -dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement (a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and (b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Mulhall, Declan [Department of Physics/Engineering, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510-4642 (United States)
2014-10-15
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: spin-qubit systems
Kishore Thapliyal; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak; S. Omkar; V. Ravishankar
2015-04-08
Quasiprobability distributions (QDs) in open quantum systems are investigated for $SU(2)$, spin like systems, having relevance to quantum optics and information. In this work, effect of both quantum non-demolition (QND) and dissipative open quantum systems, on the evolution of a number of spin QDs are investigated. Specifically, compact analytic expressions for the $W$, $P$, $Q$, and $F$ functions are obtained for some interesting single, two and three qubit states, undergoing general open system evolutions. Further, corresponding QDs are reported for an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system. The existence of nonclassical characteristics are observed in all the systems investigated here. The study leads to a clear understanding of quantum to classical transition in a host of realistic physical scenarios. Variation of the amount of nonclassicality observed in the quantum systems, studied here,are also investigated using nonclassical volume.
Quantum localization in open chaotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Jung-Wan; Hur, G.; Kim, Sang Wook
2008-09-01
We study a quasibound state of a ? -kicked rotor with absorbing boundaries focusing on the nature of the dynamical localization in open quantum systems. The localization lengths ? of lossy quasibound states located near the absorbing boundaries decrease as they approach the boundary while the corresponding decay rates ? are dramatically enhanced. We find the relation ?˜?-1/2 and explain it based upon the finite time diffusion, which can also be applied to a random unitary operator model. We conjecture that this idea is valid for the system exhibiting both the diffusion in classical dynamics and the exponential localization in quantum mechanics.
Open quantum systems and Dicke superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid
2014-03-01
We study generic features of open quantum systems embedded into a continuum of scattering wavefunctions and compare them with results discussed in optics. A dynamical phase transition may appear at high level density in a many-level system and also in a two-level system if the coupling W to the environment is complex and sufficiently large. Here nonlinearities occur. When W ij is imaginary, two singular (exceptional) points may exist. In the parameter range between these two points, width bifurcation occurs as function of a certain external parameter. A unitary representation of the S matrix allows to calculate the cross section for a two-level system, including at the exceptional point (double pole of the S matrix). The results obtained for the transition of level repulsion at small (real) W ij to width bifurcation at large (imaginary) W ij show qualitatively the same features that are observed experimentally in the transition from Autler-Townes splitting to electromagnetically induced transparency in optics. Fermi's golden rule holds only below the dynamical phase transition while it passes into an anti-golden rule beyond this transition. The results are generic and can be applied to the response of a complex open quantum system to the action of an external field (environment). They may be considered as a guideline for engineering and manipulating quantum systems in such a way that they can be used for applications with special requirements.
Quantum to classical limit of open systems
Guido Bellomo; Mario Castagnino; Sebastian Fortin
2015-04-09
We present a complete review of the quantum-to-classical limit of open systems by means of the theory of decoherence and the use of the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal (WWM) transformation. We show that the analytical extension of the Hamiltonian provides a set of poles that can be used to (a) explain the non-unitary evolution of the relevant system and (b) completely define the set of preferred states that constitute the mixture into which the system decoheres: the Moving Preferred Basis. Moreover, we show that the WWM of these states are the best candidates to obtain the trajectories in the classical phase-space.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation in Open Systems
M. S. Sarandy; D. A. Lidar
2005-12-16
We analyze the performance of adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) under the effect of decoherence. To this end, we introduce an inherently open-systems approach, based on a recent generalization of the adiabatic approximation. In contrast to closed systems, we show that a system may initially be in an adiabatic regime, but then undergo a transition to a regime where adiabaticity breaks down. As a consequence, the success of AQC depends sensitively on the competition between various pertinent rates, giving rise to optimality criteria.
Quantum arrival time for open systems
Yearsley, J. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2010-07-15
We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.
Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Heinz-Peter Breuer; Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Bassano Vacchini
2015-05-06
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markov process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modelled by a dynamical semigroup with a generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence and correlations. Here, recent results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This article further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments on the detection, quantification and control of non-Markovian quantum dynamics are also discussed.
Models and Feedback Stabilization of Open Quantum Systems
Pierre Rouchon
2015-01-08
At the quantum level, feedback-loops have to take into account measurement back-action. We present here the structure of the Markovian models including such back-action and sketch two stabilization methods: measurement-based feedback where an open quantum system is stabilized by a classical controller; coherent or autonomous feedback where a quantum system is stabilized by a quantum controller with decoherence (reservoir engineering). We begin to explain these models and methods for the photon box experiments realized in the group of Serge Haroche (Nobel Prize 2012). We present then these models and methods for general open quantum systems.
An Open-System Quantum Simulator with Trapped Ions
Julio T. Barreiro; Markus Müller; Philipp Schindler; Daniel Nigg; Thomas Monz; Michael Chwalla; Markus Hennrich; Christian F. Roos; Peter Zoller; Rainer Blatt
2011-04-06
The control of quantum systems is of fundamental scientific interest and promises powerful applications and technologies. Impressive progress has been achieved in isolating the systems from the environment and coherently controlling their dynamics, as demonstrated by the creation and manipulation of entanglement in various physical systems. However, for open quantum systems, engineering the dynamics of many particles by a controlled coupling to an environment remains largely unexplored. Here we report the first realization of a toolbox for simulating an open quantum system with up to five qubits. Using a quantum computing architecture with trapped ions, we combine multi-qubit gates with optical pumping to implement coherent operations and dissipative processes. We illustrate this engineering by the dissipative preparation of entangled states, the simulation of coherent many-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of multi-qubit observables. By adding controlled dissipation to coherent operations, this work offers novel prospects for open-system quantum simulation and computation.
Control of a two Level Open Quantum System
Sontag, Eduardo
Control of a two Level Open Quantum System Domenico D'Alessandro Department of Mathematics controls. 1 Introduction The possibility of actively controlling the state of quantum mechanical systems], [12], [13], [17]). If the requirement for a control law is to steer the state of the system from
Conserved current in Markovian open-quantum systems
Bodor, Andras; Diosi, Lajos [Department of the Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)
2006-06-15
We reexamine the Markovian approximation of local current in open quantum systems, discussed recently by Gebauer and Car. Our derivation is more transparent; the proof of the current conservation becomes explicit and easy.
Complete Positivity and Thermodynamics in a Driven Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argentieri, Giuseppe; Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Pezzutto, Marco
2015-06-01
While it is well known that complete positivity guarantees the fulfilment of the second law of thermodynamics, its possible violations have never been proposed as a check of the complete positivity of a given open quantum dynamics. We hereby consider an open quantum micro-circuit, effectively describable as a two-level open quantum system, whose asymptotic current might be experimentally accessible. This latter could indeed be used to discriminate between its possible non-completely positive Redfield dynamics and a completely positive one obtained by standard weak-coupling limit techniques, at the same time verifying the fate of the second law of thermodynamics in such a context.
Complete positivity and thermodynamics in a driven open quantum system
G. Argentieri; F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; M. Pezzutto
2015-02-03
While it is well known that complete positivity guarantees the fulfilment of the second law of thermodynamics, its possible violations have never been proposed as a check of the complete positivity of a given open quantum dynamics. We hereby consider an open quantum micro-circuit, effectively describable as a two-level open quantum system, whose asymptotic current might be experimentally accessible. This latter could indeed be used to discriminate between its possible non-completely positive Redfield dynamics and a completely positive one obtained by standard weak-coupling limit techniques, at the same time verifying the fate of the second law of thermodynamics in such a context.
An Open-System Quantum Simulator with Trapped Ions
Barreiro, Julio T; Schindler, Philipp; Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Roos, Christian F; Zoller, Peter; Blatt, Rainer; 10.1038/nature09801
2011-01-01
The control of quantum systems is of fundamental scientific interest and promises powerful applications and technologies. Impressive progress has been achieved in isolating the systems from the environment and coherently controlling their dynamics, as demonstrated by the creation and manipulation of entanglement in various physical systems. However, for open quantum systems, engineering the dynamics of many particles by a controlled coupling to an environment remains largely unexplored. Here we report the first realization of a toolbox for simulating an open quantum system with up to five qubits. Using a quantum computing architecture with trapped ions, we combine multi-qubit gates with optical pumping to implement coherent operations and dissipative processes. We illustrate this engineering by the dissipative preparation of entangled states, the simulation of coherent many-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of multi-qubit observables. By adding controlled dissipation to coheren...
Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems
Jyrki Piilo; Sabrina Maniscalco
2006-10-03
We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, the results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals new physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g. the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.
Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems
Piilo, J; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki
2006-01-01
We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, the results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals new physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g. the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.
Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems
Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina [Department of Physics, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland)
2006-09-15
We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for the non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, our results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g., the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.
Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation
Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P. [Theoretical Division, MS B213, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Vishik, M. [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1082 (United States)
2006-01-15
We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.
Dissipation and entropy production in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.
2010-11-01
A microscopic description of an open system is generally expressed by the Hamiltonian of the form: Htot = Hsys + Henviron + Hsys-environ. We developed a microscopic theory of entropy and derived a general formula, so-called "entropy-Hamiltonian relation" (EHR), that connects the entropy of the system to the interaction Hamiltonian represented by Hsys-environ for a nonequilibrium open quantum system. To derive the EHR formula, we mapped the open quantum system to the representation space of the Liouville-space formulation or thermo field dynamics (TFD), and thus worked on the representation space Script L := Script H otimes , where Script H denotes the ordinary Hilbert space while the tilde Hilbert space conjugates to Script H. We show that the natural transformation (mapping) of nonequilibrium open quantum systems is accomplished within the theoretical structure of TFD. By using the obtained EHR formula, we also derived the equation of motion for the distribution function of the system. We demonstrated that by knowing the microscopic description of the interaction, namely, the specific form of Hsys-environ on the representation space Script L, the EHR formulas enable us to evaluate the entropy of the system and to gain some information about entropy for nonequilibrium open quantum systems.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems
Vitalii Semin; Francesco Petruccione
2014-11-11
Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local in time master equation that provides a direct connection of dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated with the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and non-equilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.
Nonequilibrium-thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semin, Vitalii; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-11-01
Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local-in-time master equation that provides a direct connection for dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated by the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system, resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and nonequilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.
Control Landscapes for Observable Preparation with Open Quantum Systems
Rebing Wu; Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz; Michael Hsieh; Benjamin Tsou
2007-08-16
A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false sub-optimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape.
Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems
Daniel Manzano; Pablo I. Hurtado
2014-09-25
Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.
Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suomela, S.; Salmilehto, J.; Savenko, I. G.; Ala-Nissila, T.; Möttönen, M.
2015-02-01
We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We numerically study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving, such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.
The Kitaev–Feynman clock for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tempel, David G.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-11-01
We show that Kitaev?s construction of Feynman?s clock, in which the time-evolution of a closed quantum system is encoded as a ground state problem, can be extended to open quantum systems. In our formalism, the ground states of an ensemble of non-Hermitian Kitaev–Feynman clock Hamiltonians yield stochastic trajectories, which unravel the evolution of a Lindblad master equation. In this way, one can use the Kitaev–Feynman clock not only to simulate the evolution of a quantum system, but also its interaction with an environment such as a heat bath or measuring apparatus. A simple numerical example of a two-level atom undergoing spontaneous emission is presented and analyzed.
A pseudospectral method for optimal control of open quantum systems.
Li, Jr-Shin; Ruths, Justin; Stefanatos, Dionisis
2009-10-28
In this paper, we present a unified computational method based on pseudospectral approximations for the design of optimal pulse sequences in open quantum systems. The proposed method transforms the problem of optimal pulse design, which is formulated as a continuous-time optimal control problem, to a finite-dimensional constrained nonlinear programming problem. This resulting optimization problem can then be solved using existing numerical optimization suites. We apply the Legendre pseudospectral method to a series of optimal control problems on open quantum systems that arise in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in liquids. These problems have been well studied in previous literature and analytical optimal controls have been found. We find an excellent agreement between the maximum transfer efficiency produced by our computational method and the analytical expressions. Moreover, our method permits us to extend the analysis and address practical concerns, including smoothing discontinuous controls as well as deriving minimum-energy and time-optimal controls. The method is not restricted to the systems studied in this article and is applicable to optimal manipulation of both closed and open quantum systems. PMID:19894930
Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-10-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.
Dynamical invariants and nonadiabatic geometric phases in open quantum systems
Sarandy, M. S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida dos Trabalhadores 420, Volta Redonda, 27255-125 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Duzzioni, E. I. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, Santo Andre 09210-170, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, Sao Carlos, 13560-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2007-11-15
We introduce an operational framework to analyze nonadiabatic Abelian and non-Abelian, cyclic and noncyclic, geometric phases in open quantum systems. In order to remove the adiabaticity condition, we generalize the theory of dynamical invariants to the context of open systems evolving under arbitrary convolutionless master equations. Geometric phases are then defined through the Jordan canonical form of the dynamical invariant associated with the superoperator that governs the master equation. As a by-product, we provide a sufficient condition for the robustness of the phase against a given decohering process. We illustrate our results by considering a two-level system in a Markovian interaction with the environment, where we show that the nonadiabatic geometric phase acquired by the system can be constructed in such a way that it is robust against both dephasing and spontaneous emission.
Is the dynamics of open quantum systems always linear?
Karen M. Fonseca Romero; Peter Talkner; Peter Hänggi
2003-12-02
We study the influence of the preparation of an open quantum system on its reduced time evolution. In contrast to the frequently considered case of an initial preparation where the total density matrix factorizes into a product of a system density matrix and a bath density matrix the time evolution generally is no longer governed by a linear map nor is this map affine. Put differently, the evolution is truly nonlinear and cannot be cast into the form of a linear map plus a term that is independent of the initial density matrix of the open quantum system. As a consequence, the inhomogeneity that emerges in formally exact generalized master equations is in fact a nonlinear term that vanishes for a factorizing initial state. The general results are elucidated with the example of two interacting spins prepared at thermal equilibrium with one spin subjected to an external field. The second spin represents the environment. The field allows the preparation of mixed density matrices of the first spin that can be represented as a convex combination of two limiting pure states, i.e. the preparable reduced density matrices make up a convex set. Moreover, the map from these reduced density matrices onto the corresponding density matrices of the total system is affine only for vanishing coupling between the spins. In general, the set of the accessible total density matrices is nonconvex.
Spontaneous synchronization and quantum correlation dynamics of open spin systems
G. L. Giorgi; F. Plastina; G. Francica; R. Zambrini
2013-10-30
We discuss the emergence of spontaneous synchronization for an open spin-pair system interacting only via a common environment. Under suitable conditions, and even in the presence of detuning between the natural precession frequencies of the two spins, they are shown to reach a long-lasting transient behavior where they oscillate in phase. We explore the connection between the emergence of such a behavior and the establishment of robust quantum correlations between the two spins, analyzing differences between dissipative and dephasing effects.
Tensor networks and graphical calculus for open quantum systems
Christopher J. Wood; Jacob D. Biamonte; David G. Cory
2015-05-07
We describe a graphical calculus for completely positive maps and in doing so review the theory of open quantum systems and other fundamental primitives of quantum information theory using the language of tensor networks. In particular we demonstrate the construction of tensor networks to pictographically represent the Liouville-superoperator, Choi-matrix, process-matrix, Kraus, and system-environment representations for the evolution of quantum states, review how these representations interrelate, and illustrate how graphical manipulations of the tensor networks may be used to concisely transform between them. To further demonstrate the utility of the presented graphical calculus we include several examples where we provide arguably simpler graphical proofs of several useful quantities in quantum information theory including the composition and contraction of multipartite channels, a condition for whether an arbitrary bipartite state may be used for ancilla assisted process tomography, and the derivation of expressions for the average gate fidelity and entanglement fidelity of a channel in terms of each of the different representations of the channel.
Nontrivial Eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Ruri; Hatano, Naomichi; Petrosky, Tomio
2011-04-01
We present methods of finding complex eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an open quantum system. The goal is to find eigenvalues that cannot be predicted from the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonian. Our model is a T-type quantum dot with an infinitely long lead. We suggest the existence of the non-trivial eigenvalues of the Liouvillian in two ways: one way is to show that the original problem reduces to the problem of a two-particle Hamiltonian with a two-body interaction and the other way is to show that diagram expansion of the Green's function has correlation between the bra state and the ket state. We also introduce the integral equations equivalent to the original eigenvalue problem.
Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system
Wang Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)
2011-06-15
In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment, and their interaction: One basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system + environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.
Width bifurcation and dynamical phase transitions in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid
2013-05-01
The states of an open quantum system are coupled via the environment of scattering wave functions. The complex coupling coefficients ? between system and environment arise from the principal value integral and the residuum. At high-level density where the resonance states overlap, the dynamics of the system is determined by exceptional points. At these points, the eigenvalues of two states are equal and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent. It is shown in the present paper that Im(?) and Re(?) influence the system properties differently in the surrounding of exceptional points. Controlling the system by a parameter, the eigenvalues avoid crossing in energy near an exceptional point under the influence of Re(?) in a similar manner as it is well known from discrete states. Im(?), however, leads to width bifurcation and finally (when the system is coupled to one channel, i.e., to one common continuum of scattering wave functions), to a splitting of the system into two parts with different characteristic time scales. The role of observer states is discussed. Physically, the system is stabilized by this splitting since the lifetimes of some states are longer than before, while that of one state is shorter. In the cross section the short-lived state appears as a background term in high-resolution experiments. The wave functions of the long-lived states are mixed in those of the original ones in a comparably large parameter range. Numerical results for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for N=2,4, and 10 states coupled mostly to one channel.
Dynamics of quantum tomography in an open system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchiyama, Chikako
2015-06-01
In this study, we provide a way to describe the dynamics of quantum tomography in an open system with a generalized master equation, considering a case where the relevant system under tomographic measurement is influenced by the environment. We apply this to spin tomography because such situations typically occur in ?SR (muon spin rotation/relaxation/resonance) experiments where microscopic features of the material are investigated by injecting muons as probes. As a typical example to describe the interaction between muons and a sample material, we use a spin-boson model where the relevant spin interacts with a bosonic environment. We describe the dynamics of a spin tomogram using a time-convolutionless type of generalized master equation that enables us to describe short time scales and/or low-temperature regions. Through numerical evaluation for the case of Ohmic spectral density with an exponential cutoff, a clear interdependency is found between the time evolution of elements of the density operator and a spin tomogram. The formulation in this paper may provide important fundamental information for the analysis of results from, for example, ?SR experiments on short time scales and/or in low-temperature regions using spin tomography.
Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity
Jeffrey Yepez
2006-01-01
Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum
Rezakhani, A. T.
We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation ...
Using sequences of pulses to control coherence in an open quantum computing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Bi; Ruda, Harry E.; Chang, J. F.
2002-06-01
A method for quantum control of coherence in an open quantum computing system is presented. The approach was applied to finding a suitable control sequence for maintaining coherence in a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computing system, subject to Bose-type environmental noise, and under the Born-Markovian and rotating wave approximations. It is shown that the evolution operator remains decoherence free while the three control pulses are being applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz group Team
2015-04-01
We present general strategies for simulating spin 1/2 relativistic open quantum systems interacting with an environment in addition to an external electromagnetic field. We illustrate our approach by simulating the production of antiparticles in the presence of quantum decoherence and energy dissipation. Important observations are made concerning the zitterbewegung effect and the total production of antiparticles.
Conservation law of operator current in open quantum systems
J. Salmilehto; P. Solinas; M. Möttönen
2012-03-08
We derive a fundamental conservation law of operator current for master equations describing reduced quantum systems. If this law is broken, the temporal integral of the current operator of an arbitrary system observable does not yield in general the change of that observable in the evolution. We study Lindblad-type master equations as examples and prove that the application of the secular approximation during their derivation results in a violation of the conservation law. We show that generally any violation of the law leads to artificial corrections to the complete quantum dynamics, thus questioning the accuracy of the particular master equation.
Bi-Heng Liu; Li Li; Yun-Feng Huang; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo; Elsi-Mari Laine; Heinz-Peter Breuer; Jyrki Piilo
2011-09-13
Realistic quantum mechanical systems are always exposed to an external environment. The presence of the environment often gives rise to a Markovian process in which the system loses information to its surroundings. However, many quantum systems exhibit a pronounced non-Markovian behavior in which there is a flow of information from the environment back to the system, signifying the presence of quantum memory effects [1-5]. The environment is usually composed of a large number of degrees of freedom which are difficult to control, but some sophisticated schemes for modifying the environment have been developed [6]. The physical realization and control of dynamical processes in open quantum systems plays a decisive role, for example, in recent proposals for the generation of entangled states [7-9], for schemes of dissipative quantum computation [10], for the design of quantum memories [11] and for the enhancement of the efficiency in quantum metrology [12]. Here we report an experiment which allows through selective preparation of the initial environmental states to drive the open system from the Markovian to the non-Markovian regime, to control the information flow between the system and the environment, and to determine the degree of non-Markovianity by direct measurements on the open system.
Dynamics of an open quantum system interacting with a quantum environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankar, Athreya; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2014-11-01
We examine the dynamics of subsystems of bipartite and tripartite quantum systems with nonlinear Hamiltonians. We consider two models which capture the generic features of open quantum systems: a three-level atom interacting with a single-mode radiation field, and a three-level atom interacting with two field modes which do not directly interact with each other. The entanglement of specific initially unentangled states of the atom–field system is examined through the time-varying subsystem von Neumann entropy (SVNE). The counterparts of near-revivals and fractional revivals of the initial state are clearly identifiable in the SVNE in all cases where revival phenomena occur. The Mandel Q parameter corresponding to the photon number of a radiation field is obtained as a function of time in both models. In those cases where revivals are absent, a time series analysis of the mean photon number reveals a variety of ergodicity properties (as manifested in return maps, recurrence-time distributions and Lyapunov exponents), depending on the strength of the nonlinearity and the degree of coherence of the initial state of the radiation field(s).
Quantum Fisher information flow and non-Markovian processes of open systems
Lu Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoguang [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2010-10-15
We establish an information-theoretic approach for quantitatively characterizing the non-Markovianity of open quantum processes. Here, the quantum Fisher information (QFI) flow provides a measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly analytic solution shows that for each fixed time the QFI flow is decomposed into additive subflows according to different dissipative channels.
Thermodynamics of Quadrature Trajectories in Open Quantum Systems
James M. Hickey; Sam Genway; Igor Lesanovsky; Juan P. Garrahan
2012-06-25
We apply a large-deviation method to study the diffusive trajectories of the quadrature operators of light within a reservoir connected to dissipative quantum systems. We formulate the study of quadrature trajectories in terms of characteristic operators and show that in the long time limit the statistics of such trajectories obey a large-deviation principle. We take our motivation from homodyne detection schemes which allow the statistics of quadrature operator of the light field to be measured. We illustrate our approach with four examples of increasing complexity: a driven two-level system, a `blinking' three-level system, a pair of weakly-coupled two-level driven systems, and the micromaser. We discuss how quadrature operators can serve as alternative order parameters for the classification of dynamical phases, which is particularly useful in cases where the statistics of quantum jumps cannot distinguish between such phases. The formalism we introduce also allows us to analyse the properties of the light emitted by quantum jump trajectories which fluctuate far from the typical dynamics.
Experimentally witnessing the initial correlation between an open quantum system and its environment
Li Chuanfeng; Tang Jianshun; Li Yulong; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China)
2011-06-15
System-environment correlations, which determine the (non-)Markovian character of a dynamical process, is an area of intense interest in the study of open quantum systems. We send photons emitted from a quantum dot sample into a 15-m polarization-maintaining optical fiber to generate different system-environment correlated states and then witness the correlations by observing the growth of trace distances. This experimental scheme of correlation witnessing based on system-environment information flow can also be used for other similar systems.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Curtis J. Broadbent; Jun Jing; Ting Yu; Joseph H. Eberly
2011-12-12
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically.
Coherent and decoherent time evolution of finite Markovian and non-Markovian open quantum systems
Tarek Khalil; Jean Richert
2015-03-31
We examine the properties of open quantum systems with respect to their time evolution in different regimes, Markovian and non-Markovian. We analyze their behaviour with respect to their coherent or decoherent time evolution by means of different models and try to gain some insight into the possible correlations between Markovianity and coherence.
Canonical versus noncanonical equilibration dynamics of open quantum systems
Chun-Jie Yang; Jun-Hong An; Hong-Gang Luo; Yading Li; C. H. Oh
2014-08-24
In statistical mechanics, any quantum system in equilibrium with its weakly coupled reservoir is described by a canonical state at the same temperature as the reservoir. Here, by studying the equilibration dynamics of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a reservoir, we evaluate microscopically the condition under which the equilibration to a canonical state is valid. It is revealed that the non-Markovian effect and the availability of a stationary state of the total system play a profound role in the equilibration. In the Markovian limit, the conventional canonical state can be recovered. In the non-Markovian regime, when the stationary state is absent, the system equilibrates to a generalized canonical state at an effective temperature; whenever the stationary state is present, the equilibrium state of the system cannot be described by any canonical state anymore. Our finding of the physical condition on such noncanonical equilibration might have significant impact on statistical physics. A physical scheme based on circuit QED is proposed to test our results.
Dynamics of open quantum systems with initial system-reservoir correlations
Hua-Tang Tan; Wei-Min Zhang
2010-12-22
In this paper, the exact dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.
J. -T. Hsiang; Rong Zhou; B. L. Hu
2013-06-17
In this paper we study a system of $N$ coupled quantum oscillators interacting with each other directly with varying coupling strengths and indirectly through linear couplings to a scalar massless quantum field as its environment. The influence of the quantum field on the system is calculated with the use of the influence functional formalism. We take the direct route of seeking solutions to the evolutionary operator of the reduced density matrix for the derivation of the correlation functions. They are then used to construct the covariance matrix which we use to perform an analysis of the structure of quantum entanglement in the open system at a stationary state. To see the physical features more explicitly we specialize to a system of three quantum coupled oscillators placed at the vertices of a equilateral triangle and allowed to have disparate pairwise couplings. We analyze the entanglement between one oscillator and the other two with equal (symmetric) and unequal (asymmetric) coupling strengths. As an illustration we use the results for these two different configurations to address two representative issues in macroscopic quantum phenomena. We also mention possible extensions of our work and applications of our analysis and results to issues in some current areas of research in quantum thermodynamics and mesoscopic quantum systems.
Open quantum system stochastic dynamics with and without the RWA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, Y. B.
2015-02-01
We study the dynamics of a two-level quantum system interacting with a single frequency electromagnetic field and a stochastic magnetic field, with and without making the rotating wave approximation (RWA). The transformation to the rotating frame does not commute with the stochastic Hamiltonian if the stochastic field has nonvanishing components in the transverse direction, hence, applying the RWA requires transformation of the stochastic terms in the Hamiltonian. For Gaussian white noise, the master equation is derived from the stochastic Schrödinger–Langevin equations, with and without the RWA. With the RWA, the master equation for the density matrix has Lindblad terms with coefficients that are time-dependent (i.e., the master equation is time-local). An approximate analytic expression for the density matrix is obtained with the RWA. For Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise, as well as other types of colored noise, in contradistinction to the Gaussian white noise case, the non-commutation of the RWA transformation and the noise Hamiltonian can significantly affect the RWA dynamics when ? {{? }corr} 1, where ? is the electromagnetic field frequency and {{? }corr} is the stochastic magnetic field correlation time.
The Open-System Dicke-Model Quantum Phase Transition with a Sub-Ohmic Bath
Nagy, D
2015-01-01
We show that the critical exponent of a quantum phase transition in a damped-driven open system is determined by the spectral density function of the reservoir. We consider the open-system variant of the Dicke model, where the driven boson mode and also the large N-spin couple to independent reservoirs at zero temperature. The critical exponent, which is $1$ if there is no spin-bath coupling, decreases below 1 when the spin couples to a sub-Ohmic reservoir.
Simulation of single-qubit open quantum systems
R. Sweke; I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-08-28
A quantum algorithm is presented for the simulation of arbitrary Markovian dynamics of a qubit, described by a semigroup of single qubit quantum channels $\\{T_t\\}$ specified by a generator $\\mathcal{L}$. This algorithm requires only single qubit and CNOT gates and approximates the channel $T_t = e^{t\\mathcal{L}}$ up to chosen accuracy $\\epsilon$, with slightly superlinear cost $\\mathcal{O}\\big((||\\mathcal{L}||_{(1\\rightarrow 1)} t)^{1+1/2k}/\\epsilon^{1/2k} \\big)$ for any integer $k$. Inspired by developments in Hamiltonian simulation, a decomposition and recombination technique is utilised which allows for the exploitation of recently developed methods for the approximation of arbitrary single-qubit channels. In particular, as a result of these methods the algorithm requires only a single ancilla qubit, the minimal possible dilation for a non-unitary single-qubit quantum channel.
Quantum and classical fluctuation theorems from a decoherent histories, open-system analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suba??, Y.; Hu, B. L.
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work distribution and the free energy difference of a quantum system interacting with a general environment (with arbitrary spectral density and for all temperatures) based on a well-understood microphysics (quantum Brownian motion) model under the conditions stipulated by the Jarzynski equality [Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.78.2690 78, 2690 (1997)] and Crooks’ fluctuation theorem [Crooks, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.60.2721 60, 2721 (1999)] (in short, fluctuation theorems, FTs). We use the decoherent histories conceptual framework to explain how the notion of trajectories in a quantum system can be made viable and use the environment-induced decoherence scheme to assess the strength of noise that could provide sufficient decoherence to warrant the use of trajectories to define work in open quantum systems. From the solutions to the Langevin equation governing the stochastic dynamics of such systems we were able to produce formal expressions for these quantities entering in the FTs and from them prove explicitly the validity of the FTs at the high temperature limit. At low temperatures our general results would enable one to identify the range of parameters where FTs may not hold or need be expressed differently. We explain the relation between classical and quantum FTs and the advantage of this microphysics open-system approach over the phenomenological modeling and energy-level calculations for substitute closed quantum systems.
Problem-free time-dependent variational principle for open quantum systems
Joubert-Doriol, Loic
2015-01-01
Methods of quantum nuclear wave-function dynamics have become very efficient in simulating large isolated systems using the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). However, a straightforward extension of the TDVP to the density matrix framework gives rise to methods that do not conserve the energy in the isolated system limit and the total system population for open systems where only energy exchange with the environment is allowed. These problems arise when the system density is in a mixed state and is simulated using an incomplete basis. Thus, the basis set incompleteness, which is inevitable in practical calculations, creates artificial channels for energy and population dissipation. To overcome this unphysical behavior, we have introduced a constrained Lagrangian formulation of TDVP applied to the non-stochastic open system Schrodinger equation (NOSSE) [L. Joubert-Doriol, I. G. Ryabinkin, and A. F. Izmaylov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 234112 (2014)]. While our formulation can be applied to any variational a...
The rotating-wave approximation: consistency and applicability from an open quantum system analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, Chris; Cummings, N. I.; Anastopoulos, Charis; Hu, B. L.
2010-10-01
We provide an in-depth and thorough treatment of the validity of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) in an open quantum system. We find that when it is introduced after tracing out the environment all timescales of the open system are correctly reproduced, but the details of the quantum state in general will not be. The RWA made before the trace is more problematic: it results in incorrect values for environmentally induced shifts to system frequencies, and the resulting theory has no Markovian limit. In either form, the RWA gives an inaccurate quantum state which makes it inappropriate for calculating entanglement dynamics or similar detailed properties of the state dynamics. We also emphasize the fact that even under the RWA the master equation for a combination of systems and external forces is not a simple combination of the master equations of the systems and forces. Such a combination may be tempting, because the RWA guarantees that a master equation so constructed will have a valid mathematical form; however, it will not accurately reflect the dynamics of the physical system. To obtain the correct master equation for the composite system a proper consideration of the non-Markovian dynamics is required.
Description of non-Markovian effect in open quantum system with the discretized environment method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacroix, Denis; Sargsyan, Vazgen; Adamian, Gurgen; Antonenko, Nikolai
2015-04-01
An approach, called discretized environment method, is used to treat exactly non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems. In this approach, a complex environment described by a spectral function is mapped into a finite set of discretized states with an appropriate coupling to the system of interest. The finite set of system plus environment degrees of freedom are then explicitly followed in time leading to a quasi-exact description. The present approach is anticipated to be particularly accurate in the low temperature and strongly non-Markovian regime. The discretized environment method is validated on a two-level system (qubit) coupled to a bosonic or fermionic heat-bath. A perfect agreement with the quantum Langevin approach is found. Further illustrations are made on a three-level system (qutrit) coupled to a bosonic heat-bath. Emerging processes due to strong memory effects are discussed.
Brownian motion on Lie groups and open quantum systems
P. Aniello; A. Kossakowski; G. Marmo; F. Ventriglia
2010-02-18
We study the twirling semigroups of (super)operators, namely, certain quantum dynamical semigroups that are associated, in a natural way, with the pairs formed by a projective representation of a locally compact group and a convolution semigroup of probability measures on this group. The link connecting this class of semigroups of operators with (classical) Brownian motion is clarified. It turns out that every twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional representation is a random unitary semigroup, and, conversely, every random unitary semigroup arises as a twirling semigroup. Using standard tools of the theory of convolution semigroups of measures and of convex analysis, we provide a complete characterization of the infinitesimal generator of a twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional unitary representation of a Lie group.
H. Ness
2014-12-02
We suggest a generalisation of the expression of the nonequilibrium density matrix obtained by Hershfield's method for the cases where both heat and charge steady state currents are present in a quantum open system. The finite-size quantum system, connected to two temperature and particle reservoirs, is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both a temperature gradient and a chemical potential gradient between the two reservoirs. We show that the NE density matrix is given by a generalised Gibbs-like ensemble, and is in full agreement with the general results of the McLennan-Zubarev nonequilibrium ensembles. The extra non-equilibrium terms are related to the entropy production in the system and characterise the fluxes of heat and particle.An explicit example, for the lowest order expansion, is provide for a model system of non-interacting fermions.
Stability of local observables in closed and open quantum systems
Jung, Paul
: A = x B(Hx ), where Hx Cd . Local observables: AX A, for X independent of N. Definition (Many systems Local observables are stable if H(s) = H + sE is uniformly gapped: inf s[0,1] gap H(s) > 0 We-adiabatic evolution [Hastings 2004] Let H(s) be a family of uniformly gapped local Hamiltonians. Let P
Real time approach to tunneling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion
Esteban Calzetta; Enric Verdaguer
2006-03-06
Macroscopic quantum tunneling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunneling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that it is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunneling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers like equation describing thermal activation due to the zero point fluctuations of the quantum environment. The effect of anomalous diffusion can be dealt with perturbatively and its overall effect is to inhibit tunneling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, C. H.; Hu, B. L.
2012-04-01
We treat several key stochastic equations for non-Markovian open quantum system dynamics and present a formalism for finding solutions to them via canonical perturbation theory, without making the Born-Markov or rotating wave approximations (RWA). This includes master equations of the (asymptotically) stationary, periodic, and time-nonlocal type. We provide proofs on the validity and meaningfulness of the late-time perturbative master equation and on the preservation of complete positivity despite a general lack of Lindblad form. More specifically, we show how the algebraic generators satisfy the theorem of Lindblad and Gorini, Kossakowski and Sudarshan, even though the dynamical generators do not. These proofs ensure the mathematical viability and physical soundness of solutions to non-Markovian processes. Within the same formalism we also expand upon known results for non-Markovian corrections to the quantum regression theorem. Several directions where these results can be usefully applied to are also described, including the analysis of near-resonant systems where the RWA is inapplicable and the calculation of the reduced equilibrium state of open systems.
Problem-free time-dependent variational principle for open quantum systems.
Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F
2015-04-01
Methods of quantum nuclear wave-function dynamics have become very efficient in simulating large isolated systems using the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). However, a straightforward extension of the TDVP to the density matrix framework gives rise to methods that do not conserve the energy in the isolated system limit and the total system population for open systems where only energy exchange with environment is allowed. These problems arise when the system density is in a mixed state and is simulated using an incomplete basis. Thus, the basis set incompleteness, which is inevitable in practical calculations, creates artificial channels for energy and population dissipation. To overcome this unphysical behavior, we have introduced a constrained Lagrangian formulation of TDVP applied to a non-stochastic open system Schrödinger equation [L. Joubert-Doriol, I. G. Ryabinkin, and A. F. Izmaylov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 234112 (2014)]. While our formulation can be applied to any variational ansatz for the system density matrix, derivation of working equations and numerical assessment is done within the variational multiconfiguration Gaussian approach for a two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model system interacting with a harmonic bath. PMID:25854228
General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.
2013-01-01
We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.
Ultracold Mixtures of Rubidium and Ytterbium for Open Quantum System Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herold, Creston David
Exquisite experimental control of quantum systems has led to sharp growth of basic quantum research in recent years. Controlling dissipation has been crucial in producing ultracold, trapped atomic samples. Recent theoretical work has suggested dissipation can be a useful tool for quantum state preparation. Controlling not only how a system interacts with a reservoir, but the ability to engineer the reservoir itself would be a powerful platform for open quantum system research. Toward this end, we have constructed an apparatus to study ultracold mixtures of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb). We have developed a Rb-blind optical lattice at 423.018(7) nm, which will enable us to immerse a lattice of Yb atoms (the system) into a Rb BEC (superfluid reservoir). We have produced Bose-Einstein condensates of 170Yb and 174Yb, two of the five bosonic isotopes of Yb, which also has two fermionic isotopes. Flexible optical trapping of Rb and Yb was achieved with a two-color dipole trap of 532 and 1064 nm, and we observed thermalization in ultracold mixtures of Rb and Yb. Using the Rb-blind optical lattice, we measured very small light shifts of 87Rb BECs near the light shift zero-wavelengths adjacent the 6p electronic states, through a coherent series of lattice pulses. The positions of the zero-wavelengths are sensitive to the electric dipole matrix elements between the 5s and 6p states, and we made the first experimental measurement of their strength. By measuring a light shift, we were not sensitive to excited state branching ratios, and we achieved a precision better than 0.3%.
Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten [Institut fuer Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)
2012-03-28
In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.
Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)
2012-09-15
It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.
Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-04-21
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
Multifractal fluctuations in the survival probability of an open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Facchini, Angelo; Wimberger, Sandro; Tomadin, Andrea
2007-03-01
We predict a multifractal behavior of transport in the deep quantum regime for the opened ?-kicked rotor model. Our analysis focuses on intermediate and large scale correlations in the transport signal and generalizes previously found parametric mono-fractal fluctuations in the quantum survival probability on small scales.
Arash Kh. Sichani; Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2015-03-07
This paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose dynamic variables satisfy canonical commutation relations and are governed by quantum stochastic differential equations. The latter are driven by quantum Wiener processes which represent external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are linear functions of the system variables. The Hamiltonian consists of a nominal quadratic function of the system variables and an uncertain perturbation which is represented in a Weyl quantization form. Assuming that the nominal linear quantum system is stable, we develop sufficient conditions on the perturbation of the Hamiltonian which guarantee robust mean square stability of the perturbed system. Examples are given to illustrate these results for a class of Hamiltonian perturbations in the form of trigonometric polynomials of the system variables.
Stochastic simulation of dissipation and non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems.
Lacroix, Denis
2008-04-01
The exact dynamics of a system coupled to an environment can be described by an integro-differential stochastic equation for the reduced density. The influence of the environment is incorporated through a mean field which is both stochastic and nonlocal in time and where the standard two-time correlation functions of the environment appear naturally. Since no approximation is made, the presented theory incorporates exactly dissipative and non-Markovian effects. Applications to the spin-boson model coupled to a heat bath with various coupling regimes and temperature show that the presented stochastic theory can be a valuable tool to simulate exactly the dynamics of open quantum systems. Links with the stochastic Schrödinger equation method and possible extensions to "imaginary time" propagation are discussed. PMID:18517597
Jump-like unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems
Jay Gambetta; T. Askerud; H. M. Wiseman
2007-04-06
Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be `unraveled' into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schr\\"odinger equation, as introduced by Di\\'osi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jump-like unravelings. To illustrate the jump-like behavior we consider a simple system: A classically driven (at Rabi frequency $\\Omega$) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, $\\omega_0$, and the two side bands have frequencies $\\omega_0\\pm\\Omega$. In the large $\\Omega$ limit we observed that the jump-like behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However the length of time for which the Markovian-like behaviour persists depends upon {\\em which} jump-like unraveling is used.
Real-time dynamics of open quantum spin systems driven by dissipative processes
Hebenstreit, Florian; Hornung, Manes; Jiang, Fu-Jiun; Schranz, Franziska; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2015-01-01
We study the real-time evolution of large open quantum spin systems in two spatial dimensions, whose dynamics is entirely driven by a dissipative coupling to the environment. We consider different dissipative processes and investigate the real-time evolution from an ordered phase of the Heisenberg or XY-model towards a disordered phase at late times. The corresponding Kossakowski-Lindblad equation is solved via an efficient cluster algorithm. We find that the symmetry of the dissipative process determines the time scales which govern the approach towards a new equilibrium phase at late times. Most notably, we find a slow equilibration if the dissipative process conserves any of the magnetization Fourier modes. In these cases, the dynamics can be interpreted as a diffusion process of the conserved quantity.
Real-time dynamics of open quantum spin systems driven by dissipative processes
Florian Hebenstreit; Debasish Banerjee; Manes Hornung; Fu-Jiun Jiang; Franziska Schranz; Uwe-Jens Wiese
2015-02-10
We study the real-time evolution of large open quantum spin systems in two spatial dimensions, whose dynamics is entirely driven by a dissipative coupling to the environment. We consider different dissipative processes and investigate the real-time evolution from an ordered phase of the Heisenberg or XY-model towards a disordered phase at late times. The corresponding Kossakowski-Lindblad equation is solved via an efficient cluster algorithm. We find that the symmetry of the dissipative process determines the time scales which govern the approach towards a new equilibrium phase at late times. Most notably, we find a slow equilibration if the dissipative process conserves any of the magnetization Fourier modes. In these cases, the dynamics can be interpreted as a diffusion process of the conserved quantity.
Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model
Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)
2011-11-15
In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.
Limits in the characteristic-function description of non-Lindblad-type open quantum systems
Maniscalco, Sabrina [School of Pure and Applied Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); INFM, MIUR and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell'Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)
2005-08-15
In this paper I investigate the usability of the characteristic functions for the description of the dynamics of open quantum systems focussing on non-Lindblad-type master equations. I consider, as an example, a non-Markovian generalized master equation containing a memory kernel which may lead to nonphysical time evolutions characterized by negative values of the density matrix diagonal elements [S. M. Barnett and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 64, 033808 (2001)]. The main result of the paper is to demonstrate that there exist situations in which the symmetrically ordered characteristic function is perfectly well-defined while the corresponding density matrix loses positivity. Therefore, nonphysical situations may not show up in the characteristic function. As a consequence, the characteristic function cannot be considered an alternative complete description of the non-Lindblad dynamics.
Debasish Banerjee; Florian Hebenstreit; Fu-Jiun Jiang; Uwe-Jens Wiese
2015-05-01
Using quantum Monte Carlo, we study the non-equilibrium transport of magnetization in large open strongly correlated quantum spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ systems driven by purely dissipative processes that conserve the uniform or staggered magnetization. We prepare both a low-temperature Heisenberg ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet in two parts of the system that are initially isolated from each other. We then bring the two subsystems in contact and study their real-time dissipative dynamics for different geometries. The flow of the uniform or staggered magnetization from one part of the system to the other is described by a diffusion equation that can be derived analytically.
Banerjee, Debasish; Jiang, Fu-Jiun; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2015-01-01
Using quantum Monte Carlo, we study the non-equilibrium transport of magnetization in large open strongly correlated quantum spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ systems driven by purely dissipative processes that conserve the uniform or staggered magnetization. We prepare both a low-temperature Heisenberg ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet in two parts of the system that are initially isolated from each other. We then bring the two subsystems in contact and study their real-time dissipative dynamics for different geometries. The flow of the uniform or staggered magnetization from one part of the system to the other is described by a diffusion equation that can be derived analytically.
Optimal control in an open quantum system : selecting DNP pathways in an electron-nuclear system
Sheldon, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)
2013-01-01
There is much interest in improving quantum control techniques for the purposes of quantum information processing. High fidelity control is necessary for the future of quantum computing. Optimal control theory has been ...
Quantum limit for driven linear non-Markovian open-quantum-systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estrada, Andrés F.; Pachón, Leonardo A.
2015-03-01
The interplay between non-Markovian dynamics and driving fields in the survival of entanglement between two non-degenerate oscillators is considered here. Based on exact analytical results for the non-Markovian dynamics of two parametrically coupled non-degenerate oscillators in contact with non-identical independent thermal baths, the out-of-equilibrium quantum limit derived in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 180501 (2010)] is generalised to the non-Markovian regime. Specifically, it is shown that non-Markovian dynamics, when compared to the Markovian case, allow for the survival of stationary entanglement at higher temperatures, with larger coupling strength to the baths and at smaller driving rates. The effect of the asymmetry of the (i) coupled oscillators, (ii) coupling strength to the baths at equal temperature, and (iii) temperature at equal coupling strength is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the non-Markovian character of the dynamics is capable of beating the resonant condition that states that the driving frequency equals the sum of the natural frequencies for the maximum rate of squeezing generation; hence, squeezing generation is more robust under non-Markovian dynamics.
Hu Jie; Luo Meng; Jiang Feng [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Ruixue [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan Yijing [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2011-06-28
Pade spectrum decomposition is an optimal sum-over-poles expansion scheme of Fermi function and Bose function [J. Hu, R. X. Xu, and Y. J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 101106 (2010)]. In this work, we report two additional members to this family, from which the best among all sum-over-poles methods could be chosen for different cases of application. Methods are developed for determining these three Pade spectrum decomposition expansions at machine precision via simple algorithms. We exemplify the applications of present development with optimal construction of hierarchical equations-of-motion formulations for nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum transport dynamics. Numerical demonstrations are given for two systems. One is the transient transport current to an interacting quantum-dots system, together with the involved high-order co-tunneling dynamics. Another is the non-Markovian dynamics of a spin-boson system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.; Sudha
2011-02-01
Dynamical A and B maps have been employed extensively by Sudarshan and co-workers to investigate open-system evolution of quantum systems. A canonical structure of the A map is introduced here. It is shown that this canonical A map enables us to investigate whether the dynamics is completely positive (CP) or not completely positive (NCP) in an elegant way and, hence, it subsumes the basic results on open-system dynamics. Identifying memory effects in open-system evolution is gaining increasing importance recently and, here, a criterion of non-Markovianity, based on the relative entropy of the dynamical state is proposed. The relative entropy difference of the dynamical system serves as a complementary characterization—though not related directly—to the fidelity difference criterion proposed recently. Three typical examples of open-system evolution of a qubit, prepared initially in a correlated state with another qubit (environment), and evolving jointly under a specific unitary dynamics—which corresponds to a NCP dynamical map—are investigated by employing both the relative entropy difference and fidelity difference tests of non-Markovianity. The two-qubit initial states are chosen to be (i) a pure entangled state, (ii) the Werner state, which exemplifies both entangled and separable states of qubits, depending on a real parameter, and (iii) a separable mixed state. Both the relative entropy and fidelity criteria offer a nice display of how non-Markovianity manifests itself in all three examples.
Connecting two jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems
Luoma, Kimmo; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Piilo, Jyrki [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun Yliopisto (Finland)
2011-09-15
The development and use of Monte Carlo algorithms plays a visible role in the study of non-Markovian quantum dynamics due to the provided insight and powerful numerical methods for solving the system dynamics. In the Markovian case, the connections between the various types of methods are fairly well understood while, for the non-Markovian case, there has so far been only a few studies. We focus here on two jumplike unravelings of non-Markovian dynamics: the non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) method and the property state method by Gambetta, Askerud, and Wiseman (GAW). The results for simple quantum optical systems illustrate the connections between the realizations of the two methods and also highlight how the probability currents between the system and environment, or between the property states of the total system, are associated with the decay rates of time-local master equations and, consequently, with the jump rates of the NMQJ method.
Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems
Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen
2015-04-26
This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to laser fields and subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze open quantum systems where the system dynamics involve both classical and quantum random variables, a quantum-classical probability space model is developed. Using a reference probability approach, a fault tolerant quantum filter and a fault detection equation are simultaneously derived for this class of open quantum systems. An example of two-level open quantum systems subject to Poisson-type faults is presented to illustrate the proposed method. These results have the potential to lead to a new fault tolerant control theory for quantum systems.
He, Lewei; Wang, Wen-Ge
2014-02-01
We study the problem of the basis of an open quantum system, under a quantum chaotic environment, which is preferred in view of its stationary reduced density matrix (RDM), that is, the basis in which the stationary RDM is diagonal. It is shown that, under an initial condition composed of sufficiently many energy eigenstates of the total system, such a basis is given by the eigenbasis of a renormalized self-Hamiltonian of the system, in the limit of large Hilbert space of the environment. Here, the renormalized self-Hamiltonian is given by the unperturbed self-Hamiltonian plus a certain average of the interaction Hamiltonian over the environmental degrees of freedom. Numerical simulations performed in two models, both with the kicked rotor as the environment, give results consistent with the above analytical predictions. PMID:25353440
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isar, Aurelian
1995-01-01
The harmonic oscillator with dissipation is studied within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. By using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method, the Fokker-Planck equation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator, is solved for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the delta-function type of initial conditions. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths. Then a closed expression for the density operator is extracted. The entropy of the system is subsequently calculated and its temporal behavior shows that this quantity relaxes to its equilibrium value.
Optical Signatures of Non-Markovian Behaviour in Open Quantum Systems
Dara P. S. McCutcheon
2015-04-22
We derive an extension to the quantum regression theorem which facilitates the calculation of two-time correlation functions and emission spectra for systems undergoing non-Markovian evolution. The derivation exploits projection operator techniques, with which we obtain explicit equations of motion for the correlation functions, making only a second order expansion in the system-environment coupling strength, and invoking the Born approximation at a fixed initial time. The results are used to investigate a driven semiconductor quantum dot coupled to an acoustic phonon bath, where we find the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics has observable signatures in the form of phonon sidebands in the resonance fluorescence emission spectrum.
Entanglement Dynamics in Open Two-Qubit Systems via Diffusive Quantum Trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viviescas, Carlos; Guevara, Ivonne; Carvalho, André R. R.; Busse, Marc; Buchleitner, Andreas
2010-11-01
We use quantum diffusive trajectories to prove that the time evolution of two-qubit entanglement under spontaneous emission can be fully characterized by optimal continuous monitoring. We analytically determine this optimal unraveling and derive a deterministic evolution equation for the system’s concurrence. Furthermore, we propose an experiment to monitor the entanglement dynamics in bipartite two-level systems and to determine the disentanglement time from a single trajectory.
Konstantin G. Zloshchastiev; Alessandro Sergi
2014-09-09
We compare two approaches to open quantum systems, namely, the non-Hermitian dynamics and the Lindblad master equation. In order to deal with more general dissipative phenomena, we propose the unified master equation that combines the characteristics of both of these approaches. This allows us to assess the differences between them as well as to clarify which observed features come from the Lindblad or the non-Hermitian part, when it comes to experiment. Using a generic two-mode single-atom laser system as a practical example, we analytically solve the dynamics of the normalized density matrix operator. We study the two-level model in a number of cases (depending on parameters and types of dynamics), compute different observables and study their physical properties. It turns out that one is able not only to describe the different types of damping in dissipative quantum optical systems but also to mimic the undamped anharmonic oscillatory phenomena which happen in quantum systems with more than two levels (while staying within the framework of the analytically simple two-mode approximation).
Real-Time Simulation of Large Open Quantum Spin Systems driven by Measurements
D. Banerjee; F. -J. Jiang; M. Kon; U. -J. Wiese
2014-05-30
We consider a large quantum system with spins $\\frac{1}{2}$ whose dynamics is driven entirely by measurements of the total spin of spin pairs. This gives rise to a dissipative coupling to the environment. When one averages over the measurement results, the corresponding real-time path integral does not suffer from a sign problem. Using an efficient cluster algorithm, we study the real-time evolution of a 2-d Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which is driven to a disordered phase, either by sporadic measurements or by continuous monitoring described by Lindblad evolution.
Error-suppression by energy-gap protection for quantum computation in open systems
Zhou, Xiang-Yu (Xiang-Yu Leo)
2014-01-01
Adiabatic Quantum Computation, while attractive due to its "hands-off" approach and intrinsic tolerance of noise, has not been shown to be fully fault-tolerant in a satisfying manner. The protection of the evolution from ...
Tan, Hua-Tang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Wei-Min [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)
2011-03-15
In this paper, the exact non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Gelfand, I.; Zenone, T.; Cui, M.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.
2012-12-01
The ambient concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth most abundant greenhouse gas, is rapidly increasing with emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources [1]. Soil and aquatic areas are important sources and sinks for N2O due to complicated biogenic processes. However, N2O emissions are poorly constrained in space and time, despite its importance to global climate change and ozone depletion. We report our recent N2O emission measurements with an open-path quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based sensor for ecological systems. The newly emergent QCLs have been used to build compact, sensitive trace gas sensors in the mid-IR spectral region. A compact open-path QCL based sensor was developed to detect atmospheric N2O and CO at ~ 4.5 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to achieve a sensitivity of 0.26 ppbv of N2O and 0.24 ppbv of CO in 1 s with a power consumption of ~50 W [2]. This portable sensor system has been used to perform N2O emission flux measurement both with a static flux chamber and on an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower. In the flux chamber measurements, custom chambers were used to host the laser sensor, while gas samples for gas chromatograph (GC) were collected at the same time in the same chamber for validation and comparison. Different soil treatments have been applied in different chambers to study the relationship between N2O emission and the amount of fertilizer (and water) addition. Measurements from two methods agreed with each other (95% or higher confidence interval) for emission flux results, while laser sensor gave measurements with a much high temporal resolution. We have also performed the first open-path eddy covariance N2O flux measurement at Kellogg research station, Michigan State University for a month in June, 2012. Our sensor was placed on a 4-meter tower in a corn field and powered by batteries (connected with solar panels). We have observed the diurnal cycle of N2O flux. During this deployment, an inter-comparison between our sensor and a commercial gas sensor was done to check the sensor's performance. Overall, our sensor showed a good performance with both static chamber measurement and EC flux measurement of N2O. Its open-path, compact and portable design with low power consumption provides lots of advantages for N2O emission flux measurement in the ecological systems. [1] S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, "Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change," Nature 476, 43-50 (2011). [2] L. Tao, K, Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan and M.A. Zondlo, "Optimizations for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser," CLEO, 2012
A model of epigenetic evolution based on theory of open quantum systems.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2013-12-01
We present a very general model of epigenetic evolution unifying (neo-)Darwinian and (neo-)Lamarckian viewpoints. The evolution is represented in the form of adaptive dynamics given by the quantum(-like) master equation. This equation describes development of the information state of epigenome under the pressure of an environment. We use the formalism of quantum mechanics in the purely operational framework. (Hence, our model has no direct relation to quantum physical processes inside a cell.) Thus our model is about probabilities for observations which can be done on epigenomes and it does not provide a detailed description of cellular processes. Usage of the operational approach provides a possibility to describe by one model all known types of cellular epigenetic inheritance. PMID:24432153
{open_quotes}Plug and play{close_quotes} systems for quantum cryptography
Muller, A.; Herzog, T.; Huttner, B.; Tittel, W.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)] [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
1997-02-01
We present a time-multiplexed interferometer based on Faraday mirrors, and apply it to quantum key distribution. The interfering pulses follow exactly the same spatial path, ensuring very high stability and self balancing. The use of Faraday mirrors compensates automatically any birefringence effects and polarization dependent losses in the transmitting fiber. First experimental results show a fringe visibility of 0.9984 for a 23-km-long interferometer, based on installed telecom fibers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Robust quantum gates for open systems via optimal control: Markovian versus non-Markovian dynamics
Frederik F Floether; Pierre de Fouquieres; Sophie G Schirmer
2012-01-01
We study the implementation of one-, two- and three-qubit quantum gates for interacting qubits using optimal control. Markovian and non-Markovian environments are compared and efficient optimization algorithms utilizing analytic gradient expressions and quasi-Newton updates are given for both cases. The performance of the algorithms is analysed for a large set of problems in terms of the fidelities attained and the
Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential as an open quantum system
Janne Ruostekoski; Dan F. Walls
1998-03-25
We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential in the two-mode approximation. The dissipation of energy from the condensate is described by the coupling to a thermal reservoir of non-condensate modes. As a consequence of the coupling the self-locked population imbalance in the macroscopic quantum self-trapping decays away. We show that a coherent state predicted by spontaneous symmetry breaking is not robust and decoheres rapidly into a statistical mixture due to the interactions between condensate and non-condensate atoms. However, via stochastic simulations we find that with a sufficiently fast measurement rate of the relative phase between the two wells the matter wave coherence is established even in the presence of the decoherence.
Time-dependent approach to electron pumping in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanucci, G.; Kurth, S.; Rubio, A.; Gross, E. K. U.
2008-02-01
We use a recently proposed time-dependent approach to investigate the motion of electrons in quantum pump device configurations. The occupied one-particle states are propagated in real time and employed to calculate the local electron density and current. The approach can also be embedded in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory to include electron-electron interactions. An advantage of the present computational scheme is that the same computational effort is required to simulate monochromatic, polychromatic, and nonperiodic drivings. Furthermore, initial-state dependence and history effects are naturally accounted for. We present results for one-dimensional devices exposed to a traveling potential wave. (i) We show that for pumping across a single potential barrier, electrons are transported in pockets and the transport mechanism resembles pumping of water with the Archimedean screw; (ii) we propose a simple model to study pumping through semiconductor nanostructures and we address the phenomenon of the current flowing in the opposite direction to the field propagation; (iii) we present the first numerical evidence of long-lived superimposed oscillations as induced by the presence of bound states and discuss the dependence of their lifetime on the frequency and amplitude of the driving field. By combining Floquet theory with nonequilibrium Green’s functions, we also obtain a general expression for the pumped current in terms of inelastic transmission probabilities. This latter result is used for benchmarking our propagation scheme in the long-time limit. Finally, we discuss the limitations of Floquet-based algorithms and suggest our approach as a possible way to go beyond them.
OPEN PROBLEM: Three quantum obsessions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, M. V.
2008-02-01
Is there a connection between the Riemann zeros and the quantum physics of classical chaos? Can the relation between spin and statistics be understood within elementary quantum mechanics? How are the phase singularities in classical optics smoothed by quantum effects?
Generalized Open Quantum Walks on Apollonian Networks
Pawela, ?ukasz; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jaros?aw Adam; Sadowski, Przemys?aw
2015-01-01
We introduce the model of generalized open quantum walks on networks using the Transition Operation Matrices formalism. We focus our analysis on the mean first passage time and the average return time in Apollonian networks. These results differ significantly from a classical walk on these networks. We show a comparison of the classical and quantum behaviour of walks on these networks. PMID:26177452
Kaderják Gyula; Simon András
The object of this study is a comprehensive review of the open source customer relationship management (CRM) systems. The open source softwares have become one of the most important trends in the software industry recently. Similarly, the CRM systems are applied more increasingly in several fields of economy. The CRM is not merely a subsequent software technology and application in
Quantum Games and Programmable Quantum Systems
Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski
2005-01-01
Attention to the very physical aspects of information characterizes the current research in quantum computation, quantum cryptography and quantum communication. In most of the cases quantum description of the system provides advantages over the classical approach. Game theory, the study of decision making in conflict situation has already been extended to the quantum domain. We would like to review the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, Reginald T.
2002-10-01
So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the new notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a stochastic neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is an information theory of reality in which space and quantum phenomena are emergent, and so indicates the deep origins of quantum phenomena. Analogous complex stochastic dynamical systems have recently been proposed within neurobiology to deal with the emergent complexity of biosystems, particularly the biodynamics of higher brain function. The reasons for analogous discoveries in fundamental physics and neurobiology are discussed.
Open quantum reaction-diffusion dynamics: Absorbing states and relaxation.
van Horssen, Merlijn; Garrahan, Juan P
2015-03-01
We consider an extension of classical stochastic reaction-diffusion (RD) dynamics to open quantum systems. We study a class of models of hard-core particles on a one-dimensional lattice whose dynamics is generated by a quantum master operator. Particle hopping is coherent while reactions, such as pair annihilation or pair coalescence, are dissipative. These are quantum open generalizations of the A+A?? and A+A?A classical RD models. We characterize the relaxation of the state towards the stationary regime via a decomposition of the system Hilbert space into transient and recurrent subspaces. We provide a complete classification of the structure of the recurrent subspace (and the nonequilibrium steady states) in terms of the dark states associated to the quantum master operator and its general spectral properties. We also show that, in one dimension, relaxation towards these absorbing dark states is slower than that predicted by a mean-field analysis due to fluctuation effects, in analogy with what occurs in classical RD systems. Numerical simulations of small systems suggest that the decay of the density in one dimension, in both the open quantum A+A?? and A+A?A systems, behaves asymptotically as t-b with 1/2
Open quantum reaction-diffusion dynamics: Absorbing states and relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Horssen, Merlijn; Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-03-01
We consider an extension of classical stochastic reaction-diffusion (RD) dynamics to open quantum systems. We study a class of models of hard-core particles on a one-dimensional lattice whose dynamics is generated by a quantum master operator. Particle hopping is coherent while reactions, such as pair annihilation or pair coalescence, are dissipative. These are quantum open generalizations of the A +A ?? and A +A ?A classical RD models. We characterize the relaxation of the state towards the stationary regime via a decomposition of the system Hilbert space into transient and recurrent subspaces. We provide a complete classification of the structure of the recurrent subspace (and the nonequilibrium steady states) in terms of the dark states associated to the quantum master operator and its general spectral properties. We also show that, in one dimension, relaxation towards these absorbing dark states is slower than that predicted by a mean-field analysis due to fluctuation effects, in analogy with what occurs in classical RD systems. Numerical simulations of small systems suggest that the decay of the density in one dimension, in both the open quantum A +A ?? and A +A ?A systems, behaves asymptotically as t-b with 1 /2
Symmetry examples in open quantum dynamics
Thomas F. Jordan; San Ha Seo
2014-08-19
Dependent symmetries, a new kind of symmetry of the open quantum dynamics of a subsystem, symmetries that depend on the situation of the subsystem in a larger closed system, are explored by looking at simple examples. Each symmetry implies a particular form for the results of the open dynamics. The forms exhibit the symmetries very simply. It is shown directly, without assuming anything about the symmetry, that the dynamics produces the form, but knowing the symmetry and the form it implies can reduce what needs to be done to work out the dynamics; pieces can be deduced from the symmetry rather that calculated from the dynamics. Symmetries can be related to constants of the motion in new ways. A quantity might be a dependent constant of the motion, constant only for particular situations of the subsystem in the larger system. In particular, a generator of dependent symmetries could represent a quantity that is a dependent constant of the motion for the same situations as for the symmetries. The examples present a variety of possibilities. Sometimes a generator of dependent symmetries does represent a dependent constant of the motion. Sometimes it does not. Sometimes no quantity is a dependent constant of the motion. Sometimes every quantity is.
Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks
Przemys?aw Sadowski; ?ukasz Pawela
2014-12-16
In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. Furthermore, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a uniform distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system.
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Some Open Problems in Quantum Information Theory
Mary Beth Ruskai
2007-08-14
Some open questions in quantum information theory (QIT) are described. Most of them were presented in Banff during the BIRS workshop on Operator Structures in QIT 11-16 February 2007. New material has been added in view of the recent counter-examples to p-norm multiplicativity.
R. Guha
In the offline world, we look to the people we trust and those they trust for reliable information. In this paper, we present a compu- tational model of this phenomenon and show how it can be used to identify high quality content in an Open Rating System, i.e., a system in which any user can rate content. We present a
Daniel Burgarth; Kazuya Yuasa
2011-04-04
The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
Shanon L. Vuglar; Hadis Amini
2015-01-27
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H infinity optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.
Open system environment procurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, Gary
1994-01-01
Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.
Quantized recurrence time in iterated open quantum dynamics
P. Sinkovicz; Z. Kurucz; T. Kiss; J. K. Asbóth
2014-11-03
The expected return time to the original state is a key concept characterizing systems obeying both classical or quantum dynamics. We consider iterated open quantum dynamical systems in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, a broad class of systems that includes classical Markov chains and unitary discrete time quantum walks on networks. Starting from a pure state, the time evolution is induced by repeated applications of a general quantum channel, in each timestep followed by a measurement to detect whether the system has returned to the original state. We prove that if the superoperator is unital in the relevant Hilbert space (the part of the Hilbert space explored by the system), then the expectation value of the return time is an integer, equal to the dimension of this relevant Hilbert space. We illustrate our results on partially coherent quantum walks on finite graphs. Our work connects the previously known quantization of the expected return time for bistochastic Markov chains and for unitary quantum walks, and shows that these are special cases of a more general statement. The expected return time is thus a quantitative measure of the size of the part of the Hilbert space available to the system when the dynamics is started from a certain state.
Tal, J. [Galil Motion Control Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1995-04-01
In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.
Dynamical and thermodynamical control of Open Quantum Walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petruccione, Francesco; Sinayskiy, Ilya
2014-03-01
Over the last few years dynamical properties and limit distributions of Open Quantum Walks (OQWs), quantum walks driven by dissipation, have been intensely studied [S. Attal et. al. J. Stat. Phys. 147, Issue 4, 832 (2012)]. For some particular cases of OQWs central limit theorems have been proven [S. Attal, N. Guillotin, C. Sabot, ``Central Limit Theorems for Open Quantum Random Walks,'' to appear in Annales Henri Poincaré]. However, only recently the connection between the rich dynamical behavior of OQWs and the corresponding microscopic system-environment models has been established. The microscopic derivation of an OQW as a reduced system dynamics on a 2-nodes graph [I. Sinayskiy, F. Petruccione, Open Syst. Inf. Dyn. 20, 1340007 (2013)] and its generalization to arbitrary graphs allow to explain the dependance of the dynamical behavior of the OQW on the temperature and coupling to the environment. For thermal environments we observe Gaussian behaviour, whereas at zero temperature population trapping and ``soliton''-like behaviour are possible. Physical realizations of OQWs in quantum optical setups will be also presented. This work is based on research supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.
Danilov, Viatcheslav; /Oak Ridge; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab
2011-11-01
Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.
Koch, Christiane
2013-01-01
of current interest include mechanical oscillators close to their ground state [3], carbon nanotubes and graphene [4], excitons of the light-harvesting complex [5], and solid-state devices based on quantum dots
Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A
2014-03-28
We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502-R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C2, CN, Cr2, and NO2. PMID:24697423
Naval open systems architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia
2013-05-01
For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.
Informationally coherent quantum systems
Ryszard Horodecki
1994-01-01
An information-theoretic approach to correlated quantum systems is developed. The precise definitions of the informationally coherent N-component system are presented in terms of the state (observable) dependent index of correlation. The informational coherence of the N-particle GHZ system in an entangled pure state is analysed and it is found that the observable-dependent index of correlation is less than or equal
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2009-11-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette
2009-09-07
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-01-26
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.
Stationary States of Dissipative Quantum Systems
Vasily E. Tarasov
2011-07-29
In this Letter we consider stationary states of dissipative quantum systems. We discuss stationary states of dissipative quantum systems, which coincide with stationary states of Hamiltonian quantum systems. Dissipative quantum systems with pure stationary states of linear harmonic oscillator are suggested. We discuss bifurcations of stationary states for dissipative quantum systems which are quantum analogs of classical dynamical bifurcations.
Quantum simulations of one dimensional quantum systems
Rolando D. Somma
2015-03-21
We present several quantum algorithms for the simulation of quantum systems in one spatial dimension. First, we provide a method to simulate the evolution of the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) and compute scattering amplitudes using a discrete QHO. To achieve precision \\epsilon, it suffices to choose the dimension of the Hilbert space of the discrete system, N, proportional to N' and logarithmic in |t|/\\epsilon, where N' is the largest eigenvalue in the spectral decomposition of the initial state, and t is the evolution time. We then present a Trotter-Suzuki product formula to approximate the evolution. The number of terms in the product is subexponential, and the complexity of simulating the evolution on a quantum computer is O(|t| \\exp( \\gamma \\sqrt{\\log(N' |t|/\\epsilon)})), where \\gamma >0 is constant. Our results suggest a superpolynomial speedup. Next, we describe a quantum algorithm to prepare the ground state of the discrete QHO with complexity polynomial in \\log(1/\\epsilon) and \\log (N). Such a quantum algorithm may be of independent interest, as it gives a way to prepare states of Gaussian-like amplitudes. Other eigenstates can be prepared by evolving with a Hamiltonian that is a discrete version of the Jaynes-Cummings model, with complexity polynomial in \\log (N) and 1/\\epsilon. We then study a quantum system with a quartic potential and numerically show that the evolution operator can be approximated using the Trotter-Suzuki formula, where the number of terms scales as N^{q}, for q systems, and describe a quantum algorithm of complexity almost linear in N|t| and logarithmic in 1/\\epsilon. We discuss further applications of our results, in particular with regards to the fractional Fourier transform.
Excitation transfer through open quantum networks: Three basic mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2011-10-01
A variety of open quantum networks are currently under intense examination to model energy transport in photosynthetic systems. Here, we study the coherent transfer of a quantum excitation over a network incoherently coupled with a structured and small environment that effectively models the photosynthetic reaction center. Our goal is to distill a few basic, possibly universal, mechanisms or effects that are featured in simple energy-transfer models. In particular, we identify three different phenomena: the congestion effect, the asymptotic unitarity, and the staircase effects. We begin with few-site models, in which these effects can be fully understood, and then proceed to study more complex networks similar to those employed to model energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes.
Fingerprints of Classical Instability in Open Quantum Dynamics
Paul A. Miller; Sarben Sarkar
1998-07-03
The dynamics near a hyperbolic point in phase space is modelled by an inverted harmonic oscillator. We investigate the effect of the classical instability on the open quantum dynamics of the oscillator, introduced through the interaction with a thermal bath, using both the survival probability function and the rate of von Neumann entropy increase, for large times. In this parameter range we prove, using influence functional techniques, that the survival probability function decreases exponentially at a rate, K', depending not only on the measure of instability in the model but also on the strength of interaction with the environment. We also show that K' determines the rate of von Neumann entropy increase and that this result is independent of the temperature of the environment. This generalises earlier results which are valid in the limit of vanishing dissipation. The validity of inferring similar rates of survival probability decrease and entropy increase for quantum chaotic systems is also discussed.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems
Quntao Zhuang; Biao Wu
2013-12-02
Quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. {\\bf 57}, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 101}, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With the rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic system with an initial low-entropy state will dynamically relax to a high-entropy state and reach equilibrium. The quantum equilibrium state reached after dynamical relaxation bears a remarkable resemblance to the classical micro-canonical ensemble. However, the fluctuations around equilibrium are distinct: the quantum fluctuations are exponential while the classical fluctuations are Gaussian.
On the resistance of relativistic quantum cryptography in open space at finite resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2012-11-01
The security of keys for the basic nonrelativistic BB84 protocol has been examined for more than 15 years. A simple proof of security for the case of a single-photon source of quantum states and finite sequences has been only recently obtained using entropy uncertainty relations. However, the existing sources of states are not strictly single-photon. Since sources are not single-photon and losses in a quantum channel—open space—are not a priori known and vary, nonrelativistic quantum cryptographic systems in open space cannot guarantee the unconditional security of keys. Recently proposed relativistic quantum cryptography removes fundamental constraints associated with non-single-photon sources and losses in open space. The resistance of a fundamentally new family of protocols for relativistic quantum key distribution through open space has been analyzed for the real situation with finite lengths of transmitted sequences of quantum states. This system is stable with real sources of non-single-photon states (weakened laser radiation) and arbitrary losses in open space.
Classical command of quantum systems.
Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh
2013-04-25
Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantum-mechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics. PMID:23619692
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Coherent Nonlinear Feedback of Quantum Systems with Applications to Quantum Optics on Chip
Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yu-xi; Li, Chun-Wen; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong
2011-01-01
In the control of classical mechanical systems, the feedback has been successfully applied to the production of the desired nonlinear dynamics. However, how much this can be done is still an open problem in quantum mechanical systems. This paper proposes a scheme of generating strong nonlinear quantum effects via the recently developed coherent feedback techniques, which can be shown to outperform the measurement-based quantum feedback scheme that can only generate pseudo-nonlinear quantum effects. Such advancement is demonstrated by two application examples in quantum optics on chip. In the first example, we show that the nonlinear Kerr effect can be generated and amplified to be comparable with the linear effect in a transmission line resonator (TLR). In the second example, we show that by tuning the gains of the quantum amplifiers in a TLR coherent feedback network, non-Gaussian "light" (microwave field) can be generated and manipulated via the nonlinear effects which exhibits fully quantum sub-Poisson pho...
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Castro, Tony
Created by Tony Castro of the Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT), this simulation demonstrates network architecture and all its layers based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. This resource is a helpful addition to any course on information and communications technologies as it allows students to see exactly how the model works in information systems.
Classical equations for quantum systems
Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection), Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)
2012-09-01
We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.
OpenSees: Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees) is a project of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. OpenSees is an open source "software framework for developing applications to simulate the performance of structural and geotechnical systems subjected to earthquakes." The project's homepage maintains resources for users and developers, including downloadable source code, extensive documentation, and instructions on how to contribute code. Several links to other research projects that are using the OpenSees tool are provided. Additionally, an OpenSees user's workshop was held in August 2003, and the presentations from the event are available.
Replacing quantum feedback with open-loop control and quantum filtering
Combes, Joshua; Wiseman, Howard M.; Scott, A. J. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia)
2010-02-15
Feedback control protocols can stabilize and enhance the operation of quantum devices, however, unavoidable delays in the feedback loop adversely affect their performance. We introduce a quantum control methodology, combining open-loop control with quantum filtering, which is not constrained by feedback delays. For the problems studied (rapid purification and rapid measurement) we analytically derive lower bounds on the control performance that are comparable with the best corresponding bounds for feedback protocols.
QUANTUM STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, QUANTUM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS AND ENTROPY
Lopes, Artur Oscar
HN be a Hilbert space of finite dimension N. If a quantum system is in a certain known state | HNQUANTUM STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, QUANTUM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS AND ENTROPY A. BARAVIERA*, C. F to Quantum Iterated Function Systems (QIFS). We discuss ques- tions related to the Markov property and we
An Open Source Simulation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slack, Thomas
2005-01-01
An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.
Entropy Type Complexity in Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Noboru
2011-03-01
We review a notion of quantum channel and some entropy type complexities for quantum systems. The quantum dynamical entropy for CP map is discussed and numerical computation of this entropy type complexity is accomplished for noisy optical channel.
Contextual logic for quantum systems
Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes
2007-02-02
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.
Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems.
Shen, H Z; Wang, W; Yi, X X
2014-01-01
The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375
Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems
Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.
2014-01-01
The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375
Is measurement-based feedback still better for quantum control systems?
Guo, Lei
Is measurement-based feedback still better for quantum control systems? Bo Qi , Lei Guo Key Laboratory of Systems and Control, ISS, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy feedback control of quantum systems: Is measurement-based feedback control still better than open- loop
OpenRIMS: An Open Architecture Radiology Informatics Management System
Steve G. Langer
2002-01-01
The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system\\/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A
Discerning "indistinguishable" quantum systems
Adam Caulton
2014-08-31
In a series of recent papers, Simon Saunders, Fred Muller and Michael Seevinck have collectively argued, against the philosophy of quantum mechanics folklore, that some non-trivial version of Leibniz's principle of the identity of indiscernibles is upheld in quantum mechanics. They argue that all particles -- fermions, paraparticles, anyons, even bosons -- may be weakly discerned by some physical relation. Here I show that their arguments make illegitimate appeal to non-symmetric, i.e. permutation-non-invariant, quantities, and that therefore their conclusions do not go through. However, I show that alternative, symmetric quantities may be found to do the required work. I conclude that the Saunders-Muller-Seevinck heterodoxy can be saved after all.
Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information. PMID:25811809
The flag taxonomy of open hypermedia systems
Kasper Østerbye; Uffe Kock Wiil
1996-01-01
This paper presents a taxonomy for open hypermedia systems. The purpose of the Flagl taxonomy is manifold: (1) to provide a framework to classify and concisely describe individual systems, (2) to characterize what an open hypermedia system is, (3) to provide a framework for comparing different systems in a system independent way, and (4) to provide an overview of the
RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system
Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)
2013-12-04
The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.
Opening up three quantum boxes causes classically undetectable wavefunction collapse
George, Richard E.; Robledo, Lucio M.; Maroney, Owen J. E.; Blok, Machiel S.; Bernien, Hannes; Markham, Matthew L.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Morton, John J. L.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Hanson, Ronald
2013-01-01
One of the most striking features of quantum mechanics is the profound effect exerted by measurements alone. Sophisticated quantum control is now available in several experimental systems, exposing discrepancies between quantum and classical mechanics whenever measurement induces disturbance of the interrogated system. In practice, such discrepancies may frequently be explained as the back-action required by quantum mechanics adding quantum noise to a classical signal. Here, we implement the “three-box” quantum game [Aharonov Y, et al. (1991) J Phys A Math Gen 24(10):2315–2328] by using state-of-the-art control and measurement of the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. In this protocol, the back-action of quantum measurements adds no detectable disturbance to the classical description of the game. Quantum and classical mechanics then make contradictory predictions for the same experimental procedure; however, classical observers are unable to invoke measurement-induced disturbance to explain the discrepancy. We quantify the residual disturbance of our measurements and obtain data that rule out any classical model by ?7.8 standard deviations, allowing us to exclude the property of macroscopic state definiteness from our system. Our experiment is then equivalent to the test of quantum noncontextuality [Kochen S, Specker E (1967) J Math Mech 17(1):59–87] that successfully addresses the measurement detectability loophole. PMID:23412336
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
Homogeneous Open Quantum Random Walks on a Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan
2015-05-01
We study open quantum random walks (OQRWs) for which the underlying graph is a lattice, and the generators of the walk are homogeneous in space. Using the results recently obtained in Carbone and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré, 2015), we study the quantum trajectory associated with the OQRW, which is described by a position process and a state process. We obtain a central limit theorem and a large deviation principle for the position process. We study in detail the case of homogeneous OQRWs on the lattice Z^d , with internal space h=C^2.
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Hogan, Craig J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
Levitated Quantum Nano-Magneto-Mechanical Systems
Mauro Cirio; Jason Twamley; Gavin K. Brennen; Gerard J. Milburn
2011-01-01
Quantum nanomechanical sysems have attracted much attention as they provide new macroscopic platforms for the study of quantum mechanics but may also have applications in ultra-sensitive sensing, high precision measurements and in quantum computing. In this work we study the control and cooling of a quantum nanomechanical system which is magnetically levitated via the Meissner effect. Supercurrents in nano-sized superconducting
Non-Markovian Dynamical Maps: Numerical Processing of Open Quantum Trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerrillo, Javier; Cao, Jianshu
2014-03-01
The initial stages of the evolution of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn can predict the trajectory at later stages. We propose a general approach based on non-Markovian dynamical maps to extract this information from the initial trajectories and compress it into non-Markovian transfer tensors. Assuming time-translational invariance, the tensors can be used to accurately and efficiently propagate the state of the system to arbitrarily long time scales. The non-Markovian transfer tensor method (TTM) demonstrates the coherent-to-incoherent transition as a function of the strength of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system-bath entanglement. TTM is equivalent to solving the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and, therefore, can be used to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories obtained in simulations or experiments. The concept underlying the approach can be generalized to physical observables with the goal of learning and manipulating the trajectories of an open quantum system.
Logic of infinite quantum systems
Daniele Mundici
1993-01-01
Limits of sequences of finite-dimensional (AF)C*-algebras, such as the CAR algebra for the ideal Fermi gas, are a standard mathematical tool to describe quantum statistical systems arising as thermodynamic limits of finite spin systems. Only in the infinite-volume limit one can, for instance, describe phase transitions as singularities in the thermodynamic potentials, and handle the proliferation of physically inequivalent Hilbert
System identification for passive linear quantum systems
Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto
2014-08-27
System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.
Complete controllability of quantum systems
S. G. Schirmer; H. Fu; A. I. Solomon
2001-05-24
Sufficient conditions for complete controllability of $N$-level quantum systems subject to a single control pulse that addresses multiple allowed transitions concurrently are established. The results are applied in particular to Morse and harmonic-oscillator systems, as well as some systems with degenerate energy levels. Morse and harmonic oscillators serve as models for molecular bonds, and the standard control approach of using a sequence of frequency-selective pulses to address a single transition at a time is either not applicable or only of limited utility for such systems.
Stability of local quantum dissipative systems
Toby S. Cubitt; Angelo Lucia; Spyridon Michalakis; David Perez-Garcia
2015-04-28
Open quantum systems weakly coupled to the environment are modeled by completely positive, trace preserving semigroups of linear maps. The generators of such evolutions are called Lindbladians. In the setting of quantum many-body systems on a lattice it is natural to consider Lindbladians that decompose into a sum of local interactions with decreasing strength with respect to the size of their support. For both practical and theoretical reasons, it is crucial to estimate the impact that perturbations in the generating Lindbladian, arising as noise or errors, can have on the evolution. These local perturbations are potentially unbounded, but constrained to respect the underlying lattice structure. We show that even for polynomially decaying errors in the Lindbladian, local observables and correlation functions are stable if the unperturbed Lindbladian has a unique fixed point and a mixing time which scales logarithmically with the system size. The proof relies on Lieb-Robinson bounds, which describe a finite group velocity for propagation of information in local systems. As a main example, we prove that classical Glauber dynamics is stable under local perturbations, including perturbations in the transition rates which may not preserve detailed balance.
The ALPS Project: Open Source Software for Quantum Lattice Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trebst, Simon
2004-03-01
Algorithms for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models have matured and there is increasing demand for reliable simulation results both from theoreticians to test ideas and from experimental researchers as means of data analysis. Unlike in other fields there have been no "community codes" available, with the computational experts writing individual codes, adjusting them for specific needs of new projects and thereby investing weeks to months in software development for each project. We will present experiences with the ALPS collaboration, an open source effort aiming at simplifying the development of simulation codes for strongly correlated classical and quantum lattice models. It provides powerful but generic libraries and open-source application programs (such as classical and quantum Monte Carlo, exact diagonalization, DMRG, and others), intended also for non-experts. We will especially address three topics that are of relevance also to other similar efforts: license issues have been extensively discussed, especially concerning the scientific return of making source codes available to the community. The ALPS license is a compromise ensuring scientific return by requesting citations to the original authors of the codes while making sources openly available for future developments. The coordination of an international collaboration with researchers contributing from Austria, France, Germany, Japan and Switzerland by intense developer workshops on a semi-annual basis and annual user workshops is discussed. The situation for funding needed for such a joint open source development effort, which is often classified more as an infrastructure project and less as a research project, is also addressed. Work done with the ALPS collaboration initiated by M. Troyer (ETH) and S. Todo (Tokyo). For details and a list of members see http://alps.comp-phys.org/
Test and measurement on quantum key distribution systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Akihisa
2009-01-01
As in conventional communication systems, test and measurement play important roles in quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Besides the observation that QKD protocols estimate the bound of information leakage from the measurement results on the transmission channel, test of quantum apparatus is necessary to ensure that the assumptions behind the security proof are satisfied in practice. Moreover, precise characterization of the device imperfection improves the final key rate, because one can specify the effect of the errors originated from the devices and sbtract it. However, careful consideration is required to guarantee that the test and measurement procedure will not open a loop-hole to the eavesdroppers.
Characterizing quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations
Martin Ringbauer; Christopher J. Wood; Kavan Modi; Alexei Gilchrist; Andrew G. White; Alessandro Fedrizzi
2014-10-21
We fully characterize the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system initially correlated with its environment. Using a photonic qubit coupled to a simulated environment we tomographically reconstruct a superchannel---a generalised channel that treats preparation procedures as inputs---from measurement of the system alone, despite its coupling to the environment. We introduce novel quantitative measures for determining the strength of initial correlations, and to allow an experiment to be optimised in regards to its environment.
Classical and quantum correlative capacities of quantum systems
Li Nan; Luo Shunlong [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China)
2011-10-15
How strongly can one system be correlated with another? In the classical world, this basic question concerning correlative capacity has a very satisfying answer: The ''effective size'' of the marginal system, as quantified by the Shannon entropy, sets a tight upper bound to the correlations, as quantified by the mutual information. Although in the quantum world bipartite correlations, like their classical counterparts, are also well quantified by mutual information, the similarity ends here: The correlations in a bipartite quantum system can be twice as large as the marginal entropy. In the paradigm of quantum discord, the correlations are split into classical and quantum components, and it was conjectured that both the classical and quantum correlations are (like the classical mutual information) bounded above by each subsystem's entropy. In this work, by exploiting the interplay between entanglement of formation, mutual information, and quantum discord, we disprove that conjecture. We further indicate a scheme to restore harmony between quantum and classical correlative capacities. The results illustrate dramatically the asymmetric nature of quantum discord and highlight some subtle and unusual features of quantum correlations.
Coherent versus measurement feedback: Linear systems theory for quantum information
Naoki Yamamoto
2014-10-10
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages/disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal, hence their comparison in several situation is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals; back-action evasion (BAE), generation of a quantum non-demolished (QND) variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem (DFS), all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Then some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand it is shown that, for each control goal, there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of BAE, QND, and DFS in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ahufinger, Veronica [ICREA and Grup d'Optica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Briegel, Hans J. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Sanpera, Anna [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); ICREA and Grup de Fisica Teorica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lewenstein, Maciej [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)
2006-12-15
We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations.
Stabilizing feedback controls for quantum systems
Mazyar Mirrahimi; Ramon van Handel
2005-11-10
No quantum measurement can give full information on the state of a quantum system; hence any quantum feedback control problem is neccessarily one with partial observations, and can generally be converted into a completely observed control problem for an appropriate quantum filter as in classical stochastic control theory. Here we study the properties of controlled quantum filtering equations as classical stochastic differential equations. We then develop methods, using a combination of geometric control and classical probabilistic techniques, for global feedback stabilization of a class of quantum filters around a particular eigenstate of the measurement operator.
Global quantum discord in multipartite systems
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2011-10-15
We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.
Optimized control of multistate quantum systems by composite pulse sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genov, G. T.; Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.
2011-12-01
We introduce a technique for derivation of high-fidelity composite pulse sequences for two types of multistate quantum systems: systems with the SU(2) and Morris-Shore dynamic symmetries. For the former type, we use the Majorana decomposition to reduce the dynamics to an effective two-state system, which allows us to find the propagator analytically and use the pool of available composite pulses for two-state systems. For the latter type of multistate systems, we use the Morris-Shore decomposition, which reduces the multistate dynamics to a set of two-state systems. We present examples which demonstrate that the multistate composite sequences open a variety of possibilities for coherent control of quantum systems with multiple states.
Classical equations for quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-04-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models. Those models assume configuration space and a fundamental Lagrangian that is the difference between a kinetic energy quadratic in the velocities and a potential energy. The distinguished variables are taken to be a fixed subset of coordinates of configuration space. The initial density matrix of the closed system is assumed to factor into a product of a density matrix in the distinguished subset and another in the rest of the coordinates. With these restrictions, we improve the derivation from quantum mechanics of the phenomenological equations of motion governing a quasiclassical domain in the following respects: Probabilities of the correlations in time that define equations of motion are explicitly considered. Fully nonlinear cases are studied. Methods are exhibited for finding the form of the phenomenological equations of motion even when these are only distantly related to those of the fundamental action. The demonstration of the connection between quantum-mechanical causality and causality in classical phenomenological equations of motion is generalized. The connections among decoherence, noise, dissipation, and the amount of coarse graining necessary to achieve classical predictability are investigated quantitatively. Routes to removing the restrictions on the models in order to deal with more realistic coarse grainings are described.
CLS: A Fully Open Source Control System
E. Matias; R. Berg; T. Johnson; R. Tanner; T. Wilson; G. Wright; H. Zhang
2005-01-01
The Canadian Light Source (CLS) is one of the first major accelerator facilities to adopt a fully open source control system. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) in use at may other facilities. From the outset CLS utilised Real Time Embedded Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) and Linux as the underlying operating systems for real-time
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-05-01
During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamio?kowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems often result in very large symbolic expressions that dramatically slow down the evaluation of measures or other quantities. In these cases, MAPLE's assume facility sometimes helps to reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions, but often only numerical evaluation is possible. Since the complexity of the FEYNMAN commands is very different, no general scaling law for the CPU time and memory usage can be given. No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 799 265 No. of lines in distributed program including test data, etc.: 18 589 Distribution format: tar.gz Reasons for new version: While the previous program versions were designed mainly to create and manipulate the state of quantum registers, the present extension aims to support quantum operations as the essential ingredient for studying the effects of noisy environments. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Today, entanglement is identified as the essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. In most practical implementations of quantum information protocols, however, decoherence typically limits the lifetime of entanglement. It is therefore necessary and highly desirable to understand the evolution of entanglement in noisy environments. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers as well as (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act on the quantum registers. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems in ideal and nonideal quantum circuits.
Spin Accumulation and Spin Relaxation in a Large Open Quantum Dot E. J. Koop,1
van der Wal, Caspar H.
Spin Accumulation and Spin Relaxation in a Large Open Quantum Dot E. J. Koop,1 B. J. van Wees,1 D; published 29 July 2008) We report electronic control and measurement of an imbalance between spin-up and spin-down electrons in micron-scale open quantum dots. Spin injection and detection were achieved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2008-11-01
Entanglement is known today as a key resource in many protocols from quantum computation and quantum information theory. However, despite the successful demonstration of several protocols, such as teleportation or quantum key distribution, there are still many open questions of how entanglement affects the efficiency of quantum algorithms or how it can be protected against noisy environments. The investigation of these and related questions often requires a search or optimization over the set of quantum states and, hence, a parametrization of them and various other objects. To facilitate this kind of studies in quantum information theory, here we present an extension of the FEYNMAN program that was developed during recent years as a toolbox for the simulation and analysis of quantum registers. In particular, we implement parameterizations of hermitian and unitary matrices (of arbitrary order), pure and mixed quantum states as well as separable states. In addition to being a prerequisite for the study of many optimization problems, these parameterizations also provide the necessary basis for heuristic studies which make use of random states, unitary matrices and other objects. Program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 231 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 416 085 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 11 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Linux Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decades, quantum information science has contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics and has provided also new and efficient protocols, based on the use of entangled quantum states. To determine the behavior and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be applied in order to analyze how these quantum information protocols work and which role the entanglement plays hereby. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act upon the quantum registers. With the parameterization of various frequently-applied objects, that are implemented in the present version, the program now facilitates a wider range of symbolic and numerical studies. All commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: In the first version of the FEYNMAN program [1], we implemented the data structures and tools that are necessary to create, manipulate and to analyze the state of quantum registers. Later [2,3], support was added to deal with quantum operations (noisy channels) as an ingredient which is essential for studying the effects of decoherence. With the present extension, we add a number of parametrizations of objects frequently utilized in decoherence and entanglement studies, such that as hermitian and unitary matrices, probability distributions, or various kinds of quantum states. This extension therefore provides the basis, for example, for the optimization of a given function over the set of pure states or the simple generation of random objects. Running time: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2GHz or newer, and about 5-20 MB of working memory (in addition to the memory for the
Engineering Democracy in Open Agent Systems
Peter Mcburney; Simon Parsons
2003-01-01
How should open agent societies be organized? Should they be democ- racies, and, if so, what types of democracy? We present three normative models of democracy from political philosophy and consider their relevance for the engi- neering of open multi-agent systems: democracy as wise rule by an elite; democ- racy as the exercise of rational consumer choices by voters; and
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n
Dynamic control of plasmon generation by an individual quantum system.
Große, Christoph; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Froidevaux, Romain; Schramm, Frank; Ruben, Mario; Etzkorn, Markus; Schlickum, Uta; Kuhnke, Klaus; Kern, Klaus
2014-10-01
Controlling light on the nanoscale in a similar way as electric currents has the potential to revolutionize the exchange and processing of information. Although light can be guided on this scale by coupling it to plasmons, that is, collective electron oscillations in metals, their local electronic control remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that an individual quantum system is able to dynamically gate the electrical plasmon generation. Using a single molecule in a double tunnel barrier between two electrodes we show that this gating can be exploited to monitor fast changes of the quantum system itself and to realize a single-molecule plasmon-generating field-effect transistor operable in the gigahertz range. This opens new avenues toward atomic scale quantum interfaces bridging nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. PMID:25181332
Avoiding dissipation in a system of three quantum harmonic oscillators
Gonzalo Manzano; Fernando Galve; Roberta Zambrini
2013-04-08
We analyze the symmetries in an open quantum system composed by three coupled and detuned harmonic oscillators in the presence of a common heat bath. It is shown analytically how to engineer the couplings and frequencies of the system so as to have several degrees of freedom unaffected by decoherence, irrespective of the specific spectral density or initial state of the bath. This partial thermalization allows observing asymptotic entanglement at moderate temperatures, even in the nonresonant case. This latter feature cannot be seen in the simpler situation of only two oscillators, highlighting the richer structural variety of the three-body case. When departing from the strict conditions for partial thermalization, a hierarchical structure of dissipation rates for the normal modes is observed, leading to a long transient where quantum correlations such as the quantum discord are largely preserved, as well as to synchronous dynamics of the oscillators quadratures.
TRIQS: A Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems
Parcollet, Olivier; Ayral, Thomas; Hafermann, Hartmut; Krivenko, Igor; Messio, Laura; Seth, Priyanka
2015-01-01
We present the TRIQS library, a Toolbox for Research on Interacting Quantum Systems. It is an open-source, computational physics library providing a framework for the quick development of applications in the field of many-body quantum physics, and in particular, strongly-correlated electronic systems. It supplies components to develop codes in a modern, concise and efficient way: e.g. Green's function containers, a generic Monte Carlo class, and simple interfaces to HDF5. TRIQS is a C++/Python library that can be used from either language. It is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv3). State-of-the-art applications based on the library, such as modern quantum many-body solvers and interfaces between density-functional-theory codes and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) codes are distributed along with it.
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio
arXiv:1401.3305v1[quant-ph]14Jan2014 Open Quantum Walks on Graphs
Attal, Stéphane
for Theoretical Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4001, South Africa I. Sinayskiy Quantum ResearchZulu-Natal, Durban, 4001, South Africa Abstract Open quantum walks (OQW) are formulated as quantum Markov chains
Classical and Quantum Surgery of Geometries in an Open Inflationary Universe
Sang Pyo Kim
2000-05-09
We study classically and quantum mechanically the Euclidean geometries compatible with an open inflationary universe of a Lorentzian geometry. The Lorentzian geometry of the open universe with an ordinary matter state matches either an open or a closed Euclidean geometry at the cosmological singularity. With an exotic matter state it matches only the open Euclidean geometry and describes a genuine instanton regular at the boundary of a finite radius. The wave functions are found that describe the quantum creation of the open inflationary universe.
Logic of infinite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mundici, Daniele
1993-10-01
Limits of sequences of finite-dimensional (AF) C *-algebras, such as the CAR algebra for the ideal Fermi gas, are a standard mathematical tool to describe quantum statistical systems arising as thermodynamic limits of finite spin systems. Only in the infinite-volume limit one can, for instance, describe phase transitions as singularities in the thermodynamic potentials, and handle the proliferation of physically inequivalent Hilbert space representations of a system with infinitely many degrees of freedom. As is well known, commutative AF C *-algebras correspond to countable Boolean algebras, i.e., algebras of propositions in the classical two-valued calculus. We investigate the noncommutative logic properties of general AF C *-algebras, and their corresponding systems. We stress the interplay between Gödel incompleteness and quotient structures in the light of the “nature does not have ideals” program, stating that there are no quotient structures in physics. We interpret AF C *-algebras as algebras of the infinite-valued calculus of Lukasiewicz, i.e., algebras of propositions in Ulam's “ twenty questions” game with lies.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Controlling the shannon entropy of quantum systems.
Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819
Quantum Annealing in a Kinetically Constrained System
Arnab Das; Bikas K. Chakrabarti; Robin B. Stinhcombe
2005-02-07
Classical and quantum annealing is discussed for a kinetically constrained chain of $N$ non-interacting asymmetric double wells, represented by Ising spins in a longitudinal field $h$. It is shown that in certain cases, where the kinetic constraints may arise from infinitely high but vanishingly narrow barriers appearing in the relaxation path of the system, quantum annealing exploiting the quantum-mechanical penetration of sufficiently narrow barriers may be far more efficient than its thermal counterpart. We have used a semiclassical picture of scattering dynamics to do our simulation for the quantum system.
Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems
Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819
QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannozzi, Paolo; Baroni, Stefano; Bonini, Nicola; Calandra, Matteo; Car, Roberto; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Ceresoli, Davide; Chiarotti, Guido L.; Cococcioni, Matteo; Dabo, Ismaila; Dal Corso, Andrea; de Gironcoli, Stefano; Fabris, Stefano; Fratesi, Guido; Gebauer, Ralph; Gerstmann, Uwe; Gougoussis, Christos; Kokalj, Anton; Lazzeri, Michele; Martin-Samos, Layla; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Paolini, Stefano; Pasquarello, Alfredo; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Sbraccia, Carlo; Scandolo, Sandro; Sclauzero, Gabriele; Seitsonen, Ari P.; Smogunov, Alexander; Umari, Paolo; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.
2009-09-01
QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. QUANTUM ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. QUANTUM ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and interoperable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.
Coarse-grained kinetic equations for quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, E. G.
2013-01-01
The nonequilibrium density matrix method is employed to derive a master equation for the averaged state populations of an open quantum system subjected to an external high frequency stochastic field. It is shown that if the characteristic time ?stoch of the stochastic process is much lower than the characteristic time ?steady of the establishment of the system steady state populations, then on the time scale ? t ˜ ?steady, the evolution of the system populations can be described by the coarse-grained kinetic equations with the averaged transition rates. As an example, the exact averaging is carried out for the dichotomous Markov process of the kangaroo type.
Quantum annealing in a kinetically constrained system
Arnab Das; Bikas K. Chakrabarti; Robin B. Stinhcombe
2005-01-01
Classical and quantum annealing is discussed for a kinetically constrained\\u000achain of $N$ non-interacting asymmetric double wells, represented by Ising\\u000aspins in a longitudinal field $h$. It is shown that in certain cases, where the\\u000akinetic constraints may arise from infinitely high but vanishingly narrow\\u000abarriers appearing in the relaxation path of the system, quantum annealing\\u000aexploiting the quantum-mechanical penetration
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system.
Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Massel, F; Tuorila, J; Heikkilä, T T; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A
2015-01-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum-mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation-pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion. PMID:25912295
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system
Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S.U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sillanpää, M.A.
2015-01-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum–mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation–pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion. PMID:25912295
Modeling and Control of Quantum Systems: An Introduction
Claudio Altafini; Francesco Ticozzi
2012-10-26
The scope of this work is to provide a self-contained introduction to a selection of basic theoretical aspects in the modeling and control of quantum mechanical systems, as well as a brief survey on the main approaches to control synthesis. While part of the existing theory, especially in the open-loop setting, stems directly from classical control theory (most notably geometric control and optimal control), a number of tools specifically tailored for quantum systems have been developed since the 1980s, in order to take into account their distinctive features: the probabilistic nature of atomic-scale physical systems, the effect of dissipation and the irreversible character of the measurements have all proved to be critical in feedback-design problems. The relevant dynamical models for both closed and open quantum systems are presented, along with the main results on their controllability and stability. A brief review of several currently available control design methods is meant to provide the interested reader with a roadmap for further studies.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle
2014-01-07
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models. Probabilities of the correlations in time that define equations of motion are explicitly considered. Fully non-linear cases are studied. Methods are exhibited for finding the form of the phenomenological equations of motion even when these are only distantly related to those of the fundamental action. The demonstration of the connection between quantum-mechanical causality and causalty in classical phenomenological equations of motion is generalized. The connections among decoherence, noise, dissipation, and the amount of coarse graining necessary to achieve classical predictability are investigated quantitatively.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Travis S. Humble; Ronald J. Sadlier
2014-10-20
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that software-defined quantum communication provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.
Integrability and Computability in Simulating Quantum Systems
Umeno, K
1996-01-01
An impossibility theorem on approximately simulating quantum non-integrable Hamiltonian systems is presented here. This result shows that there is a trade-off between the unitary property and the energy expectation conservation law in time-descretization of quantum non-integrable systems, whose classical counterpart is Ge-Marsden's impossibility result about simulating classically non-integrable Hamiltonian systems using integration schemes preserving symplectic (Lie-Poisson) property.
Galilei invariant technique for quantum system description
Kamuntavi?ius, Gintautas P. [Department of Physics, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, Kaunas 44404 (Lithuania)] [Department of Physics, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, Kaunas 44404 (Lithuania)
2014-04-15
Problems with quantum systems models, violating Galilei invariance are examined. The method for arbitrary non-relativistic quantum system Galilei invariant wave function construction, applying a modified basis where center-of-mass excitations have been removed before Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization, is developed. For identical fermion system, the Galilei invariant wave function can be obtained while applying conventional antisymmetrization methods of wave functions, dependent on single particle spatial variables.
Quantum Mechanical Scattering in Nanoscale Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gianfrancesco, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A.; Boucher, C. R.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2012-02-01
We investigate quantum scattering using the finite element method. Unlike textbook treatments employing asymptotic boundary conditions (BCs), we use modified BCs, which permits computation close to the near-field region and reduces the Cauchy BCs to Dirichlet BCs, greatly simplifying the analysis. Scattering from any finite quantum mechanical potential can be modeled, including scattering in a finite waveguide geometry and in the open domain. Being numerical, our analysis goes beyond the Born Approximation, and the finite element approach allows us to transcend geometric constraints. Results of the formulation will be presented with several case studies, including spin dependent scattering, demonstrating the high accuracy and flexibility attained in this approach.
Localization in a Quantum Spin Hall System
Masaru Onoda; Yshai Avishai; Naoto Nagaosa
2007-01-01
The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates ``levitation'' and ``pair annihilation'' of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum
Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated systems
Longhua Jiang
2008-01-01
In this thesis, we investigated the strongly correlated phenomena in bilayer quantum Hall effect, inhomogeneous superconductivity and Boson Hubbard model. Bilayer quantum Hall system is studied in chapter 2. By using the Composite Boson (CB) theory developed by J. Ye, we derive the ground state, quasihole and a quasihole-pair wave functions from the CB theory and its dual action. We
Open-PEA Space Charge Measurement System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imai, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Fukao, Tadashi; Takada, Tatsuo; Maeno, Takashi
The pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method has been widely used to observe space charge phenomena in dielectric materials. There have been awaited demands for monitoring space charge phenomena under electron beam or radioactive rays irradiations, or during plasma processing. Therefore we have developed a new PEA space charge measurement system that can observe space charge distributions under such severe conditions. This system uses an open upper electrode that can measure surface and internal space charge profiles at the same time. This paper introduces the 'Open-PEA system' with experimental results obtained during electron irradiation in vacuum.
Controlling quantum critical dynamics of isolated systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Campo, A.; Sengupta, K.
2015-02-01
Controlling the non adiabatic dynamics of isolated quantum systems driven through a critical point is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from quantum simulation to finite-time thermodynamics. We briefly review the different methods for designing protocols which minimize excitation (defect) production in a closed quantum critical system driven out of equilibrium. We chart out the role of specific driving schemes for this procedure, point out their experimental relevance, and discuss their implementation in the context of ultracold atom and spin systems.
Avoiding irreversible dynamics in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasik, Raisa Iosifovna
2009-10-01
Devices that exploit laws of quantum physics offer revolutionary advances in computation and communication. However, building such devices presents an enormous challenge, since it would require technologies that go far beyond current capabilities. One of the main obstacles to building a quantum computer and devices needed for quantum communication is decoherence or noise that originates from the interaction between a quantum system and its environment, and which leads to the destruction of the fragile quantum information. Encoding into decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) provides an important strategy for combating decoherence effects in quantum systems and constitutes the focus of my dissertation. The theory of DFS relies on the existence of certain symmetries in the decoherence process, which allow some states of a quantum system to be completely decoupled from the environment and thus to experience no decoherence. In this thesis I describe various approaches to DFS that are developed in the current literature. Although the general idea behind various approaches to DFS is the same, I show that different mathematical definitions of DFS actually have different physical meaning. I provide a rigorous definition of DFS for every approach, explaining its physical meaning and relation to other definitions. I also examine the theory of DFS for Markovian systems. These are systems for which the environment has no memory, i.e., any change in the environment affects the quantum system instantaneously. Examples of such systems include many systems in quantum optics that have been proposed for implementation of a quantum computer, such as atomic and molecular gases, trapped ions, and quantum dots. Here I develop a rigorous theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of DFS. This theory allows us to identify a special new class of DFS that was not known before. Under particular circumstances, dynamics of a quantum system can connive together with the interactions between the system and its environment in a special way to reduce decoherence. This property is used to discover new DFS that rely on rather counterintuitive phenomenon, which I call an "incoherent generation of coherences." I also provide examples of physical systems that support such states. These DFS can be used to suppress & coherence, but may not be sufficient for performing full quantum computation. I also explore the possibility of physically generating the DFS that are useful for quantum computation. For quantum computation we need to preserve at least two quantum states to encode the quantum analogue of classical bits. Here I aim to generate DFS in a system composed from a large collection of atoms or molecules and I need to determine how one should position atoms or molecules in 3D space so that the overall system possesses a DFS with at least two states (i.e., non-trivial DFS). I show that for many Markovian systems, non-trivial DFS can exist only when particles are located in exactly the same position in space. This, of course, is not possible in the real world. For these systems, I also show that states in DFS are states with infinite lifetime. However, for all practical applications we just need long-lived states. Thus in reality, we do just need to bring quantum particles close together to generate an imperfect DFS, i.e. a collection of long-lived states. This can be achieved, for example, for atoms within a single molecule.
Quantum Simulation of Tunneling in Small Systems
Sornborger, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
A number of quantum algorithms have been performed on small quantum computers; these include Shor's prime factorization algorithm, error correction, Grover's search algorithm and a number of analog and digital quantum simulations. Because of the number of gates and qubits necessary, however, digital quantum particle simulations remain untested. A contributing factor to the system size required is the number of ancillary qubits needed to implement matrix exponentials of the potential operator. Here, we show that a set of tunneling problems may be investigated with no ancillary qubits and a cost of one single-qubit operator per time step for the potential evolution, eliminating at least half of the quantum gates required for the algorithm and more than that in the general case. Such simulations are within reach of current quantum computer architectures. PMID:22916333
Quantum Simulation of Tunneling in Small Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sornborger, Andrew T.
2012-08-01
A number of quantum algorithms have been performed on small quantum computers; these include Shor's prime factorization algorithm, error correction, Grover's search algorithm and a number of analog and digital quantum simulations. Because of the number of gates and qubits necessary, however, digital quantum particle simulations remain untested. A contributing factor to the system size required is the number of ancillary qubits needed to implement matrix exponentials of the potential operator. Here, we show that a set of tunneling problems may be investigated with no ancillary qubits and a cost of one single-qubit operator per time step for the potential evolution, eliminating at least half of the quantum gates required for the algorithm and more than that in the general case. Such simulations are within reach of current quantum computer architectures.
An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox
PAT X
This paper describes the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), an open source Matlab and GNU\\/Octave- based software package for analysis and design of small to medium size electric power systems. PSAT includes power flow, continuation power flow, optimal power flow, small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation as well as several static and dynamic models, including non-conventional loads, synchronous
Black Holes and Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems
Nickel, Marcel Dominik Johannes
We describe black holes in d+3 dimensions, whose thermodynamic properties correspond to those of a scale-invariant nonrelativistic (d+1)-dimensional quantum system with a dynamical exponent z=2. The gravitational model ...
Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg
1994-01-01
Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)
Hybrid Impulsive Control for Closed Quantum Systems
Sun, Jitao; Lin, Hai
2013-01-01
The state transfer problem of a class of nonideal quantum systems is investigated. It is known that traditional Lyapunov methods may fail to guarantee convergence for the nonideal case. Hence, a hybrid impulsive control is proposed to accomplish a more accurate convergence. In particular, the largest invariant sets are explicitly characterized, and the convergence of quantum impulsive control systems is analyzed accordingly. Numerical simulation is also presented to demonstrate the improvement of the control performance. PMID:23781158
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL] [ORNL
2013-01-01
We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.
Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts
M. Asorey; J. F. Carinena; G. Marmo; A. Perelomov
2007-07-30
One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h^2) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems.
Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts
Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: asorey@unizar.es; Carinena, J.F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cintia, 80125 Naples (Italy); Perelomov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2007-06-15
One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h {sup 2}) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems.
Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts
Asorey, M; Marmo, G; Perelomov, A
2007-01-01
One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h^2) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems.
Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; Cariñena, J. F.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.
2007-06-01
One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O( ?2) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O( ?) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems.
Exemplifying Quantum Systems in a Finite Element Basis
Young, Toby D. [Department of Computational Science, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences, ul Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw (Poland)
2009-08-13
This paper presents a description of the abstractions required for the expression and solution of the linear single-particle Schroedinger equation in a finite element basis. This paper consists of two disparate themes: First, to layout and establish the foundations of finite element analysis as an approximate numerical solution to extendable quantum mechanical systems; and second, to promote a high-performance open-source computational model for the approximate numerical solution to quantum mechanical systems. The structural foundation of the one-and two-dimensional time-independent Schroedinger equation describing an infinite potential well is explored and a brief overview of the hierarchal design of the computational library written in C++ is given.
OPEN PROBLEM: Spatially localized structures in dissipative systems: open problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knobloch, E.
2008-04-01
Stationary spatially localized structures, sometimes called dissipative solitons, arise in many interesting and important applications, including buckling of slender structures under compression, nonlinear optics, fluid flow, surface catalysis, neurobiology and many more. The recent resurgence in interest in these structures has led to significant advances in our understanding of the origin and properties of these states, and these in turn suggest new questions, both general and system-specific. This paper surveys these results focusing on open problems, both mathematical and computational, as well as on new applications.
Entanglement and dephasing of quantum dissipative systems
Stauber, T.; Guinea, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)
2006-04-15
The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In the case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no nonanalyticity. In the case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a nonanalyticity at the transition of underdamped to overdamped oscillations. We argue that this might be a general property of dissipative systems. We show that similar features arise in the dissipative two-level system and study different regimes using sub-Ohmic, Ohmic, and super-Ohmic baths, within a scaling approach.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.
Second-order superintegrable quantum systems
Miller, W. [University of Minnesota, School of Mathematics (United States); Kalnins, E. G. [University of Waikato, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (New Zealand); Kress, J. M. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics (Australia)], E-mail: j.kress@unsw.edu.au
2007-03-15
A classical (or quantum) superintegrable system on an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold is an integrable Hamiltonian system with potential that admits 2n - 1 functionally independent constants of the motion that are polynomial in the momenta, the maximum number possible. If these constants of the motion are all quadratic, then the system is second-order superintegrable, the most tractable case and the one we study here. Such systems have remarkable properties: multi-integrability and separability, a quadratic algebra of symmetries whose representation theory yields spectral information about the Schroedinger operator, and deep connections with expansion formulas relating classes of special functions. For n = 2 and for conformally flat spaces when n = 3, we have worked out the structure of the classical systems and shown that the quadratic algebra always closes at order 6. Here, we describe the quantum analogs of these results. We show that, for nondegenerate potentials, each classical system has a unique quantum extension.
Superconducting Circuitry for Quantum Electromechanical Systems
Matthew D. LaHaye; Francisco Rouxinol; Yu Hao; Seung-Bo Shim; Elinor K. Irish
2015-04-11
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and efforts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
Open quantum system parameters from molecular dynamics
Wang, Xiaoqing; Wüster, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander
2015-01-01
We extract the site energies and spectral densities of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment protein complex of green sulphur bacteria from simulations of molecular dynamics combined with energy gap calculations. Comparing four different combinations of methods, we investigate the origin of quantitative differences regarding site energies and spectral densities obtained previously in the literature. We find that different forcefields for molecular dynamics and varying local energy minima found by the structure relaxation yield significantly different results. Nevertheless, a picture averaged over these variations is in good agreement with experiments and some other theory results. Throughout, we discuss how vibrations external- or internal to the pigment molecules enter the extracted quantities differently and can be distinguished. Our results offer some guidance to set up more computationally intensive calculations for a precise determination of spectral densities in the future. These are required to determ...
Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system
Wittig; J. Michael
1980-01-01
An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed
Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system
Wittig
1980-01-01
An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system includes a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed
Experimental recovery of quantum correlations in absence of system-environment back-action
Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Guo, Guang-Can; Andersson, Erika; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties. PMID:24287554
Spectral theorem for the Lindblad equation for quadratic open fermionic systems
Tomaz Prosen
2010-05-05
The spectral theorem is proven for the quantum dynamics of quadratic open systems of n fermions described by the Lindblad equation. Invariant eigenspaces of the many-body Liouvillean dynamics and their largest Jordan blocks are explicitly constructed for all eigenvalues. For eigenvalue zero we describe an algebraic procedure for constructing (possibly higher dimensional) spaces of (degenerate) non-equilibrium steady states.
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
W. Wang; J. Shen; X. X. Yi
2009-06-05
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
A classical leash for a quantum system: Command of quantum systems via rigidity of CHSH games
Ben W. Reichardt; Falk Unger; Umesh Vazirani
2012-09-03
Can a classical system command a general adversarial quantum system to realize arbitrary quantum dynamics? If so, then we could realize the dream of device-independent quantum cryptography: using untrusted quantum devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the correctness of quantum mechanics. It would also allow for testing whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. Here we report a technique by which a classical system can certify the joint, entangled state of a bipartite quantum system, as well as command the application of specific operators on each subsystem. This is accomplished by showing a strong converse to Tsirelson's optimality result for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game: the only way to win many games is if the bipartite state is close to the tensor product of EPR states, and the measurements are the optimal CHSH measurements on successive qubits. This leads directly to a scheme for device-independent quantum key distribution. Control over the state and operators can also be leveraged to create more elaborate protocols for realizing general quantum circuits, and to establish that QMIP = MIP*.
Engineering coherent control of quantum information in spin systems
Hodges, Jonathan Stuart
2007-01-01
Quantum Information Processing (QIP) promises increased efficiency in computation. A key step in QIP is implementing quantum logic gates by engineering the dynamics of a quantum system. This thesis explores the requirements ...
Quantum chaos using delta kicked systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramareddy, Vijayashankar
Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of this research was to experimentally study quantum dynamics of systems whose classical dynamics are chaotic. Quantum delta-kicked systems such as kicked rotor and kicked accelerator were used. The cold non condensed atoms were kicked first to realize the kicked accelerator. Among the objectives were the realization of resonances of the kicked accelerator and associated phenomena of quantum accelerator modes using a Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC). One of the major achievements of the work in this thesis was the creation of the quantum delta-kicked rotor and its associated resonances to realize a quantum ratchet. The properties of the ratchet were studied in detail. Findings and Conclusions. The Quantum Accelerator Modes (QAM) were realized using both thermal samples of atoms and a BEC. Multiple micro optical traps were accidentally observed and in order to understand their behavior a theory was developed using spherical aberration of a lens. The maps produced by an effective classical theory were studied using the QAM. The resonances of the delta-kicked accelerator were observed for the first time and the theory was developed. One of the models that describes the QAM using rephasing of momentum states was observed in the experiments. The ratchet was realized using the resonances of the kicked rotor and accelerator where the diffusion in the case of classical ratchets was replaced by chaos in the quantum ratchet mechanism.
An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox
Federico Milano
2005-01-01
This paper describes the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), an open source Matlab and GNU\\/Octave-based software package for analysis and design of small to medium size electric power systems. PSAT includes power flow, continuation power flow, optimal power flow, small-signal stability analysis, and time-domain simulation, as well as several static and dynamic models, including nonconventional loads, synchronous and asynchronous machines,
Open Source Real Time Operating Systems Overview
Till Straumann; Till
2001-01-01
Modern control systems applications are often built on top of a real time\\u000aoperating system (RTOS) which provides the necessary hardware abstraction as\\u000awell as scheduling, networking and other services. Several open source RTOS\\u000asolutions are publicly available, which is very attractive, both from an\\u000aeconomic (no licensing fees) as well as from a technical (control over the\\u000asource code)
Equilibration of quantum systems and subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Short, Anthony J.
2011-05-01
We unify two recent results concerning equilibration in quantum theory. We first generalize a proof of Reimann (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 190403), that the expectation value of 'realistic' quantum observables will equilibrate under very general conditions, and discuss its implications for the equilibration of quantum systems. We then use this to re-derive an independent result of Linden et al (2009 Phys. Rev. E 79 061103), showing that small subsystems generically evolve to an approximately static equilibrium state. Finally, we consider subspaces in which all initial states effectively equilibrate to the same state.
Levitated Quantum Nano-Magneto-Mechanical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirio, Mauro; Twamley, Jason; Brennen, Gavin K.; Milburn, Gerard J.
2011-03-01
Quantum nanomechanical sysems have attracted much attention as they provide new macroscopic platforms for the study of quantum mechanics but may also have applications in ultra-sensitive sensing, high precision measurements and in quantum computing. In this work we study the control and cooling of a quantum nanomechanical system which is magnetically levitated via the Meissner effect. Supercurrents in nano-sized superconducting loops give rise to a motional restoring force (trap), when placed in an highly inhomogenous magnetic field and can yield complete trapping of all translational and rotational motions of the levitated nano-object with motional oscillation frequencies ? ~ 10 - 100 MHz. As the supercurrents experience little damping this system will possess unprecendented motional quality factors, with Qmotion ~109 -1013 , and motional superposition states may remain coherent for days. We describe how to execute sideband cooling through inductive coupling to a nearby flux qubit, cooling the mechanical motion close to the ground state.
Open Source Real Time Operating Systems Overview
Straumann, Till
2001-12-11
Modern control systems applications are often built on top of a real time operating system (RTOS) which provides the necessary hardware abstraction as well as scheduling, networking and other services. Several open source RTOS solutions are publicly available, which is very attractive, both from an economic (no licensing fees) as well as from a technical (control over the source code) point of view. This contribution gives an overview of the RTLinux and RTEMS systems (architecture, development environment, API etc.). Both systems feature most popular CPUs, several APIs (including Posix), networking, portability and optional commercial support. Some performance figures are presented, focusing on interrupt latency and context switching delay.
Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.
Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto
2007-02-16
The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system. PMID:17359045
Mechanical systems in the quantum regime
Menno Poot; Herre S. J. van der Zant
2011-10-12
Mechanical systems are ideal candidates for studying quantumbehavior of macroscopic objects. To this end, a mechanical resonator has to be cooled to its ground state and its position has to be measured with great accuracy. Currently, various routes to reach these goals are being explored. In this review, we discuss different techniques for sensitive position detection and we give an overview of the cooling techniques that are being employed. The latter include sideband cooling and active feedback cooling. The basic concepts that are important when measuring on mechanical systems with high accuracy and/or at very low temperatures, such as thermal and quantum noise, linear response theory, and backaction, are explained. From this, the quantum limit on linear position detection is obtained and the sensitivities that have been achieved in recent opto and nanoelectromechanical experiments are compared to this limit. The mechanical resonators that are used in the experiments range from meter-sized gravitational wave detectors to nanomechanical systems that can only be read out using mesoscopic devices such as single-electron transistors or superconducting quantum interference devices. A special class of nanomechanical systems are bottom-up fabricated carbon-based devices, which have very high frequencies and yet a large zero-point motion, making them ideal for reaching the quantum regime. The mechanics of some of the different mechanical systems at the nanoscale is studied. We conclude this review with an outlook of how state-of-the-art mechanical resonators can be improved to study quantum {\\it mechanics}.
Probability Distributions and Hilbert Spaces: Quantum and Classical Systems
V. I. Man'ko; G. Marmo
1999-03-04
We use the fact that some linear Hamiltonian systems can be considered as ``finite level'' quantum systems, and the description of quantum mechanics in terms of probabilities, to associate probability distributions with this particular class of linear Hamiltonian systems.
Open systems for plant process computers
Norris, D.L. [Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pate, R.L. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)
1995-03-01
Arizona Public Service (APS) Company recently upgraded the Emergency Response Facility (ERF) computer at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Stations (PVNGS). The project was initiated to provide the ability to record and display plant data for later analysis of plant events and operational problems (one of the great oversights at nearly every nuclear plant constructed) and to resolve a commitment to correct performance problems on the display side of the system. A major forming objective for the project was to lay a foundation with ample capability and flexibility to provide solutions for future real-time data needs at the plants. The Halliburton NUS Corporation`s Idaho Center (NUS) was selected to develop the system. Because of the constant changes occurring in the computer hardware and software industry, NUS designed and implemented a distributed Open Systems solution based on the UNIX Operating System. This Open System is highly portable across a variety of computer architectures and operating systems and is based on NUS` R*TIME{reg_sign}, a mature software system successfully operating in 14 nuclear plants and over 80 fossil plants. Along with R*TIME, NUS developed two Man-Machine Interface (MMI) versions: R*TIME/WIN, a Microsoft Windows application designed for INTEL-based personal computers operating either Microsoft`s Windows 3.1 or Windows NT operating systems; and R*TIME/X, based on the standard X Window System utilizing the Motif Window Manager.
Quantum discord in matrix product systems
Sun Zhaoyu; Li Liang; Du Guihuan [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao Kailun; Liu Jiwei; Luo Bo; Li Neng; Li Haina [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2010-09-15
We consider a class of quantum systems with spin-flip symmetry and derive the quantum correlation measured by the quantum discord (QD). As an illustration, we investigate the QD in a three-body interaction model and an XYZ interaction model, whose ground states can be expressed as matrix product states, and the QD is exactly soluble. We show that the QD behaves differently than the quantum entanglement (QE) in many ways; for example, they may show opposite monotonicity and completely different finite-size effects. Furthermore, we compare the capability of the QD and the QE to detect quantum phase transitions (QPTs) and find that the QD is more reliable than the QE for signaling QPTs in these models: In the three-body interaction model, the QE is singular at the quantum critical point, however, it exhibits an additional singularity in the noncritical region, while the analyticity of the QD can be used to identify the quantum critical point perfectly; and in the XYZ interaction model, the QE vanishes in the thermodynamic limit, thus losing its ability to detect QPTs, while the QD still functions very well.
Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems
Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco
2012-01-01
Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent “quantumness” still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two “quantum witnesses” to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems. PMID:23185690
Majorization Relation in Quantum Critical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huai, Lin-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Liu, Si-Yuan; Yang, Wen-Li; Qu, Shi-Xian; Fan, Heng
2014-07-01
The most basic local conversion is local operations and classical communications (LOCC), which is also the most natural restriction in quantum information processing. We investigate the conversions between the ground states in quantum critical systems via LOCC and propose a novel method to reveal the different convertibilities via majorization relation when a quantum phase transition occurs. The ground-state local convertibility in the one-dimensional transverse field Ising model is studied. It is shown that the LOCC convertibility changes nearly at the phase transition point. The relation between the order of quantum phase transitions and the LOCC convertibility is discussed. Our results are compared with the corresponding results by using the Rényi entropy and the LOCC convertibility with assisted entanglement.
Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems
Nation, Paul D
2010-01-01
We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quan...
Transient fluctuation theorem in closed quantum systems
Christian Bartsch; Jochen Gemmer
2011-12-22
Our point of departure are the unitary dynamics of closed quantum systems as generated from the Schr\\"odinger equation. We focus on a class of quantum models that typically exhibit roughly exponential relaxation of some observable within this framework. Furthermore, we focus on pure state evolutions. An entropy in accord with Jaynes principle is defined on the basis of the quantum expectation value of the above observable. It is demonstrated that the resulting deterministic entropy dynamics are in a sense in accord with a transient fluctuation theorem. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dynamics of the expectation value are describable in terms of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. These findings are demonstrated numerically and supported by analytical considerations based on quantum typicality.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Pan, Yu, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo, E-mail: yu.pan@anu.edu.au, E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Amini, Hadis, E-mail: nhamini@stanford.edu [Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Gough, John, E-mail: jug@aber.ac.uk [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, SY23 3BZ Wales (United Kingdom); Ugrinovskii, Valery, E-mail: v.ugrinovskii@gmail.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); James, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.james@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging
Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei
2013-01-01
Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570
Quantum Langevin equations for optomechanical systems
Alberto Barchielli; Bassano Vacchini
2015-06-24
We provide a fully quantum description of a mechanical oscillator in the presence of thermal environmental noise by means of a quantum Langevin formulation based on quantum stochastic calculus. The system dynamics is determined by symmetry requirements and equipartition at equilibrium, while the environment is described by quantum Bose fields in a suitable non-Fock representation which allows for the introduction of temperature. A generic spectral density of the environment can be described by introducing its state trough a suitable P-representation. Including interaction of the mechanical oscillator with a cavity mode via radiation pressure we obtain a description of a simple optomechanical system in which, besides the Langevin equations for the system, one has the exact input-output relations for the quantum noises. The whole theory is valid at arbitrarily low temperature. This allows the exact calculation of the stationary value of the mean energy of the mechanical oscillator, as well as both homodyne and heterodyne spectra. The present analysis allows in particular to study possible cooling scenarios and to obtain the exact connection between observed spectra and fluctuation spectra of the position of the mechanical oscillator.
Digital time stamping system based on open source technologies
R. Miskinis; D. Smirnov; E. Urba; A. Burokas; B. Malysko; P. Laud; F. Zuliani
2009-01-01
A digital time stamping system (the BALTICTIME system) was developed by using the open source technologies and was adopted to meet the egovernmental applications, where legal and accountable time stamps are essential. All components of the BALTICTIME system were developed by using the open source software technologies LINUX-UBUNTU, OpenTSA, OpenSSL, MySQL and are designed to suit the hardware, which is
Quantum Coherence Effects in Novel Quantum Optical Systems
Sete, Eyob Alebachew
2012-10-19
separated and uncoupled qubits via interaction with correlated photons in a cavity quantum electrodynamics setup. Finally, we analyze how quantum coherence can be used to generate continuous-variable entanglement in quantum-beat lasers in steady state...
Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system
Edgar A. Gomez; J. D. Hernandez-Rivero; Herbert Vinck-Posada
2015-02-01
We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.
Quantum Discord for d?2 Systems
Ma, Zhihao; Chen, Zhihua; Fanchini, Felipe Fernandes; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We present an analytical solution for classical correlation, defined in terms of linear entropy, in an arbitrary system when the second subsystem is measured. We show that the optimal measurements used in the maximization of the classical correlation in terms of linear entropy, when used to calculate the quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy, result in a tight upper bound for arbitrary systems. This bound agrees with all known analytical results about quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy and, when comparing it with the numerical results for 106 two-qubit random density matrices, we obtain an average deviation of order 10?4. Furthermore, our results give a way to calculate the quantum discord for arbitrary n-qubit GHZ and W states evolving under the action of the amplitude damping noisy channel. PMID:26036771
Quantum Discord for d?2 Systems.
Ma, Zhihao; Chen, Zhihua; Fanchini, Felipe Fernandes; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We present an analytical solution for classical correlation, defined in terms of linear entropy, in an arbitrary system when the second subsystem is measured. We show that the optimal measurements used in the maximization of the classical correlation in terms of linear entropy, when used to calculate the quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy, result in a tight upper bound for arbitrary systems. This bound agrees with all known analytical results about quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy and, when comparing it with the numerical results for 10(6) two-qubit random density matrices, we obtain an average deviation of order 10(-4). Furthermore, our results give a way to calculate the quantum discord for arbitrary n-qubit GHZ and W states evolving under the action of the amplitude damping noisy channel. PMID:26036771
Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems
Paul D. Nation
2010-09-16
We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process. Finally, we look at a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviation occurs once the pump mode (black hole) has released nearly half of its initial energy in the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
Anastopoulos, Charis, E-mail: anastop@physics.upatras.gr; Savvidou, Ntina, E-mail: ksavvidou@physics.upatras.gr
2013-09-15
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.
Matthew James
2014-06-20
This paper explains some fundamental ideas of {\\em feedback} control of quantum systems through the study of a relatively simple two-level system coupled to optical field channels. The model for this system includes both continuous and impulsive dynamics. Topics covered in this paper include open and closed loop control, impulsive control, optimal control, quantum filtering, quantum feedback networks, and coherent feedback control.
Jung, Paul
NSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum Spin SystemsNSF-CBMS Conference on Quantum for participants is available through an NSF grant. Graduate students, women, and under-represented minority groups
Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system.
Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J; Saito, Shiro
2014-01-01
The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792
Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system
Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro
2014-01-01
The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792
Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems
Milonni, P.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Goggin, M.E.
1987-01-01
This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs. (JDH)
Universality in spectral statistics of open quantum graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutkin, B.; Osipov, V. Al.
2015-06-01
The quantum evolution maps of closed chaotic quantum graphs are unitary and known to have universal spectral correlations matching predictions of random matrix theory. In chaotic graphs with absorption the quantum maps become nonunitary. We show that their spectral statistics exhibit universality at the soft edges of the spectrum. The same spectral behavior is observed in many classical nonunitary ensembles of random matrices with rotationally invariant measures.
Identities for Entropy Change Associated with the Time-Evolution of an Open System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majima, Hiroki; Suzuki, Akira
2015-04-01
A general relation between entropy and an evolutionary superoperator is derived based on the theory of the real-time formulation. The formulation establishing the relation relies only on the framework of quantum statistical mechanics and the standard definition of the von Neumann entropy. Applying the theory of the imaginary-time formulation, a similar relation is obtained for the entropy change due to the change in reservoir temperatures. To show the usefulness of these formulas, we derived the expression for the entropy production induced by some dissipation in an open quantum system as the exemplary model system.
Wu, Chia-Ching; Liou, Jian-Chiun; Diao, Chien-Chen
2015-07-23
A self-powered complementary electrochromic device (CECD) driven by a high open-circuit voltage InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell has been designed. The coloration and bleaching time of the system were 5 and 8 s, respectively. PMID:26158586
Overcoming erasure errors in quantum memories with multilevel systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Wen, Jianming; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
We propose the usage of highly efficient error correcting codes of multilevel systems to encode quantum memories that suffer from erasure errors and introduce efficient hardware to repetitively correct these errors. Our scheme makes use of quantum polynomial codes to encode a quantum memory and generalized one-bit teleportation circuits for multilevel systems to repetitively correct photon erasure errors and operation errors in a fault-tolerant manner. We compare our scheme with earlier known schemes to encode quantum memories that use quantum parity codes and surface codes respectively and discuss the application of our encoded quantum memories for one-way quantum repeaters and show that they achieve a superior performance.
Semiclassical Analysis of Constrained Quantum Systems
Tsobanjan, Artur [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2009-12-15
Exact procedures that follow Dirac's constraint quantization of gauge theories are usually technically involved and often difficult to implement in practice. We overview an 'effective' scheme for obtaining the leading order semiclassical corrections to the dynamics of constrained quantum systems developed elsewhere. Motivated by the geometrical view of quantum mechanics, our method mimics the classical Dirac-Bergmann algorithm and avoids direct reference to a particular representation of the physical Hilbert space. We illustrate the procedure through the example of a relativistic particle in Minkowski spacetime.
Average entanglement dynamics in open two-qubit systems with continuous monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, Ivonne; Viviescas, Carlos
2014-07-01
We present a comprehensive implementation of the quantum trajectory theory for the description of the entanglement dynamics in a Markovian open quantum system made of two qubits. We introduce the average concurrence to characterize the entanglement in the system and derive a deterministic evolution equation for it that depends on the ways in which information is read from the environment. This buildt-in flexibility of the method is used to address two actual issues in quantum information: entanglement protection and entanglement estimation. We identify general physical situations in which an entanglement protection protocol based on local monitoring of the environment can be implemented. Additionally, we methodically find unravelings of the system dynamics providing analytical tight bounds for the unmonitored entanglement in the system at all times. We conclude by showing the independence of the method from the choice of entanglement measure.
Pattern Classification Using a Quantum System Dan Ventura
Martinez, Tony R.
on classical systems [1] [2] [3] [4]. The idea of using quantum systems as neural information processingPattern Classification Using a Quantum System Dan Ventura Brigham Young University Department three approaches to quantum pattern classification, presenting empirical results from simulations
Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems
G. Van Hooydonk
2005-12-03
A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.
1998-03-24
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.
An E-payment system based on quantum group signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaojun, Wen
2010-12-01
Security and anonymity are essential to E-payment systems. However, existing E-payment systems will easily be broken into soon with the emergence of quantum computers. In this paper, we propose an E-payment system based on quantum group signature. In contrast to classical E-payment systems, our quantum E-payment system can protect not only the users' anonymity but also the inner structure of customer groups. Because of adopting the two techniques of quantum key distribution, a one-time pad and quantum group signature, unconditional security of our E-payment system is guaranteed.
An exactly solvable system from quantum optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz
2015-07-01
We investigate a generalisation of the Rabi system in the Bargmann-Fock representation. In this representation the eigenproblem of the considered quantum model is described by a system of two linear differential equations with one independent variable. The system has only one irregular singular point at infinity. We show how the quantisation of the model is related to asymptotic behaviour of solutions in a vicinity of this point. The explicit formulae for the spectrum and eigenfunctions of the model follow from an analysis of the Stokes phenomenon. An interpretation of the obtained results in terms of differential Galois group of the system is also given.
Quantum Correlations in Qutrit-Qutrit Systems under Local Quantum Noise Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doustimotlagh, Nasibollah; Guo, Jin-Liang; Wang, Shuhao
2015-06-01
Due to decoherence, realistic quantum systems inevitably interact with the environment when quantum information is processed, which causes the loss of quantum properties. As a fundamental issue of quantum properties, quantum correlations have attracted a lot of interests in recent years. Because of the importance of high dimensional systems in quantum information, in this work, we study the quantum correlations affected by the Markovian environment by considering the quantum correlations of qutrit-qutrit quantum systems measured by the negativity and the geometric discord. The local noise channels covered in this work include dephasing, trit-flip, trit-phase-flip, and depolarising channels. We have also investigated the cases where the local decoherence channels of two sides are identical and non-identical.
The FLOSSWALD Information System on Free and Open Source Software
Meike Reichle; Alexandre Hanft
2006-01-01
We propose the implementation of an intelligent information system on free and open source soft- ware. This system will consist of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system and several machine learning modules to maintain the knowledge base and train the CBR system thus enhancing its per- formance. Our knowledge base will include data on free and open source software provided by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti
Thermalization of field driven quantum systems
Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.
2014-01-01
There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404
Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems
Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2013-01-15
General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems
Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-24
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903
A remote monitoring system for Open Ocean Aquaculture
A. P. M. Michel; K. L. Croff; K. W. McLetchie; J. D. Irish
2002-01-01
The purpose of this project was to determine the practicality and characteristics of a remote monitoring system for an open ocean aquaculture fish cage. The Open Ocean Aquaculture program at the University of New Hampshire currently uses two fish cages to develop the technology and methodology to raise finned fish in the open ocean. The cages are located about six
EDITORIAL: How to control decoherence and entanglement in quantum complex systems?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akulin, V. M.; Kurizki, G.; Lidar, D. A.
2007-05-01
Theory and experiment have not fully resolved the apparent dichotomy, which has agonized physics for the past eighty years: on the one hand, the description of microsystems by quantum mechanics and, on the other, the description of macrosystems by classical dynamics or statistical mechanics. Derivations of the time-irreversible Liouville equation for an open quantum system, based on projecting out its environment, have narrowed the gap between the quantum and classical descriptions. Yet our `classical' intuition continues to be confronted by quantum-mechanical results like the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen paradox that challenges the classical notion of locality, or the quantum Zeno effect which suggests that the isolation of a system is not the only way to preserve its quantum state. There are two key concepts in any discussion of such issues. The first, which is responsible for the most salient nonclassical properties, is entanglement, that is partial or complete correlation or, more generally, inseparability of the elements comprising a quantum ensemble. Even after their interaction has ceased, this inseparability, originating from their past interaction, can affect the state of one element when another element is subject to a nonunitary action, such as its measurement, tracing- out, or thermalization. The second key concept is decoherence of open quantum systems, which is the consequence of their entanglement with their environment, a `meter' or a thermal `reservoir', followed by the tracing-out of the latter. Despite new insights into entanglement and decoherence, there are still no complete, unequivocal answers to the fundamental questions of the transition from quantal to classical behaviour: how do irreversibility and classicality emerge from unitarity as systems and their environments become increasingly complex? At what stage does system--meter entanglement give rise to a classical readout of the meter? Is there an upper limit on the size or complexity of systems displaying entanglement? Major developments have opened new vistas into controlled entanglement, which is the resource of quantum information processing. However, these developments have mainly focused on ensembles of simple two- and three-level systems that are thoroughly isolated from their environments. Treatments of coherence in quantum computing have mostly assumed that only a single or a few the elements of the quantum ensemble may simultaneously undergo an uncontrolled intervention---a quantum error. Decoherence-control protocols for more general types of errors are still incomplete. In order to resolve the outstanding issues of the quantum--classical transition, and study the control of entanglement and decoherence without the foregoing restrictions, we must venture into the domain of Quantum Complex Systems (QUACS), either consisting of a large number of inseparable elements or having many coupled degrees of freedom. Our conviction is that fundamental understanding and manipulation of entanglement within QUACS or their entanglement with the environment or a meter, call for the creation of a new conceptual framework or paradigm, that would encompass phenomena common to cold atoms in laser fields, large molecules, Josephson junctions, quantum gases and solids, with the view of employing these systems for quantum information processing and computing. Progress within this paradigm should allow us to answer the questions: does entanglement play an essential role in the evolution of large collections of complex systems? What are the size and complexity limits of systems and ensembles still controllable by an external intervention? What are the most appropriate decoherence protection schemes and control algorithms? This special issue addresses the challenge of understanding in depth and manipulating the basic quantum properties of optical, atomic, molecular and condensed-matter QUACS, and large ensembles thereof. In view of the interdisciplinary character of this issue, we find it expedient to look at the presented articles not only according to the phys
Equivalence of the measures of non-Markovianity for open two-level systems
Zeng Haosheng; Tang Ning; Zheng Yanping; Wang Guoyou [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)
2011-09-15
Different measures have been presented to depict the deviation of quantum time evolution in open systems from Markovian processes. We demonstrate that the measure proposed by Breuer, Laine, and Piilo [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009)] and the two measures proposed by Rivas, Huelga, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010)] have exactly the same non-Markovian time-evolution intervals and thus are really equivalent to each other when they are applied to open two-level systems coupled to environments via the Jaynes-Cummings or dephasing models. This equivalence implies that the three measures, in different ways, capture the intrinsic character of the non-Markovianity of quantum evolutional processes. We also show that the maximization in the definition of the first measure can be actually removed for the considered models without influencing the sensibility of the measure to detect non-Markovianity.
Density and Temperature in Quantum Nuclear Systems
Zheng, Hua
2014-10-01
DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE IN QUANTUM NUCLEAR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by HUA ZHENG Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY... Chair of Committee, Robert Tribble Co-Chair of Committee, Aldo Bonasera Committee Members, Joseph Natowitz Che-Ming Ko Saskia Mioduszewski Head of Department, George R. Welch December 2014 Major Subject: Physics Copyright 2014 Hua Zheng ABSTRACT One...
Quantum Morphogenetic System in image recognition
Germano Resconi; Chu Kiong Loo; Nuo Wi Noel Tay
2009-01-01
Hopfield network requires that state vectors of images to be orthogonal to eliminate cross-talk. In practical sense, it cannot be achieved. A solution is to orthogonalize the state vectors with each other as a pre-processing. The QMS (Quantum Morphogenetic System) is a mathematical model devised to give a different more elegant and intuitive perspective of the pre-processing by assuming a
Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system
Ryszard Tana?
2012-10-22
We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.
A Safety Engineering Framework for Open Adaptive Systems
Daniel Schneider; Mario Trapp
2011-01-01
In recent years it has become more and more evident that openness and adaptivity are key characteristics of next generation distributed systems. The reason for that is not least the advent of computing trends like Ubiquitous Computing, Ambient Intelligence, and Cyber Physical Systems, where systems are usually open for dynamic integration and able to react adaptively to changing situations. Despite
Open Source Course Management Systems: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Remy, Eric
2005-01-01
In Fall 2003, Randolph-Macon Woman's College rolled out Claroline, an Open Source course management system for all the classes on campus. This document will cover some background on both Open Source in general and course management systems in specific, discuss technical challenges in the introduction and integration of the system and give some…
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achuthan, P.; Narayanankutty, Karuppath
2009-07-01
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
Achuthan, P. [Department of Mathematics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India); Dept. of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 600 036 (India); Narayanankutty, Karuppath [Dept. of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India)
2009-07-02
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
Time fractional development of quantum systems
Ertik, Hueseyin; Demirhan, Dogan; Sirin, Hueseyin; Bueyuekkilic, Fevzi [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)
2010-08-15
In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a Schroedinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order {alpha}, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case {alpha}=1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order {alpha} is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.
A novel thermo-photovoltaic cell with quantum-well for high open circuit voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouhsari, Ezzat Sadat; Faez, Rahim; Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh
2015-07-01
We design a thermo-photovoltaic Tandem cell which produces high open circuit voltage (Voc) that causes to increase efficiency (?). The currently used materials (AlAsSb-InGaSb/InAsSb) have thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) property which can be a p-n junction of a solar cell, but they have low bandgap energy which is the reason for lower open circuit voltage. In this paper, in the bottom cell of the Tandem, there is 30 quantum wells which increase absorption coefficients and quantum efficiency (QE) that causes to increase current. By increasing the current of the bottom cell, the top cell thickness must be increased because the top cell and the bottom cell should have the same current. In the top cell, by increasing the thickness, absorption coefficients and quantum efficiency increase that causes to increase the current. Current increment is also the second factor that causes to increase overall efficiency.
Semiclassical theory for decay and fragmentation processes in chaotic quantum systems.
Gutiérrez, Martha; Waltner, Daniel; Kuipers, Jack; Richter, Klaus
2009-04-01
We consider quantum decay and photofragmentation processes in open chaotic systems in the semiclassical limit. We devise a semiclassical approach which allows us to consistently calculate quantum corrections to the classical decay to high order in an expansion in the inverse Heisenberg time. We present results for systems with and without time-reversal symmetry, as well as for the symplectic case, and extend recent results to nonlocalized initial states. We further analyze related photodissociation and photoionization phenomena and semiclassically compute cross-section correlations, including their Ehrenfest-time dependence. PMID:19518317
On the notion of a macroscopic quantum system
Andrei Khrennikov
2005-09-21
It is proposed to define "quantumness" of a system (micro or macroscopic, physical, biological, social, political) by starting with understanding that quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. It says us only about probability distributions. The only possible criteria of quantum behaviour are statistical ones. Therefore I propose to consider any system which produces quantum statistics as quantum ("quantumlike"). A possible test is based on the interference of probabilities. I was mainly interested in using such an approach to "quantumness" to extend the domain of applications of quantum mathematical formalism and especially to apply it to cognitive sciences. There were done experiments on interference of probabilities for ensembles of students and a nontrivial interference was really found. One could say that the quantum statistical behaviour might be expected. But the problem was not so trivial. Yes, we might expect nonclassical statistics, but there was no reason to get the quantum one, i.e., cos-interference. But we got it!
Stochastic approach to quantum light-matter systems: Application to a BEC in a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandt, Stephan; Sadri, Darius; Kulkarni, Manas; Tureci, Hakan
2015-03-01
The engineering of light-matter interaction has become an active area of research with applications as diverse as quantum simulation with cold atoms or ions, correlated photovoltaics, and quantum computing; numerical methods are faced with the problem of vast Hilbert spaces. We have developed a novel stochastic approach to model the dynamics of open spin-boson networks. This method relies on a generalization of the positive P representation for systems involving spin. We emphasize the use of this method to describe a Bose gas placed in a leaky cavity and driven by a laser. This system, in the limit of large number of bosonic atoms, can be well described by an open Dicke model. We compare the dynamics obtained by our numerically exact stochastic method to semi-classical results, thereby identifying the quantum effects especially near the open quantum phase transition point. The stochastic method is also shown to be a strong approach to describe the BEC-Cavity system when connected to a finite temperature bath.
Chapter 5: Quantum Dynamics in Dissipative Molecular Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, J.; Xu, Rui-Xue; Yan, Y. J.
2014-04-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * HEOM versus Path Integral Formalism: Background * Generic form and terminology of HEOM * Statistical mechanics description of bath influence * Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism * General comments * Memory-Frequency Decomposition of Bath Correlation Functions * PSD of Bose function * Brownian oscillators decomposition of bath spectral density function * Optimized HEOM Theory With Accuracy Control * Construction of HEOM via path integral formalism * Accuracy control on white-noise residue ansatz * Efficient HEOM propagator: Numerical filtering and indexing algorithm * HEOM in Quantum Mechanics for Open Systems * The HEOM space and the Schrödinger picture * HEOM in the Heisenberg picture * Mixed Heisenberg-Schrödinger block-matrix dynamics in nonlinear optical response functions * Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy: Model Calculations * Concluding Remarks * Acknowledgments * References
Teaching the environment to control quantum systems
Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2006-06-15
A nonequilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal nonequilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.
How open should an open system be? : essays on mobile computing
Boudreau, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)
2006-01-01
"Systems" goods-such as computers, telecom networks, and automobiles-are made up of multiple components. This dissertation comprises three essays that study the decisions of system innovators in mobile computing to "open" ...
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit QED. Another rapidly growing research field (although its origin can be traced to the beginning of the 1980s) is the quantum control of evolution at the microscopic level. These examples show that quantum non-stationary systems continue to be a living and very interesting part of quantum physics, uniting researchers from many different areas. Thus it is no mere chance that several special scientific meetings devoted to these topics have been organized recently. One was the international seminar 'Time-Dependent Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' organized by Manfred Kleber and Tobias Kramer in 2007 at Blaubeuren, Germany. The proceedings of that event were published in 2008 as volume 99 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Another recent meeting was the International Workshop on Quantum Non-Stationary Systems, held on 19-23 October 2009 at the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP) in Brasilia, Brazil. It was organized and directed by Victor Dodonov (Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, Brazil), Vladimir Man'ko (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) and Salomon Mizrahi (Physics Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil). This event was accompanied by a satellite workshop 'Quantum Dynamics in Optics and Matter', organized by Salomon Mizrahi and Victor Dodonov on 25-26 October 2009 at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. These two workshops, supported by the Brazilian federal agencies CAPES and CNPq and the local agencies FAP-DF and FAPESP, were attended by more than 120 participants from 16 countries. Almost 50 invited talks and 20 poster presentations covered a wide area of research in quantum mechanics, quantum optics and quantum information. This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta contains contributions presented by some invited speakers and participants of the workshop in Brasilia. Although they do not cover all of the wide spectrum of problems related to quantum non-stationary systems, they nonetheless show some general trends. However, readers should remember that thes
The Design and Implement of Open Source License Tracking System
HongBo Xu; HuiHui Yang; Dan Wan; JiangPing Wan
2010-01-01
This paper describes the design and implement of a small automated license tracking system with Open Source License Checker (OSLC)-a license tracking tool, which is based on factory core services proposed in QualiPSo project. With EJB3.0 specification, GWT and SOA framework, Open Source License tracing system calls a webservice checking open license conflicting statement, and feedback the results to clients.
Quantum Random Access Codes Using Single d -Level Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed
2015-05-01
Random access codes (RACs) are used by a party to, with limited communication, access an arbitrary subset of information held by another party. Quantum resources are known to enable RACs that break classical limitations. Here, we study quantum and classical RACs with high-level communication. We derive average performances of classical RACs and present families of high-level quantum RACs. Our results show that high-level quantum systems can significantly increase the advantage of quantum RACs over their classical counterparts. We demonstrate our findings in an experimental realization of a quantum RAC with four-level communication.
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Gawron, P; Miszczak, J A; Winiarczyk, R
2010-01-01
We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a library of functions, which facilitates the simulation of quantum computing. This package allows also to incorporate high-level programming concepts into the simulation in GNU Octave and Matlab. As such it connects features unique for high-level quantum programming languages, with the full palette of efficient computational routines commonly available in modern scientific computing systems. To present the major features of the described package we provide the implementation of selected quantum algorithms. We also show how quantum errors can be...
An open absorption system installed at a sawmill
L Johansson; L Westerlund
2000-01-01
This work describes a pilot plant and its different parts in a system used for bio-fuel drying and timber drying with an open absorption process. This technique has not been used previously in Sweden in this application. The open absorption system has been installed on four timber dryers and one bio-fuel dryer at a sawmill located in the northern part
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney
Parsons, Simon
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University Languages, Deliberative Democracy, Open Agent Systems, Political Philosophy, Philosophical Foundations the participants is closer to one of equality; this in turn suggests that some form of democracy is appropriate
Reasoning about Meta Level Activities in Open Distributed Systems
Venkatasubramanian, Nalini
Reasoning about Meta Level Activities in Open Distributed Systems Nalini Venkatasubramanian Hewlett]. Representation of dependability protocols as metalevel programs is presented in [4]. Some of the more recent Approach Open distributed systems should provide strong support for customization and adaptation. Nonreflective
Skeletal anchorage system for open-bite correction
Mikako Umemori; Junji Sugawara; Hideo Mitani; Hiroshi Nagasaka; Hiroshi Kawamura
1999-01-01
A skeletal anchorage system was developed for tooth movements. It consists of a titanium miniplate that is temporarily implanted in the maxilla or the mandible as an immobile anchorage. In this article, we introduce the skeletal anchorage system to intrude the lower molars in open-bite malocclusion and evaluate the results of treatment in two severe open-bite cases that underwent orthodontic
Heat and liquid recovery using open cycle heat pump system
Fox
1985-01-01
The present invention relates to the recovery of heat and\\/or condensable liquid from a gaseous environment utilizing an open cycle heat pump system. The open cycle heat pump system is employed to alter the temperature of a gas by compression, expansion, heat exchange, and combinations thereof, to condense selected vapors carried in the gaseous environment for removal from the gas.
Heat and liquid recovery using open cycle heat pump system
Fox
1981-01-01
The present invention relates to the recovery of heat and\\/or condensable liquid from a gaseous environment utilizing an open cycle heat pump system. The open cycle heat pump system is employed to alter the temperature of a gas by compression, expansion, heat exchange, and combinations thereof, to condense selected vapors carried in the gaseous environment for removal from the gas.
Empowering open systems through cross-platform interoperability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyke, James C.
2014-06-01
Most of the motivations for open systems lie in the expectation of interoperability, sometimes referred to as "plug-and-play". Nothing in the notion of "open-ness", however, guarantees this outcome, which makes the increased interest in open architecture more perplexing. In this paper, we explore certain themes of open architecture. We introduce the concept of "windows of interoperability", which can be used to align disparate portions of architecture. Such "windows of interoperability", which concentrate on a reduced set of protocol and interface features, might achieve many of the broader purposes assigned as benefits in open architecture. Since it is possible to engineer proprietary systems that interoperate effectively, this nuanced definition of interoperability may in fact be a more important concept to understand and nurture for effective systems engineering and maintenance.
Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura
Martinez, Tony R.
@fonix.com http://axon.cs.byu.edu/Dan Abstract Ideas from quantum computation are applied to the field of neural quantum computational ideas to the field of neural networks is an intriguing one and is beginningImplementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura fonix corporation dventura
Opening up the Quantum Three-Box Problem with Undetectable Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Richard; Robledo, Lucio; Maroney, Owen; Blok, Machiel; Bernien, Hannes; Twitchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Morton, John; Briggs, Andrew; Hanson, Ronald
2013-03-01
One of the most striking features of quantum mechanics is the profound effect exerted by measurements alone. Sophisticated quantum control is now available in several experimental systems, exposing discrepancies between quantum and classical mechanics whenever measurement induces disturbance of the interrogated system. In practice, such discrepancies may frequently be explained as the back-action required by quantum mechanics adding quantum noise to a classical signal. Here we implement the `three-box' quantum game (Aharonov, et al. 1991) by utilising state-of-the-art control and measurement of the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. In this protocol, the back-action of quantum measurements add no detectable disturbance to the classical description of the game. Quantum and classical mechanics then make contradictory predictions for the same experimental procedure, however classical observers are unable to invoke measurement-induced disturbance to explain the discrepancy. We quantify the disturbance of our measurements and obtain data ruling out any classical model by 7.8 sigma, excluding state-definiteness from our system. Our experiment is then equivalent to a Kochen-Spekker test of quantum non-contextuality that successfully addresses the measurement detectability loophole.
Preparing ground States of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer.
Poulin, David; Wocjan, Pawel
2009-04-01
Preparing the ground state of a system of interacting classical particles is an NP-hard problem. Thus, there is in general no better algorithm to solve this problem than exhaustively going through all N configurations of the system to determine the one with lowest energy, requiring a running time proportional to N. A quantum computer, if it could be built, could solve this problem in time sqrt[N]. Here, we present a powerful extension of this result to the case of interacting quantum particles, demonstrating that a quantum computer can prepare the ground state of a quantum system as efficiently as it does for classical systems. PMID:19392338
Dissipative quantum systems and the heat capacity.
Dattagupta, S; Kumar, Jishad; Sinha, S; Sreeram, P A
2010-03-01
We present a detailed study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field. Our focus of attention is the effect of dissipation on the low- and high-temperature behaviors of the specific heat at constant volume. After providing a brief overview of two distinct approaches to the statistical mechanics of dissipative quantum systems, viz., the ensemble approach of Gibbs and the quantum Brownian motion approach due to Einstein, we present exact analyses of the specific heat. While the low-temperature expressions for the specific heat, based on the two approaches, are in conformity with power-law temperature dependence, predicted by the third law of thermodynamics, and the high-temperature expressions are in agreement with the classical equipartition theorem, there are surprising differences between the dependencies of the specific heat on different parameters in the theory, when calculations are done from these two distinct methods. In particular, we find puzzling influences of boundary confinement and the bath-induced spectral cutoff frequency. Further, when it comes to the issue of approach to equilibrium, based on the Einstein method, the way the asymptotic limit (t-->infinity) is taken seems to assume significance. PMID:20365726
Modular Dynamical Semigroups for Quantum Dissipative Systems
David Taj; Hans Christian Öttinger
2015-03-10
We introduce a class of Markovian quantum master equations, able to describe the dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several heat baths. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic operator, the so called modular Hamiltonian, which makes it nonlinear. The generated Modular Dynamical Semigroup (MDS) is not, in general, a Quantum Dynamical Semigroup (QDS), whose dynamics is of the popular Lindblad type. The MDS has a robust thermodynamic structure, which guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state, the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, a positive Onsager matrix and Onsager symmetry relations (arising from Green-Kubo formulas). We show that the celebrated Davies generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. By unravelling the modular structure of the former, we provide a different and genuinely nonlinear MDS, not of QDS type, which is free from the severe spectral restrictions of the Davies generator, while still being supported by a weak coupling limit argument. With respect to the latter, the present work is a substantial extension of \\cite{Ottinger2011_GEO,Ottinger2010_TLS_DHO}
Thermalization in Quantum Systems: An Emergent Approach
Clifford Chafin
2015-02-23
The problems with an emergent approach to quantum statistical mechanics are discussed and shown to follow from some of the same sources as those of quantum measurement. A wavefunction of an N atom solid is described in the ground and excited eigenstates with explicit modifications for phonons. Using the particular subclass of wavefunctions that can correspond to classical solids we investigate the localization properties of atomic centers of mass motion and contrast it with more general linear combinations of phonon states. The effectively large mass of longer modes means that localization present in the ground state persists on excitation of the material by macroscopic coherent disturbances. The "thermalization" that arises then follows from the long term well defined motion of these localized peaks in their 3N dimensional harmonic wells in the same fashion as that of a classical solid in phase space. Thermal production of photons then create an internal radiation field and provides the first dynamical derivation of the Planck distribution from material motions. Significantly, this approach resolves a long standing paradox of thermalization of many body quantum systems from Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics alone.
A neural-network-like quantum information processing system
Mitja Perus; Horst Bischof
2003-05-13
The Hopfield neural networks and the holographic neural networks are models which were successfully simulated on conventional computers. Starting with these models, an analogous fundamental quantum information processing system is developed in this article. Neuro-quantum interaction can regulate the "collapse"-readout of quantum computation results. This paper is a comprehensive introduction into associative processing and memory-storage in quantum-physical framework.
Securing the banking ecosystem: A quantum leap? Italian open panel
Ernesto Damiani; Claudio Santacesaria; Raoul Chiesa; Giorgio Fedon; Marco Tempra; Mario Monitillo
2012-01-01
Ernesto Damiani (Professor of Service Security at the Dept. of Information Technology, University of Milan) and Claudio Santacesaria (Rototype) have promoted a non-profit initiative to deal with technical aspects of the banking ecosystem security. The kick off takes place at Campione d???Italia in the location of 2012 IEEE DEST-CEE Conference on the afternoon of June 18th with an open panel.
Rapid mixing renders quantum dissipative systems stable
Lucia, Angelo; Cubitt, Toby S.; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David
2015-04-09
Rapid mixing renders quantum dissipative systems stable Angelo Lucia,1 Toby S. Cubitt,2 Spyridon Michalakis,3 and David Pe´rez-Garc´?a1 1Dpto. Ana´lisis Matema´tico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain 2DAMTP, University... , Nature Physics 8, 292 (2012). [14] I. Klich, Annals of Physics 325, 2120 (2010). [15] S. Bravyi, M. B. Hastings, and S. Michalakis, J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010), arXiv:1001.0344 [quant-ph]. [16] S. Michalakis and J. P. Zwolak, Commun. in Math. Phys...
Partitioning technique for discrete quantum systems
Jin, L.; Song, Z. [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2011-06-15
We develop the partitioning technique for quantum discrete systems. The graph consists of several subgraphs: a central graph and several branch graphs, with each branch graph being rooted by an individual node on the central one. We show that the effective Hamiltonian on the central graph can be constructed by adding additional potentials on the branch-root nodes, which generates the same result as does the the original Hamiltonian on the entire graph. Exactly solvable models are presented to demonstrate the main points of this paper.
Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Time: are Quantum Systems Markovian?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durt, Thomas
2012-11-01
The predictions of the Quantum Theory have been verified so far with astonishingly high accuracy. Despite of its impressive successes, the theory still presents mysterious features such as the border line between the classical and quantum world, or the deep nature of quantum nonlocality. These open questions motivated in the past several proposals of alternative and/or generalized approaches. We shall discuss in the present paper alternative theories that can be infered from a reconsideration of the status of time in quantum mechanics. Roughly speaking, quantum mechanics is usually formulated as a memory free (Markovian) theory at a fundamental level, but alternative, nonMarkovian, formulations are possible, and some of them can be tested in the laboratory. In our paper we shall give a survey of these alternative proposals, describe related experiments that were realized in the past and also formulate new experimental proposals.
Quantum Mechanics and the Role of Time:. are Quantum Systems Markovian?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durt, Thomas
2013-06-01
The predictions of the Quantum Theory have been verified so far with astonishingly high accuracy. Despite of its impressive successes, the theory still presents mysterious features such as the border line between the classical and quantum world, or the deep nature of quantum nonlocality. These open questions motivated in the past several proposals of alternative and/or generalized approaches. We shall discuss in the present paper alternative theories that can be infered from a reconsideration of the status of time in quantum mechanics. Roughly speaking, quantum mechanics is usually formulated as a memory free (Markovian) theory at a fundamental level, but alternative, nonMarkovian, formulations are possible, and some of them can be tested in the laboratory. In our paper we shall give a survey of these alternative proposals, describe related experiments that were realized in the past and also formulate new experimental proposals.
Elementary Excitations in Gapped Quantum Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haegeman, Jutho; Michalakis, Spyridon; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Osborne, Tobias J.; Schuch, Norbert; Verstraete, Frank
2013-08-01
For quantum lattice systems with local interactions, the Lieb-Robinson bound serves as an alternative for the strict causality of relativistic systems and allows the proof of many interesting results, in particular, when the energy spectrum exhibits an energy gap. In this Letter, we show that for translation invariant systems, simultaneous eigenstates of energy and momentum with an eigenvalue that is separated from the rest of the spectrum in that momentum sector can be arbitrarily well approximated by building a momentum superposition of a local operator acting on the ground state. The error satisfies an exponential bound in the size of the support of the local operator, with a rate determined by the gap below and above the targeted eigenvalue. We show this explicitly for the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model and discuss generalizations and applications of our result.
Elementary excitations in gapped quantum spin systems.
Haegeman, Jutho; Michalakis, Spyridon; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Osborne, Tobias J; Schuch, Norbert; Verstraete, Frank
2013-08-23
For quantum lattice systems with local interactions, the Lieb-Robinson bound serves as an alternative for the strict causality of relativistic systems and allows the proof of many interesting results, in particular, when the energy spectrum exhibits an energy gap. In this Letter, we show that for translation invariant systems, simultaneous eigenstates of energy and momentum with an eigenvalue that is separated from the rest of the spectrum in that momentum sector can be arbitrarily well approximated by building a momentum superposition of a local operator acting on the ground state. The error satisfies an exponential bound in the size of the support of the local operator, with a rate determined by the gap below and above the targeted eigenvalue. We show this explicitly for the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model and discuss generalizations and applications of our result. PMID:24010415
Quantum chaotic system as a model of decohering environment
Jayendra N. Bandyopadhyay
2009-04-24
As a model of decohering environment, we show that quantum chaotic system behave equivalently as many-body system. An approximate formula for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a system interacting with a quantum chaotic environment is derived. This theoretical formulation is substantiated by the numerical study of decoherence of two qubits interacting with a quantum chaotic environment modeled by a chaotic kicked top. Like the many-body model of environment, the quantum chaotic system is efficient decoherer, and it can generate entanglement between the two qubits which have no direct interaction.
Follow the fugitive: an application of the method of images to open dynamical systems
Giampaolo Cristadoro; Georgie Knight; Mirko Degli Esposti
2013-06-27
Borrowing and extending the method of images we introduce a theoretical framework that greatly simplifies analytical and numerical investigations of the escape rate in open dynamical systems. As an example, we explicitly derive the exact size- and position-dependent escape rate in a Markov case for holes of finite size. Moreover, a general relation between the transfer operators of closed and corresponding open systems, together with the generating function of the probability of return to the hole is derived. This relation is then used to compute the small hole asymptotic behavior, in terms of readily calculable quantities. As an example we derive logarithmic corrections in the second order term. Being valid for Markov systems, our framework can find application in information theory, network theory, quantum Weyl law and via Ulam's method can be used as an approximation method in more general dynamical systems.
Statistical analysis of finite equilibrium quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukkarinen, Jani Markus
Finite systems are composed of so few particles that the thermodynamical limit cannot be applied accurately to their analysis and such systems play a crucial role in biological life and possibly soon as well in electronics. We consider here generalizations for finite quantum systems of the statistical methods leading to the standard thermodynamics and possible practical implementations of these methods in numerical analysis. The emphasis is on mathematical rigor and on an estimation of the errors induced by the approximation schemes we use. Two statistical approaches have been considered here. One is the use of more general ensembles than the standard canonical Gibbs ensemble, and we discuss methods for a practical evaluation of expectation values in these ensembles. We derive a saddle point approximation which simplifies the evaluation process and we present methods for an estimation of the accuracy of the saddle point approximation. The saddle point approximation leads also naturally to the so called canonical Tsallis statistics which have been developed recently. We discuss briefly how this approximation might be used in practical applications. The second approach involves a lattice approximation of quantum mechanical systems. We prove rigorously that the lattice approximation developed by Feynman converges for a system composed of non-relativistic bosons and fermions when there is a potential which prevents the particles from escaping to infinity. The proof contains a generalization of the Golden-Thompson-Symanzik inequality and this generalization can be used for inspection of the correlation effects induced by the indistinguishability of the particles. We derive two sets of lattice operators which can be used for measuring the energy moments of these systems and we discuss a numerical algorithm which enables an estimation of these moments and of the density of energy states.
Time delay for onedimensional quantum systems with steplike potentials
Time delay for oneÂdimensional quantum systems with steplike potentials W. O. Amrein # and Ph the concept of time delay for a class of oneÂdimensional anisotropic quantum systems. These systems#erent representations of time delay. The first one is defined in terms of sojourn times while the second one is given
Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems
S. M. Giampaolo; G. Gualdi; A. Monras; F. Illuminati
2012-01-05
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.
Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-12-23
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147
The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, B.; Carr, L. D.; Evertz, H. G.; Feiguin, A.; Freire, J.; Fuchs, S.; Gamper, L.; Gukelberger, J.; Gull, E.; Guertler, S.; Hehn, A.; Igarashi, R.; Isakov, S. V.; Koop, D.; Ma, P. N.; Mates, P.; Matsuo, H.; Parcollet, O.; Paw?owski, G.; Picon, J. D.; Pollet, L.; Santos, E.; Scarola, V. W.; Schollwöck, U.; Silva, C.; Surer, B.; Todo, S.; Trebst, S.; Troyer, M.; Wall, M. L.; Werner, P.; Wessel, S.
2011-05-01
We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify and speed up code development, common evaluation and plotting tools, and simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out serial or parallel numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) both in a static version and a dynamic time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) code, and quantum Monte Carlo solvers for dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The ALPS libraries provide a powerful framework for programmers to develop their own applications, which, for instance, greatly simplify the steps of porting a serial code onto a parallel, distributed memory machine. Major changes in release 2.0 include the use of HDF5 for binary data, evaluation tools in Python, support for the Windows operating system, the use of CMake as build system and binary installation packages for Mac OS X and Windows, and integration with the VisTrails workflow provenance tool. The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org/.
Lorenza Viola; David Tannor
2011-01-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet
Random density matrices versus random evolution of open system
Carlos Pineda; Thomas H. Seligman
2014-07-25
In the framework of random matrix theory for open quantum systems, one can use both random matrix models for the time evolution of the state, or for the state itself. While the former yields a dynamical model that describes time evolution, the latter gives a static model for density matrices. Yet the two models can be compared, if the degree of decoherence is fixed, e.g., by purity. A random matrix ensemble of density matrices, with given purity, is therefore developed. We next compare this ensemble to one obtained evolving an initial pure state with different random matrix models, up to the time where the given purity is reached. For moderate and strong interactions good agreement between the static and the dynamic ensembles is found. Surprisingly, even in a model where one qubit does not interact with the environment excellent agreement is found, but only if there is maximal entanglement with the interacting one. We extend the analysis to other measures of decoherence, using the von Neumann entropy as a paradigmatic example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Tomotake; Hara, Shinji; Tsumura, Koji
In this paper, we analyze local state transition of controlled quantum systems under continuous quantum measurement, which is described by a matrix-valued nonlinear stochastic differential equation. To this end, we utilize the method of differential geometric analysis for systems with matrix-valued states developed in the first part of this series. The method provides us a direct and efficient way of analysis with a clear perspective. We study local state transition of the controlled quantum systems with imperfect detector efficiency which has not been studied enough in previous works. The controlled quantum system with perfect detector efficiency is also investigated as a special case. Sufficient conditions for the measurement operator and the control Hamiltonian are derived, under which the local state transition is quite limited. We also show that the conditions are satisfied in many typical situations. The results reveal fundamental nature of the controlled quantum systems under continuous quantum measurement.
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
Banchi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Apollaro, T. J. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuccoli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Vaia, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Verrucchi, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, C.N.R., via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2010-11-15
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Quantum simulation. Coherent imaging spectroscopy of a quantum many-body spin system.
Senko, C; Smith, J; Richerme, P; Lee, A; Campbell, W C; Monroe, C
2014-07-25
Quantum simulators, in which well-controlled quantum systems are used to reproduce the dynamics of less understood ones, have the potential to explore physics inaccessible to modeling with classical computers. However, checking the results of such simulations also becomes classically intractable as system sizes increase. Here, we introduce and implement a coherent imaging spectroscopic technique, akin to magnetic resonance imaging, to validate a quantum simulation. We use this method to determine the energy levels and interaction strengths of a fully connected quantum many-body system. Additionally, we directly measure the critical energy gap near a quantum phase transition. We expect this general technique to become a verification tool for quantum simulators once experiments advance beyond proof-of-principle demonstrations and exceed the resources of conventional computers. PMID:25061207
Equilibriumlike fluctuations in some boundary-driven open diffusive systems.
Imparato, A; Lecomte, V; van Wijland, F
2009-07-01
There exist some boundary-driven open systems with diffusive dynamics whose particle current fluctuations exhibit universal features that belong to the Edwards-Wilkinson universality class. We achieve this result by establishing a mapping, for the system fluctuations, to an equivalent open yet equilibrium-diffusive system. We discuss the possibility of observing dynamic phase transitions using the particle current as a control parameter. PMID:19658677
Quantum filtering for systems driven by fermion fields
J. E. Gough; M. I. Guta; M. R. James; H. I. Nurdin
2010-11-17
Recent developments in quantum technology mean that is it now possible to manipulate systems and measure fermion fields (e.g. reservoirs of electrons) at the quantum level. This progress has motivated some recent work on filtering theory for quantum systems driven by fermion fields by Korotkov, Milburn and others. The purpose of this paper is to develop fermion filtering theory using the fermion quantum stochastic calculus. We explain that this approach has close connections to the classical filtering theory that is a fundamental part of the systems and control theory that has developed over the past 50 years.
A quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock.
Martin, M J; Bishof, M; Swallows, M D; Zhang, X; Benko, C; von-Stecher, J; Gorshkov, A V; Rey, A M; Ye, Jun
2013-08-01
Strongly interacting quantum many-body systems arise in many areas of physics, but their complexity generally precludes exact solutions to their dynamics. We explored a strongly interacting two-level system formed by the clock states in (87)Sr as a laboratory for the study of quantum many-body effects. Our collective spin measurements reveal signatures of the development of many-body correlations during the dynamical evolution. We derived a many-body Hamiltonian that describes the experimental observation of atomic spin coherence decay, density-dependent frequency shifts, severely distorted lineshapes, and correlated spin noise. These investigations open the door to further explorations of quantum many-body effects and entanglement through use of highly coherent and precisely controlled optical lattice clocks. PMID:23929976
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney
Atkinson, Katie
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University@sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu ABSTRACT What sort of democracies are open agent societies? We present three normative models of democracy as wise rule by an elite; democracy as the exercise of ra tional consumer choices by voters
Leveraging Open Source solutions for secure government systems
Michael Worden
2006-01-01
Recent updates to federal government and Department of Defense (DoD) security policies have opened the door to the official use of Open Source Software (OSS) as a solution set for the development of secure enterprise systems. New policies published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the DoD have significantly changed the guidelines associated with deployment of
Optimal dynamic discrimination of similar quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baiqing
2005-07-01
The techniques for identifying and separating similar molecules have always been very important to chemistry and other branches of science and engineering. Similar quantum systems share comparable Hamiltonians, so their eigenenergy levels, transition dipole moments, and therefore their ordinary observable properties are alike. Traditional analytical methods have mostly been restricted by working with the subtle differences in the physical and chemical properties of the similar species. Optimal Dynamic Discrimination (ODD) aims at magnifying the dissimilarity of the agents by actively controlling their quantum evolution, drawing on the extremely rich information embedded in their dynamics. ODD is developed based on the tremendous flexibility of Optimal Control Theory (OCT) and on the practical implementation of closed-loop learning control, which has become a more and more indispensable tool for controlling quantum processes. The ODD experimental paradigm is designed to combat a number of factors that are detrimental to the discrimination of similar molecules: laser pulse noise, signal detection errors, finite time resolution in the signals, and environmental decoherence effects. It utilizes either static signals or time series signal, the latter capable of providing more information. Simulations are performed in this dissertation progressing from the wave function to the density matrix formulation, in order to study the decoherence effects. Analysis of the results reveals the roles of the adverse factors, unravels the underlying mechanisms of ODD, and provides insights on laboratory implementation. ODD emphasizes the incorporation of algorithmic development and laboratory design, and seeks to bridge the gap between theoretical/computational chemistry and experimental chemistry, with the help from applied mathematics and computer science.
Classical command of quantum systems via rigidity of CHSH games
Ben W. Reichardt; Falk Unger; Umesh Vazirani
2012-09-03
Can a classical system command a general adversarial quantum system to realize arbitrary quantum dynamics? If so, then we could realize the dream of device-independent quantum cryptography: using untrusted quantum devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the correctness of quantum mechanics. It would also allow for testing whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. Here we report a technique by which a classical system can certify the joint, entangled state of a bipartite quantum system, as well as command the application of specific operators on each subsystem. This is accomplished by showing a strong converse to Tsirelson's optimality result for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game: the only way to win many games is if the bipartite state is close to the tensor product of EPR states, and the measurements are the optimal CHSH measurements on successive qubits. This leads directly to a scheme for device-independent quantum key distribution. Control over the state and operators can also be leveraged to create more elaborate protocols for reliably realizing general quantum circuits.
Open Giant Intelligent Information Systems and Its Multiagent-Oriented System Design
Cao, Longbing
Open Giant Intelligent Information Systems and Its Multiagent-Oriented System Design Longbing Cao}@it.uts.edu.au, ruwei.dai@mail.ia.ac.cn Abstract Open giant intelligent information system has been studied as a new field of complex intelligent information systems. In this paper, we mainly discuss about system design
Indirect control of quantum system via accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation
H. C. Fu; Hui Dong; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun
2008-11-13
A pure indirect control of quantum systems via quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by 2 and 3 dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system.
Equivalence relations between deterministic and quantum mechanical systems
Gerard't Hooft
1988-01-01
Several quantum mechanical models are shown to be equivalent to certain deterministic systems because a basis can be found in terms of which the wave function does not “spread.” This suggests that apparently indeterministic behavior typical for a quantum mechanical world can be the result of locally deterministic laws of physics. We show how certain deterministic systems allow the construction
Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz
K. J. Gordon; V. Fernandez; G. S. Buller; I. Rech; S. D. Cova; P. D. Townsend
2006-05-08
An improved quantum key distribution test system operating at clock rates of up to 2GHz using a specially adapted commercially available silicon single photon avalanche diode is presented. The use of improved detectors has improved the fibre-based test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error rate.
Efficient free energy calculations of quantum systems through computer simulations
Alex Antonelli; Rafael Ramirez; Carlos Herrero; Eduardo Hernandez
2009-01-01
In general, the classical limit is assumed in computer simulation calculations of free energy. This approximation, however, is not justifiable for a class of systems in which quantum contributions for the free energy cannot be neglected. The inclusion of quantum effects is important for the determination of reliable phase diagrams of these systems. In this work, we present a new
Transferring Proofs of Zero-Knowledge Systems with Quantum Correlations
Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de
information 1 #12;about this secret to the verifier (zero-knowledge property). Zero-knowledge proof systemsTransferring Proofs of Zero-Knowledge Systems with Quantum Correlations P. Mateus, F. Moura and J of quantum correlations to attack security protocols is an im- portant research line deserving growing
Genuine Quantum and Classical Correlations in Multipartite Systems
Gian Luca Giorgi; Bruno Bellomo; Fernando Galve; Roberta Zambrini
2011-01-01
Generalizing the quantifiers used to classify correlations in bipartite systems, we define genuine total, quantum, and classical correlations in multipartite systems. The measure we give is based on the use of relative entropy to quantify the distance between two density matrices. Moreover, we show that, for pure states of three qubits, both quantum and classical bipartite correlations obey a ladder
On the angular momentum of a system of quantum particles
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
On the angular momentum of a system of quantum particles O. Chavoya-Aceves 5610 North 78th Dr, Glendale, AZ USA chavoyao@gmail.com October 3, 2013 Abstract The properties of angular momentum and its of angular momentum of a quantum system of particles into orbital angular momentum plus intrinsic angular
On the angular momentum of a system of quantum particles
On the angular momentum of a system of quantum particles O. Chavoya-Aceves Glendale Community College, Phoenix, AZ, USA chavoyao@gmail.com August 22, 2014 Abstract The properties of angular momentum experiment and gauge invariance. The separation of angular momentum of a quantum system of particles
Measure synchronization in quantum many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Haibo; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Polls, Artur
2014-09-01
The concept of measure synchronization between two coupled quantum many-body systems is presented. In general terms we consider two quantum many-body systems whose dynamics gets coupled through the contact particle-particle interaction. This coupling is shown to produce measure synchronization, a generalization of synchrony to a large class of systems which takes place in absence of dissipation. We find that in quantum measure synchronization, the many-body quantum properties for the two subsystems, e.g., condensed fractions and particle fluctuations, behave in a coordinated way. To illustrate the concept we consider a simple case of two species of bosons occupying two distinct quantum states. Measure synchronization can be readily explored with state-of-the-art techniques in ultracold atomic gases and, if properly controlled, be employed to build targeted quantum correlations in a sympathetic way.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Walther, Philip
2012-04-01
Quantum simulators are controllable quantum systems that can be used to mimic other quantum systems. They have the potential to enable the tackling of problems that are intractable on conventional computers. The photonic quantum technology available today is reaching the stage where significant advantages arise for the simulation of interesting problems in quantum chemistry, quantum biology and solid-state physics. In addition, photonic quantum systems also offer the unique benefit of being mobile over free space and in waveguide structures, which opens new perspectives to the field by enabling the natural investigation of quantum transport phenomena. Here, we review recent progress in the field of photonic quantum simulation, which should break the ground towards the realization of versatile quantum simulators.
Computing local invariants of quantum-bit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassl, Markus; Rötteler, Martin; Beth, Thomas
1998-09-01
We investigate means to describe the nonlocal properties of quantum systems and to test if two quantum systems are locally equivalent. For this we consider quantum systems that consist of several subsystems, especially multiple quantum bits, i.e., systems consisting of subsystems of dimension 2. We compute invariant polynomials, i.e., polynomial functions of the entries of the density operator that are invariant under local unitary operations. As an example, we consider a system of two quantum bits. We compute the Molien series for the corresponding representation, which gives information about the number of linearly independent invariants. Furthermore, we present a set of polynomials that generate all invariants (at least) up to degree 23. Finally, the use of invariants to check whether two density operators are locally equivalent is demonstrated.
Strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical oscillator hybrid system.
Yeo, I; de Assis, P-L; Gloppe, A; Dupont-Ferrier, E; Verlot, P; Malik, N S; Dupuy, E; Claudon, J; Gérard, J-M; Auffèves, A; Nogues, G; Seidelin, S; Poizat, J-Ph; Arcizet, O; Richard, M
2014-02-01
Recent progress in nanotechnology has allowed the fabrication of new hybrid systems in which a single two-level system is coupled to a mechanical nanoresonator. In such systems the quantum nature of a macroscopic degree of freedom can be revealed and manipulated. This opens up appealing perspectives for quantum information technologies, and for the exploration of the quantum-classical boundary. Here we present the experimental realization of a monolithic solid-state hybrid system governed by material strain: a quantum dot is embedded within a nanowire that features discrete mechanical resonances corresponding to flexural vibration modes. Mechanical vibrations result in a time-varying strain field that modulates the quantum dot transition energy. This approach simultaneously offers a large light-extraction efficiency and a large exciton-phonon coupling strength g0. By means of optical and mechanical spectroscopy, we find that g0/2 ? is nearly as large as the mechanical frequency, a criterion that defines the ultrastrong coupling regime. PMID:24362234
Strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical oscillator hybrid system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeo, I.; de Assis, P.-L.; Gloppe, A.; Dupont-Ferrier, E.; Verlot, P.; Malik, N. S.; Dupuy, E.; Claudon, J.; Gérard, J.-M.; Auffèves, A.; Nogues, G.; Seidelin, S.; Poizat, J.-Ph.; Arcizet, O.; Richard, M.
2014-02-01
Recent progress in nanotechnology has allowed the fabrication of new hybrid systems in which a single two-level system is coupled to a mechanical nanoresonator. In such systems the quantum nature of a macroscopic degree of freedom can be revealed and manipulated. This opens up appealing perspectives for quantum information technologies, and for the exploration of the quantum-classical boundary. Here we present the experimental realization of a monolithic solid-state hybrid system governed by material strain: a quantum dot is embedded within a nanowire that features discrete mechanical resonances corresponding to flexural vibration modes. Mechanical vibrations result in a time-varying strain field that modulates the quantum dot transition energy. This approach simultaneously offers a large light-extraction efficiency and a large exciton-phonon coupling strength g0. By means of optical and mechanical spectroscopy, we find that g0/2? is nearly as large as the mechanical frequency, a criterion that defines the ultrastrong coupling regime.
3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System
Karen J. Gordon; Veronica Fernandez; Robert J. Collins; Ivan Rech; Sergio D. Cova; Paul D. Townsend; Gerald S. Buller
2006-05-05
A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.
Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology
Feverati, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...
Density functional approach to quantum lattice systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chayes, J. T.; Chayes, L.; Ruskai, Mary Beth
1985-02-01
For quantum lattice systems, we consider the problem of characterizing the set of single-particle densities, ?, which come from the ground-state eigenspace of some N-particle Hamiltonian of the formH_0 + sumnolimits_{i = 1}^N {v(x_i )} where H 0 is a fixed, bounded operator representing the kinetic and interaction energies. We show that the conditions on ? are that it be strictly positive, properly normalized, and consistent with the Pauli principle. Our results are valid for both finite and infinite lattices and for either bosons or fermions. The Coulomb interaction may be included in H 0 if the lattice dimension is ?2. We also characterize those single-particle densities which come from the Gibbs states of such Hamiltonians at finite temperature. In addition to the conditions stated above, ? must satisfy a finite entropy condition.
Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems
Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba
2014-12-19
We investigate the particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer-Buettiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.
Experimental Quantum Simulation of Entanglement in Many-body Systems
Jingfu Zhang; Tzu-Chieh Wei; Raymond Laflamme
2011-07-25
We employ a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum information processor to simulate the ground state of an XXZ spin chain and measure its NMR analog of entanglement, or pseudo-entanglement. The observed pseudo-entanglement for a small-size system already displays singularity, a signature which is qualitatively similar to that in the thermodynamical limit across quantum phase transitions, including an infinite-order critical point. The experimental results illustrate a successful approach to investigate quantum correlations in many-body systems using quantum simulators.
Quantum uncertainty in critical systems with three spins interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrijo, Thiago M.; Avelar, Ardiley T.; Céleri, Lucas C.
2015-06-01
In this article we consider two spin-1/2 chains described, respectively, by the thermodynamic limit of the XY model with the usual two site interaction, and an extension of this model (without taking the thermodynamics limit), called XYT, were a three site interaction term is presented. To investigate the critical behaviour of such systems we employ tools from quantum information theory. Specifically, we show that the local quantum uncertainty, a quantity introduced in order to quantify the minimum quantum share of the variance of a local measurement, can be used to indicate quantum phase transitions presented by these models at zero temperature. Due to the connection of this quantity with the quantum Fisher information, the results presented here may be relevant for quantum metrology and quantum thermodynamics.
Synthesis of strongly fluorescent graphene quantum dots by cage-opening buckminsterfullerene.
Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zden?k; Šimek, Petr; Jankovský, Ond?ej; Klímová, Kate?ina; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Hrdli?ková Ku?ková, Št?pánka; Pumera, Martin
2015-03-24
Graphene quantum dots is a class of graphene nanomaterials with exceptional luminescence properties. Precise dimension control of graphene quantum dots produced by chemical synthesis methods is currently difficult to achieve and usually provides a range of sizes from 3 to 25 nm. In this work, fullerene C60 is used as starting material, due to its well-defined dimension, to produce very small graphene quantum dots (?2-3 nm). Treatment of fullerene C60 with a mixture of strong acid and chemical oxidant induced the oxidation, cage-opening, and fragmentation processes of fullerene C60. The synthesized quantum dots were characterized and supported by LDI-TOF MS, TEM, XRD, XPS, AFM, STM, FTIR, DLS, Raman spectroscopy, and luminescence analyses. The quantum dots remained fully dispersed in aqueous suspension and exhibited strong luminescence properties, with the highest intensity at 460 nm under a 340 nm excitation wavelength. Further chemical treatments with hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine resulted in red- and blue-shift of the luminescence, respectively. PMID:25761306
The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions -- Cesena, 2004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garola, Claudio; Rossi, Arcangelo; Sozzo, Sandro
Introduction / C. Garola, A. Rossi and S. Sozzo -- If Bertlmann had three feet / A. Afriat -- Macroscopic interpretability of quantum component systems / R. Ascoli -- Premeasurement versus measurement: a basic form of complementarity / G. Auletta and G. Tarozzi -- Remarks on conditioning / E. G. Beltrametti -- Entangled state preparation in experiments on quantum non-locality / V. Berardi and A. Garuccio -- The first steps of quantum electrodynamics: what is it that's being quantized? / S. Bergia -- On the meaning of element in the science of italic tradition, the question of physical objectivity (and/or physical meaning) and quantum mechanics / G. Boscarino -- Mathematics and epistemology in Planck's theoretical work (1898-1915) / P. Campogalliani -- On the free motion with noise / B. Carazza and R. Tedeschi -- Field quantization and wave/particle duality / M. Cini -- Parastatistics in econophysics? / D. Costantini and U. Garibaldi -- Theory-laden instruments and quantum mechanics / S. D'Agostino -- Quantum non-locality and the mathematical representation of experience / V. Fano -- On the notion of proposition in classical and quantum mechanics / C. Garola and S. Sozzo -- The electromagnetic conception of nature and the origins of quantum physics / E. A. Giannetto -- What we talk about when we talk about universe computability / S. Guccione -- Bohm and Bohmian mechanics / G. Introzzi and M. Rossetti -- An objective background for quantum theory relying on thermodynamic concepts / L. Lanz and B. Vacchini -- The entrance of quantum mechanics in Italy: from Garbasso to Fermi / M. Leone and N. Robotti -- The measure of momentum in quantum mechanics / F. Logiurato and C. Tarsitani -- On the two-slit interference experiment: a statistical discussion / M. Minozzo -- Why the reactivity of the elements is a relational property, and why it matters / V. Mosini -- Detecting non compatible properties in double-slit experiment without erasure / G. Nisticò -- If you can manipulate them, must they be real? The epistemological role of instruments in nanotechnological research / A. Rebaglia -- Mathematical models and physical reality from classical to quantum physics / A. Rossi -- Complex entanglement and quaternionic separability / G. Scolarici and L. Solombrino -- Mach-Zehnder interferometer and quantitative complementarity / C. Tarsitani and F. Logiurato -- Antonio Gramsci's reflection on quantum mechanics / I. Tassani -- The role of logic and mathematics in the Heisenberg formulation of quantum mechanics / A. Venezia -- Space-time at the Planck scale: the quantum computer view / P. A. Zizzi -- Three-dimensional wave behaviour of light / F. Logiurato ... [et al.].
The Adoption of Open Source Systems in Public Administrations
Carmen de Pablos; David López
\\u000a This study presents the results of a research conducted for a group of eighteen Public Administrations migrating their systems\\u000a to open source standards. Public Administrations perceive improvements in the way they offer services, a reduction of the\\u000a costs and better secured information systems. The migration to open source standards allows Public Administration to offer\\u000a alternative channels for their relationship with
Few-body treatment of the quantum Hall system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris; Daily, Kevin; Wooten, Rachel
2015-03-01
The quantum Hall system is perhaps the simplest real physical system to exhibit complicated, highly-correlated quantum behavior. Our initial theoretical exploration of this problem approaches it from a few-body perspective using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation developed originally for atomic systems. Such a 2D system with interacting charged particles that move in an external magnetic field can be simulated for cold atoms using artificial vector gauge potentials. Supported by NSF.
Experimental feedback control of quantum systems using weak measurements.
Gillett, G G; Dalton, R B; Lanyon, B P; Almeida, M P; Barbieri, M; Pryde, G J; O'Brien, J L; Resch, K J; Bartlett, S D; White, A G
2010-02-26
A goal of the emerging field of quantum control is to develop methods for quantum technologies to function robustly in the presence of noise. Central issues are the fundamental limitations on the available information about quantum systems and the disturbance they suffer in the process of measurement. In the context of a simple quantum control scenario-the stabilization of nonorthogonal states of a qubit against dephasing-we experimentally explore the use of weak measurements in feedback control. We find that, despite the intrinsic difficultly of implementing them, weak measurements allow us to control the qubit better in practice than is even theoretically possible without them. Our work shows that these more general quantum measurements can play an important role for feedback control of quantum systems. PMID:20366921
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
Lydersen, Lars; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; 10.1038/NPHOTON.2010.214
2010-01-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to grow a private, secret key, even if the eavesdropper can do anything permitted by the laws of nature. In quantum key distribution (QKD) the parties exchange non-orthogonal or entangled quantum states to generate quantum correlated classical data. Consequently, QKD implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of the signal states. However, practical detectors are not only sensitive to quantum states. Here we show how an eavesdropper can exploit such deviations from the ideal behaviour: We demonstrate experimentally how the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to acquire the full secret key without leaving any trace; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built of off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photo diodes (APDs) to detect ...
Complete controllability of finite-level quantum systems
H. Fu; S. G. Schirmer; A. I. Solomon
2001-02-03
Complete controllability is a fundamental issue in the field of control of quantum systems, not least because of its implications for dynamical realizability of the kinematical bounds on the optimization of observables. In this paper we investigate the question of complete controllability for finite-level quantum systems subject to a single control field, for which the interaction is of dipole form. Sufficient criteria for complete controllability of a wide range of finite-level quantum systems are established and the question of limits of complete controllability is addressed. Finally, the results are applied to give a classification of complete controllability for four-level systems.
Genuine quantum and classical correlations in multipartite systems
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta
2011-01-01
Generalizing the quantifiers used to classify the nature of correlations in bipartite systems, we define genuine total, quantum, and classical correlations for states of three qubits. The measure we give is based on the use of relative entropy to quantify the "distance" between two density matrices. We show that, within a tripartite state, both quantum and classical bipartite correlations obey a ladder ordering law fixed by two-body quantum mutual informations, or, equivalently, by one-qubit entropies.
Quantum interference in an electron-hole graphene ring system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, D.; Schmidt, H.; Haug, R. J.
2013-12-01
Quantum interference is observed in a graphene ring system via the Aharonov Bohm effect. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor, this geometry allows to study the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes in addition to the unipolar quantum interference. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence between unipolar and dipolar interference.
Quantum computation: quantum finite state automata and the simulation system for Shor's algorithm
Imai, Hiroshi
Quantum computation: quantum finite state automata and the simulation system for Shor's algorithm NL;R7W;;: NL;RM8B>uBV%*!Shor $N%"%k%4%j%:%`%7%_%e%l! of this thesis, a simulator specialized for Shor's algorithm is implemented. As a result, only constant memory
Superpositions of time evolutions of a quantum system and a quantum time-translation machine
Yakir Aharonov; Jeeva Anandan; Sandu Popescu; Lev Vaidman
1990-01-01
A method to obtain a superposition of time evolutions of a quantum system which correspond to different Hamiltonians as well as to different periods of time is derived. Its application to amplification of an effect due to the action of weak forces is considered. A quantum time-translation machine based on the same principle, utilizing the gravitational field, is also considered.
RESEARCH Open Access Local and systemic innate immune response
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
RESEARCH Open Access Local and systemic innate immune response to secondary human peritonitis: Peritonitis triggers an acute systemic and peritoneal innate immune response with a simultaneous release, there is a paucity of data regard- ing systemic and local innate immune responses during peritonitis in humans
A Conceptual Approach to an Open Hospital Information System
K. Kuhn; M. Reichert; M. Nathe; T. Beuter; C. Heinlein; P. Dadam
1994-01-01
this paper is to describe a research project funded by the state of BadenWuerttembergin Germany. The project is aimed at the systematic analysis of information systems needsfor an integrated open system of the future that is capable of truly integrating heterogeneous componentsand leaving a maximum of autonomy to the cooperating systems. Current developments in computerscience methods are being evaluated under
An Open Development Environment for Evaluation of Video Surveillance Systems
Christopher Jaynes; Stephen Webb; R. Matt Steele; Quanren Xiong
2002-01-01
We introduce the publicly available Open Development for Video Surveillance (ODViS) system that is specifically designed to support ongoing research in tracking and video surveillance. The system provides researchers with the ability to prototype tracking and event recognition techniques, to construct and manage ground truth data sets, and to evaluate the performance of these systems within a graphical user interface.
A multimodal biometrics system implemented using open source technology
Ivan Milenkovic; Vladan Pantovic; Dusan Starcevic; Miroslav Minovic
2011-01-01
Because of the rising need for reliable biometric systems, finding different ways for improving biometric system performance becomes a significant problem. A solution to this problem is the integration of more different biometric modalities, known as multimodal biometrics. In this paper a description of a real multimodal biometrics system, developed on Faculty of organisational sciences using open source technology is
Maps and inverse maps in open quantum dynamics
Jordan, Thomas F., E-mail: tjordan@d.umn.ed [Physics Department, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812 (United States)
2010-10-15
Two kinds of maps that describe evolution of states of a subsystem coming from dynamics described by a unitary operator for a larger system, maps defined for fixed mean values and maps defined for fixed correlations, are found to be quite different for the same unitary dynamics in the same situation in the larger system. An affine form is used for both kinds of maps to find necessary and sufficient conditions for inverse maps. All the different maps with the same homogeneous part in their affine forms have inverses if and only if the homogeneous part does. Some of these maps are completely positive; others are not, but the homogeneous part is always completely positive. The conditions for an inverse are the same for maps that are not completely positive as for maps that are. For maps defined for fixed mean values, the homogeneous part depends only on the unitary operator for the dynamics of the larger system, not on any state or mean values or correlations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for an inverse are stated several different ways: in terms of the maps of matrices, basis matrices, density matrices, or mean values. The inverse maps are generally not tied to the dynamics the way the maps forward are. A trace-preserving completely positive map that is unital cannot have an inverse that is obtained from any dynamics described by any unitary operator for any states of a larger system.
Witnessing Single-System Steering for Quantum Information Processing
Che-Ming Li; Yueh-Nan Chen; Neill Lambert; Ching-Yi Chiu; Franco Nori
2014-11-12
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, inspired by this bipartite concept, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d-level systems (qudits) and devise several quantum witnesses to efficiently verify the steerability therein, which are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering witnesses enable the unambiguous ruling-out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out false-steering scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. In addition, we show that these steering witnesses also have applications in quantum information, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the non-local EPR variant of these witnesses also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation and secure entanglement-based quantum communication.
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560
L Shanta Meitei; Purnima Devi
The paper discusses the Open Source Software in digital preservation for digital repository and preservation system. The paper highlights the need and features of Open Source Software in Digital Preservation with the successful adoption of open source application for library and information management system in this global digital information environment. The paper also discusses some of the important Initiatives of
An Open Simulation System Model for Scientific Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Anthony D.
1995-01-01
A model for a generic and open environment for running multi-code or multi-application simulations - called the open Simulation System Model (OSSM) - is proposed and defined. This model attempts to meet the requirements of complex systems like the Numerical Propulsion Simulator System (NPSS). OSSM places no restrictions on the types of applications that can be integrated at any state of its evolution. This includes applications of different disciplines, fidelities, etc. An implementation strategy is proposed that starts with a basic prototype, and evolves over time to accommodate an increasing number of applications. Potential (standard) software is also identified which may aid in the design and implementation of the system.
Equilibrium Constant as Solution to the Open Chemical Systems
Zilbergleyt, B
2008-01-01
According to contemporary views, equilibrium constant is relevant only to true thermodynamic equilibria in isolated systems with one chemical reaction. The paper presents a novel formula that ties-up equilibrium constant and chemical system composition at any state, isolated or open as well. Extending the logarithmic logistic map of the Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria, this formula maps the system population at isolated equilibrium into the population at any open equilibrium at p,T=const, using equilibrium constant as a measure. Real chemical systems comprise multiple subsystems; given the resources are limited, joint solution to the set of such expressions, each relevant to a specific subsystem, gives equilibrium composition for each of them. This result means a fundamental break through in the open systems thermodynamics and leads to formerly unknown opportunities in the analysis of real chemical objects.
Floating Extended States in a Disordered Quantum Hall System
Igor Glozman
1995-01-01
Several recent experiments, on various GaAs systems, have shown that an insulating phase at B = 0 can undergo a phase transition to the quantum Hall liquid (QHL) phase in an applied magnetic field B. The transition was generally interpreted as being consistent with the global phase diagram (GPD) of the quantum Hall effect. While the GPD is parametrized in
Time delay for dispersive systems in quantum scattering theory
Time delay for dispersive systems in quantum scattering theory Rafael Tiedra de Aldecoa CNRS (UMR CergyÂPontoise Cedex, France EÂmail: rafael.tiedra@uÂcergy.fr Abstract We consider time delay and symmetrised time delay (defined in terms of sojourn times) for quantum scattering pairs {H0 = h(P ), H}, where
Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems
Sheridan, Lana [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2010-09-15
We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.
Sub-ballistic behavior in quantum systems with Lévy noise
A. Romanelli; R. Siri; V. Micenmacher
2007-05-02
We investigate the quantum walk and the quantum kicked rotor in resonance subjected to noise with a L\\'evy waiting time distribution. We find that both systems have a sub-ballistic wave function spreading as shown by a power-law tail of the standard deviation.
Dynamical Phase Transitions and Instabilities in Open Atomic Many-Body Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diehl, Sebastian; Tomadin, Andrea; Micheli, Andrea; Fazio, Rosario; Zoller, Peter
2010-07-01
We discuss an open driven-dissipative many-body system, in which the competition of unitary Hamiltonian and dissipative Liouvillian dynamics leads to a nonequilibrium phase transition. It shares features of a quantum phase transition in that it is interaction driven, and of a classical phase transition, in that the ordered phase is continuously connected to a thermal state. We characterize the phase diagram and the critical behavior at the phase transition approached as a function of time. We find a novel fluctuation induced dynamical instability, which occurs at long wavelength as a consequence of a subtle dissipative renormalization effect on the speed of sound.
Multi-particle Correlations in Quaternionic Quantum Systems
S. P. Brumby; G. C. Joshi; Ronald Anderson
1994-06-09
We investigate the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. We find that a multi-particle interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components.
Multi-particle correlations in quaternionic quantum systems
Brumby, S P; Anderson, R
1994-01-01
We investigate the outcomes of measurements on correlated, few-body quantum systems described by a quaternionic quantum mechanics that allows for regions of quaternionic curvature. We find that a multi-particle interferometry experiment using a correlated system of four nonrelativistic, spin-half particles has the potential to detect the presence of quaternionic curvature. Two-body systems, however, are shown to give predictions identical to those of standard quantum mechanics when relative angles are used in the construction of the operators corresponding to measurements of particle spin components.
Comment on "Criteria for Separability of Multipartite Quantum System"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Da-Wei
2015-07-01
Recently, Tao et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52 (6), 1970-1978, 2013) established a representation of density matrix for multipartite quantum system. Moreover, according to this representation of the density matrix for multipartite quantum system, Tao et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52 (6), 1970-1978, 2013) have presented two necessary criteria for separability of multipartite quantum system of arbitrary dimensions, for example, see Theorem 2.1 and Theorem 2.2. In this Comment, we would like to point out that Theorem 2.2 given by Tao et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52 (6), 1970-1978, 2013) is incorrect in general.
High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization
Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Bala, Hari, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)
2014-01-06
A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796?mV was achieved.
Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems.
Feng, Guan-Ru; Lu, Yao; Hao, Liang; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Long, Gui-Lu
2013-01-01
It is well known that quantum computers are superior to classical computers in efficiently simulating quantum systems. Here we report the first experimental simulation of quantum tunneling through potential barriers, a widespread phenomenon of a unique quantum nature, via NMR techniques. Our experiment is based on a digital particle simulation algorithm and requires very few spin-1/2 nuclei without the need of ancillary qubits. The occurrence of quantum tunneling through a barrier, together with the oscillation of the state in potential wells, are clearly observed through the experimental results. This experiment has clearly demonstrated the possibility to observe and study profound physical phenomena within even the reach of small quantum computers. PMID:23958996
The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age
Adams, Sam; de Castro, Pablo; Echenique, Pablo; Estrada, Jorge; Hanwell, Marcus D; Murray-Rust, Peter; Sherwood, Paul; Thomas, Jens; Townsend, Joseph A
2011-07-04
contains records, with regexes for each 25 http://openmopac.net 26 http://www.antlr.org/ 15 record that we wish to match and from which we will extract information. These templates can be nested, often representing the internal structure of the program (e... The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age Sam Adams1 , Pablo de Castro2 , Pablo Echenique3,4,5 , Jorge Estrada3,4,6 , Marcus D. Hanwell7 , Peter Murray-Rust1 ? , Paul Sherwood8 , Jens Thomas8...
Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richerme, Philip; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Lee, Aaron; Senko, Crystal; Smith, Jacob; Foss-Feig, Michael; Michalakis, Spyridon; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Monroe, Christopher
2014-07-01
The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective `light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable.
Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions.
Richerme, Philip; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Lee, Aaron; Senko, Crystal; Smith, Jacob; Foss-Feig, Michael; Michalakis, Spyridon; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Monroe, Christopher
2014-07-10
The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective 'light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable. PMID:25008525
Quantum chaotic scattering in graphene systems in the absence of invariant classical dynamics.
Wang, Guang-Lei; Ying, Lei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2013-05-01
Quantum chaotic scattering is referred to as the study of quantum behaviors of open Hamiltonian systems that exhibit transient chaos in the classical limit. Traditionally a central issue in this field is how the elements of the scattering matrix or their functions fluctuate as a system parameter, e.g., the electron Fermi energy, is changed. A tacit hypothesis underlying previous works was that the underlying classical phase-space structure remains invariant as the parameter varies, so semiclassical theory can be used to explain various phenomena in quantum chaotic scattering. There are, however, experimental situations where the corresponding classical chaotic dynamics can change characteristically with some physical parameter. Multiple-terminal quantum dots are one such example where, when a magnetic field is present, the classical chaotic-scattering dynamics can change between being nonhyperbolic and being hyperbolic as the Fermi energy is changed continuously. For such systems semiclassical theory is inadequate to account for the characteristics of conductance fluctuations with the Fermi energy. To develop a general framework for quantum chaotic scattering associated with variable classical dynamics, we use multi-terminal graphene quantum-dot systems as a prototypical model. We find that significant conductance fluctuations occur with the Fermi energy even for fixed magnetic field strength, and the characteristics of the fluctuation patterns depend on the energy. We propose and validate that the statistical behaviors of the conductance-fluctuation patterns can be understood by the complex eigenvalue spectrum of the generalized, complex Hamiltonian of the system which includes self-energies resulted from the interactions between the device and the semi-infinite leads. As the Fermi energy is increased, complex eigenvalues with extremely smaller imaginary parts emerge, leading to sharp resonances in the conductance. PMID:23767599
Optimization of open pit loading and hauling systems
Fytas, K.; Calder, P.N.
1984-12-01
PITSIM-II is a computer simulation package that optimizes and simulates open pit haulage systems. The computer model was created in a generalized form that allows the analysis of any open pit loading and hauling system. The main objective of the model is to aid mine management in designing the haulage system and selecting the optimum combination of mixed size trucks. It is also a valuable tool in assisting the mine operator to operate the fleet in an optimum way, in order to meet certain production and blending targets. The other objectives of the model is to aid short and long range production scheduling in terms of forecasting the expected production rates.
Entropy and specific heat for open systems in steady states
X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi
2010-01-27
The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is equally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption, the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical thermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann distribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Based on the effective Hamiltonian approach, we calculate the specific heat, the free energy and the entropy for an open system in steady states. Examples are illustrated and discussed.
Time delays and advances in classical and quantum systems
E. E. Kolomeitsev; D. N. Voskresensky
2013-03-08
The paper reviews positive and negative time delays in various processes of classical and quantum physics. In the beginning, we demonstrate how a time-shifted response of a system to an external perturbation appears in classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics. Then we quantify durations of various quantum mechanical processes. The duration of the quantum tunneling is studied. An interpretation of the Hartman paradox is suggested. Time delays and advances appearing in the three-dimensional scattering problem on a central potential are considered. Then we discuss delays and advances appearing in quantum field theory and after that we focus on the issue of time delays and advancements in quantum kinetics. We discuss problems of the application of generalized kinetic equations in simulations of the system relaxation towards equilibrium and analyze the kinetic entropy flow. Possible measurements of time delays and advancements in experiments similar to the recent OPERA neutrino experiment are also discussed.
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans
2014-05-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
Nano-optics with single quantum systems.
Hecht, Bert
2004-04-15
This paper reviews the recent progress in using single quantum systems, here mainly single fluorescent molecules, as local probes for nano-optical field distributions. We start by discussing the role of the absorption cross-section for the spatial resolution attainable in such experiments and its behaviour for different environmental conditions. It is shown that the spatial distribution of field components in a high-numerical aperture laser focus can be mapped with high precision using single fluorescent molecules embedded in a thin polymer film on glass. With this proof-of-principle experiment as a starting point, the possibility of mapping strongly confined and enhanced nano-optical fields close to material structures, e.g. sharp metal tips, is discussed. The mapping of the spatial distribution of the enhanced field at an etched gold tip using a single molecule is presented as an example. Energy transfer effects and quenching are identified as possible artefacts in this context. Finally, it is demonstrated that the local quenching at a sharp metal structure nevertheless can be exploited as a novel contrast mechanism for ultrahigh-resolution optical microscopy with single-molecule sensitivity. PMID:15306499
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Ågren, Hans
2014-01-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
Open space system study for the Dacca metropolitan area
Rab, Wajeda Jafar
1970-01-01
and vegetation. The analytical facts were synthesized to socio-cultural image study, road system study, end finally, open space system study. These studies are based on existing and future physical, socio-cultural growth patterns. It was found out that the rivers...
POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Dynamics of neural systems in epilepsy
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Dynamics of neural systems in epilepsy Kenza EL Houssaini* , Viktor 2013 Epilepsy is a nervous system disorder. It is characterized by a brain dysfunction activity in epilepsy. BMC Neuroscience 2013 14(Suppl 1):P124. * Correspondence: kenzaelhoussaini@hotmail.fr UMR 1106
Entropy and Specific Heat for Open Systems in Steady States
X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi
2011-01-01
The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is equally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption, the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical thermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann distribution in general cannot describe the steady state of an open system. Based on
Visitor face tracking system using OpenCV library
Yong Kok Ching; A. S. Prabuwono; R. Sulaiman
2009-01-01
This paper presents the development of visitor face tracking system using OpenCV library. This system can be used for security purpose to record the visitor face. The user can identify who had been visiting him\\/her when away from the place. Visitors just need to appear in front of the web camera for at least 10 second, their image will be
Privacy and Security in Open and Trusted Health Information Systems
Vicky Liu; William Caelli; Tony Sahama
The Open and Trusted Health Information Systems (OTHIS) Research Group has formed in response to the health sector's privacy and security requirements for contemporary Health Information Systems (HIS). Due to recent research developments in trusted computing concepts, it is now both timely and desirable to move electronic HIS towards privacy-aware and security-aware applications. We introduce the OTHIS architecture in this
Decision support system for open-pit lignite mining areas
S. KADEN; L MICHELS; K. TDEMER
1990-01-01
Open-pit lignite mining has severe impacts on water resources systems. In the German Democratic Republic (GDR), for example, the amount of mine drainage water pumped by about 7000 dewatering wells exceeds 20% of the stable runoff of the whole country. A computerized decision support system (DSS) can be an efficient tool for the analysis of complicated water use problems in
Greenstone: A Comprehensive Open-Source Digital Library Software System
Ian H. Witten; Rodger J. McNab; Stefan J. Boddie; David Bainbridge
1999-01-01
This paper describes the Greenstone digital library software, a comprehensive, open-source system for the construction and presentation of information collections. Collections built with Greenstone offer effective full-text searching and metadata-based browsing facilities that are attractive and easy to use. Moreover, they are easily maintainable and can be augmented and rebuilt entirely automatically. The system is extensible: software \\
Greenstone: a comprehensive open-source digital library software system
Ian H. Witten; Stefan J. Boddie; David Bainbridge; Rodger J. McNab
2000-01-01
This paper describes the Greenstone digital library software, a comprehensive, open-source system for the construction and presentation of information collections. Collections built with Greenstone offer effective full-text searching and metadata-based browsing facilities that are attractive and easy to use. Moreover, they are easily maintainable and can be augmented and rebuilt entirely automatically. The system is extensible: software \\
Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.
2013-01-01
We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by Fx) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by Fy). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by Fx), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by Fy). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by Fy, the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance.
Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance.
Huang, X L; Wang, L C; Yi, X X
2013-01-01
We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by F(x)) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by F(y)). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by F(x)), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by F(y)). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by F(y), the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance. PMID:23410319
Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance
X. L. Huang; L. C. Wang; X. X. Yi
2013-01-16
We explore the quantum version of Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process, one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by $F_x$) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by $F_y$). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by $F_x$), whereas the subsystem's cycle is of quantum Otto in another Brayton cycle (characterized by $F_y$). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system are usually larger than the sum of work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by $F_y$, the subsystem can be a refrigerator while the total system is a heat engine. The result in the paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance.
Almost-periodic time observables for bound quantum systems
Michael J. W. Hall
2008-04-22
It is shown that a canonical time observable may be defined for any quantum system having a discrete set of energy eigenvalues, thus significantly generalising the known case of time observables for periodic quantum systems (such as the harmonic oscillator). The general case requires the introduction of almost-periodic probability operator measures (POMs), which allow the expectation value of any almost-periodic function to be calculated. An entropic uncertainty relation for energy and time is obtained which generalises the known uncertainty relation for periodic quantum systems. While non-periodic quantum systems with discrete energy spectra, such as hydrogen atoms, typically make poor clocks that yield no more than 1 bit of time information, the anisotropic oscillator provides an interesting exception. More generally, a canonically conjugate observable may be defined for any Hermitian operator having a discrete spectrum.
Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions
Wang, Shannon Xuanyue
2012-01-01
Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...
Microchemical systems for the synthesis of nanostructures : quantum dots
Baek, Jinyoung
2012-01-01
We have developed a continuous multi-stage high-temperature and high-pressure microfluidic system. High-pressure conditions enabled the use low molecular weight solvents that have previously not been available for quantum ...
Closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems.
Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Wang, Yuanlong
2013-01-01
For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H(?) control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention. PMID:23997680
Measures of quantum correlations in infinite-dimensional systems
M. E. Shirokov
2015-06-21
Several important measures of quantum correlations of a state of a finite-dimensional composite system are defined as linear combinations of marginal entropies of this state. This paper is devoted to the infinite-dimensional generalizations of such quantities and to the analysis of their properties. We introduce the notion of faithful extension of a linear combination of marginal entropies and consider several concrete examples starting with the quantum mutual information and the quantum conditional entropy. Then we show that the conditional mutual information can be uniquely defined as a lower semicontinuous function on the set of all states of a tripartite infinite-dimensional system possessing all the basic properties valid in finite dimensions. Infinite-dimensional generalizations of some other measures of quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems are also considered. It is shown that almost all of these generalized measures are globally lower semicontinuous and possess local continuity properties which essentially simplify their use in analysis of quantum systems. In the second part of the paper we consider applications of the general results of its first part, in particular, to the theory of infinite-dimensional quantum channels and their capacities. We also show the existence of the Fawzi-Renner recovery channel reproducing marginal states for all tripartite states (including states with infinite marginal entropies) starting with the corresponding finite-dimensional result.
Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications
Alexander Korneev; Yury Vachtomin; Olga Minaeva; Alexander Divochiy; Konstantin Smirnov; Oleg Okunev; Gregory Gol'tsman; C. Zinoni; Nicolas Chauvin; Laurent Balet; Francesco Marsili; David Bitauld; Blandine Alloing; Lianhe Li; Andrea Fiore; L. Lunghi; Annamaria Gerardino; MatthÄus Halder; Corentin Jorel; Hugo Zbinden
2007-01-01
We describe the design and characterization of a fiber-coupled double-channel single-photon detection system based on superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD), and its application for quantum optics experiments on semiconductor nanostructures. When operated at 2-K temperature, the system shows 10% quantum efficiency at 1.3-¿m wavelength with dark count rate below 10 counts per second and timing resolution <100 ps. The short recovery
Genuine quantum and classical correlations in multipartite systems.
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Bellomo, Bruno; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta
2011-11-01
Generalizing the quantifiers used to classify correlations in bipartite systems, we define genuine total, quantum, and classical correlations in multipartite systems. The measure we give is based on the use of relative entropy to quantify the distance between two density matrices. Moreover, we show that, for pure states of three qubits, both quantum and classical bipartite correlations obey a ladder ordering law fixed by two-body mutual informations, or, equivalently, by one-qubit entropies. PMID:22181588
Genuine quantum and classical correlations in multipartite systems
Gian Luca Giorgi; Bruno Bellomo; Fernando Galve; Roberta Zambrini
2011-10-07
Generalizing the quantifiers used to classify correlations in bipartite systems, we define genuine total, quantum, and classical correlations in multipartite systems. The measure we give is based on the use of relative entropy to quantify the "distance" between two density matrices. Moreover, we show that, for pure states of three qubits, both quantum and classical bipartite correlations obey a ladder ordering law fixed by two-body mutual informations, or, equivalently, by one-qubit entropies.
Plausibility of quantum coherent states in biological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J.; Rahnama, M.; Bernroider, G.
2011-07-01
In this paper we briefly discuss the necessity of using quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory applicable to some key functional aspects of biological systems. This is especially relevant to three important parts of a neuron in the human brain, namely the cell membrane, microtubules (MT) and ion channels. We argue that the recently published papers criticizing the use of quantum theory in these systems are not convincing.
Phases and phase transitions in disordered quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Thomas
2013-08-01
These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to phase transitions in disordered quantum systems and to the exotic Griffiths phases induced in their vicinity. We first review some fundamental concepts in the physics of phase transitions. We then derive criteria governing under what conditions spatial disorder or randomness can change the properties of a phase transition. After introducing the strong-disorder renormalization group method, we discuss in detail some of the exotic phenomena arising at phase transitions in disordered quantum systems. These include infinite-randomness criticality, rare regions and quantum Griffiths singularities, as well as the smearing of phase transitions. We also present a number of experimental examples.
Emergent thermodynamics in a quenched quantum many-body system.
Dorner, R; Goold, J; Cormick, C; Paternostro, M; Vedral, V
2012-10-19
We study the statistics of the work done, fluctuation relations, and irreversible entropy production in a quantum many-body system subject to the sudden quench of a control parameter. By treating the quench as a thermodynamic transformation we show that the emergence of irreversibility in the nonequilibrium dynamics of closed many-body quantum systems can be accurately characterized. We demonstrate our ideas by considering a transverse quantum Ising model that is taken out of equilibrium by an instantaneous change of the transverse field. PMID:23215064
Recycling of quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems
Peter Rapcan; John Calsamiglia; Ramon Munoz-Tapia; Emilio Bagan; Vladimir Buzek
2007-08-08
Given a finite number of copies of an unknown qubit state that have already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? We give a positive answer to this question and quantify the information obtainable by a given observer as a function of the number of copies in the ensemble, and of the number of independent observers that, one after the other, have independently measured the same ensemble of qubits before him. The optimality of the protocol is proven and extensions to other states and encodings are also studied. According to the general lore, the state after a measurement has no information about the state before the measurement. Our results manifestly show that this statement has to be taken with a grain of salt, specially in situations where the quantum states encode confidential information.
Could a Classical Probability Theory Describe Quantum Systems?
Jinshan Wu; Shouyong Pei
2008-09-12
Quantum Mechanics (QM) is a quantum probability theory based on the density matrix. The possibility of applying classical probability theory, which is based on the probability distribution function(PDF), to describe quantum systems is investigated in this work. In a sense this is also the question about the possibility of a Hidden Variable Theory (HVT) of Quantum Mechanics. Unlike Bell's inequality, which need to be checked experimentally, here HVT is ruled out by theoretical consideration. The approach taken here is to construct explicitly the most general HVT, which agrees with all results from experiments on quantum systems (QS), and to check its validity and acceptability. Our list of experimental facts of quantum objects, which all quantum theories are required to respect, includes facts on repeat quantum measurement. We show that it plays an essential role at showing that it is very unlikely that a classical theory can successfully reproduce all QS facts, even for a single spin-1/2 object. We also examine and rule out Bell's HVT and Bohm's HVT based on the same consideration.
Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage of PbS Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Yoon, Woojun; Boercker, Janice E.; Lumb, Matthew P.; Placencia, Diogenes; Foos, Edward E.; Tischler, Joseph G.
2013-01-01
Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) show great promise toward improving solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum and enable multi-exciton generation. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes in QD solar cells. Here we report the highest open-circuit voltages to date for colloidal QD based solar cells under one sun illumination. This Voc of 692 ± 7?mV for 1.4?eV PbS QDs is a result of improved passivation of the defective QD surface, demonstrating as a function of the QD bandgap (Eg). Comparing experimental Voc variation with the theoretical upper-limit obtained from one diode modeling of the cells with different Eg, these results clearly demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity for improvement of Voc to values greater than 1?V by using smaller QDs in QD solar cells. PMID:23868514
Quantum fluctuations and CMB anisotropies in one-bubble open inflation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro
1996-10-01
We first develop a method to calculate a complete set of mode functions that describe the quantum fluctuations generated in one-bubble open inflation models. We consider two classes of models. One is a single scalar field model proposed by Bucher, Goldhaber, and Turok and by us as an example of the open inflation scenario, and the other is a two-field model such as the ``supernatural'' inflation proposed by Linde and Mezhlumian. In both cases we assume the difference in the vacuum energy density between inside and outside the bubble is negligible. There are two kinds of mode functions. One kind has the usual continuous spectrum and the other has a discrete spectrum with characteristic wavelengths exceeding the spatial curvature scale. The latter can be further divided into two classes in terms of its origin. One is called the de Sitter supercurvature mode, which arises due to the global spacetime structure of de Sitter space, and the other is due to fluctuations of the bubble wall. We calculate the spectrum of quantum fluctuations in these models and evaluate the resulting large angular scale CMB anisotropies. We find there are ranges of model parameters that are consistent with observed CMB anisotropies.
Quantum key distribution system for metropolitan-area networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, A.
2007-09-01
Requirements and specifications of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are examined particularly for metropolitanarea networks. A design of QKD system is considered to satisfy the specifications. BB84 protocol with decoy method is chosen. The unidirectional system based on planer light wave circuit for high speed operation is proposed for quantum transmission. Issues on system control such as clock synchronization and frame synchronization are discussed. Finally, decoy method is analyzed and demonstrated to guarantee the quantitative security of the final key in real systems.
A. Barchielli
1990-01-01
Quantum stochastic calculus is an operator analogue of classical Ito's stochastic calculus which was originally developed for treating quantum noise. However, it turned out to be also useful in other cases of open systems, as in the case of measurement theory in quantum mechanics and in the treatment of quantum input and output channels. In the present paper, this calculus
Risk-Sensitive Optimal Control of Quantum Systems
M. R. James
2003-11-03
The importance of feedback control is being increasingly appreciated in quantum physics and applications. This paper describes the use of optimal control methods in the design of quantum feedback control systems, and in particular the paper formulates and solves a risk-sensitive optimal control problem. The resulting risk-sensitive optimal control is given in terms of a new unnormalized conditional state, whose dynamics include the cost function used to specify the performance objective. The risk-sensitive conditional dynamic equation describes the evolution of our {\\em knowledge} of the quantum system tempered by our {\\em purpose} for the controlled quantum system. Robustness properties of risk-sensitive controllers are discussed, and an example is provided.
Applying quantum mechanics to macroscopic and mesoscopic systems
N. Poveda T.; N. Vera-Villamizar
2012-02-09
There exists a paradigm in which Quantum Mechanics is an exclusively developed theory to explain phenomena on a microscopic scale. As the Planck's constant is extremely small, $h\\sim10^{-34}{J.s}$, and as in the relation of de Broglie the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum; for a mesoscopic or macroscopic object the Broglie wavelength is very small, and consequently the undulatory behavior of this object is undetectable. In this paper we show that with a particle oscillating around its classical trajectory, the action is an integer multiple of a quantum of action, $S = nh_{o}$. The quantum of action, $h_{o}$, which plays a role equivalent to Planck's constant, is a free parameter that must be determined and depends on the physical system considered. For a mesoscopic and macroscopic system: $h_{o}\\gg h$, this allows us to describe these systems with the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Cluster state quantum computation for many-level systems
William Hall
2006-06-08
The cluster state model for quantum computation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188] outlines a scheme that allows one to use measurement on a large set of entangled quantum systems in what is known as a cluster state to undertake quantum computations. The model itself and many works dedicated to it involve using entangled qubits. In this paper we consider the issue of using entangled qudits instead. We present a complete framework for cluster state quantum computation using qudits, which not only contains the features of the original qubit model but also contains the new idea of adaptive computation: via a change in the classical computation that helps to correct the errors that are inherent in the model, the implemented quantum computation can be changed. This feature arises through the extra degrees of freedom that appear when using qudits. Finally, for prime dimensions, we give a very explicit description of the model, making use of mutually unbiased bases.
Contexts, Systems and Modalities: a new ontology for quantum mechanics
Alexia Auffèves; Philippe Grangier
2015-01-23
In this article we present a possible way to make usual quantum mechanics fully compatible with physical realism, defined as the statement that the goal of physics is to study entities of the natural world, existing independently from any particular observer's perception, and obeying universal and intelligible rules. Rather than elaborating on the quantum formalism itself, we propose to modify the quantum ontology, by requiring that physical properties are attributed jointly to the system, and to the context in which it is embedded. In combination with a quantization principle, this non-classical definition of physical reality sheds new light on counter-intuitive features of quantum mechanics such as the origin of probabilities, non-locality, and the quantum-classical boundary.
Quantum Geometric Tensor (Fubini-Study Metric) in Simple Quantum System: A pedagogical Introduction
Ran Cheng
2013-04-05
Geometric Quantum Mechanics is a novel and prospecting approach motivated by the belief that our world is ultimately geometrical. At the heart of that is a quantity called Quantum Geometric Tensor (or Fubini-Study metric), which is a complex tensor with the real part serving as the Riemannian metric that measures the `quantum distance', and the imaginary part being the Berry curvature. Following a physical introduction of the basic formalism, we illustrate its physical significance in both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic systems.
Photoluminescence of a microcavity quantum dot system in the quantum strong-coupling regime
Ishida, Natsuko; Byrnes, Tim; Nori, Franco; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-01-01
The Jaynes-Cummings model, describing the interaction between a single two-level system and a photonic mode, has been used to describe a large variety of systems, ranging from cavity quantum electrodynamics, trapped ions, to superconducting qubits coupled to resonators. Recently there has been renewed interest in studying the quantum strong-coupling (QSC) regime, where states with photon number greater than one are excited. This regime has been recently achieved in semiconductor nanostructures, where a quantum dot is trapped in a planar microcavity. Here we study the quantum strong-coupling regime by calculating its photoluminescence (PL) properties under a pulsed excitation. We discuss the changes in the PL as the QSC regime is reached, which transitions between a peak around the cavity resonance to a doublet. We particularly examine the variations of the PL in the time domain, under regimes of short and long pulse times relative to the microcavity decay time. PMID:23378913
ROOT SYSTEMS AND THE QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY OF ADE RESOLUTIONS
Bryan, Jim
ROOT SYSTEMS AND THE QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY OF ADE RESOLUTIONS JIM BRYAN AND AMIN GHOLAMPOUR Abstract root system canonically associated to G. We generalize the resulting Frobenius manifold to non-simply laced root systems to obtain an n parameter family of algebra structures on the affine root lattice
REMARKS ON THE QUANTUM DE FINETTI THEOREM FOR BOSONIC SYSTEMS
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
of this system are rank-one projectors | | onto normalized vectors HN , the symmetric tensor product of NREMARKS ON THE QUANTUM DE FINETTI THEOREM FOR BOSONIC SYSTEMS MATHIEU LEWIN, PHAN TH`ANH NAM Consider a system of N bosons with one-particle state space H, a separable Hilbert space. Pure states
Nanomechanical quantum many-body phonon-qubit systems for quantum simulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soykal, Oney; Tahan, Charles
2014-03-01
We investigate nanomechanical systems consisting of arrays of coupled phonon cavities each including an impurity qubit in silicon. These experimentally feasible architectures can exhibit quantum many-body phase transitions, e.g. Mott insulator and superfluid states, due to a strong phonon-phonon interaction, and are suitable in the pursuit of quantum simulators. We investigate driven dissipative non-equilibrium systems at zero and non-zero temperatures. These quantum many-body phonon systems can be implemented using either on-chip nano mechanical systems in silicon or DBR heterostructures in silicon-germanium. We examine the experimental procedures to detect these states and show that temperature and driving field (write/read-out) play a critical role in achieving these phonon superfluid and insulator states. These many-body cavity phonon/qubit systems with strong phonon-phonon interactions can be used in forming truly quantum many-body mechanical states for quantum simulators as well as to complement other nano/optomechanical systems.
Energy Emission by Quantum Systems in an Expanding FRW Metric
D. P. Sheehan; V. G. Kriss
2004-11-11
Bound quantum mechanical systems not expanding with the comoving frame of an expanding, flat FRW metric are found to release energy at a rate linearly proportional to the local Hubble constant ($H_{o}$) and the systems' binding energy ($E_{b}$); {\\em i.e.}, $\\dot{E} = H_{o} E_{b}$. Three exemplary quantum systems are examined. For systems with early cosmological condensation times | notably hadrons | time-integrated energy release could have been significant and could account for an appreciable fraction of the dark matter inventory.
Rapid mixing and stability of quantum dissipative systems
Angelo Lucia; Toby S. Cubitt; Spyridon Michalakis; David Pérez-García
2015-04-28
The physics of many materials is modeled by quantum many-body systems with local interactions. If the model of the system is sensitive to noise from the environment, or small perturbations to the original interactions, it will not properly model the robustness of the real physical system it aims to describe, or be useful when engineering novel systems for quantum information processing. We show that local observables and correlation functions of local Liouvillians are stable to local perturbations if the dynamics is rapidly mixing and has a unique fixed point. No other condition is required.
Open Architecture Submarine Cable Observatory Systems
N. J. Hazell; G. Waterworth; A. Lecroart
2007-01-01
The NEPTUNE observatory system has introduced a new technology approach, bringing the Internet to subsea cabled science observatory systems. The subsea nodes, providing subsea connection points provisioning data and power, provide a gateway between the permanent infrastructure and the instrumentation. The proven high reliability and long life of the subsea communications equipment offers the opportunity to install permanent observatories for
Rutgers Student Alcohol Project: Open Systems Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crossman, Lenard H.
1981-01-01
Discusses systems theory applied to alcoholism programing which enables programers to analyze a project for maximum system effectiveness. It is suggested that generating scarce resources, especially clients, and having appropriate services, calls for extensive interorganizational linkages and for sensitive interaction with the environment. (Author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Jun-Ichi
2011-03-01
We analytically derive deterministic equations of order parameters such as spontaneous magnetization in infinite-range quantum spin systems obeying quantum Monte Carlo dynamics. By means of the Trotter decomposition, we consider the transition probability of Glauber-type dynamics of microscopic states for the corresponding classical system. Under the static approximation, differential equations with respect to macroscopic order parameters are explicitly obtained from the master equation that describes the microscopic-law. We discuss several possible applications of our approach to disordered spin systems for statistical-mechanical informatics. Especially, we argue the ground state searching for infinite-range random spin systems via quantum adiabatic evolution. We were financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, No. 22500195.
Exotic Freezing of Response in Quantum Many-Body System
Arnab Das
2010-11-01
We show that when a quantum many-body system is subjected to coherent periodic driving, the response may exhibit exotic freezing behavior in high driving frequency ($\\omega$) regime. In a periodically driven classical thermodynamic system, freezing at high $\\omega$ occurs when $1/\\omega$ is much smaller than the characteristic relaxation time of the system, and hence the freezing always increases there as $\\omega$ is increased. Here, in the contrary, we see surprising non-monotonic freezing behavior of the response with $\\omega$, showing curious peak-valley structure. Quite interestingly, the entire system tends to freeze almost absolutely (the freezing peaks) when driven with a certain combination of driving parameters values (amplitude and $\\omega$) due to coherent suppression of dynamics of the quantum many-body modes, which has no classical analog. We demonstrate this new freezing phenomenon analytically (supported by large-scale numerics) for a general class of integrable quantum spin systems.
Resonance chains in open systems, generalized zeta functions and clustering of the length spectrum
Sonja Barkhofen; Frédéric Faure; Tobias Weich
2014-08-04
In many non-integrable open systems in physics and mathematics resonances have been found to be surprisingly ordered along curved lines in the complex plane. In this article we provide a unifying approach to these resonance chains by generalizing dynamical zeta functions. By means of a detailed numerical study we show that these generalized zeta functions explain the mechanism that creates the chains of quantum resonance and classical Ruelle resonances for 3-disk systems as well as geometric resonances on Schottky surfaces. We also present a direct system-intrinsic definition of the continuous lines on which the resonances are strung together as a projection of an analytic variety. Additionally, this approach shows that the existence of resonance chains is directly related to a clustering of the classical length spectrum on multiples of a base length. Finally, this link is used to construct new examples where several different structures of resonance chains coexist.
Quantum Chaos in Physical Systems: from Super Conductors to Quarks
Elmar Bittner; Harald Markum; Rainer Pullirsch
2001-10-31
This article is the written version of a talk delivered at the Bexbach Colloquium of Science 2000 and starts with an introduction into quantum chaos and its relationship to classical chaos. The Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture is formulated and evaluated within random-matrix theory. Several examples of physical systems exhibiting quantum chaos ranging from nuclear to solid state physics are presented. The presentation concludes with recent research work on quantum chromodynamics and the quark-gluon plasma. In the case of a chemical potential the eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex and one has to deal with non-Hermitian random-matrix theory.
Emulating a mesoscopic system using superconducting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Campbell, B.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Ohya, S.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.
2013-03-01
We demonstrate an emulation of a mesoscopic system using superconducting quantum circuits. Taking advantage of our ReZQu-architectured quantum processor, we controllably splitted a microwave photon and manipulated the splitted photons before they recombined for detection. In this way, we were able to simulate the weak localization effect in mesoscopic systems - a coherent backscattering process due to quantum interference. The influence of the phase coherence was investigated by tuning the coherence time of the quantum circuit, which in turn mimics the temperature effect on the weak localization process. At the end, we demonstrated an effect resembling universal conductance fluctuations, which arises from the frequency beating between different coherent backscattering processes. The universality of the observed fluctuation was shown as the independence of the fluctuation amplitude on detailed experimental conditions.
Universal behavior beyond multifractality in quantum many-body systems.
Luitz, David J; Alet, Fabien; Laflorencie, Nicolas
2014-02-01
How many states of a configuration space contribute to a wave function? Attempts to answer this ubiquitous question have a long history in physics and are keys to understanding, e.g., localization phenomena. Beyond single-particle physics, a quantitative study of the ground state complexity for interacting many-body quantum systems is notoriously difficult, mainly due to the exponential growth of the configuration (Hilbert) space with the number of particles. Here we develop quantum Monte Carlo schemes to overcome this issue, focusing on Shannon-Rényi entropies of ground states of large quantum many-body systems. Our simulations reveal a generic multifractal behavior while the very nature of quantum phases of matter and associated transitions is captured by universal subleading terms in these entropies. PMID:24580627
Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.
2015-07-01
In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity.
Electrical Characterization of a Hybrid 1D-0D System of Quantum Dot Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rembert, Thomas; Kunets, Vasyl; Salamo, Gregory
2012-02-01
Recent developments in the area of material science and nanotechnology open new horizons to fabricate novel artificial materials with the possibility to engineer the electron and phonon material properties. Our objective is to create structures with high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. The outcome will allow efficient transfer of thermal energy into the electrical output. Early theoretical and experimental research indicates that one-dimensional (1D) quantum wires and zero-dimensional (0D) quantum dots can be used to fabricate very efficient thermoelectric devices. This project focuses on the development of artificial material systems, called quantum dot chains, where 1D states, which are important for high electrical conductivity, coexist with 0D states, causing efficient acoustic phonon scattering, reducing the thermal conductivity. The samples are InGaAs/GaAs grown using an MBE technique of strain-induced self-assembly. Current analysis of our results shows anisotropies of temperature-dependent measurements of sheet resistance and electron mobility, along with physical characterization via AFM scans. Continued studies of electron and phonon physics in this system will help determine the potential for chains of quantum dots in thermoelectric applications.
Evolution Patterns of Open-Source Software Systems and Communities
Nakakoji, Kumiyo
Evolution Patterns of Open-Source Software Systems and Communities Kumiyo Nakakoji1,2,3 Yasuhiro product evolution". To understand how this "natural product evolution" happens, we have conducted a case study of four typical OSS projects. Unlike most previous studies on software evolution that focus
A Flexible, Open, Decentralized System for Digital Pathology Networks
Chervenak, Ann
A Flexible, Open, Decentralized System for Digital Pathology Networks Robert SCHULERa,1 and David E and sharing of digitized microscopy slides and new methods for digital pathology. Collaborative research centers, outsourced medical services, and multi-site organizations stand to benefit from sharing pathology
Correlates of Open and Closed Value Systems among University Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffy, Ryan D.; Sedlacek, William E.
2006-01-01
A sample of 3,484 incoming first-year students at a large, mid-Atlantic University were surveyed to assess a variety of attitudinal and behavioral variables pertinent to the college experience. The current study focused on how student value system orientation, or the degree to which values are open or closed, related to key aspects of college…
A Petri Net Interpretation of Open Reconfigurable Systems
Boyer, Edmond
. In the second case, a Petri net is built directly from the syntax. Most of the time, the semantic analysisA Petri Net Interpretation of Open Reconfigurable Systems FrÃ©dÃ©ric Peschanski1 , Hanna Klaudel2 present a Petri net interpretation of the pi-graphs - a graphical variant of the pi
I-Living: An Open System Architecture for Assisted Living
Qixin Wang; Wook Shin; Xue Liu; Zheng Zeng; Cham Oh; B. K. AlShebli; M. Caccamo; C. A. Gunter; E. Gunter; J. Hou; K. Karahalios; Lui Sha
2006-01-01
Advances in networking, sensors, and embedded devices have made it feasible to monitor and provide medical and other assistance to people in their homes. Aging populations will benefit from reduced costs and improved healthcare through assisted living based on these technologies. However, these systems challenge current state-of-the-art techniques for usability, reliability, and security. This is a particular challenge for open
Fractal Weyl law behavior in an open, chaotic Hamiltonian system
Jordan A. Ramilowski; S. D. Prado; F. Borondo; David Farrelly
2009-11-05
We numerically show fractal Weyl law behavior in an open Hamiltonian system that is described by a smooth potential and which supports numerous above-barrier resonances. This behavior holds even relatively far away from the classical limit. The complex resonance wave functions are found to be localized on the fractal classical repeller.
Evaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems
Cordy, James R.
new features. This growth is accompanied by increasing complexity of the software. At a certain pointEvaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems Chanchal Kumar Roy and James R://www.cs.queensu.ca/~cordy Abstract. For real-world software to remain satisfactory to its stake- holders requires its continual
Combustor for regenerative open cycle gas turbine system
1984-01-01
A counter flow combustor for regenerative open cycle turbine systems has an outer casing defining a head cavity at one end, an inner casing mounting in said outer casing, said inner casing defining a combustion chamber. An annular insulated partition and support means is connected at its upper end to the inner wall of the outer casing and at its
Chinese Localisation of Evergreen: An Open Source Integrated Library System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zou, Qing; Liu, Guoying
2009-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate various issues related to Chinese language localisation in Evergreen, an open source integrated library system (ILS). Design/methodology/approach: A Simplified Chinese version of Evergreen was implemented and tested and various issues such as encoding, indexing, searching, and sorting…
organisation; an excellent command of English (written and spoken) is essential. Learning the Dutch language of Technology opens positions of PROFESSORS of experimental Quantum Nanoscience (assistant, associate or full hold a PhD degree in physics or a related discipline. Delft University of Technology is a bilingual
Open Systems' Density Matrix Properties in a Time Coarsened Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englman, Robert; Yahalom, Asher
2015-06-01
The concept of time-coarsened density matrix for open systems has frequently featured in equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, without being probed as to the detailed consequences of the time averaging procedure. In this work we introduce and prove the need for a selective and non-uniform time-sampling, whose form depends on the properties (whether thermalized or not) of the bath. It is also applicable when an open microscopic sub-system is coupled to another finite system. By use of a time-periodic minimal coupling model between these two systems, we present detailed quantitative consequences of time coarsening, which include initial state independence of equilibration, deviations from long term averages, their environment size dependence and the approach to classicality, as measured by a Leggett-Garg type inequality. An interacting multiple qubit model affords comparison between the time integrating procedure and the more conventional environment tracing method.
Open-frame system for single-molecule microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsenault, Adriel; Leith, Jason S.; Henkin, Gil; McFaul, Christopher M. J.; Tarling, Matthew; Talbot, Richard; Berard, Daniel; Michaud, Francois; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina R.
2015-03-01
We present the design and construction of a versatile, open frame inverted microscope system for wide-field fluorescence and single molecule imaging. The microscope chassis and modular design allow for customization, expansion, and experimental flexibility. We present two components which are included with the microscope which extend its basic capabilities and together create a powerful microscopy system: A Convex Lens-induced Confinement device provides the system with single-molecule imaging capabilities, and a two-color imaging system provides the option of imaging multiple molecular species simultaneously. The flexibility of the open-framed chassis combined with accessible single-molecule, multi-species imaging technology supports a wide range of new measurements in the health, nanotechnology, and materials science research sectors.
Quantum gravity as a dissipative deterministic system
Gerard't Hooft
1999-01-01
It is argued that the so-called holographic principle will obstruct attempts to produce physically realistic models for the unification of general relativity (GR) with quantum mechanics, unless determinism in the latter is restored. The notion of time in GR is so different from the usual one in elementary particle physics that we believe that certain versions of hidden-variable theories can
Density and Temperature in Quantum Nuclear Systems
Zheng, Hua
2014-10-01
quantum nature of particles when we extract the physical quantities for the EOS. In the past, some methods have employed the classical limit of low density and high temperature, e.g. double ratio thermometer, while other methods (e.g. two particle...
A Generalization of Fermat's Principle for Classical and Quantum Systems
Tarek A. Elsayed
2014-09-23
The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.
Quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems in noisy environments
M. B. Plenio; S. F. Huelga
2012-02-05
We discuss three different aspects of the quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems and more generally complex networks in the presence of strongly coupled environments. Firstly, we make a case for the systematic study of fundamental structural elements underlying the quantum dynamics of these systems, identify such elements and explore the resulting interplay of quantum dynamics and environmental decoherence. Secondly, we critically examine some existing approaches to the numerical description of system-environment interaction in the non-perturbative regime and present a promising new method that can overcome some limitations of existing methods. Thirdly, we present an approach towards deciding and quantifying the non-classicality of the action of the environment and the observed system-dynamics. We stress the relevance of these tools for strengthening the interplay between theoretical and experimental research in this field.
Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems.
Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J; Popescu, Sandu
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a 'weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine. PMID:24969511
Dong, Daoyi; Chen, Chunlin; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel
2008-08-01
In this paper, an incoherent control scheme for accomplishing the state control of a class of quantum systems which have wavefunction-controllable subspaces is proposed. This scheme includes the following two steps: projective measurement on the initial state and learning control in the wavefunction-controllable subspace. The first step probabilistically projects the initial state into the wavefunction-controllable subspace. The probability of success is sensitive to the initial state; however, it can be greatly improved through multiple experiments on several identical initial states even in the case with a small probability of success for an individual measurement. The second step finds a local optimal control sequence via quantum reinforcement learning and drives the controlled system to the objective state through a set of suitable controls. In this strategy, the initial states can be unknown identical states, the quantum measurement is used as an effective control, and the controlled system is not necessarily unitarily controllable. This incoherent control scheme provides an alternative quantum engineering strategy for locally controllable quantum systems. PMID:18632384
Escape rates and Perron-Frobenius operators: Open and closed dynamical systems
Gary Froyland; Ognjen Stancevic
2010-01-01
We study the Perron-Frobenius operator P of closed dynamical systems and certain open dynamical systems. We prove that the presence of a large positive eigenvalueof P guarantees the existence of a 2-partition of the phase space for which the escape rates of the open systems defined on the two partition sets are both slower than ?log?. The open systems with
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Preparing Thermal States of Quantum Systems by Dimension Reduction
Bilgin, Ersen; Boixo, Sergio [Institute of Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)
2010-10-22
We present an algorithm that prepares thermal Gibbs states of one dimensional quantum systems on a quantum computer without any memory overhead, and in a time significantly shorter than other known alternatives. Specifically, the time complexity is dominated by the quantity N{sup ||h||}/{sup T}, where N is the size of the system, || h || is a bound on the operator norm of the local terms of the Hamiltonian (coupling energy), and T is the temperature. Given other results on the complexity of thermalization, this overall scaling is likely optimal. For higher dimensions, our algorithm lowers the known scaling of the time complexity with the dimension of the system by one.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity in quantum many-body systems: a quantum dynamical microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Campo, Adolfo
2014-03-01
The evolution of a quantum system induced by a shortcut to adiabaticity mimics the adiabatic dynamics without the requirement of slow driving. Engineering it involves diagonalizing the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the system and results in the need of auxiliary non-local interactions for matter-waves. Here experimentally realizable driving protocols are found for a large class of single-particle, many-body, and non-linear systems without demanding the spectral properties as an input. The method is applied to the expansion of a trapped ultracold gas which spatially scales up the size of the cloud while conserving the quantum correlations of the initial many-body state. This shortcut to adiabatic expansions acts as a quantum dynamical microscope.
Entropy and specific heat for open systems in steady states
X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi
2010-01-01
The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is\\u000aequally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption,\\u000athe Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical\\u000athermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann\\u000adistribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Based\\u000aon
Open Architecture Submarine Cable Observatory Systems
A. Lecroart; N. Hazell; G. Waterworth; J.-F. Marcerou
2007-01-01
To deliver high power and broadband communication to the ocean floor requires a number of changes to existing technology developed to bridge oceans from shore to shore. The dry-dry solution is well mastered and although it evolves over time following technological innovations, adapting it to become a dry-wet solution represents a major technical challenge. The cabled observatory system developed for
Opening Access to Environmental Software Systems
Daryl H. Hepting; Timothy Maciaga
As individuals are increasingly being called to act in environmentally-conscious ways, they will seek out any and all resources which might help to inform their actions. Unfortunately, a 2002 OECD report indicated that there seemed to be declining trust of environmental information sources and increasing confusion about which actions could be most beneficial. Environmental Software Systems can provide relief in
Charge-dyon bound system in the spherical quantum well
Mardoyan, L. G.; Petrosyan, L. S.; Sarkisyan, H. A. [Yerevan State University, 1, Alex Manoogian, 375025, Yerevan, (Armenia)
2003-07-01
The spherical wave functions of the charge-dyon bound system in a rectangular spherical quantum dot of infinite and finite height are calculated. The transcendental equations, defining the energy spectra of the systems, are obtained. The dependence of the energy levels on the wall sizes is found.
Stochastic resonance in a double quantum dot system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Amitabh
2008-02-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) is theoretically investigated for a double quantum dot system represented by two discrete levels in respective wells. The system is driven by a periodic signal and a white noise source with variable amplitude, and thus displays an improved output signal-to-noise ratio, a characteristic signature of SR.
Theory of Ground State Factorization in Quantum Cooperative Systems
Salvatore M. Giampaolo; Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati
2008-01-01
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective
The quantum systems control and the optimal control theory
V. F. Krotov
2008-05-22
Mathematical theory of the quantum systems control is based on some ideas of the optimal control theory. These ideas are developed here as applied to these systems. The results obtained meet the deficiencies in the basis and algorithms of the control synthesis and expand the application of these methods.
Stochastic resonance in a double quantum dot system.
Joshi, Amitabh
2008-02-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) is theoretically investigated for a double quantum dot system represented by two discrete levels in respective wells. The system is driven by a periodic signal and a white noise source with variable amplitude, and thus displays an improved output signal-to-noise ratio, a characteristic signature of SR. PMID:18351970
Advances in Quantum Teleportation
Pirandola, Stefano; Weedbrook, Christian; Furusawa, Akira; Braunstein, Samuel L
2015-01-01
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important protocols in quantum information. By exploiting the physical resource of entanglement, quantum teleportation serves as a key primitive in a variety of quantum information tasks and represents an important building block for quantum technologies, with a pivotal role in the continuing progress of quantum communication, quantum computing and quantum networks. Here we review the basic theoretical ideas behind quantum teleportation and its variant protocols. We focus on the main experiments, together with the technical advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of the various technologies, from photonic qubits and optical modes to atomic ensembles, trapped atoms, and solid-state systems. Analysing the current state-of-the-art, we finish by discussing open issues, challenges and potential future implementations.