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The damping of the harmonic oscillator is studied in the framework of the\\u000aLindblad theory for open quantum systems. A generalization of the fundamental\\u000aconstraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients which appear in the\\u000amaster equation for the damped quantum oscillator is presented; the\\u000aSchr\\\\\\

A. Isar; A. Sandulescu; H. Scutaru; E. Stefanescu; W. Scheid

2004-01-01

2

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems

Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer TÂ¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2

Steinhoff, Heinz-JÃ¼rgen

3

Open quantum system identification

Engineering quantum systems offers great opportunities both technologically and scientifically for communication, computation, and simulation. The construction and operation of large scale quantum information devices presents a grand challenge and a major issue is the effective control of coherent dynamics. This is often in the presence of decoherence which further complicates the task of determining the behaviour of the system. Here, we show how to determine open system Markovian dynamics of a quantum system with restricted initialisation and partial output state information.

Sophie G. Schirmer; Daniel K. L. Oi; Weiwei Zhou; Erling Gong; Ming Zhang

2012-05-28

4

Control of open quantum systems

This thesis describes the development, investigation and experimental implementation via liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques of new methods for controlling open quantum systems. First, methods that improve ...

Boulant, Nicolas

2005-01-01

5

Simulation of open quantum systems

We present an approach for the semiclassical treatment of open quantum systems. An expansion into localized states allows restriction of a simulation to a fraction of the environment that is located within a predefined vicinity of the system. Adding and dropping environmental particles during the simulation yields an effective reduction of the size of the system that is being treated.

Florian Mintert; Eric J. Heller

2008-03-27

6

Transitionless quantum driving in open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the concept of superadiabatic dynamics, or transitionless quantum driving, to quantum open systems whose evolution is governed by a master equation in the Lindblad form. We provide the general framework needed to determine the control strategy required to achieve superadiabaticity. We apply our formalism to two examples consisting of a two-level system coupled to environments with time-dependent bath operators.

Vacanti, G.; Fazio, R.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G. M.; Paternostro, M.; Vedral, V.

2014-05-01

7

Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems

In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, the master equation for two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment is solved in the asymptotic long-time regime. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that in the long-time regime they manifest non-local quantum correlations. We calculate also the logarithmic negativity characterizing the degree of entanglement of the asymptotic state.

Isar, Aurelian [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2008-01-24

8

Hypothesis testing with open quantum systems

Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a smaller open quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment.

Klaus Molmer

2014-08-20

9

Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Algorithms

The model of open quantum systems is adopted to describe the non-local dynamical behaviour of qubits processed by entangling gates. The analysis gets to the conclusion that a distinction between evaluation steps and task-oriented computing steps is justified only within classical computation. In fact, the use of entangling gates permits to reduce two steps (evaluation and calculation) to a single computational one, and this determines an effective computational speed-up. The application of the open quantum systems model suggests that the reduction to one-computational step is strongly related to the existence of Universal Dynamical Maps describing the evolution of component systems of two-qubits gates. As the description in terms of Universal Dynamical Map is possible only in the presence of a separable initial state, it turns out that the internal reduced dynamics with respect to entangling gates is neither unitary nor Markovian. The fact imposes a holistic vision on the structure of the algorithm, where the entangling gates shall remain indivisible unities, or black boxes, in order to preserve computational speed as well as reversibility. This fact suggests to adopt a perspective on computation which is completely non-classical: the whole algorithm turns out not to be the sequence of its temporal parts.

Stefano Bonzio; Paola Verrucchi

2013-01-09

10

Dynamical identification of open quantum systems

I propose a quantum trajectories approach to parametric identification of the effective Hamiltonian for a Markovian open quantum system, and discuss an application motivated by recent experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics. This example illustrates a strategy for quantum parameter estimation that efficiently utilizes the information carried by correlations between measurements distributed in time.

Hideo Mabuchi

1996-08-13

11

Control of the quantum open system via quantum generalized measurement

For any specified pure state of quantum open system, we can construct a kind of quantum generalized measurement (QGM) that the state of the system after measurement will be deterministically collapsed into the specified pure state from any initial state. In other words, any pure state of quantum open system is reachable by QGM. Subsequently, whether the qubit is density matrix controllable is discussed in the case of pure dephasing. Our results reveal that combining QGM with coherent control will enhance the ability of controlling the quantum open system. Furthermore, it is found that the ability to perform QGM on the quantum open system, combined with the ability of coherence control and conditions of decoherence-free subspace, allows us to suppress quantum decoherence.

Zhang Ming; Zhu Xiaocai; Li Xingwei; Hu Dewen [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Dai Hongyi [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

2006-03-15

12

Quantum Speed Limits in Open System Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.

del Campo, A.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Plenio, M. B.; Huelga, S. F.

2013-02-01

13

Feynman's Clock for open quantum systems

We show that Feynman's Clock construction, in which the time-evolution of a closed quantum system is encoded as a ground state problem, can be extended to open quantum systems. In our formalism, the ground states of an ensemble of non-Hermitian Feynman Clock Hamiltonians yield stochastic trajectories, which unravel the evolution of a Lindblad master equation. In this way, one can use Feynman's Clock not only to simulate the evolution of a quantum system, but also it's interaction with an environment such as a heat bath or measuring apparatus. A simple numerical example of a two-level atom undergoing spontaneous emission is presented and analyzed.

David G. Tempel; Alan Aspuru-Guzik

2014-06-21

14

Open quantum systems with loss and gain

We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system. Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter

2014-09-09

15

Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems

In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

Isar, Aurelian [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-6 (Romania)

2011-10-03

16

Randomized control of open quantum systems

The problem of open-loop dynamical control of generic open quantum systems is addressed. In particular, I focus on the task of effectively switching off environmental couplings responsible for unwanted decoherence and dissipation effects. After revisiting the standard framework for dynamical decoupling via deterministic controls, I describe a different approach whereby the controller intentionally acquires a random component. An explicit error bound on worst-case performance of stochastic decoupling is presented.

Lorenza Viola

2006-01-16

17

Open quantum systems and error correction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum effects can be harnessed to manipulate information in a desired way. Quantum systems which are designed for this purpose are suffering from harming interaction with their surrounding environment or inaccuracy in control forces. Engineering different methods to combat errors in quantum devices are highly demanding. In this thesis, I focus on realistic formulations of quantum error correction methods. A realistic formulation is the one that incorporates experimental challenges. This thesis is presented in two sections of open quantum system and quantum error correction. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the material on open quantum system theory. It is essential to first study a noise process then to contemplate methods to cancel its effect. In the second chapter, I present the non-completely positive formulation of quantum maps. Most of these results are published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2009b,a], except a subsection on geometric characterization of positivity domain of a quantum map. The real-time formulation of the dynamics is the topic of the third chapter. After introducing the concept of Markovian regime, A new post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005a]. The section of quantum error correction is presented in three chapters of 4, 5, 6 and 7. In chapter 4, we introduce a generalized theory of decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems (DFSs), which do not require accurate initialization (published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005b]). In Chapter 5, we present a semidefinite program optimization approach to quantum error correction that yields codes and recovery procedures that are robust against significant variations in the noise channel. Our approach allows us to optimize the encoding, recovery, or both, and is amenable to approximations that significantly improve computational cost while retaining fidelity (see [Kosut et al., 2008] for a published version). Chapter 6 is devoted to a theory of quantum error correction (QEC) that applies to any linear map, in particular maps that are not completely positive (CP). This is a complementary to the second chapter which is published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2007]. In the last chapter 7 before the conclusion, a formulation for evaluating the performance of quantum error correcting codes for a general error model is presented, also published in [Shabani, 2005]. In this formulation, the correlation between errors is quantified by a Hamiltonian description of the noise process. In particular, we consider Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes and observe a better performance in the presence of correlated errors depending on the timing of the error recovery.

Shabani Barzegar, Alireza

18

Periodically driven quantum open systems: Tutorial

We present a short derivation and discussion of the master equation for an open quantum system weakly coupled to a heat bath and then its generalization to the case of with periodic external driving based on the Floquet theory. Further, a single heat bath is replaced by several ones. We present also the definition of heat currents which satisfies the second law of thermodynamics and apply the general results to a simple model of periodically modulated qubit.

Robert Alicki; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Gershon Kurizki

2012-05-21

19

Periodically driven quantum open systems: Tutorial

We present a short derivation and discussion of the master equation for an open quantum system weakly coupled to a heat bath and then its generalization to the case of with periodic external driving based on the Floquet theory. Further, a single heat bath is replaced by several ones. We present also the definition of heat currents which satisfies the second law of thermodynamics and apply the general results to a simple model of periodically modulated qubit.

Alicki, Robert; Kurizki, Gershon

2012-01-01

20

Open Systems Dynamics for Propagating Quantum Fields

In this dissertation, I explore interactions between matter and propagating light. The electromagnetic field is modeled as a reservoir of quantum harmonic oscillators successively streaming past a quantum system. Each weak and fleeting interaction entangles the light and the system, and the light continues its course. Within the framework of open quantum systems, the light is eventually traced out, leaving the reduced quantum state of the system as the primary mathematical subject. Two major results are presented. The first is a master equation approach for a quantum system interacting with a traveling wave packet prepared with a definite number of photons. In contrast to quasi-classical states, such as coherent or thermal fields, these N-photon states possess temporal mode entanglement, and local interactions in time have nonlocal consequences. The second is a model for a three-dimensional light-matter interface for an atomic ensemble interacting with a paraxial laser beam and its application to the generation of QND spin squeezing. Both coherent and incoherent dynamics due to spatially inhomogeneous atom-light coupling across the ensemble are accounted for. Measurement of paraxially scattered light can generate squeezing of an atomic spin wave, while diffusely scattered photons lead to spatially local decoherence.

Ben Q. Baragiola

2014-08-18

21

Control landscapes for open system quantum operations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable realization of control operations is a key component of quantum information applications. In practice, meeting this goal is very demanding for open quantum systems. This paper investigates the landscape defined as the fidelity J between the desired and achieved quantum operations with an open system. The goal is to maximize J as a functional of the control variables. We specify the complete set of critical points of the landscape function in the so-called kinematic picture. An associated Hessian analysis of the landscape reveals that, upon the satisfaction of a particular controllability criterion, the critical topology is dependent on the particular environment, but no false traps (i.e. suboptimal solutions) exist. Thus, a gradient-type search algorithm should not be hindered in searching for the ultimate optimal solution with such controllable systems. Moreover, the maximal fidelity is proven to coincide with Uhlmann’s fidelity between the environmental initial states associated with the achieved and desired quantum operations, which provides a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem in terms of Kraus maps.

Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel

2012-12-01

22

Open quantum systems and Dicke superradiance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study generic features of open quantum systems embedded into a continuum of scattering wavefunctions and compare them with results discussed in optics. A dynamical phase transition may appear at high level density in a many-level system and also in a two-level system if the coupling W to the environment is complex and sufficiently large. Here nonlinearities occur. When W ij is imaginary, two singular (exceptional) points may exist. In the parameter range between these two points, width bifurcation occurs as function of a certain external parameter. A unitary representation of the S matrix allows to calculate the cross section for a two-level system, including at the exceptional point (double pole of the S matrix). The results obtained for the transition of level repulsion at small (real) W ij to width bifurcation at large (imaginary) W ij show qualitatively the same features that are observed experimentally in the transition from Autler-Townes splitting to electromagnetically induced transparency in optics. Fermi's golden rule holds only below the dynamical phase transition while it passes into an anti-golden rule beyond this transition. The results are generic and can be applied to the response of a complex open quantum system to the action of an external field (environment). They may be considered as a guideline for engineering and manipulating quantum systems in such a way that they can be used for applications with special requirements.

Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid

2014-03-01

23

Random Control over Quantum Open Systems

Parametric fluctuations or stochastic signals are introduced into the control pulse sequence to investigate the feasibility of random control over quantum open systems. In a large parameter error region, the out-of-order control pulses work as well as the regular pulses for dynamical decoupling and dissipation suppression. Calculations and analysis are based on a non-perturbative control approach allowed by an exact quantum-state-diffusion equation. When the average frequency and duration of the pulse sequence take proper values, the random control sequence is robust, fault- tolerant, and insensitive to pulse strength deviations and interpulse temporal separation in the quasi-periodic sequence. This relaxes the operational requirements placed on quantum control experiments to a great deal.

Jun Jing; C. Allen Bishop; Lian-Ao Wu

2014-07-03

24

Adiabatic quantum computation in open systems.

We analyze the performance of adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) subject to decoherence. To this end, we introduce an inherently open-systems approach, based on a recent generalization of the adiabatic approximation. In contrast to closed systems, we show that a system may initially be in an adiabatic regime, but then undergo a transition to a regime where adiabaticity breaks down. As a consequence, the success of AQC depends sensitively on the competition between various pertinent rates, giving rise to optimality criteria. PMID:16384441

Sarandy, M S; Lidar, D A

2005-12-16

25

Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems

In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.

Isar, A. [National Institute of Physics Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-6 (Romania)

2010-08-04

26

Quantum Games in Open Systems using Biophysic Hamiltonians

We analyze the necessary physical conditions to model an open quantum system as a quantum game. By applying the formalism of Quantum Operations on a particular system, we use Kraus operators as quantum strategies. The physical interpretation is a conflict among different configurations of the environment. The resolution of the conflict displays regimes of minimum loss of information.

Jean Faber; Renato Portugal; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

2006-06-26

27

Quantum response of dephasing open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a theory of adiabatic response for open systems governed by Lindblad evolutions. The theory determines the dependence of the response coefficients on the dephasing rates and allows for residual dissipation even when the ground state is protected by a spectral gap. We give the quantum response a geometric interpretation in terms of Hilbert space projections: for a two-level system and, more generally, for systems with a suitable functional form of the dephasing, the dissipative and non-dissipative parts of the response are linked to a metric and to a symplectic form. The metric is the Fubini-Study metric and the symplectic form is the adiabatic curvature. When the metric and symplectic structures are compatible, the non-dissipative part of the inverse matrix of response coefficients turns out to be immune to dephasing. We give three examples of physical systems whose quantum states induce compatible metric and symplectic structures on control space: qubit, coherent states and a model of the integer quantum Hall effect.

Avron, J. E.; Fraas, M.; Graf, G. M.; Kenneth, O.

2011-05-01

28

Quantum arrival time for open systems

We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.

Yearsley, J. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15

29

Quantum Arrival Time For Open Systems

We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of Lindblad form. We specialise to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localisation time the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a POVM, which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time of arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localisation time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy, $\\delta t$, with which they can be specified which obeys $E\\delta t>>\\hbar$. We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.

J. M. Yearsley

2010-03-31

30

Scattering properties of periodically-driven open quantum systems

In this dissertation we elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying the decay and scattering properties of periodically-driven open quantum systems. First, using a complex spectral decomposition we study some of the mechanisms underlying the decay processes in weakly-driven open quantum systems. A complex spectral decomposition involves generalized eigenstates associated with complex poles of the analytically continued energy Green's function. These

Agapi Emmanouilidou

2002-01-01

31

An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems

"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environment degrees of freedom is not feasible or only partially so" [1]. Practical considerations therefore force one to seek for a simpler, effectively probabilistic description in terms of an open system. There is a close physical and mathematical connection between the evolution of an open system, the state changes induced by quantum measurements, and the classical notion of a stochastic process. The paper provides a bibliographic review of this interrelations, it shows the mathematical equivalence between markovian master equation and generaliz...

Nicolosi, S

2005-01-01

32

Linear quantum state diffusion for non-Markovian open quantum systems

We demonstrate the relevance of complex Gaussian stochastic processes to the stochastic state vector description of non-Markovian open quantum systems. These processes express the general Feynman-Vernon path integral propagator for open quantum systems as the classical ensemble average over stochastic pure state propagators in a natural way. They are the coloured generalization of complex Wiener processes in quantum state diffusion

Walter T. Strunz

1996-01-01

33

Quantum decay of an open chaotic system: a semiclassical approach

We study the quantum probability to survive in an open chaotic system in the framework of the van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator and present the first such calculation that accounts for quantum interference effects. Specifically we calculate quantum deviations from the classical decay after the break time for both broken and preserved time-reversal symmetry. The source of these corrections is identified in interfering pairs of correlated classical trajectories. In our approach the quantized chaotic system is modelled by a quatum graph.

Mathias Puhlmann; Holger Schanz; Tsampikos Kottos; Theo Geisel

2004-01-26

34

An Operator-Based Exact Treatment of Open Quantum Systems

"Quantum mechanics must be regarded as open systems. On one hand, this is due to the fact that, like in classical physics, any realistic system is subjected to a coupling to an uncontrollable environment which influences it in a non-negligible way. The theory of open quantum systems thus plays a major role in many applications of quantum physics since perfect isolation of quantum system is not possible and since a complete microscopic description or control of the environment degrees of freedom is not feasible or only partially so" [1]. Practical considerations therefore force one to seek for a simpler, effectively probabilistic description in terms of an open system. There is a close physical and mathematical connection between the evolution of an open system, the state changes induced by quantum measurements, and the classical notion of a stochastic process. The paper provides a bibliographic review of this interrelations, it shows the mathematical equivalence between markovian master equation and generalized piecewise deterministic processes [1] and it introduces the open system in an open observed environment model.

S. Nicolosi

2005-04-04

35

Jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems

Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be ``unraveled'' into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schrödinger equation, as introduced by Diósi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jumplike unravelings. To

Jay Gambetta; T. Askerud; H. M. Wiseman

2004-01-01

36

Control of a two Level Open Quantum System

Control of a two Level Open Quantum System Domenico D'Alessandro Department of Mathematics@iastate.edu, slava@ameslab.gov Abstract We study the control problem for a general (finite di- mensional) quantum use sensitivity functions as a tool to compare control laws and trajectories in this formu- lation. We

Sontag, Eduardo

37

Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics

We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate AND logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.

R. A. Pepino; J. Cooper; D. Meiser; D. Z. Anderson; M. J. Holland

2010-05-17

38

Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics

We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate atomic transport across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate AND logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.

Pepino, R A; Meiser, D; Anderson, D Z; Holland, M J

2010-01-01

39

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems

Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local in time master equation that provides a direct connection of dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated with the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and non-equilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.

Vitalii Semin; Francesco Petruccione

2014-10-23

40

Arbitrarily accurate dynamical control in open quantum systems.

We show that open-loop dynamical control techniques may be used to synthesize unitary transformations in open quantum systems in such a way that decoherence is perturbatively compensated for to a desired (in principle arbitrarily high) level of accuracy, which depends only on the strength of the relevant errors and the achievable rate of control modulation. Our constructive and fully analytical solution employs concatenated dynamically corrected gates, and is applicable independently of detailed knowledge of the system-environment interactions and environment dynamics. Explicit implications for boosting quantum gate fidelities in realistic scenarios are addressed. PMID:20366973

Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Lidar, Daniel A; Viola, Lorenza

2010-03-01

41

Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems

There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature plays an important role in controlling popula- tion transfer. At low temperatures the control has active performance, while at high temperatures it has less erect. We also analyze the decoherence be- havior of open quantum systems with optimal population transfer control, and we find that these controls can prolong the coherence time. We hope that active optimal control can help quantum solid-state-based engineering.

Wei Cui; Zairong Xi; Yu Pan

2010-04-24

42

Variational functions in degenerate open quantum systems

We have derived a Lyapunov functional for a degenerate open atomic system. This functional develops monotonically towards its stationary state. The open system is described by a Lindblad-type master equation. For the construction of the variational functional it is necessary that the Lindblad operator can be diagonalized. Since the generator of motion is non-Hermitian, diagonalization is, in general, only possible if the eigenvalues are nondegenerate. In this paper, we propose that in a physical system the biorthogonal eigenbasis of the Lindblad operator remains complete even when degeneracy is present. Thus diagonalization of the Lindblad operator, and consequently the construction of the variational functional, is still possible. We discuss the reasons and illustrate the theory of the variational functional for a driven {lambda}-type three-level atom with degenerate ground state. The degeneracy has interesting effects on the variational functional in the steady state with respect to its interpretation as an entropic quantity. In case of the driven three-level atom, the dark state turns out to be an isentropic state.

Jakob, Matthias; Stenholm, Stig [Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Alba Nova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2004-04-01

43

Variational functions in degenerate open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived a Lyapunov functional for a degenerate open atomic system. This functional develops monotonically towards its stationary state. The open system is described by a Lindblad-type master equation. For the construction of the variational functional it is necessary that the Lindblad operator can be diagonalized. Since the generator of motion is non-Hermitian, diagonalization is, in general, only possible if the eigenvalues are nondegenerate. In this paper, we propose that in a physical system the biorthogonal eigenbasis of the Lindblad operator remains complete even when degeneracy is present. Thus diagonalization of the Lindblad operator, and consequently the construction of the variational functional, is still possible. We discuss the reasons and illustrate the theory of the variational functional for a driven ? -type three-level atom with degenerate ground state. The degeneracy has interesting effects on the variational functional in the steady state with respect to its interpretation as an entropic quantity. In case of the driven three-level atom, the dark state turns out to be an isentropic state.

Jakob, Matthias; Stenholm, Stig

2004-04-01

44

The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical-quantization approach to open quantum systems does consist in quantizing the Brownian motion starting directly from its stochastic dynamics under the framework of both Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, without alluding to any model Hamiltonian. On the ground of this non-Hamiltonian quantization method, we can derive a non-Markovian Caldeira-Leggett quantum master equation as well as a non-Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation. The former is solved for the case of a quantum Brownian particle in a gravitational field whilst the latter for a harmonic oscillator. In both physical situations, we come up with the existence of a non-equilibrium thermal quantum force and investigate its classical limit at high temperatures as well as its quantum limit at zero temperature. Further, as a physical application of our quantum Smoluchowski equation, we take up the tunneling phenomenon of a non-inertial quantum Brownian particle over a potential barrier. Lastly, we wish to point out, corroborating conclusions reached in our previous paper [A. O. Bolivar, Ann. Phys. 326 (2011) 1354], that the theoretical predictions in the present article uphold the view that our non-Hamiltonian quantum mechanics is able to capture novel features inherent in quantum Brownian motion, thereby overcoming shortcomings underlying the Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian model.

Bolivar, A. O.

2012-03-01

45

Scattering properties of periodically-driven open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation we elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying the decay and scattering properties of periodically-driven open quantum systems. First, using a complex spectral decomposition we study some of the mechanisms underlying the decay processes in weakly-driven open quantum systems. A complex spectral decomposition involves generalized eigenstates associated with complex poles of the analytically continued energy Green's function. These poles correspond to the resonance (quasibound) states of the system. Using a simple metastable model driven by a weak time-periodic field we analytically reproduce several features of the experimentally obtained photodetachment cross section of the H- and associate these features with the quasibound states of the metastable model. We thus demonstrate that a complex spectral decomposition is a physically transparent way of describing decay processes offering insights into the decay mechanisms of realistic systems. Next, we focus on atomic potentials that exhibit stabilization when driven by strong time-periodic fields. We study the scattering of electron waves from these strongly-driven atomic potentials and the influence of resonance states on their transmission properties. Using Floquet theory, we construct a Floquet Scattering matrix for the one-dimensional inverted Gaussian potential driven by a strong time-periodic field. This is a crude model of electron scattering from the neutral Cl atom in the presence of a strong laser field. We show that the Floquet Scattering matrix is a powerful tool for computing transmission coefficients and delay times of the incident electron and for explaining these properties in terms of the quasibound states of the open system. Lastly, we find a novel signature of quantum chaos in a deterministic open quantum system. That is, we find avoided crossings in the eigenphases of the unitary Floquet Scattering matrix as a function of electron energy for different strengths of the driving field. We show that these avoided crossings are quantum manifestations of chaos setting in in the classical phase space.

Emmanouilidou, Agapi

46

Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems

Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.

Daniel Manzano; Pablo I. Hurtado

2013-10-28

47

Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.

Manzano, Daniel; Hurtado, Pablo I.

2014-09-01

48

Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.

Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.

2014-10-01

49

Structural features of non-Markovian open quantum systems using quantum chains

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple structure for stationary non-Markovian quantum chains in the framework of collisional dynamics of open quantum systems. To this end, we modify the microscopic Markovian system-reservoir model and consider multiple collisions with each of the molecules with an overlap between the collisional time intervals. We show how the equivalent Markovian quantum chain can be constructed with the addition of satellite quantum memory to the system. We distinguish quantum from classical non-Markovianity. Moreover, we define the counts of non-Markovianity by the required number of satellite qubits and bits, respectively. As the particular measure of quantum non-Markovianity, the discord of the satellite with respect to the system is suggested. The simplest qubit realizations are discussed and the significance for real system-environment dynamics is also pointed out.

Bodor, András; Diósi, Lajos; Kallus, Zsófia; Konrad, Thomas

2013-05-01

50

Maps for general open quantum systems and a theory of linear quantum error correction

We show that quantum subdynamics of an open quantum system can always be described by a Hermitian map, irrespective of the form of the initial total system state. Since the theory of quantum error correction was developed based on the assumption of completely positive (CP) maps, we present a generalized theory of linear quantum error correction, which applies to any linear map describing the open system evolution. In the physically relevant setting of Hermitian maps, we show that the CP-map based version of quantum error correction theory applies without modifications. However, we show that a more general scenario is also possible, where the recovery map is Hermitian but not CP. Since non-CP maps have non-positive matrices in their range, we provide a geometric characterization of the positivity domain of general linear maps. In particular, we show that this domain is convex, and that this implies a simple algorithm for finding its boundary.

A. Shabani; D. A. Lidar

2009-02-14

51

Resonance Width Distribution for Open Chaotic Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of resonance widths, ?, for low-energy neutron scattering off heavy nuclei claim significant deviations from the standard chi-square 2?1(?), or the Porter-Thomas, distribution. The unstable nucleus is an open quantum system, where the intrinsic dynamics has to be supplemented by the coupling of chaotic internal states through the continuum. We propose a new resonance width distribution based on the random matrix theory for an open quantum system. For a single open channel, the new distribution is P(?)=C2?1(?)?sinh?/? where ?=??/2D and D is the mean energy level spacing. This result naturally recovers the Porter-Thomas distribution for small ? and can be directly applied to a whole range of mesoscopic systems, and is invariant under ?->?-?, where? is the total width. The realistic situation in nuclei is not that of a single neutron channel. Many photon channels are always opened which modifies the width distribution into P(,)=C2?1(?-?)?sinh??/?? with ??=?(?-?)/2D, and the whole distribution is shifted by ?, an average radiation width.

Shchedrin, Gavriil

2012-10-01

52

Dynamical invariants and nonadiabatic geometric phases in open quantum systems

We introduce an operational framework to analyze nonadiabatic Abelian and non-Abelian, cyclic and noncyclic, geometric phases in open quantum systems. In order to remove the adiabaticity condition, we generalize the theory of dynamical invariants to the context of open systems evolving under arbitrary convolutionless master equations. Geometric phases are then defined through the Jordan canonical form of the dynamical invariant associated with the superoperator that governs the master equation. As a by-product, we provide a sufficient condition for the robustness of the phase against a given decohering process. We illustrate our results by considering a two-level system in a Markovian interaction with the environment, where we show that the nonadiabatic geometric phase acquired by the system can be constructed in such a way that it is robust against both dephasing and spontaneous emission.

Sarandy, M. S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida dos Trabalhadores 420, Volta Redonda, 27255-125 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Duzzioni, E. I. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, Santo Andre 09210-170, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, Sao Carlos, 13560-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2007-11-15

53

Born-Oppenheimer approximation for open quantum systems within the quantum trajectory approach

Based on the quantum trajectory approach, we extend the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation from closed quantum system to open quantum system, where the open quantum system is described by a master equation in Lindblad form. The BO approximation is defined and the validity condition is derived. We find that the dissipation in fast variables benefits the BO approximation that is different from the dissipation in slow variables. A detailed comparison between this extension and our previous approximation (that is based on the effective Hamiltonian approach, see X. L. Huang and X. X. Yi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032108 (2009)) is presented. Several new features and advantages are analyzed, which show that the two approximations are complementary to each other. Two examples are taken to illustrate our method.

X. L. Huang; S. L. Wu; L. C. Wang; X. X. Yi

2010-03-05

54

The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables , and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of ?, whereas as a function of ? is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-? function in the classical limit. In such limit, because ? is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field. PMID:23572581

Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Verrucchi, Paola

2013-01-01

55

Complementarity in generic open quantum systems

We develop a unified, information theoretic interpretation of the\\u000anumber-phase complementarity that is applicable both to finite-dimensional\\u000a(atomic) and infinite-dimensional (oscillator) systems, with number treated as\\u000aa discrete Hermitian observable and phase as a continuous positive operator\\u000avalued measure (POVM). The relevant uncertainty principle is obtained as a\\u000alower bound on {\\\\it entropy excess}, $X$, the difference between the entropy

Subhashish Banerjee; R. Srikanth

2009-01-01

56

Complementarity in Generic Open Quantum Systems

We develop a unified, information theoretic interpretation of the number-phase complementarity that is applicable both to finite-dimensional (atomic) and infinite-dimensional (oscillator) systems, with number treated as a discrete Hermitian observable and phase as a continuous positive operator valued measure (POVM). The relevant uncertainty principle is obtained as a lower bound on entropy excess, X, the difference between the entropy of

Subhashish Banerjee; R. Srikanth

2010-01-01

57

Is the dynamics of open quantum systems always linear?

We study the influence of the preparation of an open quantum system on its reduced time evolution. In contrast to the frequently considered case of an initial preparation where the total density matrix factorizes into a product of a system density matrix and a bath density matrix the time evolution generally is no longer governed by a linear map nor is this map affine. Put differently, the evolution is truly nonlinear and cannot be cast into the form of a linear map plus a term that is independent of the initial density matrix of the open quantum system. As a consequence, the inhomogeneity that emerges in formally exact generalized master equations is in fact a nonlinear term that vanishes for a factorizing initial state. The general results are elucidated with the example of two interacting spins prepared at thermal equilibrium with one spin subjected to an external field. The second spin represents the environment. The field allows the preparation of mixed density matrices of the first spin that can be represented as a convex combination of two limiting pure states, i.e., the preparable reduced density matrices make up a convex set. Moreover, the map from these reduced density matrices onto the corresponding density matrices of the total system is affine only for vanishing coupling between the spins. In general, the set of the accessible total density matrices is nonconvex.

Fonseca Romero, Karen M.; Talkner, Peter; Haenggi, Peter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D 86315 Augsburg (Germany)

2004-05-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of a structured vibrational environment, which makes simulations on a classical computer very demanding. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of complex open system dynamics with a precisely engineered quantum environment. Our setup is based on superconducting circuits, a well established technology. As an example, we demonstrate that it is feasible to simulate exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex. Our approach allows for a controllable single-molecule simulation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian noise-correlation effects.

Mostame, Sarah; Rebentrost, Patrick; Eisfeld, Alexander; Kerman, Andrew J.; Tsomokos, Dimitris I.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2012-10-01

59

Open quantum system approaches are widely used in the description of physical, chemical and biological systems. A famous example is electronic excitation transfer in the initial stage of photosynthesis, where harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center. This transport is affected by the motion of a structured vibrational environment, which makes simulations on a classical computer very demanding. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of complex open system dynamics with a precisely engineered quantum environment. Our setup is based on superconducting circuits, a well established technology. As an example, we demonstrate that it is feasible to simulate exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex. Our approach allows for a controllable single-molecule simulation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian noise-correlation effects.

Sarah Mostame; Patrick Rebentrost; Alexander Eisfeld; Andrew J. Kerman; Dimitris I. Tsomokos; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

2011-06-08

60

Thermalization of an Open Quantum System Via Full Diagonalization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermalization, the irreversible relaxation of a system to thermodynamic equilibrium, ultimately arises from the reversible dynamics of many-body quantum systems. Weakly coupling a small system to a large many-body quantum system (heat bath) results in the equilibration of the small system to the Boltzmann distribution. We solve numerically, using full diagonalization, a model in which a small system is coupled to a large quantum system, and retrieve the thermodynamic behavior from the underlying quantum mechanics. We discuss the mechanism of thermalization, and the applications of our simulation for exploring the behavior of damped quantum systems.

Jacobs, K.; Silvestri, Luciano

61

Born-Oppenheimer approximation for open quantum systems within the quantum trajectory approach

Using the quantum trajectory approach, we extend the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation from closed to open quantum systems, where the open quantum system is described by a master equation in Lindblad form. The BO approximation is defined and the validity condition is derived. We find that the dissipation in fast variables improves the BO approximation, unlike the dissipation in slow variables. A detailed comparison is presented between this extension and our previous approximation based on the effective Hamiltonian approach [X. L. Huang and X. X. Yi, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032108 (2009)]. Several additional features and advantages are analyzed, which show that the two approximations are complementary to each other. Two examples are described to illustrate our method.

Huang, X. L.; Wu, S. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-05-15

62

Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment, and their interaction: One basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system + environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.

Wang, Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

2011-06-01

63

Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system

In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment and their interaction: one basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system+environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.

Hefeng Wang; S. Ashhab; Franco Nori

2011-03-17

64

Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system

In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment, and their interaction: One basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system + environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.

Wang Hefeng; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)

2011-06-15

65

Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion and Open System Dynamics

We present a non-Markovian quantum trajectory method that allows to determine the dynamics of a quantum system coupled to\\u000a an environment of harmonic oscillators. When averaged over the classical noise we recover the reduced density operator without\\u000a approximation, in particular without Markov approximation. In the Markov limit, our result reduces to standard quantum state\\u000a diffusion. We use coherent states to

Walter T. Strunz; Lajos Diósi; Nicolas Gisin

2000-01-01

66

Elementary Mathematical Framework for Open Quantum d-LEVEL Systems:. Decoherence Overview

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This lecture note provides an easy introduction of the theory of open quantum systems in a physically and mathematically closed manner. After a compact review of quantum mechanics, we explain how to treat open quantum systems which turns out to explain the decoherence process. In order to be logically closed, we restrict to the finite quantum systems, but almost all the mathematical techniques are explained in detail so that the students can follow the equations and master the techniques which are usually assumed from the beginning. In particular, there are almost 90 exercises which supplement the contents to understand, and all the solutions will be uploaded in my web page.

Kimura, Gen

2010-11-01

67

Quantum trajectory approach to the geometric phase: open bipartite systems

Through the quantum trajectory approach, we calculate the geometric phase acquired by a bipartite system subjected to decoherence. The subsystems that compose the bipartite system interact with each other, and then are entangled in the evolution. The geometric phase due to the quantum jump for both the bipartite system and its subsystems are calculated and analyzed. As an example, we present two coupled spin-$\\frac 1 2 $ particles to detail the calculations.

X. X. Yi; D. P. Liu; W. Wang

2005-10-21

68

Scalable approaches to the characterization of open quantum system dynamics

One of the biggest challenges in the physical realization of quantum information processing (QIP) is the precise control of the system. In order to achieve this, we characterize the gates, errors, and noise occurring in ...

López, Cecilia Carolina

2009-01-01

69

The Open Quantum Brownian Motion

Using quantum parallelism on random walks as original seed, we introduce new quantum stochastic processes, the open quantum Brownian motions. They describe the behaviors of quantum walkers -- with internal degrees of freedom which serve as random gyroscopes -- interacting with series of probes. These processes may also be viewed as the scaling limit of open quantum random walks and we develop this approach along three different lines: quantum trajectory, quantum dynamical map, and quantum stochastic differential equation. We also present a study of the simplest case, with a two level system as internal gyroscope, illustrating the interplay between ballistic and diffusive behaviors at work in these processes.

Michel Bauer; Denis Bernard; Antoine Tilloy

2013-12-05

70

Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here, we set up a formalism that allows us to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

Gasparinetti, S.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.

2014-11-01

71

Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here we set up a formalism that allows to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

S. Gasparinetti; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti

2014-04-14

72

Non-Markovian generalization of the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems

A systematic approach to the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems is given by the projection operator techniques of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Combining these methods with concepts from quantum information theory and from the theory of positive maps, we derive a class of correlated projection superoperators that take into account in an efficient way statistical correlations between the open system and its environment. The result is used to develop a generalization of the Lindblad theory to the regime of highly non-Markovian quantum processes in structured environments.

Breuer, Heinz-Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2007-02-15

73

Dynamics of an open quantum system interacting with a quantum environment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the dynamics of subsystems of bipartite and tripartite quantum systems with nonlinear Hamiltonians. We consider two models which capture the generic features of open quantum systems: a three-level atom interacting with a single-mode radiation field, and a three-level atom interacting with two field modes which do not directly interact with each other. The entanglement of specific initially unentangled states of the atom–field system is examined through the time-varying subsystem von Neumann entropy (SVNE). The counterparts of near-revivals and fractional revivals of the initial state are clearly identifiable in the SVNE in all cases where revival phenomena occur. The Mandel Q parameter corresponding to the photon number of a radiation field is obtained as a function of time in both models. In those cases where revivals are absent, a time series analysis of the mean photon number reveals a variety of ergodicity properties (as manifested in return maps, recurrence-time distributions and Lyapunov exponents), depending on the strength of the nonlinearity and the degree of coherence of the initial state of the radiation field(s).

Shankar, Athreya; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

2014-11-01

74

Quantum Fisher information flow and non-Markovian processes of open systems

We establish an information-theoretic approach for quantitatively characterizing the non-Markovianity of open quantum processes. Here, the quantum Fisher information (QFI) flow provides a measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly analytic solution shows that for each fixed time the QFI flow is decomposed into additive subflows according to different dissipative channels.

Lu Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoguang [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the initial stage of photosynthesis, light-harvested energy is transferred with remarkably high efficiency to a reaction center, with the vibrational environment assisting the transport mechanism. It is of great interest to mimic this process with present-day technologies. Here we propose an analog quantum simulator of open system dynamics, where noise engineering of the environment has a central role. In particular, we propose the use of superconducting qubits for the simulation of exciton transport in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson protein, a prototypical photosynthetic complex. Our method allows for a single-molecule implementation and the investigation of energy transfer pathways as well as non-Markovian and spatiotemporal noise-correlation effects.

Mostame, Sarah; Rebentrost, Patrick; Eisfeld, Alexander; Kerman, Andrew J.; Tsomokos, Dimitris I.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

2012-02-01

76

Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems

We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A and 50 A, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain 7 and 14 chromophores respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in (Fenna-Matthews-Olson) FMO protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential natural optimization with respect to chromophoric density.

M. Mohseni; A. Shabani; S. Lloyd; Y. Omar; H. Rabitz

2012-12-31

77

Chain representations of Open Quantum Systems and Lieb-Robinson like bounds for the dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk is concerned with the mapping of the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems onto chain representations, which forms the basis for a rigorous theory of the interaction of a system with its environment. This mapping progresses as an interaction which gives rise to a sequence of residual spectral densities of the system. The rigorous mathematical properties of this mapping have been unknown so far. Here we develop the theory of secondary measures to derive an analytic, expression for the sequence solely in terms of the initial measure and its associated orthogonal polynomials of the first and second kind. These mappings can be thought of as taking a highly nonlocal Hamiltonian to a local Hamiltonian. In the latter, a Lieb-Robinson like bound for the dynamics of the open quantum system makes sense. We develop analytical bounds on the error to observables of the system as a function of time when the semi-infinite chain in truncated at some finite length. The fact that this is possible shows that there is a finite ``Speed of sound'' in these chain representations. This has many implications of the simulatability of open quantum systems of this type and demonstrates that a truncated chain can faithfully reproduce the dynamics at shorter times. These results make a significant and mathematically rigorous contribution to the understanding of the theory of open quantum systems; and pave the way towards the efficient simulation of these systems, which within the standard methods, is often an intractable problem.

Woods, Mischa

2013-03-01

78

An open quantum system approach to the B-mesons system

In this talk we consider a non standard evolution for the neutral B-mesons system, namely, an evolution in the open quantum systems framework. Such approach is justified by the very high sensitivity of experiments studying CP-violating phenomena in the B-mesons sector, very near to the one required to test some possible scenarios induced by quantum gravity at the Planck scale, whose effects at low energy can be described by a heat bath. We adopt a phenomenological point of view, introducing six new parameters that fully describe this kind of evolution without referring to a specific model for the microscopic interaction. We outline the main differences between this approach and the usual one in the description of evolution and decay of single mesons or correlated pairs.

R. Romano

2003-09-04

79

Heisenberg picture operators in the stochastic wave function approach to open quantum systems

A fast simulation algorithm for the calculation of multitime correlation functions of open quantum systems is presented. It is demonstrated that any stochastic process which ``unravels'' the quantum Master equation can be used for the calculation of matrix elements of reduced Heisenberg picture operators, and thus for the calculation of multitime correlation functions, by extending the stochastic process to a doubled Hilbert space. The numerical performance of the stochastic simulation algorithm is investigated by means of a standard example.

H. P. Breuer; B. Kappler; F. Petruccione

1998-07-28

80

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 022122 (2013) Renormalization approach to non-Markovian open induces a dynamical renormalization of the system-environment coupling in open-quantum- system dynamics of environmental degrees of freedom. This approach is particularly interesting in view of quantum devices which

Koch, Christiane

81

Experimentally witnessing the initial correlation between an open quantum system and its environment

System-environment correlations, which determine the (non-)Markovian character of a dynamical process, is an area of intense interest in the study of open quantum systems. We send photons emitted from a quantum dot sample into a 15-m polarization-maintaining optical fiber to generate different system-environment correlated states and then witness the correlations by observing the growth of trace distances. This experimental scheme of correlation witnessing based on system-environment information flow can also be used for other similar systems.

Li Chuanfeng; Tang Jianshun; Li Yulong; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China)

2011-06-15

82

We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation for the evolution of the process matrix acting on a system. This equation is applicable to non-Markovian and/or strong-coupling regimes. We propose two distinct applications for this dynamical equation. We first demonstrate identification of quantum Hamiltonians generating dynamics of closed or open systems via performing process tomography. In particular, we argue how one can efficiently estimate certain classes of sparse Hamiltonians by performing partial tomography schemes. In addition, we introduce an optimal control theoretic setting for manipulating quantum dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, specifically for the task of decoherence suppression.

Mohseni, M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rezakhani, A. T. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2009-07-15

83

We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation for the evolution of the process matrix acting on a system. This equation is applicable to non-Markovian and/or strong coupling regimes. We propose two distinct applications for this dynamical equation. We first demonstrate identification of quantum Hamiltonians generating dynamics of closed or open systems via performing process tomography. In particular, we argue how one can efficiently estimate certain classes of sparse Hamiltonians by performing partial tomography schemes. In addition, we introduce a novel optimal control theoretic setting for manipulating quantum dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, specifically for the task of decoherence suppression.

M. Mohseni; A. T. Rezakhani

2008-05-21

84

Real-Time Transport in Open Quantum Systems From $\\mathcal{PT}$-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics

Nanoscale electronic transport is of intense technological interest, with applications ranging from semiconducting devices and molecular junctions to charge migration in biological systems. Most explicit theoretical approaches treat transport using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's functions. This is a static formalism, with dynamic response properties accommodated only through complicated extensions. To circumvent this limitation, the carrier density may be propagated using real-time time-dependent DFT (RT-TDDFT), with boundary conditions corresponding to an open quantum system. Complex absorbing potentials can emulate outgoing particles at the simulation boundary, although these do not account for introduction of charge density. It is demonstrated that the desired positive particle flux is afforded by a class of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric generating potentials that are characterized by anisotropic transmission resonances. These potentials add density every time a particle traverses the cell boundary, and may be used to engineer a continuous pulse train for incident packets. This is a first step toward developing a complete transport formalism unique to RT-TDDFT.

Justin E. Elenewski; Hanning Chen

2014-08-07

85

Density matrix renormalization group approach for many-body open quantum systems

The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) approach is extended to complex-symmetric density matrices characteristic of many-body open quantum systems. Within the continuum shell model, we investigate the interplay between many-body configuration interaction and coupling to open channels. It is shown that the DMRG technique applied to broad resonances in the unbound neutron-rich nucleus 7He provides a highly accurate treatment of the coupling to the non-resonant scattering continuum.

J. Rotureau; N. Michel; W. Nazarewicz; M. Ploszajczak; J. Dukelsky

2006-03-07

86

We present a flexible ab initio approach for simulating spin 1/2 relativistic open quantum systems undergoing decoherence as well as interaction with an external electromagnetic field. The methodology is illustrated on a variety of examples. We generally find that decoherence does not suppress particle-antiparticle production, whereas it can eliminate zitterbewegung. Our computational approach makes accessible open relativistic simulations previously thought to be prohibitively expensive.

Renan Cabrera; Denys I. Bondar; Andre G. Campos; Herschel A. Rabitz

2014-09-03

87

Canonical versus noncanonical equilibration dynamics of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In statistical mechanics, any quantum system in equilibrium with its weakly coupled reservoir is described by a canonical state at the same temperature as the reservoir. Here, by studying the equilibration dynamics of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a reservoir, we evaluate microscopically the condition under which the equilibration to a canonical state is valid. It is revealed that the non-Markovian effect and the availability of a stationary state of the total system play a profound role in the equilibration. In the Markovian limit, the conventional canonical state can be recovered. In the non-Markovian regime, when the stationary state is absent, the system equilibrates to a generalized canonical state at an effective temperature; whenever the stationary state is present, the equilibrium state of the system cannot be described by any canonical state anymore. Our finding of the physical condition on such noncanonical equilibration might have significant impact on statistical physics. A physical scheme based on circuit QED is proposed to test our results.

Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong; Luo, Hong-Gang; Li, Yading; Oh, C. H.

2014-08-01

88

Canonical versus noncanonical equilibration dynamics of open quantum systems.

In statistical mechanics, any quantum system in equilibrium with its weakly coupled reservoir is described by a canonical state at the same temperature as the reservoir. Here, by studying the equilibration dynamics of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a reservoir, we evaluate microscopically the condition under which the equilibration to a canonical state is valid. It is revealed that the non-Markovian effect and the availability of a stationary state of the total system play a profound role in the equilibration. In the Markovian limit, the conventional canonical state can be recovered. In the non-Markovian regime, when the stationary state is absent, the system equilibrates to a generalized canonical state at an effective temperature; whenever the stationary state is present, the equilibrium state of the system cannot be described by any canonical state anymore. Our finding of the physical condition on such noncanonical equilibration might have significant impact on statistical physics. A physical scheme based on circuit QED is proposed to test our results. PMID:25215704

Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong; Luo, Hong-Gang; Li, Yading; Oh, C H

2014-08-01

89

Dynamics of open quantum systems with initial system-reservoir correlations

In this paper, the exact dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.

Hua-Tang Tan; Wei-Min Zhang

2010-12-22

90

Dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of correlations in open quantum systems

We extend the Hilbert-Schmidt (square norm) distance, previously used to define the geometric quantum discord, to define also geometric quantifiers of total and classical correlations. We then compare the dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of the different kinds of correlations in a non-Markovian open two-qubit system under local dephasing. We find that qualitative differences occur only for quantum discords. This is taken to imply that geometric and entropic discords are not, in general, equivalent in describing the dynamics of quantum correlations. We then show that also geometric and entropic quantifiers of total correlations present qualitative disagreements in the state space. This aspect indicates that the differences found for quantum discord are not attributable to a different separation, introduced by each measure, between the quantum and classical parts of correlations. Finally, we find that the Hilbert-Schmidt distance formally coincides with a symmetrized form of linear relative entropy.

Bruno Bellomo; Rosario Lo Franco; Giuseppe Compagno

2011-04-20

91

Dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of correlations in open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the Hilbert-Schmidt (square norm) distance, previously used to define the geometric quantum discord, to define also geometric quantifiers of total and classical correlations. We then compare the dynamics of geometric and entropic quantifiers of the different kinds of correlations in a non-Markovian open two-qubit system under local dephasing. We find that qualitative differences occur only for quantum discords. This is taken to imply that geometric and entropic discords are not, in general, equivalent in describing the dynamics of quantum correlations. We then show that geometric and entropic quantifiers of total correlations also present qualitative disagreements in the state space. This aspect indicates that the differences found for quantum discord are not attributable to a different separation, introduced by each measure, between the quantum and classical parts of correlations. Finally, we find that the Hilbert-Schmidt distance formally coincides with a symmetrized form of linear relative entropy.

Bellomo, B.; Lo Franco, R.; Compagno, G.

2012-07-01

92

Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-01-01

93

Quantum group approach to steady states of boundary-driven open quantum systems

We present a systematic approach for constructing steady state density operators of Markovian dissipative evolution for open quantum chain models with integrable bulk interaction and boundary incoherent driving. The construction is based on fundamental solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation pertaining to quantum algebra symmetries and their quantizations (q-deformations). In particular, we facilitate a matrix-product state description, by resorting to generic spin-s infinite-dimensional solutions associated with non-compact spins, serving as ancillary degrees of freedom. After formally deriving already known solutions for the anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain from first symmetry principles, we obtain a class of solutions belonging to interacting quantum gases with SU(N)-symmetric Hamiltonians, using a restricted set of incoherent boundary jump processes, and point out how new non-trivial generalizations emerge from twists of quantum group structures. Finally, we discuss possibilities of analytic calculation of observables by employing algebraic properties of associated auxiliary vertex operators.

Enej Ilievski; Bojan Žunkovi?

2013-07-21

94

Exact quantum jump approach to open systems in Bosonic and spin baths

A general method is developed which enables the exact treatment of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems through a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The method is based on a stochastic formulation of the von Neumann equation of the composite system and employs a pair of product states following a Markovian random jump process. The performance of the method is illustrated by means of stochastic simulations of the dynamics of open systems interacting with a Bosonic reservoir at zero temperature and with a spin bath in the strong coupling regime.

Heinz-Peter Breuer

2003-08-09

95

Open quantum system model of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with tunable shear viscosity

Presented is an analysis of an open quantum model of the time-dependent evolution of a flow field governed by the nonlinear Burgers equation in one spatial dimension. The quantum model is a system of qubits where there exists a minimum time interval in the time-dependent dynamics. Each temporally discrete unitary quantum-mechanical evolution is followed by state reduction of the quantum state. The mesoscopic behavior of this quantum model is described by a quantum Boltzmann equation with a naturally emergent entropy function and H theorem and the model obeys the detailed balance principle. The macroscopic-scale effective field theory for the quantum model is derived using a perturbative Chapman-Enskog expansion applied to the linearized quantum Boltzmann equation. The entropy function is consistent with the quantum-mechanical collision process and a Fermi-Dirac single-particle distribution function for the occupation probabilities of the qubit's energy eigenstates. Comparisons are presented between analytical predictions and numerical predictions and the agreement is excellent, indicating that the nonlinear Burgers equation with a tunable shear viscosity is the operative macroscopic scale effective field theory.

Yepez, Jeffrey [Air Force Research Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Field, Massachusetts 01731 (United States)

2006-10-15

96

QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction. Catalogue identifier: AEMB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 16 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 213 438 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python Computer: i386, x86-64 Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7 External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.org/), Matplotlib (http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems. Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad master equation or Monte Carlo wave function method. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of minutes, depending on size of underlying Hilbert space.

Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco

2012-08-01

97

Absorption and Injection Models for Open Time-Dependent Quantum Systems

In the time-dependent simulation of pure states dealing with transport in open quantum systems, the initial state is located outside of the active region of interest. Using the superposition principle and the analytical knowledge of the free time-evolution of such state outside the active region, together with absorbing layers and remapping, a model for a very significant reduction of the computational burden associated to the numerical simulation of open time-dependent quantum systems is presented. The model is specially suited to study (many-particle and high-frequency effects) quantum transport, but it can also be applied to any other research field where the initial time-dependent pure state is located outside of the active region. From numerical simulations of open quantum systems described by the (effective mass) Schr\\"{o}dinger and (atomistic) tight-binding equations, a reduction of the computational burden of about two orders of magnitude for each spatial dimension of the domain with a negligible error is presented.

Fabio L. Traversa; Zhen Zhan; Xavier Oriols

2014-05-27

98

Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling

We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.

Broadbent, Curtis J., E-mail: curtis.broadbent@rochester.edu [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)] [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Eberly, Joseph H. [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)] [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

2012-08-15

99

Open Quantum Systems and the Parametric Representation: From Entanglement to Berry's Phase

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open quantum systems (OQS) are usually treated, in particular in the realm of quantum information theory and quantum computation, in terms of reduced density matrices, which provide a definition of the state of the principal system via the partial trace operation over the environment. This approach is a powerful tool to investigate relevant features of the open system evolution, especially when the physical situation allows for Markovian-like approximation schemes. On the other hand, the density matrix formulation and the subsequent approximation schemes induce an uncontrollable loss of information about the environmental structure, preventing some phenomena to be properly described. In this work we propose an alternative description of OQS, based on a parametric representation of the environment, as obtained in terms of generalized coherent states. The representation is used to describe a prototypical composite system, made of a spin- (the principal system) and a spin- S (the environment), interacting via a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. The resulting description shows that the emergence of a geometric (Berry) phase for a spin in an external magnetic field does follow from the fact that the true physical set up, of which the "spin in a field" is just a semiclassical-like parametric representation, is that of a quantum composite system in an entangled state. In fact, the Von Neumann entropy of the spin-, which is finite due to the existence of the environment (the spin- S), turns out to be the binary entropy of the normalized Berry's phase.

Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Verrucchi, Paola

2014-10-01

100

We obtain exact analytic expressions for a class of functions expressed as integrals over the Haar measure of the unitary group in d dimensions. Based on these general mathematical results, we investigate generic dynamical properties of complex open quantum systems, employing arguments from ensemble theory. We further generalize these results to arbitrary eigenvalue distributions, allowing a detailed comparison of typical regular and chaotic systems with the help of concepts from random matrix theory. To illustrate the physical relevance and the general applicability of our results we present a series of examples related to the fields of open quantum systems and nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics. These include the effect of initial correlations, the average quantum dynamical maps, the generic dynamics of system-environment pure state entanglement and, finally, the equilibration of generic open and closed quantum systems.

Manuel Gessner; Heinz-Peter Breuer

2013-01-06

101

The open quantum Brownian motions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using quantum parallelism on random walks as the original seed, we introduce new quantum stochastic processes, the open quantum Brownian motions. They describe the behaviors of quantum walkers—with internal degrees of freedom which serve as random gyroscopes—interacting with a series of probes which serve as quantum coins. These processes may also be viewed as the scaling limit of open quantum random walks and we develop this approach along three different lines: the quantum trajectory, the quantum dynamical map and the quantum stochastic differential equation. We also present a study of the simplest case, with a two level system as an internal gyroscope, illustrating the interplay between the ballistic and diffusive behaviors at work in these processes. Notation H_z : orbital (walker) Hilbert space, {C}^{{Z}} in the discrete, L^2({R}) in the continuum H_c : internal spin (or gyroscope) Hilbert space H_sys=H_z\\otimesH_c : system Hilbert space H_p : probe (or quantum coin) Hilbert space, H_p={C}^2 \\rho^tot_t : density matrix for the total system (walker + internal spin + quantum coins) \\bar \\rho_t : reduced density matrix on H_sys : \\bar\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\bar\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | \\hat \\rho_t : system density matrix in a quantum trajectory: \\hat\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\hat\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | . If diagonal and localized in position: \\hat \\rho_t=\\rho_t\\otimes| X_t \\rangle _z\\langle X_t | ?t: internal density matrix in a simple quantum trajectory Xt: walker position in a simple quantum trajectory Bt: normalized Brownian motion ?t, \\xi_t^\\dagger : quantum noises

Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine

2014-09-01

102

The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics.

J. -T. Hsiang; B. L. Hu

2014-05-29

103

Influence of external magnetic field on dynamics of open quantum systems

The influence of an external magnetic field on the non-Markovian dynamics of an open two-dimensional quantum system is investigated. The fluctuations of collective coordinate and momentum and transport coefficients are studied for a charged harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a neutral bosonic heat bath. It is shown that the dissipation of collective energy slows down with increasing strength of the external magnetic field. The role of magnetic field in the diffusion processes is illustrated by several examples.

Kalandarov, Sh. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

104

Exact description of non-Markovian effect in open quantum system: the discretized environment method

An approach, called discretized environment method, is introduced to treat exactly non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems. In this approach, a complex environment described by a spectral function is mapped into a finite set of discretized states with an appropriate coupling to the system of interest. The finite set of system plus environment degrees of freedom are then explicitly followed in time leading to a quasi-exact description. The present approach is anticipated to be particularly accurate in the low temperature and strongly non-Markovian regime. The discretized environment method is validated on a two-level system (qubit) coupled to a bosonic or fermionic heat bath. A perfect agreement with the quantum Langevin approach is found. Further illustrations are made on a three-level system (qutrit) coupled to a bosonic heat-bath. Emerging processes due to strong memory effects are discussed.

Lacroix, Denis; Adamian, G G; Antonenko, N V

2014-01-01

105

Exact description of non-Markovian effect in open quantum system: the discretized environment method

An approach, called discretized environment method, is introduced to treat exactly non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems. In this approach, a complex environment described by a spectral function is mapped into a finite set of discretized states with an appropriate coupling to the system of interest. The finite set of system plus environment degrees of freedom are then explicitly followed in time leading to a quasi-exact description. The present approach is anticipated to be particularly accurate in the low temperature and strongly non-Markovian regime. The discretized environment method is validated on a two-level system (qubit) coupled to a bosonic or fermionic heat bath. A perfect agreement with the quantum Langevin approach is found. Further illustrations are made on a three-level system (qutrit) coupled to a bosonic heat-bath. Emerging processes due to strong memory effects are discussed.

Denis Lacroix; V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko

2014-06-19

106

Brownian motion on Lie groups and open quantum systems

We study the twirling semigroups of (super)operators, namely, certain quantum dynamical semigroups that are associated, in a natural way, with the pairs formed by a projective representation of a locally compact group and a convolution semigroup of probability measures on this group. The link connecting this class of semigroups of operators with (classical) Brownian motion is clarified. It turns out that every twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional representation is a random unitary semigroup, and, conversely, every random unitary semigroup arises as a twirling semigroup. Using standard tools of the theory of convolution semigroups of measures and of convex analysis, we provide a complete characterization of the infinitesimal generator of a twirling semigroup associated with a finite-dimensional unitary representation of a Lie group.

P. Aniello; A. Kossakowski; G. Marmo; F. Ventriglia

2010-02-18

107

Real time approach to tunneling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion

Macroscopic quantum tunneling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunneling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that it is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunneling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers like equation describing thermal activati...

Calzetta, E; Calzetta, Esteban; Verdaguer, Enric

2006-01-01

108

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum systems are invariably open, evolving under surrounding influences rather than in isolation. Standard open quantum system methods eliminate all information on the environmental state to yield a tractable description of the system dynamics. By incorporating a collective coordinate of the environment into the system Hamiltonian, we circumvent this limitation. Our theory provides straightforward access to important environmental properties that would otherwise be obscured, allowing us to quantify the evolving system-environment correlations. As a direct result, we show that the generation of robust system-environment correlations that persist into equilibrium (heralded also by the emergence of non-Gaussian environmental states) renders the canonical system steady state almost always incorrect. The resulting equilibrium states deviate markedly from those predicted by standard perturbative techniques and are instead fully characterized by thermal states of the mapped system-collective coordinate Hamiltonian. We outline how noncanonical system states could be investigated experimentally to study deviations from canonical thermodynamics, with direct relevance to molecular and solid-state nanosystems.

Iles-Smith, Jake; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

2014-09-01

109

Moments of work in the two-point measurement protocol for a driven open quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the distribution of work induced by the two-point measurement protocol for a driven open quantum system. We first derive a general form for the generating function of work for the total system, bearing in mind that the Hamiltonian does not necessarily commute with its time derivative. Using this result, we then study the first few moments of work by using the master equation of the reduced system, invoking approximations similar to the ones made in the microscopic derivation of the reduced density matrix. Our results show that already in the third moment of work, correction terms appear that involve commutators between the Hamiltonian and its time derivative. To demonstrate the importance of these terms, we consider a sinusoidally, weakly driven and weakly coupled open two-level quantum system, and indeed find that already in the third moment of work, the correction terms are significant. We also compare our results to those obtained with the quantum jump method and find a good agreement.

Suomela, S.; Solinas, P.; Pekola, J. P.; Ankerhold, J.; Ala-Nissila, T.

2014-09-01

110

Dynamical A and B maps have been employed extensively by Sudarshan and co-workers to investigate open system evolution of quantum systems. A canonical structure of the A-map is introduced here. It is shown that this canonical A-map enables us to investigate if the dynamics is completely positive (CP) or non-completely positive (NCP) in an elegant way and hence, it subsumes the basic results on open system dynamics. Identifying memory effects in open system evolution is gaining increasing importance recently and here, a criterion of non-Markovianity, based on the relative entropy of the dynamical state is proposed. The relative entropy difference of the dynamical system serves as a complementary characterization - though not related directly - to the fidelity difference criterion proposed recently. Three typical examples of open system evolution of a qubit, prepared initially in a correlated state with another qubit (environment), and evolving jointly under a specific unitary dynamics - which corresponds to a NCP dynamical map - are investigated by employing both the relative entropy difference and fidelity difference tests of non-Markovianity. The two qubit initial states are chosen to be (i) a pure entangled state, (ii) theWerner state, which exemplifies both entangled and separable states of qubits, depending on a real parameter, and (3) a separable mixed state. Both the relative entropy and fidelity criteria offer a nice display of how non-Markovianity manifests in all the three examples.

A. R. Usha Devi; A. K. Rajagopl; Sudha

2010-11-02

111

GaussDal: An open source database management system for quantum chemical computations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open source software system called GaussDal for management of results from quantum chemical computations is presented. Chemical data contained in output files from different quantum chemical programs are automatically extracted and incorporated into a relational database (PostgreSQL). The Structural Query Language (SQL) is used to extract combinations of chemical properties (e.g., molecules, orbitals, thermo-chemical properties, basis sets etc.) into data tables for further data analysis, processing and visualization. This type of data management is particularly suited for projects involving a large number of molecules. In the current version of GaussDal, parsers for Gaussian and Dalton output files are supported, however future versions may also include parsers for other quantum chemical programs. For visualization and analysis of generated data tables from GaussDal we have used the locally developed open source software SciCraft. Program summaryTitle of program: GaussDal Catalogue identifier: ADVT Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVT Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Any Operating system under which the system has been tested: Linux Programming language used: Python Memory required to execute with typical data: 256 MB No. of bits in word: 32 or 64 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc: 543 531 No. of bytes in distribution program, including test data, etc: 7 718 121 Distribution format: tar.gzip file Nature of physical problem: Handling of large amounts of data from quantum chemistry computations. Method of solution: Use of SQL based database and quantum chemistry software specific parsers. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: Program is currently limited to Gaussian and Dalton output, but expandable to other formats. Generates subsets of multiple data tables from output files.

Alsberg, Bjørn K.; Bjerke, Håvard; Navestad, Gunn M.; Åstrand, Per-Olof

2005-09-01

112

In this paper, we provide a mechanism of decoherence suppression for open quantum systems in general and that for a ''Schroedinger cat-like'' state in particular, through strong couplings to non-Markovian reservoirs. Different from the usual strategies in the literature of suppressing decoherence by decoupling the system from the environment, here the decoherence suppression employs a strong back-reaction from non-Markovian reservoirs. The mechanism relies on the existence of the singularities (bound states) of the nonequilibrium retarded Green function, which completely determines the dissipation and decoherence dynamics of open systems. As an application, we examine the decoherence dynamics of a photonic crystal nanocavity that is coupled to a waveguide. The strong non-Markovian suppression of decoherence for the ''optical cat'' state is attained.

Lei, Chan U [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Zhang Weimin [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

113

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we provide a mechanism of decoherence suppression for open quantum systems in general and that for a “Schrödinger cat-like” state in particular, through strong couplings to non-Markovian reservoirs. Different from the usual strategies in the literature of suppressing decoherence by decoupling the system from the environment, here the decoherence suppression employs a strong back-reaction from non-Markovian reservoirs. The mechanism relies on the existence of the singularities (bound states) of the nonequilibrium retarded Green function, which completely determines the dissipation and decoherence dynamics of open systems. As an application, we examine the decoherence dynamics of a photonic crystal nanocavity that is coupled to a waveguide. The strong non-Markovian suppression of decoherence for the “optical cat” state is attained.

Lei, Chan U.; Zhang, Wei-Min

2011-11-01

114

The harmonic oscillator with dissipation within the theory of open quantum systems

Time evolution of the expectation values of various dynamical operators of the harmonic oscillator with dissipation is analitically obtained within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. We deduce the density matrix of the damped harmonic oscillator from the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the coherent state representation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator. The Fokker-Planck equation for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the $\\delta$-function type of initial conditions, is also solved by using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths.

A. Isar

2005-08-18

115

Real time approach to tunneling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion

Macroscopic quantum tunneling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunneling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that it is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunneling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers like equation describing thermal activation due to the zero point fluctuations of the quantum environment. The effect of anomalous diffusion can be dealt with perturbatively and its overall effect is to inhibit tunneling.

Esteban Calzetta; Enric Verdaguer

2006-03-06

116

Real-time approach to tunnelling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic quantum tunnelling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunnelling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunnelling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers-like equation describing thermal activation due to the zero point fluctuations of the quantum environment. The effect of anomalous diffusion can be dealt with perturbatively and its overall effect is to inhibit tunnelling.

Calzetta, Esteban; Verdaguer, Enric

2006-07-01

117

The quantum bit commitment: a finite open system approach for a complete classification of protocols

Mayers, Lo and Chau argued that all quantum bit commitment protocols are insecure, because there is no way to prevent an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) cheating attack. However, Yuen presented some protocols which challenged the previous impossibility argument. Up to now, it is still debated whether there exist or not unconditionally secure protocols. In this paper the above controversy is addressed. For such purpose, a complete classification of all possible bit commitment protocols is given, including all possible cheating attacks. Focusing on the simplest class of protocols (non-aborting and with complete and perfect verification), it is shown how naturally a game-theoretical situation arises. For these protocols, bounds for the cheating probabilities are derived, involving the two quantum operations encoding the bit values and their respective alternate Kraus decompositions. Such bounds are different from those given in the impossibility proof. The whole classification and analysis has been carried out using a "finite open system" approach. The discrepancy with the impossibility proof is explained on the basis of the implicit adoption of a "closed system approach"--equivalent to modeling the commitment as performed by two fixed machines interacting unitarily in a overall "closed system"--according to which it is possible to assume as "openly known" both the initial state and the probability distributions for all secret parameters, which can be then "purified". This approach is also motivated by existence of unitary extensions for any open system. However, it is shown that the closed system approach for the classification of commitment protocols unavoidably leads to infinite dimensions, which then invalidate the continuity argument at the basis of the impossibility proof.

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

2002-09-26

118

General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.

Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.

2013-01-01

119

We consider stochastic and open quantum systems with a finite number of states, where a stochastic transition between two specific states is monitored by a detector. The long-time counting statistics of the observed realizations of the transition, parametrized by cumulants, is the only available information about the system. We present an analytical method for reconstructing generators of the time evolution of the system compatible with the observations. The practicality of the reconstruction method is demonstrated by the examples of a laser-driven atom and the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Moreover, we propose cumulant-based criteria for testing the non-classicality and non-Markovianity of the time evolution, and lower bounds for the system dimension. Our analytical results rely on the close connection between the cumulants of the counting statistics and the characteristic polynomial of the generator, which takes the role of the cumulant generating function.

Bruderer, M; Thaller, M; Sironi, L; Obreschkow, D; Plenio, M B

2013-01-01

120

We consider stochastic and open quantum systems with a finite number of states, where a stochastic transition between two specific states is monitored by a detector. The long-time counting statistics of the observed realizations of the transition, parametrized by cumulants, is the only available information about the system. We present an analytical method for reconstructing generators of the time evolution of the system compatible with the observations. The practicality of the reconstruction method is demonstrated by the examples of a laser-driven atom and the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Moreover, we propose cumulant-based criteria for testing the non-classicality and non-Markovianity of the time evolution, and lower bounds for the system dimension. Our analytical results rely on the close connection between the cumulants of the counting statistics and the characteristic polynomial of the generator, which takes the role of the cumulant generating function.

M. Bruderer; L. D. Contreras-Pulido; M. Thaller; L. Sironi; D. Obreschkow; M. B. Plenio

2013-11-12

121

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider stochastic and open quantum systems with a finite number of states, where a stochastic transition between two specific states is monitored by a detector. The long-time counting statistics of the observed realizations of the transition, parametrized by cumulants, is the only available information about the system. We present an analytical method for reconstructing generators of the time evolution of the system compatible with the observations. The practicality of the reconstruction method is demonstrated by the examples of a laser-driven atom and the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Moreover, we propose cumulant-based criteria for testing the non-classicality and non-Markovianity of the time evolution, and lower bounds for the system dimension. Our analytical results rely on the close connection between the cumulants of the counting statistics and the characteristic polynomial of the generator, which takes the role of a cumulant generating function.

Bruderer, M.; Contreras-Pulido, L. D.; Thaller, M.; Sironi, L.; Obreschkow, D.; Plenio, M. B.

2014-03-01

122

In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten [Institut fuer Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2012-03-28

123

It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

124

The dynamics of a system in interaction with another system, the later considered as a reservoir, is studied in many different\\u000a domains in physics. This approach is useful not only to address fundamental questions like quantum decoherence decoherence\\u000a and the measurement problem [1] but also to deal with practical and theoretical problems appearing in the emerging fields\\u000a of nanotechnology nanotechnology

Daniel Alonso; Inés de Vega

2010-01-01

125

Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: Stability analysis

A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct adaptive monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a finite state machine as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.

Karasik, R. I.; Wiseman, H. M. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Australian Research Council), Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

2011-11-15

126

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15

127

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; López, Adrián E. Rubio

2011-11-01

128

Optimal control in an open quantum system : selecting DNP pathways in an electron-nuclear system

There is much interest in improving quantum control techniques for the purposes of quantum information processing. High fidelity control is necessary for the future of quantum computing. Optimal control theory has been ...

Sheldon, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)

2013-01-01

129

Strongly driven resonant Auger effect treated by an open-quantum-system approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present theoretical studies of a two-step resonant Auger process at high x-ray intensity. Tuning a short x-ray pulse to the initially closed resonant channel of the 1s-2p transition in singly ionized neon, the initially neutral neon target is valence ionized. Subsequently, the strong resonant x-ray field transfers an inner-shell electron to the created outer valence vacancy, thereby creating a core-excited state. The strong resonant coupling, giving rise to Rabi oscillations involving a core transition, results in a modification of the resonant Auger-electron spectral line profile. If the valence photoelectron remains unobserved, the system of the residual ion undergoing the resonant Auger decay can be treated by an open quantum system approach. The resonant Auger-electron spectral line shape is shown to be determined by an analog of the reduced density matrix that depends on two time arguments. The equations of motion of this reduced density matrix are derived and numerical results are presented, in support of the recent experimental verification [E. Kanter , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.233001 107, 233001 (2011)] of this nonlinear x-ray optical effect.

Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin

2012-10-01

130

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: MATLAB R2012a. Computer: See “Operating system”. Operating system: Any operating system that can run MATLAB R2007a or above. Classification: 4.4. Nature of problem: Calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator of an open quantum system. Solution method: Numerical Feynman integral. Running time: Depends on the input parameters. See the main text for examples.

Dattani, Nikesh S.

2013-12-01

131

Pade spectrum decomposition is an optimal sum-over-poles expansion scheme of Fermi function and Bose function [J. Hu, R. X. Xu, and Y. J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 101106 (2010)]. In this work, we report two additional members to this family, from which the best among all sum-over-poles methods could be chosen for different cases of application. Methods are developed for determining these three Pade spectrum decomposition expansions at machine precision via simple algorithms. We exemplify the applications of present development with optimal construction of hierarchical equations-of-motion formulations for nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum transport dynamics. Numerical demonstrations are given for two systems. One is the transient transport current to an interacting quantum-dots system, together with the involved high-order co-tunneling dynamics. Another is the non-Markovian dynamics of a spin-boson system.

Hu Jie; Luo Meng; Jiang Feng [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Ruixue [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan Yijing [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2011-06-28

132

ccsd00001148 Experimental open air quantum key distribution with a

implementation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with a single photon source, operating at night in openccsdÂ00001148 (version 1) : 16 Feb 2004 Experimental open air quantum key distribution #12; Experimental open air quantum key distribution with a single photon source 2 1. Introduction Key

133

Connecting two jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems

The development and use of Monte Carlo algorithms plays a visible role in the study of non-Markovian quantum dynamics due to the provided insight and powerful numerical methods for solving the system dynamics. In the Markovian case, the connections between the various types of methods are fairly well understood while, for the non-Markovian case, there has so far been only a few studies. We focus here on two jumplike unravelings of non-Markovian dynamics: the non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) method and the property state method by Gambetta, Askerud, and Wiseman (GAW). The results for simple quantum optical systems illustrate the connections between the realizations of the two methods and also highlight how the probability currents between the system and environment, or between the property states of the total system, are associated with the decay rates of time-local master equations and, consequently, with the jump rates of the NMQJ method.

Luoma, Kimmo; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Piilo, Jyrki [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun Yliopisto (Finland)

2011-09-15

134

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of NMR spin decoherence in nematic liquid crystals is presented. Decoherence dynamics can be put in evidence by means of refocusing experiments of the dipolar interactions. The experimental technique used in this work is based on the MREV8 pulse sequence. The aim of the work is to detect the main features of the irreversible quantum decoherence in liquid crystals, on the basis of the theory presented by the authors recently. The focus is laid on experimentally probing the eigen-selection process in the intermediate time scale, between quantum interference of a closed system and thermalization, as a signature of the quantum spin decoherence of the open quantum system, as well as on quantifying the effects of non-idealities as possible sources of signal decays which could mask the intrinsic decoherence. In order to contrast experiment and theory, the theory was adapted to obtain the decoherence function corresponding to the MREV8 reversion experiments. Non-idealities of the experimental setting, like external field inhomogeneity, pulse misadjustments, and the presence of non-reverted spin interaction terms are analysed in detail within this framework, and their effects on the observed signal decay are numerically estimated. It is found that though all these non-idealities could in principle affect the evolution of the spin dynamics, their influence can be mitigated and they do not present the characteristic behaviour of the irreversible spin decoherence. As unique characteristic of decoherence, the experimental results clearly show the occurrence of eigen-selectivity in the intermediate timescale, in complete agreement with the theoretical predictions. We conclude that the eigen-selection effect is the fingerprint of decoherence associated with a quantum open spin system in liquid crystals. Besides, these features of the results account for the quasi-equilibrium states of the spin system, which were observed previously in these mesophases, and lead to conclude that the quasi-equilibrium is a definite stage of the spin dynamics during its evolution towards equilibrium.

Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

2013-10-01

135

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of the basis of an open quantum system, under a quantum chaotic environment, which is preferred in view of its stationary reduced density matrix (RDM), that is, the basis in which the stationary RDM is diagonal. It is shown that, under an initial condition composed of sufficiently many energy eigenstates of the total system, such a basis is given by the eigenbasis of a renormalized self-Hamiltonian of the system, in the limit of large Hilbert space of the environment. Here, the renormalized self-Hamiltonian is given by the unperturbed self-Hamiltonian plus a certain average of the interaction Hamiltonian over the environmental degrees of freedom. Numerical simulations performed in two models, both with the kicked rotor as the environment, give results consistent with the above analytical predictions.

He, Lewei; Wang, Wen-ge

2014-02-01

136

Dynamical A and B maps have been employed extensively by Sudarshan and co-workers to investigate open-system evolution of quantum systems. A canonical structure of the A map is introduced here. It is shown that this canonical A map enables us to investigate whether the dynamics is completely positive (CP) or not completely positive (NCP) in an elegant way and, hence, it subsumes the basic results on open-system dynamics. Identifying memory effects in open-system evolution is gaining increasing importance recently and, here, a criterion of non-Markovianity, based on the relative entropy of the dynamical state is proposed. The relative entropy difference of the dynamical system serves as a complementary characterization--though not related directly--to the fidelity difference criterion proposed recently. Three typical examples of open-system evolution of a qubit, prepared initially in a correlated state with another qubit (environment), and evolving jointly under a specific unitary dynamics--which corresponds to a NCP dynamical map--are investigated by employing both the relative entropy difference and fidelity difference tests of non-Markovianity. The two-qubit initial states are chosen to be (i) a pure entangled state, (ii) the Werner state, which exemplifies both entangled and separable states of qubits, depending on a real parameter, and (iii) a separable mixed state. Both the relative entropy and fidelity criteria offer a nice display of how non-Markovianity manifests itself in all three examples.

Usha Devi, A. R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560 056 (India); Inspire Institute Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22303 (United States); Rajagopal, A. K. [Inspire Institute Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22303 (United States); Sudha [Department of Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga-577 451 (India); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

137

KNIT : An open source code for quantum transport in multi-terminal systems

This paper is the documentation for a numerical code for quantum transport called KNIT. The KNIT library implements a generalization of the well known recursive Green function technique for a large class of multi-terminal mesoscopic systems with arbitrary geometries, topology and dimension. The systems are described by tight-biding Hamiltonians (with arbitrary internal degree of freedom like spin, electron/hole grading, orbitals...) and the calculation done within the non equilibrium Green function formalism (equivalent to the Landauer-Buttiker Scattering approach). KNIT can (and has) been applied to many different physical systems including quantum Hall effect, topological insulators, graphene ribbons, hybrid superconducting systems and ferromagnetic multilayers. KNIT main functionality is written in C++ and wrapped into Python, providing a simple and flexible interface for the user. Usual "input files" of numerical codes are replaced by small python scripts where the user builds the system and then computes...

Rychkova, Irina; Kazymyrenko, Kyryl; Borlenghi, Simone; Waintal, Xavier

2010-01-01

138

Lattice mapping for many-body open quantum systems and its application to atoms in photonic crystals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a derivation that maps the original problem of a many-body open quantum system (OQS) coupled to a harmonic oscillator reservoir into that of a many-body OQS coupled to a lattice of harmonic oscillators. The present method is particularly suitable to analyze the dynamics of atoms arranged in a periodic structure and coupled with the electromagnetic field within a photonic crystal. It allows to solve the dynamics of a many-body OQS with methods alternative to the commonly used master, stochastic Schrödinger, and Heisenberg equations, and thus to reach regimes well beyond the weak coupling and Born-Markov approximations.

de Vega, Inés

2014-10-01

139

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the electromagnetic field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization."

Silvestri, Luciano; Jacobs, Kurt; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim

2014-04-01

140

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time-dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the EM field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open-systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady-state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization".

Luciano Silvestri; Kurt Jacobs; Vanja Dunjko; Maxim Olshanii

2009-12-21

141

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two approaches to open quantum systems, namely, the non-Hermitian dynamics and the Lindblad master equation. In order to deal with more general dissipative phenomena, we propose the unified master equation that combines the characteristics of both of these approaches. This allows us to assess the differences between them as well as to clarify which observed features come from the Lindblad or the non-Hermitian part, when it comes to experiment. Using a generic two-mode single-atom laser system as a practical example, we analytically solve the dynamics of the normalized density matrix operator. We study the two-level model in a number of cases (depending on parameters and types of dynamics), compute different observables and study their physical properties. It turns out that one is able not only to describe the different types of damping in dissipative quantum optical systems but also to mimic the undamped anharmonic oscillatory phenomena which happen in quantum systems with more than two levels (while staying within the framework of the analytically simple two-mode approximation).

Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.; Sergi, Alessandro

2014-09-01

142

Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in an open quantum system: Master equation approach

A master equation approach to the study of environmental effects in the adiabatic population transfer in three-state systems is presented. A systematic comparison with the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach [N. V. Vitanov and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 56}, 1463 (1997)] shows that in the weak coupling limit the two treatments lead to essentially the same results. Instead, in the strong damping limit the predictions are quite different: in particular the counterintuitive sequences in the STIRAP scheme turn out to be much more efficient than expected before. This point is explained in terms of quantum Zeno dynamics.

M. Scala; B. Militello; A. Messina; N. V. Vitanov

2010-03-18

143

Twenty open problems in quantum control

The subject of controlling quantum systems is not new, but concepts that have been introduced in the last decade and a half, especially that of coherent feedback, suggest new questions that broaden and deepen the field. Here we provide a concise overview and definition of quantum feedback control, both coherent and measurement-based, and discuss its relationship to "standard" time-dependent control; there is a sense in which the latter subsumes the rest. There are many open questions within quantum control and its subfields, and we highlight and discuss some of them here. These questions are of theoretical as well as practical interest: the answers will help to determine the relative power of the different methods of control, and the limits to our ability to control quantum systems imposed by available resources.

Kurt Jacobs

2013-04-03

144

A hybrid stochastic hierarchy equations of motion approach to treat the low temperature dynamics of motion approach to treat the low temperature dynamics of non-Markovian open quantum systems Jeremy M application to low temperature environments remains a serious challenge due to the need for a deep hierarchy

Cao, Jianshu

145

Open Source and Open Access Resources for Quantum Physics Education

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is both a topic of great importance to modern science, engineering, and technology, and a topic with many inherent barriers to learning and understanding. Computational resources are vital tools for developing deep conceptual understanding of quantum systems for students new to the subject. This article outlines two projects that are taking an open source/open access approach to create and share teaching and learning resources for quantum physics. The Open Source Physics project provides program libraries, programming tools, example simulations, and pedagogical resources for instructors wishing to give a rich experience to their students. These simulations and student activities are, in turn, being integrated into a world-wide collection of teaching and learning resources available through the Quantum Exchange, a part of the ComPADRE Portal to the National Science Digital Library. Both of these projects use technologies that encourage community development and collaboration. Using these tools, faculty can create learning experiences, share and discuss their content with others, and combine resources in new ways. Examples of the available content and tools are given, along with an introduction to accessing and using these resources.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Mason, Bruce

2010-10-14

146

A resonance theory for open quantum systems with time-dependent dynamics

We develop a resonance theory to describe the evolution of open systems with time-dependent dynamics. Our approach is based on piecewise constant Hamiltonians: we represent the evolution on each constant bit using a recently developed dynamical resonance theory, and we piece them together to obtain the total evolution. The initial state corresponding to one time-interval with constant Hamiltonian is the final state of the system corresponding to the interval before. This results in a non-markovian dynamics. We find a representation of the dynamics in terms of resonance energies and resonance states associated to the Hamiltonians, valid for all times $t\\geq 0$ and for small (but fixed) interaction strengths. The representation has the form of a path integral over resonances. We present applications to a spin-fermion system, where the energy levels of the spin may undergo rather arbitrary crossings in the course of time. In particular, we find the probability for transition between ground- and excited state at all times.

Marco Merkli; Shannon Starr

2008-10-20

147

In this paper, the exact non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.

Tan, Hua-Tang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Wei-Min [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-03-15

148

The quantum bit commitment a finite open system approach for a complete classification of protocols

Mayers, Lo and Chau argued that all quantum bit commitment protocols are insecure, because there is no way to prevent an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) cheating attack. However, Yuen presented some protocols which challenged the previous impossibility argument. Up to now, it is still debated whether there exist or not unconditionally secure protocols. In this paper the above controversy is addressed. For such purpose, a complete classification of all possible bit commitment protocols is given, including all possible cheating attacks. Focusing on the simplest class of protocols (non-aborting and with complete and perfect verification), it is shown how naturally a game-theoretical situation arises. For these protocols, bounds for the cheating probabilities are derived, involving the two quantum operations encoding the bit values and their respective alternate Kraus decompositions. Such bounds are different from those given in the impossibility proof. The whole classification and analysis has been carried out usi...

D'Ariano, G M

2002-01-01

149

Conductance peaks in open quantum dots

We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance, $T$, as a function of an arbitrary external parameter $Z$, is directly related to the autocorrelation function of $T(Z)$. The parameter $Z$ can be associated to an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc.. The average density of maxima is found to be $ = \\alpha_{Z}/Z_c$, where $\\alpha_{Z}$ is a universal constant and $Z_c$ is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of $$ does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as $Z_c$.

J. G. G. S. Ramos; D. Bazeia; M. S. Hussein; C. H. Lewenkopf

2011-09-26

150

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation allows us to model the process of decision making in US elections. The crucial point we attempt to make is that the voter's mental state can be represented as a superposition of two possible choices for either republicans or democrats. However, reality dictates a more complicated situation: typically a voter participates in two elections, i.e. the congress and the presidential elections. In both elections the voter has to decide between two choices. This very feature of the US election system requires that the mental state is represented by a 2-qubit state corresponding to the superposition of 4 different choices. The main issue is to describe the dynamics of the voters' mental states taking into account the mental and political environment. What is novel in this paper is that we apply the theory of open quantum systems to social science. The quantum master equation describes the resolution of uncertainty (represented in the form of superposition) to a definite choice.

Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

2014-04-01

151

ccsd-00001148(version1):16Feb2004 Experimental open air quantum key distribution with a

of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with a single photon source, operating at night in open airccsd-00001148(version1):16Feb2004 Experimental open air quantum key distribution with a single air quantum key distribution with a single photon source 2 1. Introduction Key distribution remains

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

152

Creation of electron or exciton by external fields in a system with initially statistically independent unrelaxed vibrational modes leads to an initial condition term. The contribution of this term in the time convolution generalized master equation approach is studied in second order of the perturbation theory in the path integral formalism. The developed approach, applied for analysis of dynamics in the photosynthetic reaction center, exhibits the key role of the initial condition terms at the primary stage of electron transfer.

M. Pudlak; K. N. Pichugin; R. G. Nazmitdinov; R. Pincak

2011-09-05

153

Open quantum system approach to the modeling of spin recombination reactions.

In theories of spin-dependent radical pair reactions, the time evolution of the radical pair, including the effect of the chemical kinetics, is described by a master equation in the Liouville formalism. For the description of the chemical kinetics, a number of possible reaction operators have been formulated in the literature. In this work, we present a framework that allows for a unified description of the various proposed mechanisms and the forms of reaction operators for the spin-selective recombination processes. On the basis of the concept that master equations can be derived from a microscopic description of the spin system interacting with external degrees of freedom, it is possible to gain insight into the underlying microscopic processes and develop a systematic approach toward determining the specific form of the reaction operator in concrete scenarios. PMID:22401141

Tiersch, M; Steiner, U E; Popescu, S; Briegel, H J

2012-04-26

154

of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories

Cao, Jianshu

155

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.

Yan, YiJing

2014-02-01

156

A general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open noninteracting mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-Buettiker formula is pointed out. Time reversal symmetry is not assumed. As a consequence it follows that, as far as the system has a nontrivial scattering theory and the reservoirs have different temperatures and/or chemical potentials, the entropy production is strictly positive.

G. Nenciu

2006-10-26

157

The aim of quantum system identification is to estimate the ingredients inside a black box, in which some quantum-mechanical unitary process takes place, by just looking at its input-output behavior. Here we establish a basic and general framework for quantum system identification, that allows us to classify how much knowledge about the quantum system is attainable, in principle, from a given experimental setup. Prior knowledge on some elements of the black box helps the system identification. We present an example in which a Bell measurement is more efficient to identify the system. When the topology of the system is known, the framework enables us to establish a general criterion for the estimability of the coupling constants in its Hamiltonian.

Daniel Burgarth; Kazuya Yuasa

2011-04-04

158

We formulate and study, in general terms, the problem of quantum system identification, i.e., the determination (or estimation) of unknown quantum channels through their action on suitably chosen input density operators. We also present a quantitative analysis of the worst-case performance of these schemes.

Maxim Raginsky

2003-06-02

159

Open-System Dynamics of Entanglement

One of the greatest challenges in quantum information processing is the coherent control over quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, the harnessing of many-body entanglement against the effects of the environment is a pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement is recognized as a crucial resource for performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations, secure quantum communication, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. Here we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement in open quantum systems. Entanglement is taken as a dynamic quantity, and we survey how it evolves due to the interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a diversity of dynamical behaviors. Contrary to single-particle quantities, that typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. Moreover, important classes of entanglement show an exponential decay with the system size when subject to local noise, posing yet another threat to the already challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Results for the local and global noise cases are summarized. Robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information.

Leandro Aolita; Fernando de Melo; Luiz Davidovich

2014-02-15

160

A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are ``refuelled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus it can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.

Miloslav Dusek; Ondrej Haderka; Martin Hendrych; Robert Myska

1998-09-10

161

Hidden parameters in open-system evolution unveiled by geometric phase

We find a class of open-system models in which individual quantum trajectories may depend on parameters that are undetermined by the full open-system evolution. This dependence is imprinted in the geometric phase associated with such trajectories and persists after averaging. Our findings indicate a potential source of ambiguity in the quantum trajectory approach to open quantum systems.

Pawlus, Patrik [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 518, Se-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeqvist, Erik [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 518, Se-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)

2010-11-15

162

Thermalization of quantum systems by finite baths

We consider a discrete quantum system coupled to a finite bath, which may consist of only one particle, in contrast to the standard baths which usually consist of continua of oscillators, spins, etc. We find that such finite baths may nevertheless equilibrate the system though not necessarily in the way predicted by standard open-system techniques. This behavior results regardless of

Jochen Gemmer; Mathias Michel

2006-01-01

163

Quantum Discord Under System-Environment Coupling: the Two-Qubit Case

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open quantum systems have attracted great attention, since inevitable coupling between quantum systems and their environment greatly affects the features of interest of these systems. Quantum discord, is a measure of the total nonclassical correlation in a quantum system that includes, but is not exclusive to, the distinct property of quantum entanglement. Quantum discord can exist in separated quantum states and plays an important role in many fundamental physics problems and practical quantum information tasks. There have been numerous investigations on quantum discord and its counterpart classical correlation. This short review focuses on highlighting the system-environment dynamics of two-qubit quantum discord and the influence of initial system-environment correlations on the dynamics of open quantum systems. The external control effect on the dynamics of open quantum systems are involved. Several related experimental works are discussed.

Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng

2013-01-01

164

Open Source Physics: Quantum Mechanical Measurement

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of quantum mechanics java applets, part of the Open Source Physics project, provides simulations that demonstrate the effect of measurement on the time-dependence of quantum states. Exercises are available that demonstrate the results of measurement of energy, position, and momentum on states in potential wells (square well, harmonic oscillator, asymmetric well, etc). Eigenstates, superpositions of eigenstates, and wave packets can all be studied. Tutorials are also available. The material stresses the measurement of a quantum-mechanical wave function. The simulations can be delivered either through the OSP Launcher interface or embedded in html pages. The source code is available, and users are invited to contribute to the collection's development by submitting improvements. The simulations are available through the "View attached documents" link below.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-02

165

Open Quantum Dots in Graphene: Scaling Relativistic Pointer States

1 Open Quantum Dots in Graphene: Scaling Relativistic Pointer States D K Ferry1 , L Huang, R Yang quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine

Zhang, Junshan

166

Correlation Function Bootstrapping in Quantum Chaotic Systems

We discuss a general and efficient approach for "bootstrapping" short-time correlation data in chaotic or complex quantum systems to obtain information about long-time dynamics and stationary properties, such as the local density of states. When the short-time data is sufficient to identify an individual quantum system, we obtain a systematic approximation for the spectrum and wave functions. Otherwise, we obtain statistical properties, including wave function intensity distributions, for an ensemble of all quantum systems sharing the given short-time correlations. The results are valid for open or closed systems, and are stable under perturbation of the short-time input data. Numerical examples include quantum maps and two-dimensional anharmonic oscillators.

L. Kaplan

2005-03-25

167

Fortschr. Phys. 61, No. 2 3, 291 304 (2013) / DOI 10.1002/prop.201200065 Open quantum dots

Fortschr. Phys. 61, No. 2 Â 3, 291 Â 304 (2013) / DOI 10.1002/prop.201200065 Open quantum dots 2012, accepted 16 April 2012 Published online 9 May 2012 Key words Semiconductor quantum dots, classical to quantum transition, projection algebra, dissipation. Quantum dots provide a natural system

Knezevic, Irena

168

Open system approach to neutrino oscillations

Neutrino oscillations are studied in the general framework of open quantum systems by means of extended dynamics that take into account possible dissipative effects. These new phenomena induce modifications in the neutrino oscillation pattern that in general can be parametrized by means of six phenomenological constants. Although very small, stringent bounds on these parameters are likely to be given by future planned neutrino experiments.

F. Benatti; R. Floreanini

2000-02-21

169

Dynamical regimes of dissipative quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal several distinct regimes of the relaxation dynamics of a small quantum system coupled to an environment within the plane of the dissipation strength and the reservoir temperature. This is achieved by discriminating between coherent dynamics with damped oscillatory behavior on all time scales, partially coherent behavior being nonmonotonic at intermediate times but monotonic at large ones, and purely monotonic incoherent decay. Surprisingly, elevated temperature can render the system "more coherent" by inducing a transition from the partially coherent to the coherent regime. This provides a refined view on the relaxation dynamics of open quantum systems.

Kennes, D. M.; Kashuba, O.; Meden, V.

2013-12-01

170

Thermalization of quantum systems by finite baths

We consider a discrete quantum system coupled to a finite bath, which may consist of only one particle, in contrast to the standard baths which usually consist of continua of oscillators, spins, etc. We find that such finite baths may nevertheless equilibrate the system though not necessarily in the way predicted by standard open system techniques. This behavior results regardless of the initial state being correlated or not.

Jochen Gemmer; Mathias Michel

2005-11-03

171

Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms

An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.

I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione

2014-01-26

172

Effective Hamiltonian approach to adiabatic approximation in open systems

The adiabatic approximation in open systems is formulated through the effective Hamiltonian approach. By introducing an ancilla, we embed the open system dynamics into a non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of a composite system, the adiabatic evolution of the open system is then defined as the adiabatic dynamics of the composite system. Validity and invalidity conditions for this approximation are established and discussed. A High-order adiabatic approximation for open systems is introduced. As an example, the adiabatic condition for an open spin-$\\frac 1 2$ particle in time-dependent magnetic fields is analyzed.

X. X. Yi; D. M. Tong; L. C. Kwek; C. H. OH

2006-06-24

173

Quantum algorithm in quantum network systems

Recently, the quantum computer (QC) using the nano-devices have significantly attracted attention, because a large-scale extention of the qubits could be easily realized in the nano-devices. However, some problems for the realization of the QC with nano-devices arise from the short decoherence time and the interaction of qubits only between nearest-neighbor qubits. Therefore, we try to design the optimal quantum circuit of the quantum Fourier transform in various network system by means of the genetic algorithm (GA)

Sakamoto, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nagao, H.; Nishikawa, K. [Department of Computational Science, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, 920-1192 (Japan)

2004-04-30

174

Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Several examples of quantum feedforward neural networks are addressed in regards to Boolean functions' computation, multilayer quantum computation dynamics, entanglement and quantum complementarity. The examples provide a framework for a reflection on the role of quantum artificial neural networks as a general framework for addressing complex quantum systems that perform network-based quantum computation, possible consequences are drawn regarding quantum technologies, as well as fundamental research in complex quantum systems science and quantum biology.

Carlos Pedro Gonçalves

2014-02-05

175

Exact solutions of open integrable quantum spin chains

In the thesis we present an analytic approach towards exact description for steady state density operators of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in the framework of open systems. We employ the so-called quantum Markovian semi-group evolution, i.e. a general form of time-autonomous positivity and trace-preserving dynamical equation for reduced density operators, by only allowing unitarity-breaking dissipative terms acting at the boundaries of a system. Such setup enables to simulate macroscopic reservoirs for different values of effective thermodynamic potentials, causing incoherent transitions between quantum states which are modeled with aid of the Lindblad operators. This serves as a simple minimalistic model for studying quantum transport properties, either in the linear response domain or in more general regimes far from canonical equilibrium. We are mainly exploring possibilities of identifying nonequilibrium situations which are amenable to exact description within matrix product state representation, by exclusively focusing on steady states, i.e. fixed points of the Lindblad equation, of certain prototypic interacting integrable spin chains driven by incoherent polarizing processes. Finally, we define a concept of pseudo-local extensive almost-conserved quantities by allowing a violation of time-invariance up to boundary-localized terms. We elucidate the role of such quantities on non-ergodic behaviour of temporal correlation functions rendering anomalous transport properties. It turns out that such conservation laws can be generated by means of boundary universal quantum transfer operators of the fundamental integrable models.

Enej Ilievski

2014-10-06

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently proposed coupled channel density matrix (CCDM) method for nondissipative dynamics [L. Pesce and P. Saalfrank, Chem. Phys. 219, 43 (1997)], is extended to open quantum systems. This method, which is the density matrix analogue of the coupled channel wave packet (CCWP) method in Schrödinger wave mechanics, allows for the solution of nuclear Liouville-von Neumann equations in more than one dimension including unbound modes. A semiphenomenological, Markovian, and trace-conserving dissipative model within the dynamical semigroup approach is suggested, and efficient numerical schemes for its implementation are presented. Using a two-mode model, we apply the dissipative CCDM method to the problem of vibrationally excited gas-phase hydrogen molecules, relaxing during the scattering from a cold, metallic, and nondissociative surface. The significance of a relaxation mechanism based on electron-hole pair creation in a metallic substrate is addressed. The dependence of the survival probability of the vibrationally excited molecules on the dissipative model parameters, on their initial translational energy, and on isotopic substitution is examined and rationalized on the basis of a simple classical kinetic model.

Pesce, Lorenzo; Saalfrank, Peter

1998-02-01

177

Resonances from perturbed symmetry in open quantum dots

Resonances from perturbed symmetry in open quantum dots Pierre Duclos a;b , Pavel Exner c quantum dot, i.e., a straight hardÂwall channel with a potential well. If this potential dependsÂ¨o] investigated the case of a wire with ``quantum dot'' modeled by a potential well and the resonances which

178

Opening and Closing in Open Systems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In open information systems, such as in the case of human interchange with the self and the environment, input quantities have no upper limits. The human information utilization system, however, is psychologically and behaviorally unable to accept ever increasing loads of information. Because of this apparent fact, human information systems should…

Klapp, Orrin E.

179

DPS Quantum Key Distribution System

Differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) is one scheme of quantum key distribution whose security is based on the quantum nature of lightwave. This protocol features simplicity, a high key creation rate, and robustness against photon-number-splitting attacks. We describe DPS-QKD in this paper, including its setup and operation, eavesdropping against DPS-QKD, system performance, and modified systems to improve the system

Kyo Inoue

2010-01-01

180

Naval open systems architecture

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

2013-05-01

181

Characteristics of Open Learning Systems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideal concept of open education would take the form of education permanente, although no present program includes all the features implied by this concept. Up to now the literature on open learning has focused on concern for a learner oriented system. The present focus is on the open learning system itself, with the identification of 10…

Wedemeyer, Charles A.

182

Determinism Beneath Composite Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at the development of 't Hooft's quantization proposal to describe composite quantum mechanical systems. In particular, we show how 't Hooft's method can be utilized to obtain from two classical Bateman oscillators a composite quantum system corresponding to a quantum isotonic oscillator. For a suitable range of parameters, the composite system can be also interpreted as a particle in an effective magnetic field interacting through a spin-orbital interaction term. In the limit of a large separation from the interaction region we can identify the irreducible subsystems with two independent quantum oscillators.

Blasone, Massimo; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

183

Set Stabilizability of Quantum Systems

We explore set-stabilizability by constrained controls, and both controllability and stabilizability can be regarded as the special case of set-stabilizability. We not only clarify how to define an equilibrium point of Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger Equations, but also establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for stabilizability of quantum systems. Unfortunately, it is revealed that the necessary conditions are quite strict for stabilizability of some concrete quantum systems like nuclear spin systems, and this further justifies the introduction of set-stabilizability notion. It is also exemplified that set-stabilizability can be used for investigating quantum information processing problems including quantum information storage and entangled states generation.

Ming Zhang; Zairong Xi; Tzyh-Jong Tarn

2014-01-20

184

Fingerprints of Classical Instability in Open Quantum Dynamics

The dynamics near a hyperbolic point in phase space is modelled by an inverted harmonic oscillator. We investigate the effect of the classical instability on the open quantum dynamics of the oscillator, introduced through the interaction with a thermal bath, using both the survival probability function and the rate of von Neumann entropy increase, for large times. In this parameter range we prove, using influence functional techniques, that the survival probability function decreases exponentially at a rate, K', depending not only on the measure of instability in the model but also on the strength of interaction with the environment. We also show that K' determines the rate of von Neumann entropy increase and that this result is independent of the temperature of the environment. This generalises earlier results which are valid in the limit of vanishing dissipation. The validity of inferring similar rates of survival probability decrease and entropy increase for quantum chaotic systems is also discussed.

Paul A. Miller; Sarben Sarkar

1998-07-03

185

We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory, i.e., an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.

A. Iqbal; A. H. Toor

2002-01-01

186

Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir

2014-07-01

187

On the resistance of relativistic quantum cryptography in open space at finite resources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of keys for the basic nonrelativistic BB84 protocol has been examined for more than 15 years. A simple proof of security for the case of a single-photon source of quantum states and finite sequences has been only recently obtained using entropy uncertainty relations. However, the existing sources of states are not strictly single-photon. Since sources are not single-photon and losses in a quantum channel—open space—are not a priori known and vary, nonrelativistic quantum cryptographic systems in open space cannot guarantee the unconditional security of keys. Recently proposed relativistic quantum cryptography removes fundamental constraints associated with non-single-photon sources and losses in open space. The resistance of a fundamentally new family of protocols for relativistic quantum key distribution through open space has been analyzed for the real situation with finite lengths of transmitted sequences of quantum states. This system is stable with real sources of non-single-photon states (weakened laser radiation) and arbitrary losses in open space.

Molotkov, S. N.

2012-11-01

188

Experimental Quantum Teleportation of a Two-Qubit Composite System

Quantum teleportation, a way to transfer the state of a quantum system from one location to another, is central to quantum communication and plays an important role in a number of quantum computation protocols. Previous experimental demonstrations have been implemented with photonic or ionic qubits. Very recently long-distance teleportation and open-destination teleportation have also been realized. Until now, previous experiments have only been able to teleport single qubits. However, since teleportation of single qubits is insufficient for a large-scale realization of quantum communication and computation2-5, teleportation of a composite system containing two or more qubits has been seen as a long-standing goal in quantum information science. Here, we present the experimental realization of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system. In the experiment, we develop and exploit a six-photon interferometer to teleport an arbitrary polarization state of two photons. The observed teleportation fidelities for different initial states are all well beyond the state estimation limit of 0.40 for a two-qubit system. Not only does our six-photon interferometer provide an important step towards teleportation of a complex system, it will also enable future experimental investigations on a number of fundamental quantum communication and computation protocols such as multi-stage realization of quantum-relay, fault-tolerant quantum computation, universal quantum error-correction and one-way quantum computation.

Qiang Zhang; Alexander Goebel; Claudia Wagenknecht; Yu-Ao Chen; Bo Zhao; Tao Yang; Alois Mair; Joerg Schmiedmayer; Jian-Wei Pan

2006-09-18

189

Periodic thermodynamics of isolated quantum systems.

The nature of the behavior of an isolated many-body quantum system periodically driven in time has been an open question since the beginning of quantum mechanics. After an initial transient period, such a system is known to synchronize with the driving; in contrast to the nondriven case, no fundamental principle has been proposed for constructing the resulting nonequilibrium state. Here, we analytically show that, for a class of integrable systems, the relevant ensemble is constructed by maximizing an appropriately defined entropy subject to constraints, which we explicitly identify. This result constitutes a generalization of the concepts of equilibrium statistical mechanics to a class of far-from-equilibrium systems, up to now mainly accessible using ad hoc methods. PMID:24785013

Lazarides, Achilleas; Das, Arnab; Moessner, Roderich

2014-04-18

190

Decoherence in infinite quantum systems

We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.

Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Federal Office for Radiation Protection), Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

2012-09-01

191

Classical equations for quantum systems

The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1993-01-01

192

Open Source Physics Curricular Material for Quantum Mechanics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Source Physics Curricular Material paper describes the interactive curricular material created as part of the Open Source Physics project for the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. Here we focus on the measurement and time evolution of two-state superpositions in the context of bound states and spin.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

2008-05-30

193

Information Theory of Quantum Systems with some hydrogenic applications

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schrodinger probability density ?(r???). First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.

Dehesa, J. S.; Manzano, D.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Yáñez, R. J.

2011-03-01

194

Preconditioned Quantum Linear System Algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a quantum algorithm that generalizes the quantum linear system algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] to arbitrary problem specifications. We develop a state preparation routine that can initialize generic states, show how simple ancilla measurements can be used to calculate many quantities of interest, and integrate a quantum-compatible preconditioner that greatly expands the number of problems that can achieve exponential speedup over classical linear systems solvers. To demonstrate the algorithm’s applicability, we show how it can be used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of an arbitrary target exponentially faster than the best classical algorithm.

Clader, B. D.; Jacobs, B. C.; Sprouse, C. R.

2013-06-01

195

Adaptive Hybrid Optimal Quantum Control for Imprecisely Characterized Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.

2014-06-01

196

Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems

Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the its input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by Adaptive Hybrid Optimal Control (Ad-HOC). This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity measure with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, Ad-Hoc enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude hence making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

D. J. Egger; F. K. Wilhelm

2014-02-28

197

Statistics of resonance states in open chaotic systems: A perturbative approach Charles Poli,1

Statistics of resonance states in open chaotic systems: A perturbative approach Charles Poli,1 characterizes uniquely complex- ness (nonorthogonality) of resonance eigenstates of open chaotic systems. INTRODUCTION In the domain of wave or quantum chaos [1], open systems are currently actively investigated both

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

198

Quantum proof systems and entanglement theory

Quantum complexity theory is important from the point of view of not only theory of computation but also quantum information theory. In particular, quantum multi-prover interactive proof systems are defined based on ...

Abolfathe Beikidezfuli, Salman

2009-01-01

199

$i$QIST: An open source continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver toolkit

Quantum impurity solvers have a broad range of applications in theoretical studies of strongly correlated electron systems. Especially, they play a key role in dynamical mean-field theory calculations of correlated lattice models and realistic materials. Therefore, the development and implementation of efficient quantum impurity solvers is an important task. In this paper, we present an open source interacting quantum impurity solver toolkit (dubbed $i$QIST). This package contains several highly optimized quantum impurity solvers which are based on the hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm, as well as some important pre-processing and post-processing tools. We will briefly introduce the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm and the basic software framework of $i$QIST, and discuss its implementation details and optimization strategies. In order to demonstrate the usage and power of $i$QIST, we present and discuss several recent applications of $i$QIST, including simulati...

Huang, Li; Meng, Zi Yang; Du, Liang; Werner, Philipp; Dai, Xi

2014-01-01

200

Markovian Classicality from Zero Discord for Bipartite Quantum Systems

Modern quantum information theory provides new tools for investigating the decoherence-induced "classicality" of open quantum systems. Recent observation that almost all quantum states bear non-classical correlations [A. Ferraro {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 81}, 052318 (2010)] distinguishes the zero-discord classicality essentially as a pathology of the Markovian bipartite-systems realm. Nevertheless, we formally construct such a classical model and its variant that represents a matter-of-principle formal proof, i.e. a sufficient condition for the, otherwise not obvious, existence of the Markovian zero-discord classicality. A need for the more elaborate and more systematic search for the alternative such models reveals we are still learning about the very meaning of "classicality" in the realm of open quantum systems.

Arsenijevic, M; Dugic, M

2012-01-01

201

Markovian Classicality from Zero Discord for Bipartite Quantum Systems

Modern quantum information theory provides new tools for investigating the decoherence-induced "classicality" of open quantum systems. Recent observation that almost all quantum states bear non-classical correlations [A. Ferraro {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 81}, 052318 (2010)] distinguishes the zero-discord classicality essentially as a pathology of the Markovian bipartite-systems realm. Nevertheless, we formally construct such a classical model and its variant that represents a matter-of-principle formal proof, i.e. a sufficient condition for the, otherwise not obvious, existence of the Markovian zero-discord classicality. A need for the more elaborate and more systematic search for the alternative such models reveals we are still learning about the very meaning of "classicality" in the realm of open quantum systems.

M. Arsenijevic; J. Jeknic-Dugic; M. Dugic

2012-03-20

202

Contextual logic for quantum systems

In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.

Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes

2007-02-02

203

Exact matrix product solutions in the Heisenberg picture of an open quantum spin chain

In recent work Hartmann et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 057202 (2009)] demonstrated that the classical simulation of the dynamics of open 1D quantum systems with matrix product algorithms can often be dramatically improved by performing time evolution in the Heisenberg picture. For a closed system this was exemplified by an exact matrix product operator solution of the time-evolved creation operator of a quadratic fermi chain with a matrix dimension of just two. In this work we show that this exact solution can be significantly generalized to include the case of an open quadratic fermi chain subjected to master equation evolution with Lindblad operators that are linear in the fermionic operators. Remarkably even in this open system the time-evolution of operators continues to be described by matrix product operators with the same fixed dimension as that required by the solution of a coherent quadratic fermi chain for all times. Through the use of matrix product algorithms the dynamical behaviour of operators in this non-equilibrium open quantum system can be computed with a cost that is linear in the system size. We present some simple numerical examples which highlight how useful this might be for the more detailed study of open system dynamics. Given that Heisenberg picture simulations have been demonstrated to offer significant accuracy improvements for other open systems that are not exactly solvable our work also provides further insight into how and why this advantage arises.

S. R. Clark; J. Prior; M. J. Hartmann; D. Jaksch; M. B. Plenio

2009-07-31

204

Low Energy Quantum System Simulation

A numerical method for solving Schrodinger's equation based upon a Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion of the time evolution operator is presented herein. The technique manifestly preserves wavefunction norm, and it can be applied to problems in any number of spatial dimensions. We also identify a particular dimensionless ratio of potential to kinetic energies as a key coupling constant. This coupling establishes characteristic length and time scales for a large class of low energy quantum states, and it guides the choice of step sizes in numerical work. Using the BCH method in conjunction with an imaginary time rotation, we compute low energy eigenstates for several quantum systems coupled to non-trivial background potentials. The approach is subsequently applied to the study of 1D propagating wave packets and 2D bound state time development. Failures of classical expectations uncovered by simulations of these simple systems help develop quantum intuition. Finally, we investigate the response of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to a time dependent potential. We discuss how to engineer the potential's energy and time scales so that the SQUID acts as a quantum NOT gate. The notional simulation we present for this gate provides useful insight into the design of one candidate building block for a quantum computer.

Peter Cho; Karl Berggren

2003-10-26

205

Quantum information processing in mesoscopic systems

introduce the Quantum Dots as the solid state system that will primarily be used as the hardware of quantum computation in quantum dots is described. The principal sources of decoherence and the measurementQuantum information processing in mesoscopic systems Jose Luis Garcia Coello A dissertation

Guillas, Serge

206

Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems

We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems

Kurt Jacobs

2006-01-01

207

Low Energy Quantum System Simulation

A numerical method for solving Schrodinger's equation based upon a Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion of the time evolution operator is presented herein. The technique manifestly preserves wavefunction norm, and it can be applied to problems in any number of spatial dimensions. We also identify a particular dimensionless ratio of potential to kinetic energies as a key coupling constant. This coupling establishes characteristic length and time scales for a large class of low energy quantum states, and it guides the choice of step sizes in numerical work. Using the BCH method in conjunction with an imaginary time rotation, we compute low energy eigenstates for several quantum systems coupled to non-trivial background potentials. The approach is subsequently applied to the study of 1D propagating wave packets and 2D bound state time development. Failures of classical expectations uncovered by simulations of these simple systems help develop quantum intuition. Finally, we investigate the response of a Super...

Cho, P; Cho, Peter; Berggren, Karl

2003-01-01

208

RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)

2013-12-04

209

Free and Open Systems Theory Nick Rossiter

a concept of freeness and openness such as life, consciousness and intelli- gence, biology and medicine [Klir 1993], quantum phe- nomena in nanotechnology, etc. The large global sys- tems needing much

Cheng, Eugenia

210

Kicked quantized cavity mode - An open-systems-theory approach

Techniques from the quantum theory of open systems (operations) are applied to the model of a kicked quantized cavity mode presented by Filipowicz et al. (1986). It is noted that these techniques make possible a straightforward discussion of atomic velocity profile in the model, which can be experimentally realized by injecting a low-density beam of Rydberg atoms into a high-Q

G. J. Milburn

1987-01-01

211

OpenSees: Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees) is a project of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. OpenSees is an open source "software framework for developing applications to simulate the performance of structural and geotechnical systems subjected to earthquakes." The project's homepage maintains resources for users and developers, including downloadable source code, extensive documentation, and instructions on how to contribute code. Several links to other research projects that are using the OpenSees tool are provided. Additionally, an OpenSees user's workshop was held in August 2003, and the presentations from the event are available.

212

The classical skeleton of open quantum chaotic maps

We have studied two complementary decoherence measures purity and fidelity for a generic diffusive noise in two different chaotic systems (the baker and the cat maps). For both quantities, we have found classical structures in quantum mechanics - the scar functions - that are specially stable when subjected to environmental perturbations. We show that these quantum states constructed on classical invariants are the most robust significant quantum distributions in generic dissipative maps.

Lisandro A. Raviola; Alejandro M. F. Rivas; Gabriel G. Carlo

2011-08-16

213

System identification for passive linear quantum systems

System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

2013-03-15

214

Opening up three quantum boxes causes classically undetectable wavefunction collapse

One of the most striking features of quantum mechanics is the profound effect exerted by measurements alone. Sophisticated quantum control is now available in several experimental systems, exposing discrepancies between quantum and classical mechanics whenever measurement induces disturbance of the interrogated system. In practice, such discrepancies may frequently be explained as the back-action required by quantum mechanics adding quantum noise to a classical signal. Here, we implement the “three-box” quantum game [Aharonov Y, et al. (1991) J Phys A Math Gen 24(10):2315–2328] by using state-of-the-art control and measurement of the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. In this protocol, the back-action of quantum measurements adds no detectable disturbance to the classical description of the game. Quantum and classical mechanics then make contradictory predictions for the same experimental procedure; however, classical observers are unable to invoke measurement-induced disturbance to explain the discrepancy. We quantify the residual disturbance of our measurements and obtain data that rule out any classical model by ?7.8 standard deviations, allowing us to exclude the property of macroscopic state definiteness from our system. Our experiment is then equivalent to the test of quantum noncontextuality [Kochen S, Specker E (1967) J Math Mech 17(1):59–87] that successfully addresses the measurement detectability loophole. PMID:23412336

George, Richard E.; Robledo, Lucio M.; Maroney, Owen J. E.; Blok, Machiel S.; Bernien, Hannes; Markham, Matthew L.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Morton, John J. L.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Hanson, Ronald

2013-01-01

215

Quantum identification system Miloslav Dusek,1

identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed only once and the distribution of a common secret string is achieved by means of quantum keyQuantum identification system Miloslav Dusek,1 Ondrej Haderka,2,1 Martin Hendrych,2,1 and Robert

Dusek, Miloslav

216

Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior.

Barbosa, A. L. R.; Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

2014-10-01

217

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.

Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

2014-09-01

218

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems.

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375

Shen, H Z; Wang, W; Yi, X X

2014-01-01

219

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of the quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for a quantum system without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formalism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance for a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory of open system. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.

H. Z. Shen; W. Wang; X. X. Yi

2014-03-19

220

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375

Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

2014-01-01

221

An Open Source Simulation System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

Slack, Thomas

2005-01-01

222

Non-Markovian dynamical maps: numerical processing of open quantum trajectories.

The initial stages of the evolution of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn can predict the trajectory at later stages. We propose a general approach based on non-Markovian dynamical maps to extract this information from the initial trajectories and compress it into non-Markovian transfer tensors. Assuming time-translational invariance, the tensors can be used to accurately and efficiently propagate the state of the system to arbitrarily long time scales. The non-Markovian transfer tensor method (TTM) demonstrates the coherent-to-incoherent transition as a function of the strength of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system-bath entanglement. TTM is equivalent to solving the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and, therefore, can be used to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories obtained in simulations or experiments. The concept underlying the approach can be generalized to physical observables with the goal of learning and manipulating the trajectories of an open quantum system. PMID:24702332

Cerrillo, Javier; Cao, Jianshu

2014-03-21

223

Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?

Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the confidence expressed by creators of quantum theory that the renunciation of realism should not apply on our everyday macroscopic world. Nanostructures may be considered for the present as a boundary of realistic description for all phenomena including the quantum one.

V. V. Aristov; A. V. Nikulov

2010-06-28

224

Physlets and Open Source Physics for Quantum Mechanics: Visualizing Quantum-mechanical Revivals

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper we describe our five-year effort to create interactive curricular material for upper-level quantum mechanics courses. This material uses both Physlets and newly created Open Source Physics applets and applications to make the teaching of quantum mechanics visual and interactive. These exercises and tools address both quantitative and conceptual difficulties experienced by many students. Because the materials are Web based, they are extremely flexible and are appropriate for use with various pedagogies, such as the Just-in-Time Teaching technique. We briefly outline the features of Physlets and Open Source Physics programs and then describe our suite of Java programs that solve and visualize the problem of a wave packet in an infinite square well. The materials described in this paper can be found on the Open Source Physics Web site and on the MERLOT and ComPADRE digital libraries.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2011-02-01

225

Transport properties of quantum-classical systems.

Correlation function expressions for calculating transport coefficients for quantum-classical systems are derived. The results are obtained by starting with quantum transport coefficient expressions and replacing the quantum time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville evolution, while retaining the full quantum equilibrium structure through the spectral density function. The method provides a variety of routes for simulating transport coefficients of mixed quantum-classical systems, composed of a quantum subsystem and a classical bath, by selecting different but equivalent time evolution schemes of any operator or the spectral density. The structure of the spectral density is examined for a single harmonic oscillator where exact analytical results can be obtained. The utility of the formulation is illustrated by considering the rate constant of an activated quantum transfer process that can be described by a many-body bath reaction coordinate. PMID:15974726

Kim, Hyojoon; Kapral, Raymond

2005-06-01

226

Quantum theory of a two-mode open-cavity laser

We develop the quantum theory of an open-cavity laser assuming that only two modes compete for gain. We show that the modes interact to build up a composite mode that becomes the lasing mode when pumping exceeds a threshold. This composite mode exhibits all the features of a typical laser mode, whereas its precise behavior depends explicitly on the openness of the cavity. We approach the problem by using the density-matrix formalism and derive the master equation for the light field. Our results are of particular interest in the context of random laser systems.

Eremeev, V.; Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Skipetrov, S. E. [Universite de Grenoble 1/CNRS, LPMMC UMR 5493, 25 rue des Martyrs, Maison des Magisteres, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2011-08-15

227

Quantum theory of a two-mode open-cavity laser

We develop the quantum theory of an open-cavity laser assuming that only two modes compete for gain. We show that the modes interact to build up a collective mode that becomes the lasing mode when pumping exceeds a threshold. This collective mode exhibits all the features of a typical laser mode, whereas its precise behavior depends explicitly on the openness of the cavity. We approach the problem by using the density-matrix formalism and derive the master equation for the light field. Our results are of particular interest in the context random laser systems.

V. Eremeev; S. E. Skipetrov; M. Orszag

2011-05-09

228

Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems

We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems differs from that in traditional classical systems, and how in certain cases the results from modern optimal control theory can be applied directly to quantum systems. In addition to noise reduction and stabilization, an important application of feedback in quantum systems is adaptive measurement, and we discuss the various applications of adaptive measurements. We finish by describing specific examples of the application of feedback control to cooling and state-preparation in nano-electro-mechanical systems and single trapped atoms.

Kurt Jacobs

2006-05-02

229

Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder

Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder We study the entanglement of formation and quantum phase transition in a one-dimensional quantum dots, quantum computer based on quantum dots is a prominent one[9, 10]. Quantum dots are clusters of atoms

Kais, Sabre

230

Escape of quantum particles from an open cavity

A negative ion irradiated by a laser provides a coherent source of electrons propagating out from the location of the negative ion. We study the total escape rates of the electrons when the negative ion is placed inside an open cavity in the shape of a wedge. We show the wedge induces significant oscillations in the total escape rates because of quantum interference effects. In particular, we show, for a wedge with an opening angle of {\\pi}/N, where N is an arbitrary positive integer, there are (2N - 1) induced oscillations in the rates. As a demonstration, the case for a wedge with an opening angle {\\pi}/5 is calculated and analyzed in detail.

H. J. Zhao; M. L. Du

2011-07-18

231

Indistinguishability of states for composite quantum system

We consider the states of composite system from quantum probabilistic amplitude superposition, and define the local indistinguishability (LID) and nonlocal indistinguishability (NLID). For pure states, the NLID is the same as nonlocal coherence. NLID can be considered as the measure of entanglement. LID can be considered as the measure of quantum correlation. From this respect, entanglement, which must have probabilistic amplitude superposition between product basis, is explicitly different from other quantum correlation. LID and NLID are also generalized to multipartite cases. These results are useful in the exploration of the distinctive quantum feature of quantum systems.

Chengjun Wu; Junhui Li; Bin Luo; Hong Guo

2014-05-06

232

Wide-open and scanning ESM systems

A comparison is conducted between open and scanning Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) systems. Wide open ESM systems are generally known as high probability of intercept systems, while scanning systems have a higher sensitivity. The interception capability of the RF part of both types of systems is discussed. Two fundamentally different antenna types are currently employed in ESM systems, including

E. van Nieuwenhuizen

1981-01-01

233

Quantum Coherence Effects in Novel Quantum Optical Systems

Optical response of an active medium can substantially be modified when coherent superpositions of states are excited, that is, when systems display quantum coherence and interference. This has led to fascinating applications in atomic and molecular...

Sete, Eyob Alebachew

2012-10-19

234

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2010-02-01

235

Quantum teleportation in one-dimensional quantum dots system Hefeng Wang, Sabre Kais *

Quantum teleportation in one-dimensional quantum dots system Hefeng Wang, Sabre Kais * Department of quantum teleportation protocol based on one-dimensional quantum dots system. Three quantum dots with three electrons are used to perform teleportation, the unknown qubit is encoded using one electron spin on quantum

Kais, Sabre

236

Quantum Teleportation in Quantum Dots System Hefeng Wang and Sabre Kais

Quantum Teleportation in Quantum Dots System Hefeng Wang and Sabre Kais Department of Chemistry of quantum teleportation protocol based on one-dimensional quantum dots system. Three quantum dots with three electrons are used to perform teleportation, the unknown qubit is encoded using one electron spin on quantum

Kais, Sabre

237

The ALPS project: open source software for strongly correlated systems

We present the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an international open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. Development is centered on common XML and binary data formats, on libraries to simplify and speed up code development, and on full-featured simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), as well as the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org.

F. Alet; P. Dayal; A. Grzesik; A. Honecker; M. Koerner; A. Laeuchli; S. R. Manmana; I. P. McCulloch; F. Michel; R. M. Noack; G. Schmid; U. Schollwoeck; F. Stoeckli; S. Todo; S. Trebst; M. Troyer; P. Werner; S. Wessel; for the ALPS collaboration

2004-10-15

238

System design for a long-line quantum repeater

We present a new control algorithm and system design for a network of quantum repeaters, and outline the end- to-end protocol architecture. Such a network will create long- distance quantum states, supporting quantum key distribution as well as distributed quantum computation. Quantum repeaters improve the reduction of quantum-communication throughput with distance from exponential to polynomial. Because a quantum state cannot

Rodney Van Meter; Thaddeus D. Ladd; W. J. Munro; Kae Nemoto

2009-01-01

239

The flag taxonomy of open hypermedia systems

This paper presents a taxonomy for open hypermedia systems. The purpose of the Flagl taxonomy is manifold: (1) to provide a framework to classify and concisely describe individual systems, (2) to characterize what an open hypermedia system is, (3) to provide a framework for comparing different systems in a system independent way, and (4) to provide an overview of the

Kasper Østerbye; Uffe Kock Wiil

1996-01-01

240

The density of states approach to dense quantum systems

We develop a first-principle generalised density of state method for studying numerically quantum field theories with a complex action. As a proof of concept, we show that with our approach we can solve numerically the strong sign problem of the $Z_3$ spin model at finite density. Our results are confirmed by standard simulations of the theory dual to the considered model, which is free from a sign problem. Our method opens new perspectives on ab initio simulations of cold dense quantum systems, and in particular of Yang-Mills theories with matter at finite densities, for which Monte Carlo based importance sampling are unable to produce sufficiently accurate results.

Kurt Langfeld; Biagio Lucini

2014-04-28

241

Quantum Lie Systems and Integrability Conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of Lie systems has recently been applied to Quantum Mechanics and additionally some integrability conditions for Lie systems of differential equations have also recently been analysed from a geometric perspective. In this paper we use both developments to obtain a geometric theory of integrability in Quantum Mechanics and we use it to provide a series of non-trivial integrable quantum mechanical models and to recover some known results from our unifying point of view.

Cariñena, José F.; de Lucas, Javier

242

Predictive Information for Quantum Bio-Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the evolution of a quantum bio-system that interacts with an external environment in a stochastic manner. We ask an important question: when can a bio-system be more predictive to a changing environment? We prove that the non-predictive information for a driven quantum bio-system is lower bounded by the change in the quantum correlation and upper bounded by the entropy production in the system and the environment. We argue that for a system to have more predictive information, it must retain the quantum correlation. This shows that at a fundamental level if a biological system has to be energetically efficient, it must minimize the loss of quantum correlation.

Pati, Arun Kumar

2014-07-01

243

Nematic valley ordering in quantum Hall systems

The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken ``internal'' symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. Here we develop a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue

D. A. Abanin; S. A. Parameswaran; S. A. Kivelson; S. L. Sondhi

2010-01-01

244

Parameterizing density matrices for composite quantum systems

A parametrization of density operators for bipartite quantum systems is proposed. It is based on the particular parametrization of the unitary group found recently by Jarlskog. It is expected that this parametrization will find interesting applications in the study of quantum properties of many partite systems.

Erwin Bruening; Dariusz Chruscinski; Francesco Petruccione

2008-10-14

245

Avoiding dissipation in a system of three quantum harmonic oscillators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the symmetries in an open quantum system composed by three coupled and detuned harmonic oscillators in the presence of a common heat bath. It is shown analytically how to engineer the couplings and frequencies of the system so as to have several degrees of freedom unaffected by decoherence, irrespective of the specific spectral density or initial state of the bath. This partial thermalization allows observing asymptotic entanglement at moderate temperatures, even in the nonresonant case. This latter feature cannot be seen in the simpler situation of only two oscillators, highlighting the richer structural variety of the three-body case. When departing from the strict conditions for partial thermalization, a hierarchical structure of dissipation rates for the normal modes is observed, leading to a long transient where quantum correlations such as the quantum discord are largely preserved, as well as to synchronous dynamics of the oscillators quadratures.

Manzano, Gonzalo; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta

2013-03-01

246

Dynamic control of plasmon generation by an individual quantum system.

Controlling light on the nanoscale in a similar way as electric currents has the potential to revolutionize the exchange and processing of information. Although light can be guided on this scale by coupling it to plasmons, that is, collective electron oscillations in metals, their local electronic control remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that an individual quantum system is able to dynamically gate the electrical plasmon generation. Using a single molecule in a double tunnel barrier between two electrodes we show that this gating can be exploited to monitor fast changes of the quantum system itself and to realize a single-molecule plasmon-generating field-effect transistor operable in the gigahertz range. This opens new avenues toward atomic scale quantum interfaces bridging nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. PMID:25181332

Große, Christoph; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Froidevaux, Romain; Schramm, Frank; Ruben, Mario; Etzkorn, Markus; Schlickum, Uta; Kuhnke, Klaus; Kern, Klaus

2014-10-01

247

Non-Markovian theory of open systems in classical limit

A fully classical limit of the recently published quantum-classical approximation [A. A. Neufeld, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 2488 (2003)] is obtained and analyzed. The resulting kinetic equations are capable of describing the evolution of an open system on the entire time axis, including the short-time non-Markovian stage, and are valid beyond linear response regime. We have shown, that proceeding to

A. A. Neufeld; Biophysikalische Chemie

2004-01-01

248

Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.

Ciftja, Orion

2013-11-01

249

Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is \\

Bing Qi; Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Yi Zhao; Xiongfeng Ma; Kiyoshi Tamaki; Christine Chen; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2007-01-01

250

Slightly anharmonic systems in quantum optics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atom or many such atoms) interacting with a strong resonant quantum field. The approximate evolution operator for a quantum field case can be produced from the atomic evolution operator in an external classical field by a 'quantization prescription', passing the operator arguments to Wigner D-functions. Many important phenomena arising from the quantum nature of the field can be described by such a way.

Klimov, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Sergey M.

1995-01-01

251

The pointer basis and the feedback stabilization of quantum systems

The dynamics for an open quantum system can be `unravelled' in infinitely many ways, depending on how the environment is monitored, yielding different sorts of conditioned states, evolving stochastically. In the case of ideal monitoring these states are pure, and the set of states for a given monitoring forms a basis (which is overcomplete in general) for the system. It has been argued elsewhere [D. Atkins et~al., Europhys. Lett. 69, 163 (2005)] that the `pointer basis' as introduced by Zurek and Paz [Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1187(1993)], should be identified with the unravelling-induced basis which decoheres most slowly. Here we show the applicability of this concept of pointer basis to the problem of state stabilization for quantum systems. In particular we prove that for linear Gaussian quantum systems, if the feedback control is assumed to be strong compared to the decoherence of the pointer basis, then the system can be stabilized in one of the pointer basis states with a fidelity close to one (the infidelity varies inversely with the control strength). Moreover, the optimal unravelling for stabilizing the system (in any state) is that which induces the pointer basis. We illustrate these results with a model system: quantum Brownian motion. We show that even if the feedback control strength is comparable to the decoherence, the optimal unravelling still induces a basis very close to the pointer basis. However if the feedback control is weak compared to the decoherence, this is not the case.

L. Li; A. Chia; H. M. Wiseman

2014-07-18

252

Quantum discord for a two-parameter class of states in $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems

Quantum discord witnesses the nonclassicality of quantum states even when there is no entanglement in these quantum states. This type of quantum correlation also has some interesting and significant applications in quantum information processing. Quantum discord has been evaluated explicitly only for certain class of two-qubit states. We extend the previous studies to $2 \\otimes d$ quantum systems and derive an analytical expression for quantum discord for a two-parameter class of states for $d \\geq 3$. We compare quantum discord, classical correlation, and entanglement for qubit-qutrit systems to demonstrate that different measures of quantum correlation are not identical and conceptually different.

Mazhar Ali

2010-08-24

253

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that software-defined quantum communication provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.

Travis S. Humble; Ronald J. Sadlier

2014-03-13

254

The classical limit of quantum spin systems

We derive a classical integral representation for the partition function,ZQ, of a quantum spin system. With it we can obtain upper and lower bounds to the quantum free energy (or ground state energy) in terms of two classical free energies (or ground state energies). These bounds permit us to prove that when the spin angular momentumJ ? 8 (but after

Elliott H. Lieb

1973-01-01

255

Open system geometric phase based on system-reservoir joint state evolution

The geometric phase is of fundamental interest and plays an important role in quantum information processing. However, the definition and calculation of this phase for open systems remains a problem due to the lack of agreement on generalizations of the parallel transport condition to mixed state nonunity evolutions. Here we tackle this problem by associating the open system geometric phase with the parallel transport of the joint system-reservoir state. Our approach not only provides a way around the nonunitary evolution obstacle, but also sheds light on the relation between the geometric phase and the system-reservoir entanglement, which has not been investigated. Based on this approach, we calculate the geometric phase of different quantum systems subject to energy decay, showing that it is robust against decoherence, which is in distinct contrast with previous results.

Shi-Biao Zheng

2014-05-06

256

Avoiding irreversible dynamics in quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Devices that exploit laws of quantum physics offer revolutionary advances in computation and communication. However, building such devices presents an enormous challenge, since it would require technologies that go far beyond current capabilities. One of the main obstacles to building a quantum computer and devices needed for quantum communication is decoherence or noise that originates from the interaction between a quantum system and its environment, and which leads to the destruction of the fragile quantum information. Encoding into decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) provides an important strategy for combating decoherence effects in quantum systems and constitutes the focus of my dissertation. The theory of DFS relies on the existence of certain symmetries in the decoherence process, which allow some states of a quantum system to be completely decoupled from the environment and thus to experience no decoherence. In this thesis I describe various approaches to DFS that are developed in the current literature. Although the general idea behind various approaches to DFS is the same, I show that different mathematical definitions of DFS actually have different physical meaning. I provide a rigorous definition of DFS for every approach, explaining its physical meaning and relation to other definitions. I also examine the theory of DFS for Markovian systems. These are systems for which the environment has no memory, i.e., any change in the environment affects the quantum system instantaneously. Examples of such systems include many systems in quantum optics that have been proposed for implementation of a quantum computer, such as atomic and molecular gases, trapped ions, and quantum dots. Here I develop a rigorous theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of DFS. This theory allows us to identify a special new class of DFS that was not known before. Under particular circumstances, dynamics of a quantum system can connive together with the interactions between the system and its environment in a special way to reduce decoherence. This property is used to discover new DFS that rely on rather counterintuitive phenomenon, which I call an "incoherent generation of coherences." I also provide examples of physical systems that support such states. These DFS can be used to suppress & coherence, but may not be sufficient for performing full quantum computation. I also explore the possibility of physically generating the DFS that are useful for quantum computation. For quantum computation we need to preserve at least two quantum states to encode the quantum analogue of classical bits. Here I aim to generate DFS in a system composed from a large collection of atoms or molecules and I need to determine how one should position atoms or molecules in 3D space so that the overall system possesses a DFS with at least two states (i.e., non-trivial DFS). I show that for many Markovian systems, non-trivial DFS can exist only when particles are located in exactly the same position in space. This, of course, is not possible in the real world. For these systems, I also show that states in DFS are states with infinite lifetime. However, for all practical applications we just need long-lived states. Thus in reality, we do just need to bring quantum particles close together to generate an imperfect DFS, i.e. a collection of long-lived states. This can be achieved, for example, for atoms within a single molecule.

Karasik, Raisa Iosifovna

257

Uniquely defined geometric phase of an open system

Various types of unravelings of Lindblad master equation have been used to define the geometric phase for an open quantum system. Approaches of this type were criticized for lacking in unitary symmetry of the Lindblad equation [A. Bassi and E. Ippoliti, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062104 (2006)]. We utilize quantum state diffusion (QSD) approach to demonstrate that a geometric phase invariant on the symmetries of the Lindblad equation can be defined. It is then shown that such a definition of the geometric phase could be either invariant on the decomposition of the initial mixed state or gauge invariant, but not both. This alternative is inherent to the definitions based on quantum trajectories. The QSD geometric phase is computed for a qubit in different types of environments.

Buric, Nikola; Radonjic, Milan [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 68, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

2009-07-15

258

Thermalization in closed quantum systems: Semiclassical approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermalization in closed quantum systems can be understood either by means of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis or the concept of canonical typicality. Both concepts are based on quantum-mechanical formalism, such as spectral properties of the eigenstates or entanglement between subsystems, respectively. Here we study instead the onset of thermalization of Bose particles in a two-band double-well potential using the truncated Wigner approximation. This allows us to use the familiar classical formalism to understand quantum thermalization in this system. In particular, we demonstrate that sampling of an initial quantum state mimics a statistical mechanical ensemble, while subsequent chaotic classical evolution turns the initial quantum state into the thermal state.

Cosme, J. G.; Fialko, O.

2014-11-01

259

78 FR 11988 - Open Video Systems

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...47 CFR Part 76 [CS Docket No. 96-46, FCC 96-334] Open Video Systems AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...The final rules modified rules and policies concerning Open Video Systems. DATES: The amendments to 47 CFR 76.1505(d)...

2013-02-21

260

Optimal Lyapunov-based quantum control for quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Lyapunov control was developed in order to transform a quantum system from arbitrary initial states to a target state. The idea is to find control fields that steer the Lyapunov function to zero as t??, meanwhile the quantum system is driven to the target state. In order to shorten the time required to reach the target state, we propose two designs to optimize Lyapunov control in this paper. The first design makes the Lyapunov function decrease as fast as possible with a constraint on the total power of control fields, and the second design has the same purpose but with a constraint on each control field. Examples of a three-level system demonstrate that the evolution time for Lyapunov control can be significantly shortened, especially when high control fidelity is required. Besides, this optimal Lyapunov-based quantum control is robust against uncertainties in the free Hamiltonian and decoherence in the system compared to conventional Lyapunov control. We apply our optimal design to cool a nanomechanical resonator where a shorter cooling time is found with respect to the cooling time by the conventional Lyapunov design.

Hou, S. C.; Khan, M. A.; Yi, X. X.; Dong, Daoyi; Petersen, Ian R.

2012-08-01

261

Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)

Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg

1994-01-01

262

Black Holes and Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems

We describe black holes in d+3 dimensions, whose thermodynamic properties correspond to those of a scale-invariant nonrelativistic (d+1)-dimensional quantum system with a dynamical exponent z=2. The gravitational model ...

Nickel, Marcel Dominik Johannes

263

Quantum correlations in qutrit-qutrit systems under local quantum noise channels

Due to decoherence, realistic quantum systems inevitably interact with the environment when quantum information is processed, which causes the loss of quantum properties. As a fundamental issue of quantum properties, quantum correlations have attracted a lot of interests in recent years. In this work, we study the quantum correlations affected by the Markovian environment by considering the quantum correlations of qutrit-qutrit quantum systems measured by the local quantum uncertainty. The local noise channels covered in this work includes dephasing, trit-flip, trit-phase-flip, and depolarising channels. We have also investigated the cases where the local decoherence channels of two sides are identical and non-identical.

Nasibollah Doustimotlagh; Jin-Liang Guo; Shuhao Wang

2014-07-25

264

Self-consistent projection operator theory for quantum many-body systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive an exact equation of motion for the reduced density matrices of individual subsystems of quantum many-body systems of any lattice dimension and arbitrary system size. Our projection operator based theory yields a highly efficient analytical and numerical approach. Besides its practical use it provides an interpretation and systematic extension of mean-field approaches and an adaption of open quantum systems theory to settings where a dynamically evolving environment has to be taken into account. We show its high accuracy for two significant classes of complex quantum many-body dynamics, unitary evolutions of nonequilibrium states in closed and stationary states in driven-dissipative systems.

Degenfeld-Schonburg, Peter; Hartmann, Michael J.

2014-06-01

265

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

266

Hybrid Impulsive Control for Closed Quantum Systems

The state transfer problem of a class of nonideal quantum systems is investigated. It is known that traditional Lyapunov methods may fail to guarantee convergence for the nonideal case. Hence, a hybrid impulsive control is proposed to accomplish a more accurate convergence. In particular, the largest invariant sets are explicitly characterized, and the convergence of quantum impulsive control systems is analyzed accordingly. Numerical simulation is also presented to demonstrate the improvement of the control performance. PMID:23781158

Sun, Jitao; Lin, Hai

2013-01-01

267

Open System Architecture design for planet surface systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Open System Architecture is an approach to meeting the needs for flexibility and evolution of the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative program of the manned exploration of the solar system and its permanent settlement. This paper investigates the issues that future activities of the planet exploration program must confront, defines the basic concepts that provide the basis for establishing an Open System Architecture, identifies the appropriate features of such an architecture, and discusses examples of Open System Architectures.

Petri, D. A.; Pieniazek, L. A.; Toups, L. D.

1992-01-01

268

Quantum electro-mechanical systems (QEMS)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a quantum description of a Quantum Electro-Mechanical System (QEMS) comprising a single quantum dot harmonically bound between two electrodes and facilitating a tunnelling current between them. An example of such a system is a fullerene molecule between two metal electrodes. The description is based on a quantum master equation for the density operator of the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom and thus incorporates the dynamics of both diagonal (population) and off diagonal (coherence) terms. We derive coupled equations of motion for the electron occupation number of the dot and the vibrational degrees of freedom, including damping of the vibration and thermo-mechanical noise, and give a semiclassical description of the dynamics under a variety of bias conditions. This dynamical description is related to observable features of the system including the stationary conductance as a function of bias voltage.

Utami, Dian W.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Milburn, Gerard J.

2004-04-01

269

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL

2014-01-01

270

Heavy quarkonia in a medium as a quantum dissipative system: Master equation approach

The problem of the evolution of a heavy quarkonium in a medium can be recast as that of a quantum dissipative system. Within the framework of the master-equation approach to open quantum systems, we consider the real-time dynamics of quarkonia. We find that in a plasma at fixed temperature, the populations of the various quarkonium states evolve together, while their momentum distribution satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation.

Borghini, Nicolas

2011-01-01

271

Heavy quarkonia in a medium as a quantum dissipative system: Master-equation approach

The problem of the evolution of a heavy quarkonium in a medium can be recast as that of a quantum dissipative system. Within the framework of the master-equation approach to open quantum systems, we consider the real-time dynamics of quarkonia. We find that in a plasma at fixed temperature, the populations of the various quarkonium states evolve together, while their momentum distribution satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation.

Nicolas Borghini; Clement Gombeaud

2011-09-20

272

Heavy quarkonia in a medium as a quantum dissipative system: master-equation approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the evolution of a heavy quarkonium in a medium can be recast as that of a quantum dissipative system. Within the framework of the master-equation approach to open quantum systems, we consider the real-time dynamics of quarkonia. We find that in a plasma at fixed temperature, the populations of the various quarkonium states evolve together, while their momentum distribution satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation.

Borghini, Nicolas; Gombeaud, Clément

2012-05-01

273

Open quantum systems are often encountered in many different physical situations. From quantum optics to statistical mechanics, they are fundamental in the understanding of a great variety of different phenomena. Some of the most common examples are the relaxation to equilibrium, the existence of nonequilibrium stationary states, and the dynamics of atoms in interaction with electromagnetic fields. A crucial step in the analysis is to consider the quantum open system and its environment as the two mutually interacting components of a larger isolated system. Thereafter, the so-called Markov approximation is often considered, which consists on assuming that the time scales associated to the dynamics of the quantum open system are larger than those of the environment. It is the interplay of the different time scales associated with the system and the environment what determines the validity of the different approximations made. In this paper we will discuss the dynamics of a open quantum system in contact with a reservoir when the Markov approximation is not valid, and we have to include some non-Markovian or memory effects.

Alonso, Daniel [Instituto Universitario de Estudios Avanzados (IUdEA) en Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Fotonica Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas. Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38203, Tenerife (Spain); Vega, Ines de [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann-Str, 1., 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-06-15

274

High speed quantum key distribution system

Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can generate unconditionally secure common key between remote users. Improvement of QKD performance, particularly on key generation rate, has been required to meet current network traffic. The present paper considers system requirement to improve key generation rate by increasing photon detection rate and reducing error rate. A high-speed QKD system should be equipped with low

Akihisa Tomita; Ken-Ichiro Yoshino; Yoshihiro Nambu; Akio Tajima; Akihiro Tanaka; Seigo Takahashi; Wakako Maeda; Shigehito Miki; Zhen Wang; Mikio Fujiwara; Masahide Sasaki

2010-01-01

275

Engineering coherent control of quantum information in spin systems

Quantum Information Processing (QIP) promises increased efficiency in computation. A key step in QIP is implementing quantum logic gates by engineering the dynamics of a quantum system. This thesis explores the requirements ...

Hodges, Jonathan Stuart

2007-01-01

276

Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz

Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz Karen J. Gordon, Veronica Fernandez, Gerald S-based quantum key distribution test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error. Zbinden, "Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug & play system," New J. Phys. 4, 41.1-41.8 (2002

Buller, Gerald S.

277

A General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control

We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-functions set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.

Gerardo A. Paz-Silva; Lorenza Viola

2014-08-17

278

Rapid mixing renders quantum dissipative systems stable

The physics of many materials is modeled by quantum many-body systems with local interactions. If the model of the system is sensitive to noise from the environment, or small perturbations to the original interactions, it will not model properly the robustness of the real physical system it aims to describe, or be useful when engineering novel systems for quantum information processing. We show that local observables and correlation functions of local Liouvillians are stable to local perturbations if the dynamics is rapidly mixing and has a unique fixed point. No other condition is required.

Angelo Lucia; Toby S. Cubitt; Spyridon Michalakis; David Pérez-García

2014-09-27

279

Strong local passivity in finite quantum systems.

Passive states of quantum systems are states from which no system energy can be extracted by any cyclic (unitary) process. Gibbs states of all temperatures are passive. Strong local (SL) passive states are defined to allow any general quantum operation, but the operation is required to be local, being applied only to a specific subsystem. Any mixture of eigenstates in a system-dependent neighborhood of a nondegenerate entangled ground state is found to be SL passive. In particular, Gibbs states are SL passive with respect to a subsystem only at or below a critical system-dependent temperature. SL passivity is associated in many-body systems with the presence of ground state entanglement in a way suggestive of collective quantum phenomena such as quantum phase transitions, superconductivity, and the quantum Hall effect. The presence of SL passivity is detailed for some simple spin systems where it is found that SL passivity is neither confined to systems of only a few particles nor limited to the near vicinity of the ground state. PMID:25122271

Frey, Michael; Funo, Ken; Hotta, Masahiro

2014-07-01

280

We formulate the general approach based on the Lindblad equation to calculate the full counting statistics of work and heat produced by driven quantum systems weakly coupled with a Markovian thermal bath. The approach can be applied to a wide class of dissipative quantum systems driven by an arbitrary force protocol. We show the validity of general fluctuation relations and consider several generic examples. The possibilities of using calorimetric measurements to test the presence of coherence and entanglement in the open quantum systems are discussed.

Mihail Silaev; Tero T. Heikkilä; Pauli Virtanen

2013-12-12

281

Hastening, delaying, or averting sudden death of quantum entanglement

. The fields of quantum computing, quantum cryptography and key distribution [3], and quantum teleportation [4 25 April 2008 PACS 03.67.-a Â Quantum information PACS 03.65.Yz Â Decoherence; open systems; quantum of quantum systems continues to fascinate and to shed new light onto the nature of our quantum world

282

Computational Studies of Quantum Spin Systems

These lecture notes introduce quantum spin systems and several computational methods for studying their ground-state and finite-temperature properties. Symmetry-breaking and critical phenomena are first discussed in the simpler setting of Monte Carlo studies of classical spin systems, to illustrate finite-size scaling at continuous and first-order phase transitions. Exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo (stochastic series expansion) algorithms and their computer implementations are then discussed in detail. Applications of the methods are illustrated by results for some of the most essential models in quantum magnetism, such as the S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in one and two dimensions, as well as extended models useful for studying quantum phase transitions between antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered states.

Anders W. Sandvik

2011-01-17

283

Non-Markovian theory of open systems in classical limit.

A fully classical limit of the recently published quantum-classical approximation [A. A. Neufeld, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 2488 (2003)] is obtained and analyzed. The resulting kinetic equations are capable of describing the evolution of an open system on the entire time axis, including the short-time non-Markovian stage, and are valid beyond linear response regime. We have shown, that proceeding to the classical mechanics limit we restrict the class of allowed correlations between an open system and a canonical bath, so that the initial conditions and the relaxation operator has to be appropriately modified (projected). Disregard of the projection may lead to unphysical behavior, since mechanism of the decay of some correlations is essentially of quantum-mechanical nature, and is not correctly described by classical mechanics. The projection (quantum correction to the kinetics) is particularly important for the non-Markovian regime of relaxation towards canonical equilibrium. The conformity of the developed method to the conventional approaches is demonstrated using a model of Brownian motion (heavy particle in the bath of light ones), for which the obtained non-Markovian equations are reduced to the standard Fokker-Planck equation in phase space. PMID:15281851

Neufeld, A A

2004-08-01

284

Light-cone-like spreading of correlations in a quantum many-body system.

In relativistic quantum field theory, information propagation is bounded by the speed of light. No such limit exists in the non-relativistic case, although in real physical systems, short-range interactions may be expected to restrict the propagation of information to finite velocities. The question of how fast correlations can spread in quantum many-body systems has been long studied. The existence of a maximal velocity, known as the Lieb-Robinson bound, has been shown theoretically to exist in several interacting many-body systems (for example, spins on a lattice)--such systems can be regarded as exhibiting an effective light cone that bounds the propagation speed of correlations. The existence of such a 'speed of light' has profound implications for condensed matter physics and quantum information, but has not been observed experimentally. Here we report the time-resolved detection of propagating correlations in an interacting quantum many-body system. By quenching a one-dimensional quantum gas in an optical lattice, we reveal how quasiparticle pairs transport correlations with a finite velocity across the system, resulting in an effective light cone for the quantum dynamics. Our results open perspectives for understanding the relaxation of closed quantum systems far from equilibrium, and for engineering the efficient quantum channels necessary for fast quantum computations. PMID:22281597

Cheneau, Marc; Barmettler, Peter; Poletti, Dario; Endres, Manuel; Schauss, Peter; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Kollath, Corinna; Kuhr, Stefan

2012-01-26

285

Experimental recovery of quantum correlations in absence of system-environment back-action

Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties. PMID:24287554

Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Guo, Guang-Can; Andersson, Erika; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

286

QUANTUM STOCHASTIC CALCULUS AND QUANTUM NONLINEAR FILTERING

QUANTUM STOCHASTIC CALCULUS AND QUANTUM NONLINEAR FILTERING V. P. BELAVKIN Abstract. A ?Âalgebraic inde...nite structure of quantum stochastic (QS) cal- culus is introduced and a continuity property...nitely dimensional nuclear space. The class of nondemolition output QS processes in quantum open systems

Belavkin, Viacheslav P.

287

Dynamics of Quantum Correlations in Two-Qubit Systems Within Non-Markovian Environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the dynamical behavior of correlations with no classical counterpart, like entanglement, nonlocal correlations and quantum discord, in open quantum systems is of primary interest because of the possibility to exploit these correlations for quantum information tasks. Here we review some of the most recent results on the dynamics of correlations in bipartite systems embedded in non-Markovian environments that, with their memory effects, influence in a relevant way the system dynamics and appear to be more fundamental than the Markovian ones for practical purposes. Firstly, we review the phenomenon of entanglement revivals in a two-qubit system for both independent environments and a common environment. We then consider the dynamics of quantum discord in non-Markovian dephasing channel and briefly discuss the occurrence of revivals of quantum correlations in classical environments.

Franco, Rosario Lo; Bellomo, Bruno; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Compagno, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

288

Dynamics of Quantum Correlations in Two-Qubit Systems Within Non-Markovian Environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the dynamical behavior of correlations with no classical counterpart, like entanglement, nonlocal correlations and quantum discord, in open quantum systems is of primary interest because of the possibility to exploit these correlations for quantum information tasks. Here we review some of the most recent results on the dynamics of correlations in bipartite systems embedded in non-Markovian environments that, with their memory effects, influence in a relevant way the system dynamics and appear to be more fundamental than the Markovian ones for practical purposes. Firstly, we review the phenomenon of entanglement revivals in a two-qubit system for both independent environments and a common environment. We then consider the dynamics of quantum discord in non-Markovian dephasing channel and briefly discuss the occurrence of revivals of quantum correlations in classical environments.

Franco, Rosario Lo; Bellomo, Bruno; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Compagno, Giuseppe

2012-05-01

289

Dynamics of quantum correlations in two-qubit systems within non-Markovian environments

Knowledge of the dynamical behavior of correlations with no classical counterpart, like entanglement, nonlocal correlations and quantum discord, in open quantum systems is of primary interest because of the possibility to exploit these correlations for quantum information tasks. Here we review some of the most recent results on the dynamics of correlations in bipartite systems embedded in non-Markovian environments that, with their memory effects, influence in a relevant way the system dynamics and appear to be more fundamental than the Markovian ones for practical purposes. Firstly, we review the phenomenon of entanglement revivals in a two-qubit system for both independent environments and a common environment. We then consider the dynamics of quantum discord in non-Markovian dephasing channel and briefly discuss the occurrence of revivals of quantum correlations in classical environments.

Rosario Lo Franco; Bruno Bellomo; Sabrina Maniscalco; Giuseppe Compagno

2012-05-29

290

Dynamics of quantum correlations in two-qubit systems within non-Markovian environments

Franco, Rosario Lo; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Compagno, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

291

Wide-open and scanning ESM systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison is conducted between open and scanning Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM) systems. Wide open ESM systems are generally known as high probability of intercept systems, while scanning systems have a higher sensitivity. The interception capability of the RF part of both types of systems is discussed. Two fundamentally different antenna types are currently employed in ESM systems, including the rotating beam type and the omnidirectional antenna. Antennas belonging to the rotating beam type can be divided into conventional rotating antennas and phased array antennas. The rotational antenna has a certain frequency-dependent gain due to its directivity. The omnidirectional antenna is mostly of the multibeam type. A number of separate antennas is employed to cover 360 deg in azimuth. Attention is given to narrow-band and broadband receivers, interception by the scanning system, and interception by the wide-open system.

van Nieuwenhuizen, E.

292

Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

2011-01-01

293

Mapping the Schrodinger picture of open quantum dynamics

For systems described by finite matrices, an affine form is developed for the maps that describe evolution of density matrices for a quantum system that interacts with another. This is established directly from the Heisenberg picture. It separates elements that depend only on the dynamics from those that depend on the state of the two systems. While the equivalent linear map is generally not completely positive, the homogeneous part of the affine maps is, and is shown to be composed of multiplication operations that come simply from the Hamiltonian for the larger system. The inhomogeneous part is shown to be zero if and only if the map does not increase the trace of the square of any density matrix. Properties are worked out in detail for two-qubit examples.

Thomas F. Jordan; Anil Shaji; E. C. G. Sudarshan

2005-05-16

294

Open Source Course Management and Assessment System

LON-CAPA: Open Source Course Management and Assessment System Gerd Kortemeyer Michigan State Assembly Course Management Resource Assembly Course Management #12;Campus A Campus B Resource Assembly Course Management Resource Assembly Course Management LON-CAPA Architecture Shared Cross

295

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent “quantumness” still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two “quantum witnesses” to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems. PMID:23185690

Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

2012-01-01

296

Phase diffusion in quantum dissipative systems

We study the dynamics of the quantum phase distribution associated with the reduced density matrix of a system for a number of situations of practical importance, as the system evolves under the influence of its environment, interacting via a quantum nondemolition type of coupling, such that there is decoherence without dissipation, as well as when it interacts via a dissipative interaction, resulting in decoherence as well as dissipation. The system is taken to be either a two-level atom (or, equivalently, a spin-1/2 system) or a harmonic oscillator, and the environment is modeled as a bath of harmonic oscillators, starting out in a squeezed thermal state. The impact of the different environmental parameters on the dynamics of the quantum phase distribution for the system starting out in various initial states is explicitly brought out. An interesting feature that emerges from our work is that the relationship between squeezing and temperature effects depends on the type of system-bath interaction. In the case of a quantum nondemolition type of interaction, squeezing and temperature work in tandem, producing a diffusive effect on the phase distribution. In contrast, in the case of a dissipative interaction, the influence of temperature can be counteracted by squeezing, which manifests as a resistance to randomization of phase. We make use of the phase distributions to bring out a notion of complementarity in atomic systems. We also study the variance of the phase using phase distributions conditioned on particular initial states of the system.

Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R. [Raman Research Institute, Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)]|[Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Devanahalli, Bangalore 562 110 (India)]|[Raman Research Institute, Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

2007-12-15

297

High Speed Quantum Key Distribution System

Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can generate unconditionally secure common keys between remote users. Improvements of QKD performance, particularly in key generation rate, have been required to meet current network traffic. A high-speed QKD system should be equipped with low-loss receivers with high visibility, highly efficient photon detectors with small dark count probability. A solution to these issues is to

Akio Tajima; Akihiro Tanaka; Seigo Takahashi; Ken-Ichiro Yoshino; Yoshihiro Nambu

2010-01-01

298

Open systems ADA technology demonstration program

On 20 March, 1997 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (now Boeing), and NAWC-China Lake conducted a demonstration flight as part of the Open Systems Ada Technology (OSAT) program, co-sponsored by the Ada Joint Program Office, the Open Systems Joint Task Force, and the Joint Strike Fighter Program Office. The flight, of a specially modified AV-8B Harrier, accomplished several key objectives: first known

D. C. Winter; B. D. Rest

1997-01-01

299

Open systems Ada technology demonstration program

On 20 March 1997 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (now Boeing), and NAWC-China Lake conducted a demonstration flight as part of the Open Systems Ada Technology (OSAT) program, co-sponsored by the Ada Joint Program Office, the Open Systems Joint Task Force, and the Joint Strike Fighter Program Office. The flight, of a specially modified AV-8B Harrier, accomplished several key objectives: (1) first

Don C Winter

1999-01-01

300

Portable open-path chemical sensor using a quantum cascade laser

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of enemy installations or their movements by trace gas detection is a critical but challenging military objective. Open path measurements over ranges of a few meters to many kilometers with sensitivity in the parts per million or billion regime are crucial in anticipating the presence of a threat. Previous approaches to detect ground level chemical plumes, explosive constituents, or combustion have relied on low-resolution, short range Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), or low-sensitivity near-infrared differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). As mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources have improved in cost and performance, systems based on QCL's that can be tailored to monitor multiple chemical species in real time are becoming a viable alternative. We present the design of a portable, high-resolution, multi-kilometer open path trace gas sensor based on QCL technology. Using a tunable (1045-1047cm-1) QCL, a modeled atmosphere and link-budget analysis with commercial component specifications, we show that with this approach, accuracy in parts per billion ozone or ammonia can be obtained in seconds at path lengths up to 10 km. We have assembled an open-path QCL sensor based on this theoretical approach at City College of New York, and we present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of QCLs in open-path sensing applications.

Corrigan, Paul; Lwin, Maung; Huntley, Reuven; Chhabra, Amandeep; Moshary, Fred; Gross, Barry; Ahmed, Samir

2009-05-01

301

Density of states approach to dense quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a first-principle generalized density-of-states method for numerically studying quantum field theories with a complex action. As a proof of concept, we show that with our approach we can numerically solve the strong sign problem of the Z3 spin model at finite density. Our results are confirmed by standard simulations of the theory dual to the considered model, which is free from a sign problem. Our method opens new perspectives on ab initio simulations of cold dense quantum systems, and in particular of Yang-Mills theories with matter at finite densities, for which Monte Carlo-based importance sampling is unable to produce sufficiently accurate results.

Langfeld, Kurt; Lucini, Biagio

2014-11-01

302

Charge transport in a quantum electromechanical system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a quantum electromechanical system comprising a single quantum dot harmonically bound between two electrodes and facilitating a tunneling current between them. An example of such a system is a fullerene molecule between two metal electrodes [Park , Nature 407, 57 (2000)]. The description is based on a quantum master equation for the density operator of the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom and thus incorporates the dynamics of both diagonal (population) and off diagonal (coherence) terms. We derive coupled equations of motion for the electron occupation number of the dot and the vibrational degrees of freedom, including damping of the vibration and thermo-mechanical noise. This dynamical description is related to observable features of the system including the stationary current as a function of bias voltage.

Utami, D. Wahyu; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Milburn, G. J.

2004-08-01

303

Heisenberg Picture Approach to the Stability of Quantum Markov Systems

Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.

Yu Pan; Hadis Amini; Zibo Miao; John Gough; Valery Ugrinovskii; Matthew R. James

2014-05-27

304

Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.

Pan, Yu; Amini, Hadis; Miao, Zibo; Gough, John; Ugrinovskii, Valery; James, Matthew R.

2014-06-01

305

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes superior compared to digital computers. The idea was that since computations in quantum physics require

Kalai, Gil

306

Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between a quantum emitter and a single radiation-field mode. When an atom is strongly coupled to a cavity mode, it is possible to realize important quantum information processing tasks, such as controlled coherent coupling and entanglement of distinguishable quantum systems. Realizing these tasks in the solid state is clearly desirable, and coupling semiconductor

K. Hennessy; A. Badolato; M. Winger; D. Gerace; M. Atatüre; S. Gulde; S. Fält; E. L. Hu; A. Imamoglu

2007-01-01

307

Synchro-thermalization of composite quantum system

We study the thermalization of a composite quantum system consisting of several subsystems, where only a small one of the subsystem contacts with a heat bath in equilibrium, while the rest of the composite system is contact free. We show that the whole composite system still can be thermalized after a relaxation time long enough, if the energy level structure of the composite system is connected, which means any two energy levels of the composite system can be connected by direct or indirect quantum transitions. With an example where an multi-level system interacts with a set of harmonic oscillators via non-demolition coupling, we find that the speed of relaxation to the global thermal state is suppressed by the multi-Franck-Condon factor due to the displacements of the Fock states when the degrees of freedom is large.

Sheng-Wen Li; D. Z. Xu; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

2014-03-21

308

Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems

We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process. Finally, we look at a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviation occurs once the pump mode (black hole) has released nearly half of its initial energy in the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.

Paul D. Nation

2010-09-16

309

Lyapunov Control of Quantum Systems with Impulsive Control Fields

We investigate the Lyapunov control of finite-dimensional quantum systems with impulsive control fields, where the studied quantum systems are governed by the Schrödinger equation. By three different Lyapunov functions and the invariant principle of impulsive systems, we study the convergence of quantum systems with impulsive control fields and propose new results for the mentioned quantum systems in the form of sufficient conditions. Two numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. PMID:23766712

Yang, Wei; Sun, Jitao

2013-01-01

310

Open Quantum Dynamics Calculations with the Hierarchy Equations of Motion on Parallel Computers.

Calculating the evolution of an open quantum system, i.e., a system in contact with a thermal environment, has presented a theoretical and computational challenge for many years. With the advent of supercomputers containing large amounts of memory and many processors, the computational challenge posed by the previously intractable theoretical models can now be addressed. The hierarchy equations of motion present one such model and offer a powerful method that remained under-utilized so far due to its considerable computational expense. By exploiting concurrent processing on parallel computers the hierarchy equations of motion can be applied to biological-scale systems. Herein we introduce the quantum dynamics software PHI, that solves the hierarchical equations of motion. We describe the integrator employed by PHI and demonstrate PHI's scaling and efficiency running on large parallel computers by applying the software to the calculation of inter-complex excitation transfer between the light harvesting complexes 1 and 2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria, a 50 pigment system. PMID:23105920

Strümpfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus

2012-08-14

311

Connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems

A connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems assesses the feasibility of a field existing that can transfer at least some amplitude between any specified pair of states. Although Hamiltonians with special structure or symmetry may not produce full connectivity, it is argued and demonstrated that virtually any Hamiltonian is expected to be connected. The connectivity of any particular system is generally revealed in the quantum evolution over a single or at most a few time steps. A connectivity analysis is inexpensive to perform and it can also identify statistically significant intermediate states linking a specified initial and final state. These points are illustrated with several simple systems. The likelihood of an arbitrary system being connected implies that at least some product yield can be expected in the laboratory for virtually all systems subjected to a suitable control.

Wu Rong; Rabitz, Herschel; Turinici, Gabriel; Sola, Ignacio [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); INRIA Rocquencourt, Domaine de Voluceau, Rocquencourt B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2004-11-01

312

Chaotic behavior of the Compound Nucleus, open Quantum Dots and other nanostructures

It is well established that physical systems exhibit both ordered and chaotic behavior. The chaotic behavior of nanostructure such as open quantum dots has been confirmed experimentally and discussed exhaustively theoretically. This is manifested through random fluctuations in the electronic conductance. What useful information can be extracted from this noise in the conductance? In this contribution we shall address this question. In particular, we will show that the average maxima density in the conductance is directly related to the correlation function whose characteristic width is a measure of energy- or applied magnetic field- correlation length. The idea behind the above has been originally discovered in the context of the atomic nucleus, a mesoscopic system. Our findings are directly applicable to graphene.

M. S. Hussein; J. G. G. S Ramos

2014-03-07

313

Chaotic behavior of the Compound Nucleus, open Quantum Dots and other nanostructures

It is well established that physical systems exhibit both ordered and chaotic behavior. The chaotic behavior of nanostructure such as open quantum dots has been confirmed experimentally and discussed exhaustively theoretically. This is manifested through random fluctuations in the electronic conductance. What useful information can be extracted from this noise in the conductance? In this contribution we shall address this question. In particular, we will show that the average maxima density in the conductance is directly related to the correlation function whose characteristic width is a measure of energy- or applied magnetic field- correlation length. The idea behind the above has been originally discovered in the context of the atomic nucleus, a mesoscopic system. Our findings are directly applicable to graphene.

Hussein, M S

2014-01-01

314

Quantum information processing in multi-spin systems

Coherence and entanglement in multi-spin systems are valuable resources for quantum information processing. In this thesis, I explore the manipulation of quantum information in complex multi-spin systems, with particular ...

Cappellaro, Paola

2006-01-01

315

Coherent control in simple quantum systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

Prants, Sergey V.

1995-01-01

316

Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System

A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.

A. Leviatan

2006-12-05

317

Quantum dynamics of biological systems and dust plasma nanoparticles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum solution of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with convection and linear diffusion is obtained which can provide the basis for the quantum biology and quantum microphysics equation. On this basis, quantum emission of biological systems, separate microorganisms (cells or bacteria), and dust plasma particles is investigated.

Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.

2012-12-01

318

This paper explains some fundamental ideas of {\\em feedback} control of quantum systems through the study of a relatively simple two-level system coupled to optical field channels. The model for this system includes both continuous and impulsive dynamics. Topics covered in this paper include open and closed loop control, impulsive control, optimal control, quantum filtering, quantum feedback networks, and coherent feedback control.

Matthew James

2014-06-20

319

Free-space quantum key distribution system with multi-photon quantum signal

We present a multi-photon scheme to improve the efficiency of free-space quantum key distribution system. Two essential features of free-space quantum key distribution system are its classical timing pulses and frequency tracking devices, we make use of these two features to design a new type of quantum key distribution system with multi-photon quantum signals and synchronously delayed classical signals. This

Li Yang; Jiwu Jing

2005-01-01

320

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. I. Quantum registers and quantum gates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, quantum computations and the study of n-qubit quantum systems have attracted a lot of interest, both in theory and experiment. Apart from the promise of performing quantum computations, however, these investigations also revealed a great deal of difficulties which still need to be solved in practice. In quantum computing, unitary and non-unitary quantum operations act on a given set of qubits to form (entangled) states, in which the information is encoded by the overall system often referred to as quantum registers. To facilitate the simulation of such n-qubit quantum systems, we present the FEYNMAN program to provide all necessary tools in order to define and to deal with quantum registers and quantum operations. Although the present version of the program is restricted to unitary transformations, it equally supports—whenever possible—the representation of the quantum registers both, in terms of their state vectors and density matrices. In addition to the composition of two or more quantum registers, moreover, the program also supports their decomposition into various parts by applying the partial trace operation and the concept of the reduced density matrix. Using an interactive design within the framework of MAPLE, therefore, we expect the FEYNMAN program to be helpful not only for teaching the basic elements of quantum computing but also for studying their physical realization in the future. Program summaryTitle of program:FEYNMAN Catalogue number:ADWE Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed:All computers with a license of the computer algebra system MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterlo Maple Inc.] Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, MS Windows XP Programming language used:MAPLE 9.5 (but should be compatible with 9.0 and 8.0, too) Memory and time required to execute with typical data:Storage and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits, n, in the quantum registers due to the exponential increase of the associated Hilbert space. In particular, complex algebraic operations may require large amounts of memory even for small qubit numbers. However, most of the standard commands (see Section 4 for simple examples) react promptly for up to five qubits on a normal single-processor machine ( ?1GHz with 512 MB memory) and use less than 10 MB memory. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8864 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 493 182 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:During the last decade, quantum computing has been found to provide a revolutionary new form of computation. The algorithms by Shor [P.W. Shor, SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 26 (1997) 1484] and Grover [L.K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 325. [2

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2005-12-01

321

Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system.

The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792

Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J; Saito, Shiro

2014-01-01

322

Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system

The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792

Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsuss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro

2014-01-01

323

A quantum dynamics study of the benzopyran ring opening guided by laser pulses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-opening photoisomerization of benzopyran, which occurs via a photochemical route involving a conical intersection, has been studied with quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method (MCTDH). We introduce a mechanistic strategy to control the conversion of benzopyran to merocyanine with laser pulses. We use a six-dimensional model developed in a previous work for the potential energy surfaces (PES) based on an extension of the vibronic-coupling Hamiltonian model (diabatization method by ansatz), which depends on the most active degrees of freedom. The main objective of these quantum dynamics simulations is to provide a set of strategies that could help experimentalists to control the photoreactivity vs. photostability ratio (selectivity). In this work we present: (i) a pump-dump technique used to control the photostability, (ii) a two-step strategy to enhance the reactivity of the system: first, a pure vibrational excitation in the electronic ground state that prepares the system and, second, an ultraviolet excitation that brings the system to the first adiabatic electronic state; (iii) finally the effect of a non-resonant pulse (Stark effect) on the dynamics.

Saab, Mohamad; Doriol, Loïc Joubert; Lasorne, Benjamin; Guérin, Stéphane; Gatti, Fabien

2014-10-01

324

Heat exchange mediated by a quantum system.

We consider heat transfer between two thermal reservoirs mediated by a quantum system using the generalized quantum Langevin equation. The thermal reservoirs are treated as ensembles of oscillators within the framework of the Drude-Ullersma model. General expressions for the heat current and thermal conductance are obtained for arbitrary coupling strength between the reservoirs and the mediator and for different temperature regimes. As an application of these results we discuss the origin of Fourier's law in a chain of large but finite subsystems coupled to each other by the quantum mediators. We also address a question of anomalously large heat current between the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and substrate found in a recent experiment. The question of minimum thermal conductivity is revisited in the framework of scaling theory as a potential application of the developed approach. PMID:23005731

Panasyuk, George Y; Levin, George A; Yerkes, Kirk L

2012-08-01

325

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

1998-03-24

326

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)

1998-01-01

327

Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura

, empirical results from simulation of the quantum competitive learning system on real-world data sets of the unique characteristics of quantum mechanical systems to achieve a prototype storage capacityImplementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura fonix corporation dventura

Martinez, Tony R.

328

Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura

, empirical results from simulation of the quantum competitive learning system on realÂworld data sets of the unique characteristics of quantum mechanical systems to achieve a prototype storage capacityImplementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura fonix corporation dventura

Martinez, Tony R.

329

Edge reconstructions in fractional quantum Hall systems.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two dimensional electron systems exhibiting fractional quantum Hall effects are characterized by a quantized Hall conductance and a dissipationless bulk. The transport in these systems occurs only at the edges where gapless excitations are possible [1]. We present a microscopic calculation of these egde-states at filling factors ?=1/3 and ?=2/5 using the Hamiltonian theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect [2]. We find that the quantum Hall egde undergoes a reconstruction as the confining potential, produced by the background charge density, softens [3,4]. Our results have implications to the tunneling experiments into the edge of a fractional quantum Hall system [5]. 1: X. G.Wen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2206 (1990). 2: R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997). 3: C. de C. Chamon and X. G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8227 (1994). 4: X. Wan, K. Yang, and E. H. Razayi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 056802 (2002). 5: A.M.Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 143 (2000).

Joglekar, Yogesh; Nguyen, Hoang; Murthy, Ganpathy

2003-03-01

330

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti

Cui, Ping

331

Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems

A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.

G. Van Hooydonk

2005-12-03

332

Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems

General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.

Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

333

Variational Functions in Open Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks for an entropy-like quantity having a monotonic time development. In the case of spontaneous emission, the final state usually consists of a single ground state assigning zero to the ordinary expressions for entropy. Thus entropy ceases to be a monotonic measure of the direction of time. The point is illustrated by a simple test case consisting of three levels coupled by spontaneous emission. It is shown how this case allows the definition of a monotonic function. Using the theory of non-Hermitian operators, the paper shows how such a function may be constructed in the general case, and it explores the main consequences of the expressions suggested. The generalization of the entropy concept is found to relate to time-reversal properties of the dynamics. The paper concludes by discussing open questions and possible further explorations.

Stenholm, Stig

2002-12-01

334

Open Hardware for CERN's accelerator control systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerator control systems at CERN will be upgraded and many electronics modules such as analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules are being redesigned. The new developments are based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card, PCI Express and VME64x standards while the Wishbone specification is used as a system on a chip bus. To attract partners, the projects are developed in an `Open' fashion. Within this Open Hardware project new ways of working with industry are being evaluated and it has been proven that industry can be involved at all stages, from design to production and support.

van der Bij, E.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.; Cattin, M.; Gousiou, E.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Boccardi, A.; Voumard, N.; Penacoba, G.

2012-01-01

335

We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.

E. Mascarenhas; B. Marques; D. Cavalcanti; M. Terra Cunha; M. Fran\\cca Santos

2010-02-02

336

Thermalization of field driven quantum systems

There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404

Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.

2014-01-01

337

Thermalization of field driven quantum systems

There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i-iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role.

H. Fotso; K. Mikelsons; J. K. freericks

2013-10-31

338

The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.

Huang, Liang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Lai Yingcheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Center for Solid State Electronics Research, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Akis, Richard [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Center for Solid State Electronics Research, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2009-07-31

339

Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems

We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.

Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F

2011-01-01

340

Mesoscopic systems: classical irreversibility and quantum coherence.

Mesoscopic physics is a sub-discipline of condensed-matter physics that focuses on the properties of solids in a size range intermediate between bulk matter and individual atoms. In particular, it is characteristic of a domain where a certain number of interacting objects can easily be tuned between classical and quantum regimes, thus enabling studies at the border of the two. In magnetism, such a tuning was first realized with large-spin magnetic molecules called single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with archetype Mn(12)-ac. In general, the mesoscopic scale can be relatively large (e.g. micrometre-sized superconducting circuits), but, in magnetism, it is much smaller and can reach the atomic scale with rare earth (RE) ions. In all cases, it is shown how quantum relaxation can drastically reduce classical irreversibility. Taking the example of mesoscopic spin systems, the origin of irreversibility is discussed on the basis of the Landau-Zener model. A classical counterpart of this model is described enabling, in particular, intuitive understanding of most aspects of quantum spin dynamics. The spin dynamics of mesoscopic spin systems (SMM or RE systems) becomes coherent if they are well isolated. The study of the damping of their Rabi oscillations gives access to most relevant decoherence mechanisms by different environmental baths, including the electromagnetic bath of microwave excitation. This type of decoherence, clearly seen with spin systems, is easily recovered in quantum simulations. It is also observed with other types of qubits such as a single spin in a quantum dot or a superconducting loop, despite the presence of other competitive decoherence mechanisms. As in the molecular magnet V(15), the leading decoherence terms of superconducting qubits seem to be associated with a non-Markovian channel in which short-living entanglements with distributions of two-level systems (nuclear spins, impurity spins and/or charges) leading to 1/f noise induce ?(1)-like relaxation of S(z) with dissipation to the bath of two-level systems with which they interact most. Finally, let us mention that these experiments on quantum oscillations are, most of the time, performed in the classical regime of Rabi oscillations, suggesting that decoherence mechanisms might also be treated classically. PMID:22908339

Barbara, Bernard

2012-09-28

341

Quantum Systems on Linear Groups

Discussed are quantized dynamical systems on orthogonal and affine groups. The special stress is laid on geodetic systems with affinely-invariant kinetic energy operators. The resulting formulas show that such models may be useful in nuclear and hadronic dynamics. They differ from traditional Bohr-Mottelson models where SL$(n,\\mathbb{R})$ is used as a so-called non-invariance group. There is an interesting relationship between classical and quantized integrable lattices.

J. J. S?awianowski

2008-02-21

342

Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence in Finite Dimensional Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

Girolami, Davide

2014-10-01

343

Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.

Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d^{2}) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903

Girolami, Davide

2014-10-24

344

Compositional Modeling of Reactive Systems Using Open Nets

In order to model the behaviour of open concurrent systems by means of Petri nets, we introduce open Petri nets, a generalization of the ordinary model where some places, designated as open, represent an interface of the system towards the environment. Besides generalizing the token game to reflect this extension, we define a truly concurrent semantics for open nets by

Paolo Baldan; Andrea Corradini; Hartmut Ehrig; Reiko Heckel

2001-01-01

345

A minimal coupling method for dissipative quantum systems

Quantum dynamics of a general dissipative system investigated by its coupling to a Klein-Gordon type field as the environment by introducing a minimal coupling method. As an example, the quantum dynamics of a damped three dimensional harmonic oscillator investigated and some transition probabilities indicating the way energy flows between the subsystems obtained. The quantum dynamics of a dissipative two level system considered.

F. Kheirandish; A. Amooshahi

2005-07-20

346

Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz

An improved quantum key distribution test system operating at clock rates of up to 2GHz using a specially adapted commercially-available silicon single-photon counting module is presented. The use of an enhanced detector has improved the fiber-based quantum key distribution test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error rate.

Karen J. Gordon; Veronica Fernandez; Gerald S. Buller; Ivan Rech; Sergio D. Cova; Paul D. Townsend

2005-01-01

347

QUBIT-RESONATOR SYSTEM AS AN APPLICATION TO QUANTUM COMPUTATION

QUBIT-RESONATOR SYSTEM AS AN APPLICATION TO QUANTUM COMPUTATION Ren-Shou Huang Submitted #12;Abstract Ren-Shou Huang Qubit-Resonator System as an Application to Quantum Computation The recent development of quantum computation has inspired lots of interesting ideas in a variety of fields

348

Orbits of hybrid systems as qualitative indicators of quantum dynamics

Hamiltonian theory of hybrid quantum-classical systems is used to study dynamics of the classical subsystem coupled to different types of quantum systems. It is shown that the qualitative properties of orbits of the classical subsystem clearly indicate if the quantum subsystem does or does not have additional conserved observables.

N. Buric; D. B. Popovic; M. Radonjic; S. Prvanovic

2014-03-03

349

Data Architecture in an Open Systems Environment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual basis for structured data architecture, and its integration with open systems technology at Indiana University, are described. Key strategic goals guiding these efforts are discussed: commitment to improved data access; migration to relational database technology, and deployment of a high-speed, multiprotocol network; and…

Bernbom, Gerald; Cromwell, Dennis

1993-01-01

350

Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system

Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate that these qudit unitary maps can be made robust to both static and dynamic perturbations. Potential applications include improved fault-tolerance in universal quantum computation, nonclassical state preparation for high-precision metrology, implementation of quantum simulations, and the study of fundamental physics related to open quantum systems and quantum chaos.

B. E. Anderson; H. Sosa-Martinez; C. A. Riofrío; I. H. Deutsch; P. S. Jessen

2014-10-14

351

Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system

We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.

Ryszard Tana?

2012-10-22

352

Quantum System Engineering (QSE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-page contains an FAQ offered by the quantum systems engineering group at the University of Washington. The FAQ provides some general information about the utility of quantum microscopy as well as magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM).

2005-11-21

353

On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems

The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.

Achuthan, P. [Department of Mathematics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India); Dept. of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 600 036 (India); Narayanankutty, Karuppath [Dept. of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India)

2009-07-02

354

An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox

This paper describes the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), an open source Matlab and GNU\\/Octave-based software package for analysis and design of small to medium size electric power systems. PSAT includes power flow, continuation power flow, optimal power flow, small-signal stability analysis, and time-domain simulation, as well as several static and dynamic models, including nonconventional loads, synchronous and asynchronous machines,

Federico Milano

2005-01-01

355

Classical and Quantum Chaos of Nonlinear Driven Systems.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the classical and quantum dynamics of several nonlinear systems is made. We are particularly interested in what happens in the quantum systems when the classical systems become chaotic. After a brief review of some important aspects of classical chaos in Hamiltonian systems, including the KAM theorem and Chirikov's resonance overlap criterion, we present results obtained from the study of the periodically kicked classical pendulum, the periodically and quasiperiodically kicked quantum pendulum, the quasiperiodically kicked two-state system, and the periodically and quasiperiodically driven classical and quantum Morse oscillator. We find that certain aspects of classical chaos are found in quantum systems. In particular we find decaying correlations of the state vector, broadband power spectra of the state vector, and diffuse energy growth in quasiperiodically kicked quantum systems. In addition we find that classical resonance overlap is a good indicator of the threshold field strength for dissociation for both the classical and quantum Morse oscillator and that the classical and quantum thresholds are in good agreement except near higher order classical resonances and quantum multiphoton transitions. We conclude that while quantum chaos may not exist in terms of exponential sensitivity of the state vector to initial conditions quantum systems can reflect in some ways the chaos of the corresponding classical system.

Goggin, Michael Edward

356

Energy absorption and dissipation in quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stemming from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, it is noted that any Hermitian form representing work done on a system yields a bounded expectation of energy. This expectation can be periodic, quasiperiodic or even chaotic. Such boundedness is unrealistic because energy may be added to or removed from the system. Thus, a complex non-Hermitian form is introduced into the Hamiltonian of a system which, when positive represents work being done on the system and gives an increasing energy expectation, and when negative represents a dissipation of energy from the system and gives a decreasing energy expectation. Two cases are studied. In the first, the perturbative term is purely time-dependent. In the second, it is also space-dependent. This latter case is applied to the kicked quantum rotor. A number of other applications of this formalism to systems of experimental and theoretical interest are noted.

Liboff, Richard L.; Porter, Mason A.

2004-08-01

357

Open Source Real Time Operating Systems Overview

Modern control systems applications are often built on top of a real time operating system (RTOS) which provides the necessary hardware abstraction as well as scheduling, networking and other services. Several open source RTOS solutions are publicly available, which is very attractive, both from an economic (no licensing fees) as well as from a technical (control over the source code) point of view. This contribution gives an overview of the RTLinux and RTEMS systems (architecture, development environment, API etc.). Both systems feature most popular CPUs, several APIs (including Posix), networking, portability and optional commercial support. Some performance figures are presented, focusing on interrupt latency and context switching delay.

Straumann, Till

2001-12-11

358

Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schrödinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. When the polymer length is small such corrections resemble those coming from the phenomenological generalized uncertainty relation approach based on the idea of the existence of a minimal length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity CV. In the case of the polymer oscillators this peak separates the vibrational and rotati onal regimes, while in the ideal polymer gas it reflects the band structure which allows the existence of negative temperatures.

Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Manrique, Elisa; Dagdug, Leonardo; Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.

2011-12-01

359

EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit QED. Another rapidly growing research field (although its origin can be traced to the beginning of the 1980s) is the quantum control of evolution at the microscopic level. These examples show that quantum non-stationary systems continue to be a living and very interesting part of quantum physics, uniting researchers from many different areas. Thus it is no mere chance that several special scientific meetings devoted to these topics have been organized recently. One was the international seminar 'Time-Dependent Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' organized by Manfred Kleber and Tobias Kramer in 2007 at Blaubeuren, Germany. The proceedings of that event were published in 2008 as volume 99 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Another recent meeting was the International Workshop on Quantum Non-Stationary Systems, held on 19-23 October 2009 at the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP) in Brasilia, Brazil. It was organized and directed by Victor Dodonov (Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, Brazil), Vladimir Man'ko (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) and Salomon Mizrahi (Physics Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil). This event was accompanied by a satellite workshop 'Quantum Dynamics in Optics and Matter', organized by Salomon Mizrahi and Victor Dodonov on 25-26 October 2009 at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. These two workshops, supported by the Brazilian federal agencies CAPES and CNPq and the local agencies FAP-DF and FAPESP, were attended by more than 120 participants from 16 countries. Almost 50 invited talks and 20 poster presentations covered a wide area of research in quantum mechanics, quantum optics and quantum information. This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta contains contributions presented by some invited speakers and participants of the workshop in Brasilia. Although they do not cover all of the wide spectrum of problems related to quantum non-stationary systems, they nonetheless show some general trends. However, readers should remember that thes

Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

2010-09-01

360

Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of quantum many-body systems is a notoriously hard problem in condensed matter physics, but it could easily be handled by a quantum computer [4,1]. There is however one catch: while a quantum computer can naturally implement the dynamics of a quantum system --- i.e. solve Schr"odinger's equation --- there was until now no general method to initialize the computer in a low-energy state of the simulated system. We present a quantum algorithm [5] that can prepare the ground state and thermal states of a quantum many-body system in a time proportional to the square-root of its Hilbert space dimension. This is the same scaling as required by the best known algorithm to prepare the ground state of a classical many-body system on a quantum computer [3,2]. This provides strong evidence that for a quantum computer, preparing the ground state of a quantum system is in the worst case no more difficult than preparing the ground state of a classical system. 1 D. Aharonov and A. Ta-Shma, Adiabatic quantum state generation and statistical zero knowledge, Proc. 35th Annual ACM Symp. on Theo. Comp., (2003), p. 20. F. Barahona, On the computational complexity of ising spin glass models, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen., 15 (1982), p. 3241. C. H. Bennett, E. Bernstein, G. Brassard, and U. Vazirani, Strengths and weaknessess of quantum computing, SIAM J. Comput., 26 (1997), pp. 1510--1523, quant-ph/9701001. S. Lloyd, Universal quantum simulators, Science, 273 (1996), pp. 1073--1078. D. Poulin and P. Wocjan, Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer, 2008, arXiv:0809.2705.

Poulin, David

2009-03-01

361

Dynamical Localization in Disordered Quantum Spin Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We say that a quantum spin system is dynamically localized if the time-evolution of local observables satisfies a zero-velocity Lieb-Robinson bound. In terms of this definition we have the following main results: First, for general systems with short range interactions, dynamical localization implies exponential decay of ground state correlations, up to an explicit correction. Second, the dynamical localization of random xy spin chains can be reduced to dynamical localization of an effective one-particle Hamiltonian. In particular, the isotropic xy chain in random exterior magnetic field is dynamically localized.

Hamza, Eman; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter

2012-10-01

362

Teaching the Environment to Control Quantum Systems

A non-equilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal non-equilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.

Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz

2006-09-12

363

Teaching the environment to control quantum systems

A nonequilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal nonequilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.

Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2006-06-15

364

Advanced Topic: Quasi-Hermitian Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, the discussion has limited itself to hermitian operators and systems. However, superficially non-hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems are also of considerable current interest, especially in the context of PT symmetric models [Ben07, Mos05], although many of the main ideas appeared earlier [SGH92, XA96]. For such systems, the Hilbert space structure is at first sight very different from that for hermitian Hamiltonian systems, inasmuch as the dual wavefunctions are not just the complex conjugates of the wavefunctions, or, equivalently, the Hilbert space metric is not the usual one. While it is possible to keep most of the compact Dirac notation in analyzing such systems, here we work with explicit functions and avoid abstract notation, in the hope to fully expose all the structure, rather than to hide it...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

365

Classical and Quantum Chaos of Nonlinear Driven Systems

A comparison of the classical and quantum dynamics of several nonlinear systems is made. We are particularly interested in what happens in the quantum systems when the classical systems become chaotic. After a brief review of some important aspects of classical chaos in Hamiltonian systems, including the KAM theorem and Chirikov's resonance overlap criterion, we present results obtained from the

Michael Edward Goggin

1988-01-01

366

Quantum key distribution system for metropolitan-area networks

Requirements and specifications of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are examined particularly for metropolitanarea networks. A design of QKD system is considered to satisfy the specifications. BB84 protocol with decoy method is chosen. The unidirectional system based on planer light wave circuit for high speed operation is proposed for quantum transmission. Issues on system control such as clock synchronization and

A. Tomita

2007-01-01

367

Some aspects of quantum entanglement for CAR systems

We study quantum entanglement for CAR systems. Since the subsystems of disjoint regions are not independent for CAR systems, there are some distinct features of quantum entanglement which cannot be observed in tensor product systems. We show the failure of triangle inequality of von Neumann and the possible increase of entanglement degree under operations done in a local region for a bipartite CAR system.

Hajime Moriya

2001-10-19

368

Quantum Rotational Effects in Nanomagnetic Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions. These transitions coincide in time with changes in the oscillator dynamics. A large number of spins on a single oscillator coupled only through the in-phase oscillations behaves as a single large spin, greatly enhancing the spin-phonon coupling.

O'Keeffe, Michael F.

369

Distance growth of quantum states due to initial system--environment correlations

Intriguing features of the distance between two arbitrary states of an open quantum system are identified that are induced by initial system-environment correlations. As an example, we analyze a qubit dephasingly coupled to a bosonic environment. Within tailored parameter regimes, initial correlations are shown to substantially increase a distance between two qubit states evolving to long-time limit states according to exact non-Markovian dynamics. It exemplifies the breakdown of the distance contractivity of the reduced dynamics.

J. Dajka; J. Luczka

2010-05-03

370

Optimal state estimation for d-dimensional quantum systems

We establish a connection between optimal quantum cloning and optimal state estimation for d-dimensional quantum systems. In this way we derive an upper limit on the fidelity of state estimation for d-dimensional pure quantum states and, furthermore, for generalized inputs supported on the symmetric subspace.

D. Bruss; C. Macchiavello

1998-12-07

371

Quantum trajectories in dissipative systems and dual spaces

Quantum trajectories computed via the de Broglie-Bohm -Madelung hydrodynamical model of quantum mechanics offer unique perspectives into the dynamics of a quantum mechanical system. Moreover, as evidenced by the other papers presented in this session, the approach offers an alternative computational strategy whereby collocation grid points \\

Eric Bittner

2001-01-01

372

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate the general approach based on the Lindblad equation to calculate the full counting statistics of work and heat produced by driven quantum systems weakly coupled with a Markovian thermal bath. The approach can be applied to a wide class of dissipative quantum systems driven by an arbitrary force protocol. We show the validity of general fluctuation relations and consider several generic examples. The possibilities of using calorimetric measurements to test the presence of coherence and entanglement in the open quantum systems are discussed.

Silaev, Mihail; Heikkilä, Tero T.; Virtanen, Pauli

2014-08-01

373

An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570

Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei

2013-01-01

374

Open-Path High Sensitivity Atmospheric Ammonia Sensing with a Quantum Cascade Laser Instrument

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric trace-gas sensing with quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy offers the potential for high sensitivity, fast, selective mid-infrared absorption measurements of atmospheric species such as ammonia (NH3). As the third most abundant nitrogen species and most gaseous base in the atmosphere, ammonia plays important roles in neutralizing acidic species and as a gas-phase precursor to ammoniated fine particulate matter. High precision gas phase measurements are necessary to constrain highly uncertain emission sources and sinks with implications for understanding how chemical components of fine particulate matter affect air quality and climate as well as nitrogen deposition to ecosystems. Conventional ammonia sensors employing chemical ionization, denuder or filter techniques are labor-intensive, not gas-selective and exhibit low time resolution. As an advantageous alternative to conventional measurement techniques, we develop an open-path quantum cascade laser-based ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 ?m for ground-based measurements. A continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled quantum cascade laser is used to perform wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy (WMS). Room-temperature, unattended operation with minimal surface adsorption effects due to the open-path configuration represent significant improvements over cryogenically cooled, closed path systems. The feasibility of a cylindrical mirror multi-pass optical cell for achieving long path lengths near 50 m in a compact design is also assessed. Meaningful ammonia measurements require fast sub-ppbv detection limits due to ammonia’s large dynamic range and temporal and spatial atmospheric variability. When fully developed, our instrument will achieve high time resolution (up to 10 Hz) measurements with ammonia detection limits in the 100 pptv range. Initial results include ambient laboratory ammonia detection at 58 ppbv relative to a 0.4% ammonia reference cell based on the WMS signal integrated area. We estimate a limit of detection based on our signal to noise ratio of ~400 pptv NH3. Non-cryogenic, unattended operation of this compact sensor offers the potential for applications in particulate matter gas-phase precursor monitoring networks. Future sensor measurements can also be utilized for evaluations of and data assimilation into air quality and aerosol forecast models of particular importance for regions where ammonia plays a critical role in fine particulate matter formation.

Miller, D. J.; Dirisu, A.; Rafferty, K.; Parkes, B.; Zondlo, M. A.

2009-12-01

375

Partitioning technique for discrete quantum systems

We develop the partitioning technique for quantum discrete systems. The graph consists of several subgraphs: a central graph and several branch graphs, with each branch graph being rooted by an individual node on the central one. We show that the effective Hamiltonian on the central graph can be constructed by adding additional potentials on the branch-root nodes, which generates the same result as does the the original Hamiltonian on the entire graph. Exactly solvable models are presented to demonstrate the main points of this paper.

Jin, L.; Song, Z. [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2011-06-15

376

Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology

Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of non-separable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.

F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; U. Marzolino

2014-03-05

377

Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology

Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of non-separable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.

Benatti, F; Marzolino, U

2014-01-01

378

Emergence and Computation at the Edge of Classical and Quantum Systems

The problem of emergence in physical theories makes necessary to build a general theory of the relationships between the observed system and the observing system. It can be shown that there exists a correspondence between classical systems and computational dynamics according to the Shannon-Turing model. A classical system is an informational closed system with respect to the observer; this characterizes the emergent processes in classical physics as phenomenological emergence. In quantum systems, the analysis based on the computation theory fails. It is here shown that a quantum system is an informational open system with respect to the observer and able to exhibit processes of observational, radical emergence. Finally, we take into consideration the role of computation in describing the physical world.

Ignazio Licata

2007-11-19

379

Spectra of nonlocally bound quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a class of nonlinear and nonlocal models for the dynamics of a composite quantum system. The models in question depend on the following constituents: on two subsystem Hamiltonians (denoted by H and ?), an analytic function ( f), and a real parameter ( s). As demonstrated elsewhere before, the stationary states can be described in these models fairly explicitly. In this article, we build upon that result, and discuss the topological as well as statistical characteristics of the spectra. Here, we concentrate on the special case f = log. It turns out that an energy spectrum of the nonlocally bound system substantially differs from that of its components. Indeed, we show rigorously that, if H is the harmonic oscillator and ? is completely degenerate with one energy level, then the energy spectrum of the composite system has the topology of the Cantor set (for s > 2). In addition, we show that, if H is replaced by the logarithm of the harmonic oscillator, then the spectrum consists of finitely many intervals separated by gaps (for s sufficiently large). In the last case, the key analytic object is the series ? n - s . In particular, as an interesting offshoot, this structure furnishes a nontautological immersion of fundamental number-theoretic functions into the quantum formalism.

Sowa, A.

2011-06-01

380

Control of non-controllable quantum systems: A quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration

A new notion of controllability, eigenstate controllability, is defined for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum mechanical systems which are neither strongly completely controllably nor completely controllable. And a quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration is designed to perform a quantum control task of steering a system, which is eigenstate controllable but may not be (strongly) completely controllable, from an arbitrary state to a target state.

Chen-Bin Zhang; Dao-Yi Dong; Zong-Hai Chen

2005-03-02

381

Elementary Excitations in Gapped Quantum Spin Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For quantum lattice systems with local interactions, the Lieb-Robinson bound serves as an alternative for the strict causality of relativistic systems and allows the proof of many interesting results, in particular, when the energy spectrum exhibits an energy gap. In this Letter, we show that for translation invariant systems, simultaneous eigenstates of energy and momentum with an eigenvalue that is separated from the rest of the spectrum in that momentum sector can be arbitrarily well approximated by building a momentum superposition of a local operator acting on the ground state. The error satisfies an exponential bound in the size of the support of the local operator, with a rate determined by the gap below and above the targeted eigenvalue. We show this explicitly for the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model and discuss generalizations and applications of our result.

Haegeman, Jutho; Michalakis, Spyridon; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Osborne, Tobias J.; Schuch, Norbert; Verstraete, Frank

2013-08-01

382

Statistical Mechanics of Quantum-Classical Systems with Holonomic Constraints

The statistical mechanics of quantum-classical systems with holonomic constraints is formulated rigorously by unifying the classical Dirac bracket and the quantum-classical bracket in matrix form. The resulting Dirac quantum-classical theory, which conserves the holonomic constraints exactly, is then used to formulate time evolution and statistical mechanics. The correct momentum-jump approximation for constrained system arises naturally from this formalism. Finally, in analogy with what was found in the classical case, it is shown that the rigorous linear response function of constrained quantum-classical systems contains non-trivial additional terms which are absent in the response of unconstrained systems.

Alessandro Sergi

2005-11-15

383

Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems

We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.

S. M. Giampaolo; G. Gualdi; A. Monras; F. Illuminati

2011-02-28

384

Critical issues in polarization encoded quantum key distribution systems

An analysis of the most critical issues in quantum key distribution systems with polarization encoded photons is presented. Effects like the fiber birefringence, fiber losses and some technical aspects can difficult the state of polarization control in such kind of systems, leading to an undesired quantum bit-error-rate increment. It is shown that a system with a long fiber, presenting a

Nelson J. Muga; Alvaro J. Almeida; Mario F. Ferreira; Armando N. Pinto

2011-01-01

385

Imaging a coupled quantum dot-quantum point contact system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have quantitatively studied the effect of charge traps on the electrical conductance of a quantum dot and a capacitively coupled quantum point contact. Using the sharp metallic tip of a low-temperature scanning force microscope as a scanned gate, we could localize the traps. The quantum point contact served as a charge detector and allowed us to distinguish single electron charging events in several traps from charging events on the dot. We used the quantum dot to analyze the tip-induced potential quantitatively and found its shape to be independent of the voltage applied to the tip within a certain range of parameters. We estimate that the trap density is below 0.1% of the doping density, that the charging energy of a trap is three times higher than that of the quantum dot, and that the interaction energy between the quantum dot and a trap is a significant portion of the dot's charging energy. Possibly, such charge traps are the reason for frequently observed parametric charge rearrangements.

Gildemeister, A. E.; Ihn, T.; Schleser, R.; Ensslin, K.; Driscoll, D. C.; Gossard, A. C.

2007-10-01

386

System of classical nonlinear oscillators as a coarse-grained quantum system

Constrained Hamiltonian dynamics of a quantum system of nonlinear oscillators is used to provide the mathematical formulation of a coarse-grained description of the quantum system. It is seen that the evolution of the coarse-grained system preserves constant and minimal quantum fluctuations of the fundamental observables. This leads to the emergence of the corresponding classical system on a sufficiently large scale.

Radonjc, Milan; Prvanovic, Slobodan; Buric, Nikola [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

2011-08-15

387

Quantum simulation. Coherent imaging spectroscopy of a quantum many-body spin system.

Quantum simulators, in which well-controlled quantum systems are used to reproduce the dynamics of less understood ones, have the potential to explore physics inaccessible to modeling with classical computers. However, checking the results of such simulations also becomes classically intractable as system sizes increase. Here, we introduce and implement a coherent imaging spectroscopic technique, akin to magnetic resonance imaging, to validate a quantum simulation. We use this method to determine the energy levels and interaction strengths of a fully connected quantum many-body system. Additionally, we directly measure the critical energy gap near a quantum phase transition. We expect this general technique to become a verification tool for quantum simulators once experiments advance beyond proof-of-principle demonstrations and exceed the resources of conventional computers. PMID:25061207

Senko, C; Smith, J; Richerme, P; Lee, A; Campbell, W C; Monroe, C

2014-07-25

388

Non-Markovianity criteria for open system dynamics

A universal definition of non-Markovianity for open systems dynamics is proposed. It is extended from the classical definition to the quantum realm by showing that a `transition' from the Markov to the non-Markov regime occurs when the correlations between the system and the environment, generated by their joint evolution, can no longer be neglected. The suggested definition is based on the comparison between measured correlation functions and those built by assuming that the system is in a Markov regime thus giving a figure of merit of the error coming from this assumption. It is shown that the knowledge of the dynamical map and initial condition of the system is not enough to fully characterise the non-Markovian dynamics of the reduced system. The example of three exactly solvable models, i.e. decoherence and spontaneous emission of the qubit in a bosonic bath and decoherence of the photon's polarization induced by interaction with its spacial degrees of freedom, reveals that previously proposed Markovianity criteria and measures which are based on dynamical map analysis fail to recognise non-Markov behaviour.

N. Lo Gullo; I. Sinayskiy; Th. Busch; F. Petruccione

2014-01-06

389

Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet

Lorenza Viola; David Tannor

2011-01-01

390

The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research

Ping Cui

2006-01-01

391

A Class of Quantum System with Random Perturbation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of colored Gaussian noise, the quantum correspondence of Power system and its chaos anti-control are investigated. Some properties about the quantum chaos and classical chaos of the system are analyzed by adding the colored Gaussian noise to the phase of the system. Firstly, the quantization method is used to analyze some properties about the quantum correspondence of the classical chaos Power system. Then, the macroscopic dynamic behavior of the perturbed Power system is investigated. In addition, by using the computer simulation, we plot the Poincaré map and phase portraits to detect whether the system is chaos or not.

Li, Longsuo; Cong, Xinrong

2013-06-01

392

Equivalence of the measures of non-Markovianity for open two-level systems

Different measures have been presented to depict the deviation of quantum time evolution in open systems from Markovian processes. We demonstrate that the measure proposed by Breuer, Laine, and Piilo [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009)] and the two measures proposed by Rivas, Huelga, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010)] have exactly the same non-Markovian time-evolution intervals and thus are really equivalent to each other when they are applied to open two-level systems coupled to environments via the Jaynes-Cummings or dephasing models. This equivalence implies that the three measures, in different ways, capture the intrinsic character of the non-Markovianity of quantum evolutional processes. We also show that the maximization in the definition of the first measure can be actually removed for the considered models without influencing the sensibility of the measure to detect non-Markovianity.

Zeng Haosheng; Tang Ning; Zheng Yanping; Wang Guoyou [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

2011-09-15

393

Evaluation of the Quantum II and Rapid E identification systems.

A total of 492 clinical isolates from the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested in the API 20E, Rapid E, and Quantum II identification systems. Discrepant identifications among these three systems were resolved by repeat testing in the identification systems or use of conventional biochemical tests. Of these isolates, 94.1% were correctly identified with the API 20E and Rapid E systems, and 97.0% were correctly identified with the Quantum II system. An additional 48 non-Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested with the Quantum II system, and 83.3% were correctly identified. The majority of incorrect identifications with the Rapid E and Quantum II systems were caused by a single aberrant biochemical reaction. Reproducibility of the biochemical reactions obtained with these two systems was evaluated by testing 40 organisms in triplicate. Identical biocodes for all three tests were obtained for 10 organisms with the Quantum II system and for 19 organisms with the Rapid E system. Reproducibility of the Quantum II test results was improved with a subsequent modification of the photometer of this system. Both the Rapid E and Quantum II systems were inexpensive and were technically easy to inoculate and interpret. PMID:6386866

Murray, P R; Gauthier, A; Niles, A

1984-01-01

394

Measure synchronization in quantum many-body systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of measure synchronization between two coupled quantum many-body systems is presented. In general terms we consider two quantum many-body systems whose dynamics gets coupled through the contact particle-particle interaction. This coupling is shown to produce measure synchronization, a generalization of synchrony to a large class of systems which takes place in absence of dissipation. We find that in quantum measure synchronization, the many-body quantum properties for the two subsystems, e.g., condensed fractions and particle fluctuations, behave in a coordinated way. To illustrate the concept we consider a simple case of two species of bosons occupying two distinct quantum states. Measure synchronization can be readily explored with state-of-the-art techniques in ultracold atomic gases and, if properly controlled, be employed to build targeted quantum correlations in a sympathetic way.

Qiu, Haibo; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Polls, Artur

2014-09-01

395

Quantum key distribution systems and field trials

Recent progress in quantum key distribution (QKD), regarding high-speed and long-distance experiments and field trials are briefly reviewed. We also introduce our research on the randomness of quantum key. We have confirmed a quantum key, as a crypto key, assures the required randomness with some dynamic compensation.

A. Tanaka; M. Fujiwara; Sae Woo Nam; Y. Nambu; S. Takahashi; W. Maeda; K.-I. Yoshino; S. Miki; Burm Baek; Zhen Wang; A. Tajima; M. Sasaki; A. Tomita

2008-01-01

396

Decoherence and Dissipation in Quantum Two-State Systems

The Brownian dynamics of the density operator for a quantum system interacting with a classical heat bath is described using a stochastic, non-linear Liouville equation obtained from a variational principle. The environment's degrees of freedom are simulated by classical harmonic oscillators, while the dynamical variables of the quantum system are two non-hermitian \\

M. Grigorescu

1997-01-01

397

Higher time derivatives in effective equations of canonical quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum-corrected equations of motion generically contain higher time derivatives, computed here in the setting of canonically quantized systems. The main example in which detailed derivations are presented is a general anharmonic oscillator, but conclusions can be drawn also for systems in quantum gravity and cosmology.

Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Nelson, Elliot

2012-11-01

398

Test and measurement on quantum key distribution systems

As in conventional communication systems, test and measurement play important roles in quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Besides the observation that QKD protocols estimate the bound of information leakage from the measurement results on the transmission channel, test of quantum apparatus is necessary to ensure that the assumptions behind the security proof are satisfied in practice. Moreover, precise characterization of

Akihisa Tomita

2009-01-01

399

Stability of phase-modulated quantum key distribution systems

The stability of double Mach-Zehnder implementation has been investigated in experiment, which is important for practical quantum key distribution systems. The results of experiment show that the random fluctuation of interference visibility comes from polarization disturbance, especially from that of transmission fiber. A theoretical model is built and a necessary condition is given for intrinsic-stabilization unidirectional quantum key distribution system.

Zheng-Fu Han; Xiao-Fan Mo; You-Zhen Gui; Guang-Can Guo

2005-01-01

400

Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz

An improved quantum key distribution test system operating at clock rates of up to 2GHz using a specially adapted commercially available silicon single photon avalanche diode is presented. The use of improved detectors has improved the fibre-based test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error rate.

K. J. Gordon; V. Fernandez; G. S. Buller; I. Rech; S. D. Cova; P. D. Townsend

2006-05-08

401

Information Reconciliation Protocol in Quantum Key Distribution System

In the system of quantum key distribution (QKD), errors may occur in the initial keys due to system noise or eavesdropping during the transmission on quantum channel. The goal of information reconciliation is to remove these errors by exchanging messages on an authenticated public channel. In this paper, we discuss the problem of secrete key reconciliation (SKR) in QKD, analyze

Hao Yan; Tienan Ren; Xiang Peng; Xiaxiang Lin; Wei Jiang; Tian Liu; Hong Guo

2008-01-01

402

Experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system

LETTERS Experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system QIANG ZHANG1.1038/nphys417 Q uantum teleportation1 , a way to transfer the state of a quantum system from one locationÂ11 or ionic qubits12,13 . However, teleportation of single qubits is insufficient for a large

Loss, Daniel

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum simulators are controllable quantum systems that can be used to mimic other quantum systems. They have the potential to enable the tackling of problems that are intractable on conventional computers. The photonic quantum technology available today is reaching the stage where significant advantages arise for the simulation of interesting problems in quantum chemistry, quantum biology and solid-state physics. In addition, photonic quantum systems also offer the unique benefit of being mobile over free space and in waveguide structures, which opens new perspectives to the field by enabling the natural investigation of quantum transport phenomena. Here, we review recent progress in the field of photonic quantum simulation, which should break the ground towards the realization of versatile quantum simulators.

Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Walther, Philip

2012-04-01

404

Indirect control of quantum system via accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation

A pure indirect control of quantum systems via quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by 2 and 3 dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system.

H. C. Fu; Hui Dong; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

2008-07-09

405

Quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium

Closed quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium pose several long-standing problems in physics. Recent years have seen a tremendous progress in approaching these questions, not least due to experiments with cold atoms and trapped ions in instances of quantum simulations. This article provides an overview on the progress in understanding dynamical equilibration and thermalisation of closed quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium due to quenches, ramps and periodic driving. It also addresses topics such as the eigenstate thermalisation hypothesis, typicality, transport, many-body localisation, universality near phase transitions, and prospects for quantum simulations.

J. Eisert; M. Friesdorf; C. Gogolin

2014-08-21

406

Experimental quantum simulation of entanglement in many-body systems.

We employ a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum information processor to simulate the ground state of an XXZ spin chain and measure its NMR analog of entanglement, or pseudoentanglement. The observed pseudoentanglement for a small-size system already displays a singularity, a signature which is qualitatively similar to that in the thermodynamical limit across quantum phase transitions, including an infinite-order critical point. The experimental results illustrate a successful approach to investigate quantum correlations in many-body systems using quantum simulators. PMID:21797528

Zhang, Jingfu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Laflamme, Raymond

2011-07-01

407

Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems

We investigate the particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer-Buettiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba

2014-09-10

408

3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System

A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.

Karen J. Gordon; Veronica Fernandez; Robert J. Collins; Ivan Rech; Sergio D. Cova; Paul D. Townsend; Gerald S. Buller

2006-01-01

409

3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System

A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.

Karen J. Gordon; Veronica Fernandez; Robert J. Collins; Ivan Rech; Sergio D. Cova; Paul D. Townsend; Gerald S. Buller

2006-05-05

410

Suppressing normal mode excitation by quantum interference in a cavity-atom system.

Collective coupling of multiple atoms with a cavity mode produces two normal modes that are separated in energy by Vacuum Rabi splitting. We show that the normal mode excitation of the cavity-atom system can be suppressed by coupling a control laser to the atomic system from free space. The control laser splits the normal mode of the cavity-atoms system and opens two excitation channels. The destructive quantum interference between the two channels renders the cavity-atoms system opaque to the light coupled to the cavity-atom system. We demonstrate suppression of the normal mode excitation by the destructive quantum interference in an experiment using cold Rb atoms confined in an optical cavity. PMID:18545496

Zhang, Jiepeng; Hernandez, Gessler; Zhu, Yifu

2008-05-26

411

A remote monitoring system for Open Ocean Aquaculture

The purpose of this project was to determine the practicality and characteristics of a remote monitoring system for an open ocean aquaculture fish cage. The Open Ocean Aquaculture program at the University of New Hampshire currently uses two fish cages to develop the technology and methodology to raise finned fish in the open ocean. The cages are located about six

A. P. M. Michel; K. L. Croff; K. W. McLetchie; J. D. Irish

2002-01-01

412

A.: SDL Code Generation for Open Systems

Abstract. SDL claims to be a language for the description of open systems, allowing the integration of other components into an SDL system and that of an SDL system as a mere component into a greater unit. Indeed, SDL provides the possibility for the interaction of a system with its environment. Signals can be exchanged with the environment and in addition the developer may hide arbitrary actions inside external procedures. Code generators are widely in use to produce runnable code from an SDL system description, decreasing faultiness and increasing flexibility. But changes in or changes of the communication protocol to the environment still force a code generator to be adapted, costing precious resources. This paper presents an automated code generation from SDL to C++, which enables the flexible connection of various communication protocols without changing the code generator or adding code manually. A runtime library contains all necessary means for communication to the environment, an approach which has been tested using CORBA and Web Services, but could be adapted easily to arbitrary protocols. Problems with the choice of appropriate encodings seem to be solved with the recommendation Z.104, which enables the specification of encodings already in the SDL-2000 system. All results presented in this paper base on the experience gained in practice during several projects using Cinderella SITE. 1

Joachim Fischer; Toby Neumann; Anders Olsen; Cinderella Aps

2005-01-01

413

Performance comparison between classical and quantum control for a simple quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bra?czyk et al. pointed out that the quantum control scheme is superior to the classical control scheme for a simple quantum system using simulation [A.M. Bra?czyk, P.E.M.F. Mendonca, A. Gilchrist, A.C. Doherty, S.D. Barlett, Quantum control theory of a single qubit, Physical Review A 75 (2007) 012329 or arXiv e-print quant-ph/0608037]. Here we rigorously prove the result. Furthermore we will show that any quantum operation does not universally “correct” the dephasing noise.

Xi, Zairong; Jin, Guangsheng

2008-02-01

414

Quantum Phase Space, Quantization Hierarchy, and Eclectic Quantum Many-Body System

An operator-valued quantum phase space formula is constructed. The phase space formula of Quantum Mechanics provides a natural link between first and second quantization, thus contributing to the understanding of quantization problem. By the combination of quantization and hamiltonization of dynamics, a quantization hierarchy is introduced, beyond the framework of first and second quantization and generalizing the standard quantum theory. We apply our quantization method to quantum many-body system and propose an eclectic model, in which the dimension of Hilbert space does not scale exponentially with the number of particles due to the locality of interaction, and the evolution is a constrained Hamiltonian dynamics.

Dong-Sheng Wang

2014-10-05

415

Quantum trajectories in dissipative systems and dual spaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum trajectories computed via the de Broglie-Bohm -Madelung hydrodynamical model of quantum mechanics offer unique perspectives into the dynamics of a quantum mechanical system. Moreover, as evidenced by the other papers presented in this session, the approach offers an alternative computational strategy whereby collocation grid points "evolve" according to quantum equations of motion derived from the Schrodinger equation. In this talk we extend this approach to the quantum density matrix, ?(x,y) = ?(y)?(x), and consider quantum trajectories in a two dimensional Liouville space: x,y. Starting from a path-integral/influence functional approach, one can derive dissipative quantum master equations for the reduced density matrix of a system in contact with a thermal bath. Starting from this point, we derive hydrodynamic models using ?(x,y)=exp(g(x,y) + iA(x,y)/hbar). In doing so, dissipative coupling enters as a vector potential in the equations of equations. Model quantum trajectory calculations based upon a moving least-squares scheme illustrate the effects of decoherence and energy dissipation on the quantum trajectories. We will discuss how this approach offers a viable (and easy to impliment!) methodology for simulating quantum dissipative dynamics.

Bittner, Eric

2001-03-01

416

Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems

General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob's system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can

N. Gisin; S. Fasel; B. Kraus; H. Zbinden; G. Ribordy

2006-01-01

417

Environment-assisted quantum transport in ordered systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise-assisted transport in quantum systems occurs when quantum time evolution and decoherence conspire to produce a transport efficiency that is higher than what would be seen in either the purely quantum or purely classical cases. In disordered systems, it has been understood as the suppression of coherent quantum localization through noise, which brings detuned quantum levels into resonance and thus facilitates transport. We report several new mechanisms of environment-assisted transport in ordered systems, in which there is no localization to overcome and where one would naively expect that coherent transport is the fastest possible. Although we are particularly motivated by the need to understand excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, our model is general—transport in a tight-binding system with dephasing, a source and a trap—and can be expected to have wider application.

Kassal, Ivan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2012-05-01

418

Quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems can send quantum signals over more than 100km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally a technologically feasible attack---namely, the time-shift attack---against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's

Yi Zhao; Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Bing Qi; Christine Chen; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2008-01-01

419

Quantum Hall effect in a one-dimensional dynamical system

We construct a periodically time-dependent Hamiltonian with a phase transition in the quantum Hall universality class. One spatial dimension can be eliminated by introducing a second incommensurate driving frequency, so that we can study the quantum Hall effect in a one-dimensional (1D) system. This reduction to 1D is very efficient computationally and would make it possible to perform experiments on the 2D quantum Hall effect using cold atoms in a 1D optical lattice.

Dahlhaus, J. P.; Edge, J. M.; Beenakker, C. W. J. [Instituut-Lorentz, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Tworzydlo, J. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-09-15

420

Quantum interference in an electron-hole graphene ring system

Quantum interference is observed in a graphene ring system via the Aharonov Bohm effect. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor, this geometry allows to study the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes in addition to the unipolar quantum interference. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence between unipolar and dipolar interference.

Smirnov, D.; Schmidt, H.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2013-12-04

421

Terahertz spectroscopy of quantum 2D electron systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy permits the coherent motion of charges to be examined in a diverse range of two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. Studies of the THz conductivity and magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional quantum systems are reviewed, including cyclotron resonance spectroscopy and the transverse conductivity in the Hall and quantum Hall regimes. Experiments are described that demonstrate quantum phenomena at THz frequencies, principally coherent control and enhanced light-matter coupling in electromagnetic cavities.

Lloyd-Hughes, James

2014-09-01

422

Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems

Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.

Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina

2011-01-01

423

Quantum correlations in B and K meson systems

We study quantum correlations in meson-antimeson systems, as provided for example in meson factories used mainly to probe physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. We use a semigroup formalism to compute a trace-preserving density matrix for these systems, in spite of the fact that the particles are unstable. This is used to compute the time evolution of several measures of quantum correlations for three meson systems (KKbar, BdBdbar and BsBsbar). We find that the quantum correlations for these systems can be non-trivially different from their stable counterparts.

Banerjee, Subhashish; MacKenzie, Richard

2014-01-01

424

Open Source Course Management Systems: A Case Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Fall 2003, Randolph-Macon Woman's College rolled out Claroline, an Open Source course management system for all the classes on campus. This document will cover some background on both Open Source in general and course management systems in specific, discuss technical challenges in the introduction and integration of the system and give some…

Remy, Eric

2005-01-01

425

The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age.

Computational Quantum Chemistry has developed into a powerful, efficient, reliable and increasingly routine tool for exploring the structure and properties of small to medium sized molecules. Many thousands of calculations are performed every day, some offering results which approach experimental accuracy. However, in contrast to other disciplines, such as crystallography, or bioinformatics, where standard formats and well-known, unified databases exist, this QC data is generally destined to remain locally held in files which are not designed to be machine-readable. Only a very small subset of these results will become accessible to the wider community through publication.In this paper we describe how the Quixote Project is developing the infrastructure required to convert output from a number of different molecular quantum chemistry packages to a common semantically rich, machine-readable format and to build respositories of QC results. Such an infrastructure offers benefits at many levels. The standardised representation of the results will facilitate software interoperability, for example making it easier for analysis tools to take data from different QC packages, and will also help with archival and deposition of results. The repository infrastructure, which is lightweight and built using Open software components, can be implemented at individual researcher, project, organisation or community level, offering the exciting possibility that in future many of these QC results can be made publically available, to be searched and interpreted just as crystallography and bioinformatics results are today.Although we believe that quantum chemists will appreciate the contribution the Quixote infrastructure can make to the organisation and and exchange of their results, we anticipate that greater rewards will come from enabling their results to be consumed by a wider community. As the respositories grow they will become a valuable source of chemical data for use by other disciplines in both research and education.The Quixote project is unconventional in that the infrastructure is being implemented in advance of a full definition of the data model which will eventually underpin it. We believe that a working system which offers real value to researchers based on tools and shared, searchable repositories will encourage early participation from a broader community, including both producers and consumers of data. In the early stages, searching and indexing can be performed on the chemical subject of the calculations, and well defined calculation meta-data. The process of defining more specific quantum chemical definitions, adding them to dictionaries and extracting them consistently from the results of the various software packages can then proceed in an incremental manner, adding additional value at each stage.Not only will these results help to change the data management model in the field of Quantum Chemistry, but the methodology can be applied to other pressing problems related to data in computational and experimental science. PMID:21999363

Adams, Sam; de Castro, Pablo; Echenique, Pablo; Estrada, Jorge; Hanwell, Marcus D; Murray-Rust, Peter; Sherwood, Paul; Thomas, Jens; Townsend, Joe

2011-01-01

426

Non-Markovianity and Indivisible Quantum dynamics of a Apin-S System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a measure for the divisibility of a dynamical map, we study the non-Markovian character of a quantum evolution of a spin-S system, which is in an external field and weakly coupled to a bosonic bath with a certain temperature. The finite-temperature dynamics of the open system is obtained by the time-convolutionless master equation in the secular approximation. Besides the influence of the environmental spectral density function, the external field and low temperatures can affect the quantum non-Markovianity. It is found out that the non-Markovian feature of a dynamical map of a high-dimensional spin system is noticeable in contrast to that of a low-dimension spin system.

Hao, Xiang; Xu, Xue-Fen; Zhu, Shi-Qun

2013-09-01

427

Scalable open architecture project (SOAP) avionics evolution from Federated to Open Systems

The Scalable Open Architecture Project (SOAP) of NAVAIR's Maritime Avionics Subsystems and Technologies (MAST) Program was established in 1996 to demonstrate how to evolve existing aircraft from federated to advanced scalable open systems through incremental system upgrades making maximum use of COTS technology. This project is a multiyear effort with a series of laboratory demonstrations that transform existing federated avionics

J. Ozols

1997-01-01

428

Asymptotic Stochastic Transformations for Nonlinear Quantum Dynamical Systems

The Ito and Stratonovich approaches are carried over to quantum stochastic systems. Here the white noise representation is shown to be the most appropriate as here the two approaches appear as Wick and Weyl orderings, respectively. This introduces for the first time the Stratonovich form for SDEs driven by Poisson processes or quantum SDEs including the conservation process. The relation of the nonlinear Heisenberg ODES to asymptotic quantum SDEs is established extending previous work on linear (Schrodinger) equations. This is shown to generalize the classical integral transformations between the various forms of stochastic calculi and to extend the Khasminskii theorem to the quantum setting.

John Gough

2012-12-29

429

Random matrix description of decaying quantum systems

This contribution describes a statistical model for decaying quantum systems (e.g. photo-dissociation or -ionization). It takes the interference between direct and indirect decay processes explicitely into account. The resulting expressions for the partial decay amplitudes and the corresponding cross sections may be considered a many-channel many-resonance generalization of Fano's original work on resonance lineshapes [Phys. Rev 124, 1866 (1961)]. A statistical (random matrix) model is then introduced. It allows to describe chaotic scattering systems with tunable couplings to the decay channels. We focus on the autocorrelation function of the total (photo) cross section, and we find that it depends on the same combination of parameters, as the Fano-parameter distribution. These combinations are statistical variants of the one-channel Fano parameter. It is thus possible to study Fano interference (i.e. the interference between direct and indirect decay paths) on the basis of the autocorrelation function, and thereby in the regime of overlapping resonances. It allows us, to study the Fano interference in the limit of strongly overlapping resonances, where we find a persisting effect on the level of the weak localization correction.

T. Gorin

2005-10-04

430

Sub-ballistic behavior in quantum systems with Lévy noise

We investigate the quantum walk and the quantum kicked rotor in resonance subjected to noise with a L\\'evy waiting time distribution. We find that both systems have a sub-ballistic wave function spreading as shown by a power-law tail of the standard deviation.

A. Romanelli; R. Siri; V. Micenmacher

2007-05-02

431

Photon statistics: Nonlinear spectroscopy of single quantum systems Shaul Mukamel

Photon statistics: Nonlinear spectroscopy of single quantum systems Shaul Mukamel Department of their infor- mation content. A general formal expression for photon counting statistics from single quantum counting statistics which had proven to be a most valuable measure of coherence has been formulated

Mukamel, Shaul

432

Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems

We characterized backscattering effects in optical fiber using a photon counting technique and considered its implications for quantum key distribution (QKD). We found that Rayleigh (elastic) backscattering can put strong limitations on a two-way QKD system's performance. Raman (inelastic) scattering can restrict the ability of wavelength multiplexing of a quantum channel with strong classical data channel(s).

Darius Subacius; Anton Zavriyev; Alexei Trifonov

2005-01-01

433

Security Proof for Quantum Key Distribution Using Qudit Systems

We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use $d$-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with $d$. The finite-key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to $d\\lesssim 20$.

Lana Sheridan; Valerio Scarani

2010-03-29

434

How far apart are classical and quantum systems?

As is well known, classical systems approximate quantum ones -- but how well? We introduce a definition of a "distance" on classical and quantum phase spaces that offers a measure of their separation. Such a distance scale provides a means to measure the quality of approximate solutions to various problems. A few simple applications are discussed.

John R. Klauder

2003-08-08

435

Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems.

It is well known that quantum computers are superior to classical computers in efficiently simulating quantum systems. Here we report the first experimental simulation of quantum tunneling through potential barriers, a widespread phenomenon of a unique quantum nature, via NMR techniques. Our experiment is based on a digital particle simulation algorithm and requires very few spin-1/2 nuclei without the need of ancillary qubits. The occurrence of quantum tunneling through a barrier, together with the oscillation of the state in potential wells, are clearly observed through the experimental results. This experiment has clearly demonstrated the possibility to observe and study profound physical phenomena within even the reach of small quantum computers. PMID:23958996

Feng, Guan-Ru; Lu, Yao; Hao, Liang; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Long, Gui-Lu

2013-01-01

436

Open-cycle MHD systems analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five variant configurations of a coal burning open cycle magnetohydrodynamic electric power generating facility were studied for evaluation as candidate first generation power plants. A material and energy balance and cycle analysis was performed for each case to provide information for the conceptual designs and costing of all major MHD related components and subsystems as well as specification of other state of the art components. A economic comparison was made of each design by developing the cost of electricity based on component costs, estimates of operation and maintenance requirements, and the performance of each plant from the system analyses. An overall description of each plant is provided along with discussions of critical component and process development. An oxygen enriched OCMHD plant design was identified as an attractive candidate for first generation utility service. This plant design appears to offer competitive costs of electricity and minimizes development risk.

Lippert, T. E.; Weeks, K. D.

1980-02-01

437

Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles

In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers to nature's puzzling mode of energy propagation. This review presents developments in quantum theories, and links information-theoretic aspects with photosynthetic light-harvesting processes in biomolecular systems. There is examination of various attempts to pinpoint the processes that underpin coherence features arising from the light harvesting activities of biomolecular systems, with particular emphasis on the effects that factors such non-Markovianity, zeno mechanisms, teleportation, quantum predictability and the role of multipartite states have on the quantum dynamics of biomolecular systems. A discussion of how quantum thermodynamical principles and agent-based modeling and simulation approaches can improve our understanding of natural photosynthetic systems is included.

A. Thilagam

2013-10-29

438

How open should an open system be? : essays on mobile computing

"Systems" goods-such as computers, telecom networks, and automobiles-are made up of multiple components. This dissertation comprises three essays that study the decisions of system innovators in mobile computing to "open" ...

Boudreau, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

2006-01-01

439

An open source laboratory for operating systems projects

Typical undergraduate operating systems projects use services provided by an operating system via system calls or develop code in a simulated operating system. With the increasing popularity of operating systems with open source code such as Linux, there are untapped possibilities for operating systems projects to modify real operating system code. We present the hardware and software configuration of an

Mark Claypool; David Finkel; Craig E. Wills

2001-01-01

440

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we treat the quantum filtering problem for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) Markovian open quantum systems coupled to multiple boson fields in an arbitrary zero-mean jointly Gaussian state, using the reference probability approach formulated by Bouten and van Handel as a quantum version of a well-known method of the same name from classical nonlinear filtering theory, and exploiting the generalized Araki-Woods representation of Gough. This includes Gaussian field states such as vacuum, squeezed vacuum, thermal, and squeezed thermal states as special cases. The contribution is a derivation of the general quantum filtering equation (or stochastic master equation as they are known in the quantum optics community) in the full MIMO setup for any zero-mean jointly Gaussian input field states, up to some mild rank assumptions on certain matrices relating to the measurement vector.

Nurdin, H. I.

2014-07-01

441

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of InGaAs quantum wells with composition graded across the intrinsic region to increase open-circuit voltage in p-i-n GaAs/InGaAs quantum well solar cells is demonstrated and analyzed. By engineering the band-edge energy profile to reduce photo-generated carrier concentration in the quantum wells at high forward bias, simultaneous increases in both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density are achieved, compared to those for a structure with the same average In concentration, but constant rather than graded quantum well composition across the intrinsic region. This approach is combined with light trapping to further increase short-circuit current density.

Li, Xiaohan; Dasika, Vaishno D.; Li, Ping-Chun; Ji, Li; Bank, Seth R.; Yu, Edward T.

2014-09-01

442

Quantum Circuit Design for Solving Linear Systems of Equations

Recently, it is shown that quantum computers can be used for obtaining certain information about the solution of a linear system Ax=b exponentially faster than what is possible with classical computation. Here we first review some key aspects of the algorithm from the standpoint of finding its efficient quantum circuit implementation using only elementary quantum operations, which is important for determining the potential usefulness of the algorithm in practical settings. Then we present a small-scale quantum circuit that solves a 2x2 linear system. The quantum circuit uses only 4 qubits, implying a tempting possibility for experimental realization. Furthermore, the circuit is numerically simulated and its performance under different circuit parameter settings is demonstrated.

Yudong Cao; Anmer Daskin; Steven Frankel; Sabre Kais

2011-10-10

443

Skeletal anchorage system for open-bite correction

A skeletal anchorage system was developed for tooth movements. It consists of a titanium miniplate that is temporarily implanted in the maxilla or the mandible as an immobile anchorage. In this article, we introduce the skeletal anchorage system to intrude the lower molars in open-bite malocclusion and evaluate the results of treatment in two severe open-bite cases that underwent orthodontic

Mikako Umemori; Junji Sugawara; Hideo Mitani; Hiroshi Nagasaka; Hiroshi Kawamura

1999-01-01

444

Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology

Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. Particularly, with this model one can study the mutual transformation of coding/non coding parts in a genome or the presence of an error threshold. The assembly of oligomeric proteins is an important phenomenon which interests the majority of proteins in a cell. I participated to the creation of the project "Gemini" which has for purpose the investigation of the structural data of the interfaces of such proteins. The objective is to differentiate the role of amino acids and determine the presence of patterns characterizing certain geometries.

Giovanni Feverati

2011-01-19

445

The Dalton quantum chemistry program system

Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree–Fock, Kohn–Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller–Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629

Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebj?rn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pal; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekstrom, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernandez, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hattig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenaes, Eirik; H?st, Stinne; H?yvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansik, Branislav; Jensen, Hans J?rgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; J?rgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjaergaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnaes, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jogvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Salek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Meras, Alfredo Sanchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Th?gersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans

2014-01-01

446

Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Systems with Disorder

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study many-body properties of quantum harmonic oscillator lattices with disorder. A sufficient condition for dynamical localization, expressed as a zero-velocity Lieb-Robinson bound, is formulated in terms of the decay of the eigenfunction correlators for an effective one-particle Hamiltonian. We show how state-of-the-art techniques for proving Anderson localization can be used to prove that these properties hold in a number of standard models. We also derive bounds on the static and dynamic correlation functions at both zero and positive temperature in terms of one-particle eigenfunction correlators. In particular, we show that static correlations decay exponentially fast if the corresponding effective one-particle Hamiltonian exhibits localization at low energies, regardless of whether there is a gap in the spectrum above the ground state or not. Our results apply to finite as well as to infinite oscillator systems. The eigenfunction correlators that appear are more general than those previously studied in the literature. In particular, we must allow for functions of the Hamiltonian that have a singularity at the bottom of the spectrum. We prove exponential bounds for such correlators for some of the standard models.

Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter

2012-12-01

447

Correlation after reflection in a quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection of a microscopic non-zero rest mass particle from a macroscopic mirror generates two-particle interference from the incident and reflected particle substates and the associated mirror substates. This amplifies effects such as fringe spacing since they are essentially determined not by the mass of the macroscopic mirror but rather by the much smaller mass of the microscopic particle. Coherence can be transferred during reflection from the initial particle substate to the mirror substate. Interference of multiple such two-particle states is discussed. These effects could lead to extending measurements of the quantum-classical boundary to larger masses. The possibility of non-simultaneous measurement of the positions of the particle and the mirror is also discussed. The joint probability density, which is a function both of the different positions and different times at which the particle and mirror are measured, is derived assuming that no interaction occurs between the measurement times. An analog of the Doppler shift for this correlated system is discussed along with interference of multiple such two-particle states.

Browne, Ryan S.

448

Recycling of quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

Given a finite number of copies of an unknown qubit state that have already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? We give a positive answer to this question and quantify the information obtainable by a given observer as a function of the number of copies in the ensemble, and of the number of independent observers that, one after the other, have independently measured the same ensemble of qubits before him. The optimality of the protocol is proven and extensions to other states and encodings are also studied. According to the general lore, the state after a measurement has no information about the state before the measurement. Our results manifestly show that this statement has to be taken with a grain of salt, specially in situations where the quantum states encode confidential information.

Peter Rapcan; John Calsamiglia; Ramon Munoz-Tapia; Emilio Bagan; Vladimir Buzek

2007-08-08

449

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and in many other areas of science is the capability of precisely controlling a quantum system by preparing a quantum state with the highest fidelity and/or in the fastest possible way. Here we present an experimental investigation of a two level system, characterized by a time-dependent Landau-Zener Hamiltonian, aiming to test general and optimal high-fidelity control protocols. The experiment is based on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into an optical lattice, then accelerated, which provides a high degree of control over the experimental parameters. We implement generalized Landau-Zener sweeps, comparing them with the well-known linear Landau-Zener sweep. We drive the system from an initial state to a final state with fidelity close to unity in the shortest possible time (quantum brachistochrone), thus reaching the ultimate speed limit imposed by quantum mechanics. On the opposite extreme of the quantum control spectrum, the aim is not to minimize the total transition time but to maximize the adiabaticity during the time-evolution, the system being constrained to the adiabatic ground state at any time. We implement such transitionless superadiabatic protocols by an appropriate transformation of the Hamiltonian parameters. This transformation is general and independent of the physical system.

Malossi, N.; Bason, M. G.; Viteau, M.; Arimondo, E.; Ciampini, D.; Mannella, R.; Morsch, O.

2013-06-01

450

Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions

Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...

Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

2012-01-01

451

Microchemical systems for the synthesis of nanostructures : quantum dots

We have developed a continuous multi-stage high-temperature and high-pressure microfluidic system. High-pressure conditions enabled the use low molecular weight solvents that have previously not been available for quantum ...

Baek, Jinyoung

2012-01-01

452

Gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution system using FPGA

An implementation of 1-GHz clocked differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution system is reported. High speed signal generation and its storage were realized by using FPGA. A stable operation was demonstrated for over a 1-hour.

Toshimori Honjo; Morinosato Wakamiya

2009-01-01

453

A quantum key distribution system operating at gigahertz clock rates

A fiber-optic based quantum key distribution system, operating at a wavelength of 850 nm, has been developed capable of operating up to a clock frequency of 1 GHz, creating significantly increased key exchange rates

K. J. Gordon; V. Fernandez; G. S. Buller; P. D. Townsend; S. D. Cova; S. Tisa

2004-01-01

454

Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance.

We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by F(x)) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by F(y)). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by F(x)), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by F(y)). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total