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1

Control of open quantum systems

This thesis describes the development, investigation and experimental implementation via liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques of new methods for controlling open quantum systems. First, methods that improve ...

Boulant, Nicolas

2005-01-01

2

Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems

The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607

Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, F.; Koch, Jens

2014-01-01

3

Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.

Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics. PMID:25634784

Kapral, Raymond

2015-02-25

4

Randomized control of open quantum systems

The problem of open-loop dynamical control of generic open quantum systems is addressed. In particular, I focus on the task of effectively switching off environmental couplings responsible for unwanted decoherence and dissipation effects. After revisiting the standard framework for dynamical decoupling via deterministic controls, I describe a different approach whereby the controller intentionally acquires a random component. An explicit error bound on worst-case performance of stochastic decoupling is presented.

Lorenza Viola

2006-01-16

5

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This resul...

Tian, Zehua; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

6

Open quantum systems and random matrix theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the ?3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and ?3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.

Mulhall, Declan

2015-01-01

7

Open quantum systems and Dicke superradiance

We study generic features of open quantum systems embedded into a continuum of scattering wavefunctions and compare them with results discussed in optics. A dynamical phase transition may appear at high level density in a many-level system and also in a two-level system if the coupling $W$ to the environment is complex and sufficiently large. Here nonlinearities occur. When $W_{ij}$ is imaginary, two singular (exceptional) points may exist. In the parameter range between these two points, width bifurcation occurs as function of a certain external parameter. A unitary representation of the S-matrix allows to calculate the cross section for a two-level system, including at the exceptional point (double pole of the S-matrix). The results obtained for the transition of level repulsion at small (real) $W_{ij}$ to width bifurcation at large (imaginary) $W_{ij}$ show qualitatively the same features that are observed experimentally in the transition from Autler-Townes splitting to electromagnetically induced transparency in optics. Fermi's golden rule holds only below the dynamical phase transition while it passes into an anti-golden rule beyond this transition. The results are generic and can be applied to the response of a complex open quantum system to the action of an external field (environment). They may be considered as a guideline for engineering and manipulating quantum systems in such a way that they can be used for applications with special requirements.

Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter

2014-02-19

8

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself.

Zehua Tian; Jieci Wang; Heng Fan; Jiliang Jing

2015-01-27

9

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself.

Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

10

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187

Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

11

Relativistic quantum metrology in open system dynamics.

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187

Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang

2015-01-01

12

Properties of adsorbates as open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed a novel cluster-model approach to investigate adsorbate-surface systems. In our approach, a physically relevant subsystem is described as an open quantum system by considering a model cluster subject to the outgoing-wave boundary condition (OBC) at the edge of the cluster. We refer to this model as an open-boundary cluster model (OCM). Many known disadvantages of the conventional cluster-model approach, in which a model cluster is treated as an isolated system, have been remedied by introducing the OBC, whereas the local picture inherent in cluster models still remains valid. In our present research, the adsorption energy and the electron-transfer rate from adsorbates to surfaces are calculated with the OCM. Their dependences on the adsorption-distance and the Fermi energy are reasonably explained by analyzing the quasi-diabatic energy levels based on the local picture of adsorption.

Yasuike, Tomokazu; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

2008-10-01

13

Spectroscopic studies in open quantum systems

The spectroscopic properties of an open quantum system are determined by the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of an effective Hamiltonian H consisting of the Hamiltonian H_0 of the corresponding closed system and a non-Hermitian correction term W arising from the interaction via the continuum of decay channels. The eigenvalues E_R of H are complex. They are the poles of the S-matrix and provide both the energies and widths of the states. We illustrate the interplay between Re(H) and Im(H) by means of the different interference phenomena between two neighboured resonance states. Level repulsion along the real axis appears if the interaction is caused mainly by Re(H) while a bifurcation of the widths appears if the interaction occurs mainly due to Im(H). We then calculate the poles of the S-matrix and the corresponding wavefunctions for a rectangular microwave resonator with a scatter as a function of the area of the resonator as well as of the degree of opening to a guide. The calculations are performed by using the method of exterior complex scaling. Re(W) and Im(W) cause changes in the structure of the wavefunctions which are permanent, as a rule. At full opening to the lead, short-lived collective states are formed together with long-lived trapped states. The wavefunctions of the short-lived states at full opening to the lead are very different from those at small opening. The resonance picture obtained from the microwave resonator shows all the characteristic features known from the study of many-body systems in spite of the absence of two-body forces. The poles of the S-matrix determine the conductance of the resonator. Effects arising from the interplay between resonance trapping and level repulsion along the real axis are not involved in the statistical theory.

I. Rotter; E. Persson; K. Pichugin; P. Seba

2000-02-14

14

Variational functions in driven open quantum systems

We consider the Lindblad-type master equation of an open system. We address the question how to construct a functional of the quantum state which displays a monotonic behavior in time. This thus defines uniquely the direction of time in the system. As the generator of time evolution is not a Hermitian operator, the theory requires the considerations of right and left eigenstates. In this paper we assume them to form two complete bases, which allows us to construct the desired quantity. This can be interpreted as a generalized entropy functional. We show how the construction is carried out in the general case, and we illustrate the theory by solving the case of an externally driven and damped two-level system. The treatment is related to earlier work in the field, and its possible relation to time inversion is discussed.

Jakob, Matthias; Stenholm, Stig [Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Alba Nova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2003-03-01

15

Models and Feedback Stabilization of Open Quantum Systems

At the quantum level, feedback-loops have to take into account measurement back-action. We present here the structure of the Markovian models including such back-action and sketch two stabilization methods: measurement-based feedback where an open quantum system is stabilized by a classical controller; coherent or autonomous feedback where a quantum system is stabilized by a quantum controller with decoherence (reservoir engineering). We begin to explain these models and methods for the photon box experiments realized in the group of Serge Haroche (Nobel Prize 2012). We present then these models and methods for general open quantum systems.

Pierre Rouchon

2014-07-26

16

Control of a two Level Open Quantum System

Control of a two Level Open Quantum System Domenico D'Alessandro Department of Mathematics controls. 1 Introduction The possibility of actively controlling the state of quantum mechanical systems], [12], [13], [17]). If the requirement for a control law is to steer the state of the system from

Sontag, Eduardo

17

Conserved current in Markovian open-quantum systems

We reexamine the Markovian approximation of local current in open quantum systems, discussed recently by Gebauer and Car. Our derivation is more transparent; the proof of the current conservation becomes explicit and easy.

Bodor, Andras; Diosi, Lajos [Department of the Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

2006-06-15

18

Quantum decay of an open chaotic system: a semiclassical approach

We study the quantum probability to survive in an open chaotic system in the framework of the van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator and present the first such calculation that accounts for quantum interference effects. Specifically we calculate quantum deviations from the classical decay after the break time for both broken and preserved time-reversal symmetry. The source of these corrections is identified in interfering pairs of correlated classical trajectories. In our approach the quantized chaotic system is modelled by a quatum graph.

Mathias Puhlmann; Holger Schanz; Tsampikos Kottos; Theo Geisel

2005-03-13

19

Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems

We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, the results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals new physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g. the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.

Jyrki Piilo; Sabrina Maniscalco

2006-10-03

20

Quantum speedup for multi-qubit open systems

Quantum speed limit (QSL) time captures the intrinsic minimal time interval for a quantum system evolving from an initial state to a target state. In single qubit open systems, it was found that the memory (non-Markovian) effect of environment plays an essential role in accelerating quantum evolution. In this work, we investigate the QSL time for multi-qubit open systems. We find that for certain class of states, the memory effect still acts as the indispensable requirement for speeding up quantum evolution, while for another class of states, speedup takes place even when the environment is of no memory. In particular, when the initial state is in product state |111...1>, there exists a sudden transition from no speedup to speedup in memoryless environment. On the other hand, we also display an evidence for the subtle connection between QSL time and entanglement that weak entanglement can accelerate quantum evolution even better.

Chen Liu; Zhen-Yu Xu; Shiqun Zhu

2014-10-30

21

Quantum Metrology in Open Systems: Dissipative Cramér-Rao Bound

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of parameters is a pivotal task throughout science and technology. The quantum Cramér-Rao bound provides a fundamental limit of precision allowed to be achieved under quantum theory. For closed quantum systems, it has been shown how the estimation precision depends on the underlying dynamics. Here, we propose a general formulation for metrology scenarios in open quantum systems, aiming to relate the precision more directly to properties of the underlying dynamics. This feature may be employed to enhance an estimation precision, e.g., by quantum control techniques. Specifically, we derive a Cramér-Rao bound for a fairly large class of open system dynamics, which is governed by a (time-dependent) dynamical semigroup map. We illustrate the utility of this scenario through three examples.

Alipour, S.; Mehboudi, M.; Rezakhani, A. T.

2014-03-01

22

Quantum Metrology in Open Systems: Dissipative Cramér-Rao Bound

Estimation of parameters is a pivotal task throughout science and technology. Quantum Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound provides a fundamental limit of precision allowed to achieve under quantum theory. For closed quantum systems, it has been shown how the estimation precision depends on the underlying dynamics. Here, we propose a general formulation for metrology scenarios in open quantum systems, aiming to relate the precision more directly to properties of the underlying dynamics. This feature may be employed to enhance an estimation precision, e.g., by quantum control techniques. Specifically, we derive a Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound for a fairly large class of open system dynamics, which is governed by a (time-dependent) dynamical semi-group map. We illustrate the utility of this scenario through three examples.

S. Alipour; M. Mehboudi; A. T. Rezakhani

2014-03-31

23

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems

Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local in time master equation that provides a direct connection of dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated with the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and non-equilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.

Vitalii Semin; Francesco Petruccione

2014-10-23

24

Open System Dynamics with Non-Markovian Quantum Trajectories

A non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation for a quantum system coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators is presented. The ensemble average recovers the reduced density matrix without approximation and hence it allows one to determine open system dynamics with strong and non-Markovian environmental effects in a very efficient way. We demonstrate the power of our approach with several illustrative examples.

Walter T. Strunz; Lajos Diósi; Nicolas Gisin

1999-01-01

25

Stochastic pure state representation for open quantum systems

We show that the usual master equation formalism of markovian open quantum systems is completely equivalent to a certain state vector formalism. The state vector of the system satisfies a given frictional Schrödinger equation except for random instant transitions of discrete nature. Hasse's frictional hamiltonian is recovered for the damped harmonic oscillator.

L. Diósi

1986-01-01

26

Arbitrarily accurate dynamical control in open quantum systems.

We show that open-loop dynamical control techniques may be used to synthesize unitary transformations in open quantum systems in such a way that decoherence is perturbatively compensated for to a desired (in principle arbitrarily high) level of accuracy, which depends only on the strength of the relevant errors and the achievable rate of control modulation. Our constructive and fully analytical solution employs concatenated dynamically corrected gates, and is applicable independently of detailed knowledge of the system-environment interactions and environment dynamics. Explicit implications for boosting quantum gate fidelities in realistic scenarios are addressed. PMID:20366973

Khodjasteh, Kaveh; Lidar, Daniel A; Viola, Lorenza

2010-03-01

27

Optimal control of quantum gates in an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply quantum optimal control theory (QOCT) to an exactly solvable non-Markovian open quantum bit (qubit) system to achieve state-independent quantum control and construct high-fidelity quantum gates for moderate qubit decaying parameters. An important quantity, improvement I, is proposed and defined to quantify the correction of gate errors due to the QOCT iteration when the environment effects are taken into account. With the help of the exact dynamics, we explore how the gate error is corrected in the open qubit system and determine the conditions for significant improvement. The model adopted in this paper can be implemented experimentally in realistic systems such as the circuit QED system.

Tai, Jung-Shen; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

2014-06-01

28

Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems

There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature plays an important role in controlling popula- tion transfer. At low temperatures the control has active performance, while at high temperatures it has less erect. We also analyze the decoherence be- havior of open quantum systems with optimal population transfer control, and we find that these controls can prolong the coherence time. We hope that active optimal control can help quantum solid-state-based engineering.

Wei Cui; Zairong Xi; Yu Pan

2010-04-27

29

Variational functions in degenerate open quantum systems

We have derived a Lyapunov functional for a degenerate open atomic system. This functional develops monotonically towards its stationary state. The open system is described by a Lindblad-type master equation. For the construction of the variational functional it is necessary that the Lindblad operator can be diagonalized. Since the generator of motion is non-Hermitian, diagonalization is, in general, only possible if the eigenvalues are nondegenerate. In this paper, we propose that in a physical system the biorthogonal eigenbasis of the Lindblad operator remains complete even when degeneracy is present. Thus diagonalization of the Lindblad operator, and consequently the construction of the variational functional, is still possible. We discuss the reasons and illustrate the theory of the variational functional for a driven {lambda}-type three-level atom with degenerate ground state. The degeneracy has interesting effects on the variational functional in the steady state with respect to its interpretation as an entropic quantity. In case of the driven three-level atom, the dark state turns out to be an isentropic state.

Jakob, Matthias; Stenholm, Stig [Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Alba Nova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2004-04-01

30

Feedback interconnection of open quantum systems: A small gain theorem

This paper examines the stability of quan- tum feedback networks. We introduce a novel charac- terization, in terms of equivalence classes of operators, that may be used to describe open quantum systems. In this characterization, equivalence classes of operators are shown to be elements of a Banach space such that the norm of an operator is analogous to the root

Ram Abhinav Somaraju; Ian R. Petersen

2009-01-01

31

Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems

Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.

Daniel Manzano; Pablo I. Hurtado

2014-09-25

32

Symmetry and the thermodynamics of currents in open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symmetry is a powerful concept in physics, and its recent application to understand nonequilibrium behavior is providing deep insights and groundbreaking exact results. Here we show how to harness symmetry to control transport and statistics in open quantum systems. Such control is enabled by a first-order-type dynamic phase transition in current statistics and the associated coexistence of different transport channels (or nonequilibrium steady states) classified by symmetry. Microreversibility then ensues, via the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, a twin dynamic phase transition for rare current fluctuations. Interestingly, the symmetry present in the initial state is spontaneously broken at the fluctuating level, where the quantum system selects the symmetry sector that maximally facilitates a given fluctuation. We illustrate these results in a qubit network model motivated by the problem of coherent energy harvesting in photosynthetic complexes, and introduce the concept of a symmetry-controlled quantum thermal switch, suggesting symmetry-based design strategies for quantum devices with controllable transport properties.

Manzano, Daniel; Hurtado, Pablo I.

2014-09-01

33

Control Landscapes for Observable Preparation with Open Quantum Systems

A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false sub-optimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape.

Rebing Wu; Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz; Michael Hsieh; Benjamin Tsou

2007-08-16

34

Lindblad master equation approach to superconductivity in open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an open quantum Fermi system which consists of a single degenerate level with pairing interactions embedded into a superconducting bath. The time evolution of the reduced density matrix for the system is given by the Linblad master equation, where the dissipators describe exchange of Bogoliubov quasiparticles with the bath. We obtain fixed points of the time evolution equation for the covariance matrix and study their stability by analyzing full dynamics of the complex order parameter.

Kosov, Daniel S.; Prosen, Tomaž; Žunkovi?, Bojan

2011-11-01

35

Fluctuations of work in nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems

We extend the quantum jump method to nearly adiabatically driven open quantum systems in a way that allows for an accurate account of the external driving in the system-environment interaction. Using this framework, we construct the corresponding trajectory-dependent work performed on the system and derive the integral fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for nearly adiabatic driving. We show that such identities hold as long as the stochastic dynamics and work variable are consistently defined. We study the emerging work statistics for a two-level quantum system and find that the conventional diabatic approximation is unable to capture some prominent features arising from driving such as the continuity of the probability density of work. Our results reveal the necessity of using accurate expressions for the drive-dressed heat exchange in future experiments probing jump time distributions.

S. Suomela; J. Salmilehto; I. G. Savenko; T. Ala-Nissila; M. Möttönen

2014-11-18

36

Decohering histories and open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I briefly review the "decohering histories" or "consistent histories" formulation of quantum theory, due to Griffiths, Omnès, and Gell-Mann and Hartle (and the subject of my graduate work with George Sudarshan). I also sift through the many meanings that have been attached to decohering histories, with an emphasis on the most basic one: Decoherence of appropriate histories is needed to establish that quantum mechanics has the correct classical limit. Then I will describe efforts to find physical mechanisms that do this. Since most work has focused on density matrix versions of decoherence, I'll consider the relation between the two formulations, which historically has not been straightforward. Finally, I'll suggest a line of research that would use recent results by Sudarshan to illuminate this aspect of the classical limit of quantum theory.

Chisolm, Eric D.

2009-11-01

37

Hierarchy of stochastic pure states for open quantum system dynamics.

We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. PMID:25375694

Suess, D; Eisfeld, A; Strunz, W T

2014-10-10

38

Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.

Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.

2014-10-01

39

Boundary driven open quantum many-body systems

In this lecture course I outline a simple paradigm of non-eqjuilibrium quantum statistical physics, namely we shall study quantum lattice systems with local, Hamiltonian (conservative) interactions which are coupled to the environment via incoherent processes only at the system's boundaries. This is arguably the simplest nontrivial context where one can study far from equilibrium steady states and their transport properties. We shall formulate the problem in terms of a many-body Markovian master equation (the so-called Lindblad equation, and some of its extensions, e.g. the Redfield eqaution). The lecture course consists of two main parts: Firstly, and most extensively we shall present canonical Liouville-space many-body formalism, the so-called 'third quantization' and show how it can be implemented to solve bi-linear open many-particle problems, the key peradigmatic examples being the XY spin 1/2 chains or quasi-free bosonic (or harmonic) chains. Secondly, we shall outline several recent approaches on how to approach exactly solvable open quantum interacting many-body problems, such as anisotropic Heisenberg ((XXZ) spin chain or fermionic Hubbard chain.

Prosen, Tomaž [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2014-01-08

40

Tensor networks and graphical calculus for open quantum systems

We present a graphical calculus for completely positive maps and in doing so cast the theory of open quantum systems into the language of tensor networks. We tailor the theory of tensor networks to pictographically represent the Liouville-superoperator, Choi-matrix, process-matrix, Kraus, and system-environment representations for the evolution of open-system states, to expose how these representations interrelate, and to concisely transform between them. Several of these transformations have succinct depictions as wire bending dualities in our graphical calculus --- reshuffling, vectorization, and the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. To further demonstrate the utility of the presented graphical calculus we include several examples where we provide constructions, and simpler proofs of several useful quantities in quantum information theory. We demonstrate the use of graphical approaches to construct superoperator representations of common matrix operations, and to deal with composing and reducing the number of quantum systems in the superoperator convention. We present a proof of a simple condition for whether an arbitrary bipartite state may be used for ancilla assisted process tomography and find that after applying reshuffling transformation to the bipartite state the resulting operator must be invertible if it is to allow for complete recovery of the unknown channel. As final examples we derive expressions for the average gate fidelity and entanglement fidelity of a channel in terms of each of the different representations of the channel. Having new tools to investigate old problems can often lead to surprising new results, and the graphical calculus presented in this paper should lead to a better understanding of the interrelation between CP-maps and quantum theory.

Christopher J. Wood; Jacob D. Biamonte; David G. Cory

2014-10-10

41

A fundamental problem in quantum control is to precisely characterize the controlled system dynamics when decoherence effects are present. In this work, we derive the upper bound of achievable purity for coherently driven dissipative systems, which is rather useful for assessing control performances. The theory is further testified on a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. Under joint effects of coherent pulses and system relaxation, we are able to implement the tasks of open system polarization transfer and pseudopure state preparation with remarkably, both of them approaching near optimal performance in purity. Our work shows great applicative potential of utilizing rather than suppressing relaxation effects in open system control protocols.

Jun Li; Dawei Lu; Zhihuang Luo; Raymond Laflamme; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

2014-12-11

42

Optimal control for non-Markovian open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient optimal-control theory based on the Krotov method is introduced for a non-Markovian open quantum system with a time-nonlocal master equation in which the control parameter and the bath correlation function are correlated. This optimal-control method is developed via a quantum dissipation formulation that transforms the time-nonlocal master equation to a set of coupled linear time-local equations of motion in an extended auxiliary Liouville space. As an illustration, the optimal-control method is applied to find the control sequences for high-fidelity Z gates and identity gates of a qubit embedded in a non-Markovian bath. Z gates and identity gates with errors less than 10-5 for a wide range of bath decoherence parameters can be achieved for the non-Markovian open qubit system with control over only the ?z term. The control-dissipation correlation and the memory effect of the bath are crucial in achieving the high-fidelity gates.

Hwang, Bin; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

2012-03-01

43

Open system dynamics with non-Markovian quantum trajectories

A non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equation for a quantum system coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators is presented. Its solutions, when averaged over the noise, reproduce the standard reduced density operator without any approximation. We illustrate the power of this approach with several examples, including exponentially decaying bath correlations and extreme non-Markovian cases, where the `environment' consists of only a single oscillator. The latter case shows the decay and revival of a `Schroedinger cat' state. For strong coupling to a dissipative environment with memory, the asymptotic state can be reached in a finite time. Our description of open systems is compatible with different positions of the `Heisenberg cut' between system and environment.

Walter T Strunz; Lajos Diosi; Nicolas Gisin

1998-03-27

44

Open system dynamics with non-Markovian quantum trajectories

A non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equation for a quantum system coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators is presented. Its solutions, when averaged over the noise, reproduce the standard reduced density operator without any approximation. We illustrate the power of this approach with several examples, including exponentially decaying bath correlations and extreme non-Markovian cases, where the `environment' consists of only a single oscillator. The latter case shows the decay and revival of a `Schroedinger cat' state. For strong coupling to a dissipative environment with memory, the asymptotic state can be reached in a finite time. Our description of open systems is compatible with different positions of the `Heisenberg cut' between system and environment.

Strunz, W T; Gisin, Nicolas; Strunz, Walter T; Diosi, Lajos; Gisin, Nicolas

1999-01-01

45

Open quantum system approach to single-molecule spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, single-molecule spectroscopy experiments based on continuous laser excitation are characterized through an open quantum system approach. The evolution of the fluorophore system follows from an effective Hamiltonian microscopic dynamic where its characteristic parameters, i.e., its electric dipole, transition frequency, and Rabi frequency, as well as the quantization of the background electromagnetic field and their mutual interaction, are defined in an extended Hilbert space associated to the different configurational states of the local nanoenvironment. After tracing out the electromagnetic field and the configurational states, the fluorophore density matrix is written in terms of a Lindblad rate equation. Observables associated to the scattered laser field, such as optical spectrum, intensity-intensity correlation, and photon-counting statistics, are obtained from a quantum-electrodynamic calculation also based on the effective microscopic dynamic. In contrast with stochastic models, this approach allows one to describe in a unified way both the full quantum nature of the scattered laser field as well as the classical nature of the environment fluctuations. By analyzing different processes such as spectral diffusion, lifetime fluctuations, and light assisted processes, we exemplify the power of the present approach.

Budini, Adrián A.

2009-04-01

46

Jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems

Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be 'unraveled' into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schroedinger equation, as introduced by Diosi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jumplike unravelings. To illustrate the jumplike behavior we consider a simple system: a classically driven (at Rabi frequency {omega}) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, {omega}{sub 0}, and the two side bands have frequencies {omega}{sub 0}{+-}{omega}. In the large {omega} limit we observed that the jumplike behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However, the length of time for which the Markovian-like behavior persists depends upon which jumplike unraveling is used.

Gambetta, Jay; Askerud, T.; Wiseman, H.M. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, School of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia)

2004-05-01

47

Jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be “unraveled” into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schrödinger equation, as introduced by Diósi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jumplike unravelings. To illustrate the jumplike behavior we consider a simple system: a classically driven (at Rabi frequency ? ) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, ?0 , and the two side bands have frequencies ?0 ±? . In the large ? limit we observed that the jumplike behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However, the length of time for which the Markovian-like behavior persists depends upon which jumplike unraveling is used.

Gambetta, Jay; Askerud, T.; Wiseman, H. M.

2004-05-01

48

Open Quantum System Stochastic Dynamics and the Rotating Wave Approximation

We study the stochastic dynamics of a two-level quantum system interacting with a stochastic magnetic field, and a single frequency electromagnetic field, with and without making the rotating wave approximation (RWA). The transformation to the rotating frame does not commute with the stochastic Hamiltonian if the stochastic field has nonvanishing components in the transverse direction. Hence, making the RWA modifies the stochastic terms in the Hamiltonian. Modification of the decay terms is also required in a master equation approach (i.e., the Liouville--von Neumann density matrix equation) for describing the dynamics. For isotropic Gaussian white noise, the RWA dynamics remains Markovian, although the Lindblad terms in the master equation for the density matrix become time-dependent when the non-commutation of the RWA transformation and the noise Hamiltonian is properly accounted for. We also treat Ornstein--Uhlenbeck noise, and find, in contra-distinction to the white noise case, a significant difference in the dynamics calculated with the RWA when the non-commutation of the RWA transformation and the noise Hamiltonian is taken into account. These findings are applicable to the modeling of any open quantum system coupled to an electromagentic field.

Y. B. Band

2014-12-22

49

Elementary Mathematical Framework for Open Quantum d-LEVEL Systems:. Decoherence Overview

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This lecture note provides an easy introduction of the theory of open quantum systems in a physically and mathematically closed manner. After a compact review of quantum mechanics, we explain how to treat open quantum systems which turns out to explain the decoherence process. In order to be logically closed, we restrict to the finite quantum systems, but almost all the mathematical techniques are explained in detail so that the students can follow the equations and master the techniques which are usually assumed from the beginning. In particular, there are almost 90 exercises which supplement the contents to understand, and all the solutions will be uploaded in my web page.

Kimura, Gen

2010-11-01

50

We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation ...

Rezakhani, A. T.

51

Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here we set up a formalism that allows to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

S. Gasparinetti; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti

2014-07-29

52

Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here, we set up a formalism that allows us to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.

Gasparinetti, S.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.

2014-11-01

53

Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems

This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic is a study of the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic investigates continuous QEC in the presence of non-Markovian noise. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous QEC exhibits a quadratic improvement for a sufficiently high time resolution of the error-correcting operations. The fifth topic studies the conditions for correctability of subsystem codes under continuous dynamics. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian are derived. The sixth topic examines the robustness of operator QEC codes against initialization errors. A new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and is used to show that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard operator QEC conditions. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum computation (HQC) and stabilizer codes. A fault-tolerant scheme for HQC is presented, proving the scalability of the holonomic approach.

Ognyan Oreshkov

2008-12-27

54

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate recent results concerning the validity of the work fluctuation theorem in open quantum systems (Campisi et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 210401), by applying them to a solvable model of an open quantum system. The central role played by the thermodynamic partition function of the open quantum system, a two-level fluctuator with a strong quantum nondemolition coupling to a harmonic oscillator, is elucidated. The corresponding quantum Hamiltonian of mean force is evaluated explicitly. We study the thermodynamic entropy and the corresponding specific heat of this open system as a function of temperature and coupling strength and show that both may assume negative values at nonzero low temperatures.

Campisi, Michele; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

2009-10-01

55

Conservation law of operator current in open quantum systems

We derive a fundamental conservation law of operator current for master equations describing reduced quantum systems. If this law is broken, the temporal integral of the current operator of an arbitrary system observable does not yield in general the change of that observable in the evolution. We study Lindblad-type master equations as examples and prove that the application of the secular approximation during their derivation results in a violation of the conservation law. We show that generally any violation of the law leads to artificial corrections to the complete quantum dynamics, thus questioning the accuracy of the particular master equation.

J. Salmilehto; P. Solinas; M. Möttönen

2011-10-25

56

Thermalization in Quantum Systems

atom system Not only of academic interest. Open questions in closed system quantum dynamics: i of equilibrated states. iv. Definition for "quantum integrability". v. Many-body localization... vi. Open systems. Localization and absence of ETH. 3 #12;Quantum Thermalization 4 #12;System THERMAL BATH () Quantum

57

Non-Markovian generalization of the Lindblad theory of open quantum systems

A systematic approach to the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems is given by the projection operator techniques of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Combining these methods with concepts from quantum information theory and from the theory of positive maps, we derive a class of correlated projection superoperators that take into account in an efficient way statistical correlations between the open system and its environment. The result is used to develop a generalization of the Lindblad theory to the regime of highly non-Markovian quantum processes in structured environments.

Breuer, Heinz-Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2007-02-15

58

Quantum Fisher Information Flow in Non-Markovian Processes of Open Systems

We propose to use the quantum Fisher information in characterizing the information flow of open quantum systems. This information-theoretic approach provides a quantitative measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly-analytic solution shows that the non-Markovianity is characterized by additive information sub-flows in different non-Markovian channels.

Xiao-Ming Lu; Xiaoguang Wang; C. P. Sun

2010-10-09

59

Non-Markovianity and memory effects in quantum open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a number of measures for quantum non-Markovianity have been proposed recently, it is still an open question whether these measures directly characterize the memory effect of the environment, i.e., the dependence of a quantum state on its past in a time evolution. In this paper, we present a criterion and propose a measure for non-Markovianity with clear physical interpretations of the memory effect. The non-Markovianity is defined by the inequality T (t2,t0) ?T (t2,t1) T (t1,t0) in terms of memoryless dynamical map T introduced in this paper. This definition is conceptually distinct from that based on divisibility used by Rivas et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.050403], whose violation is manifested by noncomplete positivity of the dynamical map. We demonstrate via a typical quantum process that without Markovian approximation, nonzero memory effects (non-Markovianity) always exist even if the non-Markovianity is zero by the other non-Markovianity measures.

Hou, S. C.; Liang, S. L.; Yi, X. X.

2015-01-01

60

QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte-Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well-suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction.

J. R. Johansson; P. D. Nation; Franco Nori

2011-11-22

61

Non-Markovian Open Quantum Systems: Lorentzian from Ohmic

As a general mission, reduced dynamics and master equations are advocated as alternative method and philosophy instead of Green functions, Kubo theory and the like. A smart reduction of the Lorentzian open system to the Ohmic one (Imamoglu, 1994) is presented in simple terms.

Diósi, Lajos

2011-01-01

62

Quantum Fisher information flow and non-Markovian processes of open systems

We establish an information-theoretic approach for quantitatively characterizing the non-Markovianity of open quantum processes. Here, the quantum Fisher information (QFI) flow provides a measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly analytic solution shows that for each fixed time the QFI flow is decomposed into additive subflows according to different dissipative channels.

Lu Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoguang [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Sun, C. P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15

63

Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems.

We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A? or 50 A?, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain around 7 or 14 chromophores, respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential natural optimization with respect to chromophoric density. PMID:23742477

Mohseni, M; Shabani, A; Lloyd, S; Omar, Y; Rabitz, H

2013-05-28

64

White Noise and Heating of Open Quantum Field Fermi Systems

I study the time evolution of the density matrices of quantum Fermi systems interacting with classic external Fermi fields. This interaction either changes the temperature of the system or it affects the density of particles. For relativistic Dirac fermions, variations of temperature lead to creation (annihilation) of particle - antiparticle pairs. The change of the density (or of the chemical potential) indicates the existence of the incoming (outgoing) flux of fermions from (to) the bath. These changes are independent for the different modes and in order to model the thermalization one should adjust the spectrum of the noise. The linear time dependences of the densities of particles are characteristic for all the processes.

A. A. Abrikosov Jr

1993-02-09

65

Geometric phase for an adiabatically evolving open quantum system

We derive a solution for a two-level system evolving adiabatically under the influence of a driving field, which includes open system effects. This solution, which is obtained by working in the representation corresponding to the eigenstates of the time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian, enables the dynamic and geometric phases of the evolving density matrix to be separated. The dynamic phase can be canceled in the limit of weak coupling to the environment, thereby allowing the geometric phase to be readily extracted both mathematically and operationally.

Kamleitner, Ingo [Australian Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Cresser, James D. [Australian Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Sanders, Barry C. [Australian Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computer Technology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2004-10-01

66

Chain representations of Open Quantum Systems and Lieb-Robinson like bounds for the dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk is concerned with the mapping of the Hamiltonian of open quantum systems onto chain representations, which forms the basis for a rigorous theory of the interaction of a system with its environment. This mapping progresses as an interaction which gives rise to a sequence of residual spectral densities of the system. The rigorous mathematical properties of this mapping have been unknown so far. Here we develop the theory of secondary measures to derive an analytic, expression for the sequence solely in terms of the initial measure and its associated orthogonal polynomials of the first and second kind. These mappings can be thought of as taking a highly nonlocal Hamiltonian to a local Hamiltonian. In the latter, a Lieb-Robinson like bound for the dynamics of the open quantum system makes sense. We develop analytical bounds on the error to observables of the system as a function of time when the semi-infinite chain in truncated at some finite length. The fact that this is possible shows that there is a finite ``Speed of sound'' in these chain representations. This has many implications of the simulatability of open quantum systems of this type and demonstrates that a truncated chain can faithfully reproduce the dynamics at shorter times. These results make a significant and mathematically rigorous contribution to the understanding of the theory of open quantum systems; and pave the way towards the efficient simulation of these systems, which within the standard methods, is often an intractable problem.

Woods, Mischa

2013-03-01

67

Experimentally witnessing the initial correlation between an open quantum system and its environment

System-environment correlations, which determine the (non-)Markovian character of a dynamical process, is an area of intense interest in the study of open quantum systems. We send photons emitted from a quantum dot sample into a 15-m polarization-maintaining optical fiber to generate different system-environment correlated states and then witness the correlations by observing the growth of trace distances. This experimental scheme of correlation witnessing based on system-environment information flow can also be used for other similar systems.

Li Chuanfeng; Tang Jianshun; Li Yulong; Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China)

2011-06-15

68

A key lesson of the decoherence program is that information flowing out from an open system is stored in the quantum state of the surroundings. Simultaneously, quantum measurement theory shows that the evolution of any open system when its environment is measured is nonlinear and leads to pure states conditioned on the measurement record. Here we report the discovery of a fundamental relation between measurement and entanglement which is characteristic of this scenario. It takes the form of a scaling law between the amount of entanglement in the conditional state of the system and the probabilities of the experimental outcomes obtained from measuring the state of the environment. Using the scaling, we construct the distribution of entanglement over the ensemble of experimental outcomes for standard models with one open channel and provide rigorous results on finite-time disentanglement in systems coupled to non-Markovian baths. The scaling allows the direct experimental detection and quantification of entangl...

Urbina, Juan Diego; Viviescas, Carlos

2012-01-01

69

Real-time transport in open quantum systems from PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale electronic transport is of intense technological interest, with applications ranging from semiconducting devices and molecular junctions to charge migration in biological systems. Most explicit theoretical approaches treat transport using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions. This is a static formalism, with dynamic response properties accommodated only through complicated extensions. To circumvent this limitation, the carrier density may be propagated using real-time time-dependent DFT (RT-TDDFT), with boundary conditions corresponding to an open quantum system. Complex absorbing potentials can emulate outgoing particles at the simulation boundary, although these do not account for introduction of charge density. It is demonstrated that the desired positive particle flux is afforded by a class of PT-symmetric generating potentials that are characterized by anisotropic transmission resonances. These potentials add density every time a particle traverses the cell boundary, and may be used to engineer a continuous pulse train for incident packets. This is a first step toward developing a complete transport formalism unique to RT-TDDFT.

Elenewski, Justin E.; Chen, Hanning

2014-08-01

70

Canonical versus noncanonical equilibration dynamics of open quantum systems.

In statistical mechanics, any quantum system in equilibrium with its weakly coupled reservoir is described by a canonical state at the same temperature as the reservoir. Here, by studying the equilibration dynamics of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a reservoir, we evaluate microscopically the condition under which the equilibration to a canonical state is valid. It is revealed that the non-Markovian effect and the availability of a stationary state of the total system play a profound role in the equilibration. In the Markovian limit, the conventional canonical state can be recovered. In the non-Markovian regime, when the stationary state is absent, the system equilibrates to a generalized canonical state at an effective temperature; whenever the stationary state is present, the equilibrium state of the system cannot be described by any canonical state anymore. Our finding of the physical condition on such noncanonical equilibration might have significant impact on statistical physics. A physical scheme based on circuit QED is proposed to test our results. PMID:25215704

Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong; Luo, Hong-Gang; Li, Yading; Oh, C H

2014-08-01

71

The state matrix ? for an open quantum system with Markovian evolution obeys a master equation. The master equation evolution can be unraveled into stochastic nonlinear trajectories for a pure state P, such that on average P reproduces ?. Here we give for the first time a complete parameterization of all diffusive unravelings (in which P evolves continuously but non-differentiably

H. M. Wiseman; L. Diósi

2001-01-01

72

Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-12-01

73

Theory for the optimal control of time-averaged quantities in open quantum systems

We present variational theory for optimal control over a finite time interval in quantum systems with relaxation. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations determining the optimal control field are derived. In our theory the optimal control field fulfills a high order differential equation, which we solve analytically for some limiting cases. We determine quantitatively how relaxation effects limit the control of the system. The theory is applied to open two level quantum systems. An approximate analytical solution for the level occupations in terms of the applied fields is presented. Different other applications are discussed.

Ilia Grigorenko; Martin E. Garcia; K. H. Bennemann

2002-03-25

74

Towards modeling of epigenetic evolution with the aid of theory of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply theory of open quantum systems to modeling of epigenetic evolution. This is an attempt to unify Darwinian and Lamarckian viewpoints on evolution on the basis of a quantum-like model. The state of uncertainty of cell's epigenome is resolved to a stable and inherited epigenetic configuration. This process of evolution and stabilization is described by the quantum master equation (the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation). The initial state of epigenome starting interaction with a new environment is represented as a pure quantum state. It evolves to a steady state solution of the quantum master equation given by a diagonal density matrix. The latter represents the state resulting from a series of epimutations induced by the environment. We use the information interpretation of the wave function which was elaborated by C. Fuchs and A. Zeilinger.

Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

2012-12-01

75

Exact quantum jump approach to open systems in bosonic and spin baths

A general method is developed which enables the exact treatment of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems through a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The method is based on a stochastic formulation of the von Neumann equation of the composite system and employs a pair of product states following a Markovian random jump process. The performance of the method is illustrated by means of stochastic simulations of the dynamics of open systems interacting with a Bosonic reservoir at zero temperature and with a spin bath in the strong coupling regime.

Breuer, Heinz-Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2004-02-01

76

QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction. Catalogue identifier: AEMB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 16 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 213 438 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python Computer: i386, x86-64 Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7 External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.org/), Matplotlib (http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems. Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad master equation or Monte Carlo wave function method. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of minutes, depending on size of underlying Hilbert space.

Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco

2012-08-01

77

We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We show that non-quadratic (nonlinear) terms in a Hamiltonian provide a singular “quantum” perturbation for observables in some “mesoscopic” region of parameters. In particular, quantum effects result in secular terms in the dynamical evolution, that

Gennady P. Berman; Fausto Borgonovi; Diego A. R. Dalvit

2009-01-01

78

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that nonequilibrium quantum criticality in open systems under the Born-Markov approximation can be described by a master equation of the Lindblad form. This master equation is derived from a system coupling weakly to a heat bath microscopically and is suggested to provide an approach to study dynamic quantum critical behavior of the system at finite temperatures. We find that the dissipation rate in the equation representing the coupling must be included in the scaling forms as an indispensable additional scaling variable in order to correctly describe the nonequilibrium quantum critical behavior, yet the equilibrium fixed point determines the nonequilibrium critical behavior in the weak coupling limit. Through numerically solving the Lindblad equation for the quantum Ising chain, we affirm these propositions by finite-time scaling forms with the dissipation rate. Nonequilibrium dynamic critical behavior of spontaneous emissions in dissipative open systems at zero temperature near their quantum critical points is discovered and is also described well by the scaling forms.

Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan

2014-03-01

79

Absorption and injection models for open time-dependent quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the time-dependent simulation of pure states dealing with transport in open quantum systems, the initial state is located outside of the active region of interest. Using the superposition principle and the analytical knowledge of the free time evolution of such a state outside the active region, together with absorbing layers and remapping, a model for a very significant reduction of the computational burden associated with the numerical simulation of open time-dependent quantum systems is presented. The model is specially suited to study (many-particle and high-frequency effects) quantum transport, but it can also be applied to any other research field where the initial time-dependent pure state is located outside of the active region. From numerical simulations of open quantum systems described by the (effective mass) Schrödinger and (atomistic) tight-binding equations, a reduction of the computational burden of about two orders of magnitude for each spatial dimension of the domain with a negligible error is presented.

Traversa, F. L.; Zhan, Z.; Oriols, X.

2014-08-01

80

Absorption and injection models for open time-dependent quantum systems.

In the time-dependent simulation of pure states dealing with transport in open quantum systems, the initial state is located outside of the active region of interest. Using the superposition principle and the analytical knowledge of the free time evolution of such a state outside the active region, together with absorbing layers and remapping, a model for a very significant reduction of the computational burden associated with the numerical simulation of open time-dependent quantum systems is presented. The model is specially suited to study (many-particle and high-frequency effects) quantum transport, but it can also be applied to any other research field where the initial time-dependent pure state is located outside of the active region. From numerical simulations of open quantum systems described by the (effective mass) Schrödinger and (atomistic) tight-binding equations, a reduction of the computational burden of about two orders of magnitude for each spatial dimension of the domain with a negligible error is presented. PMID:25215848

Traversa, F L; Zhan, Z; Oriols, X

2014-08-01

81

Simulation of single-qubit open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum algorithm is presented for the simulation of arbitrary Markovian dynamics of a qubit, described by a semigroup of single-qubit quantum channels {Tt} specified by a generator L. This algorithm requires only single-qubit and controlled-not gates and approximates the channel Tt=etL up to the chosen accuracy ?, with a slightly superlinear cost O((?L?(1?1)t)1+1/2k/?1/2k) for any integer k. Inspired by developments in Hamiltonian simulation, a decomposition and recombination technique is utilized which allows for the exploitation of recently developed methods for the approximation of arbitrary single-qubit channels. In particular, as a result of these methods the algorithm requires only a single ancilla qubit, the minimal possible dilation for a nonunitary single-qubit quantum channel.

Sweke, Ryan; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

2014-08-01

82

Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling

We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.

Broadbent, Curtis J., E-mail: curtis.broadbent@rochester.edu [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)] [Center for Controlled Quantum Systems, and the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Eberly, Joseph H. [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)] [Rochester Theory Center, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

2012-08-15

83

We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which experiences random collisions with gas particles. Previous studies on this topic applied scattering theory to momentum eigenstates. We present a supplementary approach, where we develop a rigorous measurement interpretation of the collision process to derive a master equation. Finally, we study the collisional decoherence process in terms of the Wigner function. We restrict ourselves to one spatial dimension. Nevertheless, we find some interesting new insight, including that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not real, but a consequence of the Markovian approximation. Further, we discover that the leading decoherence process is due to phase averaging, rather than induced by the information transfer between the colliding particles.

Ingo Kamleitner

2010-09-22

84

Post-Markov master equation for the dynamics of open quantum systems

A systematic first-order correction to the standard Markov master equation for open quantum systems interacting with a bosonic bath is presented. It extends the Markov Lindblad master equation to the more general case of non-Markovian evolution. The meaning and applications of our `post'-Markov master equation are illustrated with several examples, including a damped two-level atom, the spin-boson model and the quantum Brownian motion model. Limitations of the Markov approximation, the problem of positivity violation and initial slips are also discussed.

Ting Yu; Lajos Diosi; Nicolas Gisin; Walter T. Strunz

1999-05-04

85

Post-Markov master equation for the dynamics of open quantum systems

A systematic first-order correction to the standard Markov master equation for open quantum systems interacting with a bosonic bath is presented. It extends the Markov Lindblad master equation to the more general case of non-Markovian evolution. The meaning and applications of our `post'-Markov master equation are illustrated with several examples, including a damped two-level atom, the spin-boson model and the quantum Brownian motion model. Limitations of the Markov approximation, the problem of positivity violation and initial slips are also discussed.

Yu, T; Gisin, Nicolas; Strunz, W T; Diosi, Lajos; Gisin, Nicolas; Strunz, Walter T.

2000-01-01

86

A probability current analysis of energy transport in open quantum systems

We introduce a probability current analysis of excitation energy transfer between states of an open quantum system. Expressing the energy transfer through currents of excitation probability between the states in a site representation enables us to gain key insights into the energy transfer dynamics. It allows to, i) identify the pathways of energy transport in large networks of sites and to quantify their relative weights, ii) quantify the respective contributions of unitary dynamics, dephasing, and relaxation/dissipation processes to the energy transfer, and iii) quantify the contribution of coherence to the energy transfer. Our analysis is general and can be applied to a broad range of open quantum system descriptions (with coupling to non-Markovian environments) in a straightforward manner.

Jan J. J. Roden; K. Birgitta Whaley

2015-01-24

87

The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics.

J. -T. Hsiang; B. L. Hu

2014-06-01

88

Influence of external magnetic field on dynamics of open quantum systems

The influence of an external magnetic field on the non-Markovian dynamics of an open two-dimensional quantum system is investigated. The fluctuations of collective coordinate and momentum and transport coefficients are studied for a charged harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a neutral bosonic heat bath. It is shown that the dissipation of collective energy slows down with increasing strength of the external magnetic field. The role of magnetic field in the diffusion processes is illustrated by several examples.

Kalandarov, Sh. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

89

Problem-free time-dependent variational principle for open quantum systems

Methods of quantum nuclear wave-function dynamics have become very efficient in simulating large isolated systems using the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). However, a straightforward extension of the TDVP to the density matrix framework gives rise to methods that do not conserve the energy in the isolated system limit and the total system population for open systems where only energy exchange with the environment is allowed. These problems arise when the system density is in a mixed state and is simulated using an incomplete basis. Thus, the basis set incompleteness, which is inevitable in practical calculations, creates artificial channels for energy and population dissipation. To overcome this unphysical behavior, we have introduced a constrained Lagrangian formulation of TDVP applied to the non-stochastic open system Schrodinger equation (NOSSE) [L. Joubert-Doriol, I. G. Ryabinkin, and A. F. Izmaylov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 234112 (2014)]. While our formulation can be applied to any variational a...

Joubert-Doriol, Loic

2015-01-01

90

Non-Markovian Open Quantum Systems: Input-Output Fields, Memory, Monitoring

Principles of monitoring non-Markovian open quantum systems are analyzed. We use the field representation of the environment (Gardiner and Collet, 1985) for the separation of its memory and detector part, respectively. We claim the system-plus-memory compound becomes Markovian, the detector part is tractable by standard Markovian monitoring. Because of non-Markovianity, only the mixed state of the system can be predicted, the pure state of the system can be retrodicted. We present the corresponding non-Markovian stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation.

Diósi, Lajos

2011-01-01

91

Simulating open quantum systems: from many-body interactions to stabilizer pumping

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent experiment, Barreiro et al (2011 Nature 470 486) demonstrated the fundamental building blocks of an open-system quantum simulator with trapped ions. Using up to five ions, dynamics were realized by sequences that combined single- and multi-qubit entangling gate operations with optical pumping. This enabled the implementation of both coherent many-body dynamics and dissipative processes by controlling the coupling of the system to an artificial, suitably tailored environment. This engineering was illustrated by the dissipative preparation of entangled two- and four-qubit states, the simulation of coherent four-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of a multi-qubit stabilizer operator. In this paper, we present the theoretical framework of this gate-based ('digital') simulation approach for open-system dynamics with trapped ions. In addition, we discuss how within this simulation approach, minimal instances of spin models of interest in the context of topological quantum computing and condensed matter physics can be realized in state-of-the-art linear ion-trap quantum computing architectures. We outline concrete simulation schemes for Kitaev's toric code Hamiltonian and a recently suggested color code model. The presented simulation protocols can be adapted to scalable and two-dimensional ion-trap architectures, which are currently under development.

Müller, M.; Hammerer, K.; Zhou, Y. L.; Roos, C. F.; Zoller, P.

2011-08-01

92

Avoiding dark states in open quantum systems by tailored initializations.

We study the transport of excitations on a network of three coupled two-level systems that are subjected to an environment that induces incoherent hopping between the nodes. The two end nodes are coupled to a source while the central node is coupled to a drain. A common feature of these networks is the existence of a dark state that blocks the transport to the drain. Here we propose a means to avoid this state by a suitable initialization of the system, induced by a source that is common to both coupled nodes. PMID:23005149

Schijven, P; Mülken, O

2012-06-01

93

Intermittency and dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use high-order cumulants to investigate the Lee-Yang zeros of generating functions of dynamical observables in open quantum systems. At long times the generating functions take on a large-deviation form with singularities of the associated cumulant generating functions—or dynamical free energies—signifying phase transitions in the ensemble of dynamical trajectories. We consider a driven three-level system as well as the dissipative Ising model. Both systems exhibit dynamical intermittency in the statistics of quantum jumps. From the short-time behavior of the dynamical Lee-Yang zeros, we identify critical values of the counting field which we attribute to the observed intermittency and dynamical phase coexistence. Furthermore, for the dissipative Ising model we construct a trajectory phase diagram and estimate the value of the transverse field where the stationary state changes from being ferromagnetic (inactive) to paramagnetic (active).

Hickey, James M.; Flindt, Christian; Garrahan, Juan P.

2014-12-01

94

We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We show that non-quadratic (nonlinear) terms in a Hamiltonian provide a singular "quantum" perturbation for observables in some "mesoscopic" region of parameters. In particular, quantum effects result in secular terms in the dynamical evolution, that grow in time. We argue that even for open quantum nonlinear systems in the deep quasi-classical region, these quantum effects can survive after decoherence and relaxation processes take place. We demonstrate that these quantum effects in open quantum systems can be observed, for example, in the frequency Fourier spectrum of the dynamical observables, or in the corresponding spectral density of noise. Estimates are presented for Bose-Einstein condensates, low temperature mechanical resonators, and nonlinear optical systems prepared in large amplitude coherent states. In particular, we show that for Bose-Einstein condensate systems the characteristic time of deviation of quantum dynamics for observables from the corresponding classical dynamics coincides with the characteristic time-scale of the well-known quantum nonlinear effect of phase diffusion.

Gennady P. Berman; Fausto Borgonovi; Diego A. R. Dalvit

2008-01-29

95

In this paper, we provide a mechanism of decoherence suppression for open quantum systems in general and that for a ''Schroedinger cat-like'' state in particular, through strong couplings to non-Markovian reservoirs. Different from the usual strategies in the literature of suppressing decoherence by decoupling the system from the environment, here the decoherence suppression employs a strong back-reaction from non-Markovian reservoirs. The mechanism relies on the existence of the singularities (bound states) of the nonequilibrium retarded Green function, which completely determines the dissipation and decoherence dynamics of open systems. As an application, we examine the decoherence dynamics of a photonic crystal nanocavity that is coupled to a waveguide. The strong non-Markovian suppression of decoherence for the ''optical cat'' state is attained.

Lei, Chan U [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Zhang Weimin [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

96

The state matrix $\\rho$ for an open quantum system with Markovian evolution obeys a master equation. The master equation evolution can be unraveled into stochastic nonlinear trajectories for a pure state $P$, such that on average $P$ reproduces $\\rho$. Here we give for the first time a complete parameterization of all diffusive unravelings (in which $P$ evolves continuously but non-differentiably in time). We give an explicit measurement theory interpretation for these quantum trajectories, in terms of monitoring the system's environment. We also introduce new classes of diffusive unravelings that are invariant under the linear operator transformations under which the master equation is invariant. We illustrate these invariant unravelings by numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss generalized gauge transformations as a method of connecting apparently disparate descriptions of the same trajectories by stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations, and their invariance properties.

H. M. Wiseman; L. Diosi

2000-12-04

97

The harmonic oscillator with dissipation within the theory of open quantum systems

Time evolution of the expectation values of various dynamical operators of the harmonic oscillator with dissipation is analitically obtained within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. We deduce the density matrix of the damped harmonic oscillator from the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the coherent state representation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator. The Fokker-Planck equation for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the $\\delta$-function type of initial conditions, is also solved by using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths.

A. Isar

2005-08-18

98

Lyapunov control on quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the scheme of quantum Lyapunov control and its applications into quantum systems. After a brief review on the general method of quantum Lyapunov control in closed and open quantum systems, we apply it into controlling quantum states and quantum operations. The control of a spin-1/2 quantum system, driving an open quantum system into its decoherence free subspace (DFS), constructing single qubit and two-qubit logic gates are taken to illustrate the scheme. The optimalization of the Lyapunov control is also reviewed in this article.

Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

2014-12-01

99

In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.

Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten [Institut fuer Reine und Angewandte Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2012-03-28

100

Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-04-21

101

It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.

Basharov, A. M., E-mail: basharov@gmail.com [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

102

Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: Stability analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.020406 106, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct adaptive monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a finite state machine as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.

Karasik, R. I.; Wiseman, H. M.

2011-11-01

103

Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: Stability analysis

A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct adaptive monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a finite state machine as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.

Karasik, R. I.; Wiseman, H. M. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Australian Research Council), Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

2011-11-15

104

Coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficients: Decay rate in open quantum systems

Based on a master equation for the reduced density matrix of an open quantum collective system, the influence of coordinate-dependent microscopical diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a metastable state is treated. For various frictions and temperatures larger than a crossover temperature, the quasistationary decay rates obtained with the coordinate-dependent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients are compared with those obtained with the coordinate-independent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients and coordinate-independent and -dependent phenomenological sets of diffusion coefficients. Neglecting the coordinate dependence of diffusion coefficients, one can strongly overestimate or underestimate the decay rate at low temperature. The coordinate-dependent phenomenological diffusion coefficient in momentum are shown to be suitable for applications.

Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Palchikov, Yu. V.; Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

2007-06-15

105

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15

106

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; López, Adrián E. Rubio

2011-11-01

107

Optimal control in an open quantum system : selecting DNP pathways in an electron-nuclear system

There is much interest in improving quantum control techniques for the purposes of quantum information processing. High fidelity control is necessary for the future of quantum computing. Optimal control theory has been ...

Sheldon, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)

2013-01-01

108

Energetic fluctuations in an open quantum process

Relations similar to work and exchange fluctuations have been recently derived for open systems dynamically evolving in the presence of an ancilla. Extending these relations and constructing a non-equilibrium Helmholtz equation we derive a general expression for the energetic and entropic changes of an open quantum system undergoing a nontrivial evolution. The expressions depend only on the state of the system and the dynamical map generating the evolution. Furthermore our formalism makes no assumption on either the nature or dimension of the ancilla. Our results are expected to find application in understanding the energetics of complex quantum systems undergoing open dynamics.

John Goold; Kavan Modi

2014-07-17

109

Time-reversal symmetric resolution of unity without background integrals in open quantum systems

We present a new complete set of states for a class of open quantum systems, to be used in expansion of the Green's function and the time-evolution operator. A remarkable feature of the complete set is that it observes time-reversal symmetry in the sense that it contains decaying states (resonant states) and growing states (anti-resonant states) parallelly. We can thereby pinpoint the occurrence of the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the choice of whether we solve Schroedinger equation as an initial-condition problem or a terminal-condition problem. Another feature of the complete set is that in the subspace of the central scattering area of the system, it consists of contributions of all states with point spectra but does not contain any background integrals. In computing the time evolution, we can clearly see contribution of which point spectrum produces which time dependence. In the whole infinite state space, the complete set does contain an integral but it is over unperturbed eigenstates of the environmental area of the system and hence can be calculated analytically. We demonstrate the usefulness of the complete set by computing explicitly the survival probability and the escaping probability as well as the dynamics of wave packets. The origin of each term of matrix elements is clear in our formulation, particularly the exponential decays due to the resonance poles.

Naomichi Hatano; Gonzalo Ordonez

2014-05-26

110

It is shown that the exact dynamics of a composite quantum system can be represented through a pair of product states which evolve according to a Markovian random jump process. This representation is used to design a general Monte Carlo wave function method that enables the stochastic treatment of the full non-Markovian behavior of open quantum systems. Numerical simulations are carried out which demonstrate that the method is applicable to open systems strongly coupled to a bosonic reservoir, as well as to the interaction with a spin bath. Full details of the simulation algorithms are given, together with an investigation of the dynamics of fluctuations. Several potential generalizations of the method are outlined.

Heinz-Peter Breuer

2003-09-15

111

Controlling the dynamics of an open many-body quantum system with localized dissipation.

We experimentally investigate the action of a localized dissipative potential on a macroscopic matter wave, which we implement by shining an electron beam on an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We measure the losses induced by the dissipative potential as a function of the dissipation strength observing a paradoxical behavior when the strength of the dissipation exceeds a critical limit: for an increase of the dissipation rate the number of atoms lost from the BEC becomes lower. We repeat the experiment for different parameters of the electron beam and we compare our results with a simple theoretical model, finding excellent agreement. By monitoring the dynamics induced by the dissipative defect we identify the mechanisms which are responsible for the observed paradoxical behavior. We finally demonstrate the link between our dissipative dynamics and the measurement of the density distribution of the BEC allowing for a generalized definition of the Zeno effect. Because of the high degree of control on every parameter, our system is a promising candidate for the engineering of fully governable open quantum systems. PMID:23373931

Barontini, G; Labouvie, R; Stubenrauch, F; Vogler, A; Guarrera, V; Ott, H

2013-01-18

112

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: MATLAB R2012a. Computer: See “Operating system”. Operating system: Any operating system that can run MATLAB R2007a or above. Classification: 4.4. Nature of problem: Calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator of an open quantum system. Solution method: Numerical Feynman integral. Running time: Depends on the input parameters. See the main text for examples.

Dattani, Nikesh S.

2013-12-01

113

We obtain an exact many-body scattering eigenstate in an open quantum dot system. The scattering state is not in the form of the Bethe eigenstate in the sense that the wave-number set of the incoming plane wave is not conserved during the scattering and many-body bound states appear. By using the scattering state, we study the average nonequilibrium current through the quantum dot under a finite bias voltage. The current-voltage characteristics that we obtained by taking the two-body bound state into account is qualitatively similar to several known results.

Akinori Nishino; Takashi Imamura; Naomichi Hatano

2009-10-30

114

We obtain an exact many-body scattering eigenstate in an open quantum dot system. The scattering state is not in the form of the Bethe eigenstate in the sense that the wave-number set of the incoming plane wave is not conserved during the scattering and many-body bound states appear. By using the scattering state, we study the average nonequilibrium current through the quantum dot under a finite bias voltage. The current-voltage characteristics that we obtained by taking the two-body bound state into account is qualitatively similar to several known results.

Nishino, Akinori; Hatano, Naomichi

2009-01-01

115

Phase lapses in open quantum systems and the non-Hermitian Hamilton operator

We study transmission through a system with N=10 states coupled to K=2 continua of scattering wave functions in the framework of the S matrix theory by using the Feshbach projection operator formalism for open quantum systems. Due to the coupling of the system (being localized in space) to the (extended) continuum of scattering wave functions, the Hamilton operator H{sub eff} of the system is non-Hermitian. The numerical calculations are performed for different distributions of both the positions E{sub i}{sup 0} (i=1,...,N) of the states of the isolated (closed) system and the elements of the coupling vectors V{sup c} between system and continua (c=1,...,K). The overall coupling strength {alpha} simulating the degree of resonance overlapping, is used as a parameter. In all cases, the complex eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H{sub eff} are controlled by {alpha}. In the regime of overlapping resonances, the well-known spectroscopic reordering processes (resonance trapping) take place because the phases of the eigenfunctions of H{sub eff} are not rigid in the neighborhood of singular points (being crossing points of eigenvalue trajectories). Finally, width bifurcation generates K=2 short-lived and N-K trapped long-lived states. Thus, narrow (Fano-like) resonances may appear in the transmission at high level density. They are similar to, but different from the Fano resonances in the scattering theory with K=1. Phase lapses are related to zeros in the transmission probability. Their number and position (in energy) are determined by the V{sup c} and E{sub i}{sup 0}, but not by {alpha}. However, number and position of the resonance states depend on {alpha} due to resonance trapping occurring in the regime of overlapping resonances. As a consequence, universal phase lapses between every two resonances may appear at high level density while the system will show mesoscopic features at low level density. The phase lapses are not a single phenomenon. Due to their link to singularities in the continuum, they are related also to other 'puzzling' experimental results such as dephasing at low temperature.

Mueller, Markus [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Rotter, Ingrid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2009-10-15

116

QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [J.R. Johansson, P.D. Nation, F. Nori, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1760.], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version. Catalog identifier: AEMB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33625 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 410064 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: i386, x86-64. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX. RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7. External routines: NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, Cython Catalog identifier of previous version: AEMB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1760 Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, and Bloch-Redfield master equations, as well as the Monte Carlo wave function method. Reasons for new version: Compared to the preceding version we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, or Bloch-Redfield form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of hours, depending on size of the underlying Hilbert space.

Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco

2013-04-01

117

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a generalization of the expression of the nonequilibrium (NE) density matrix obtained by Hershfield's method for the cases where both heat and charge steady-state currents are present in a quantum open system. The finite-size quantum system, connected to two temperature and particle reservoirs, is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both a temperature gradient and a chemical potential gradient between the two reservoirs. We show that the NE density matrix is given by a generalized Gibbs-like ensemble and is in full agreement with the general results of the McLennan-Zubarev nonequilibrium ensembles. The extra nonequilibrium terms are related to the entropy production in the system and characterize the fluxes of heat and particle. An explicit example, for the lowest-order expansion, is provide for a model system of noninteracting fermions.

Ness, H.

2014-12-01

118

We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We argue that for open quantum nonlinear systems in the deep quasi-classical region, important quantum effects survive even after and relaxation processes take place. Estimates are derived which demonstrate that for a wide class of nonlinear quantum dynamical systems interacting with the environment, and which are close to the corresponding classical systems, quantum effects still remain important and can be observed, for example, in the frequency Fourier spectrum of the dynamical observables and in the corresponding spectral density of the noise. These preliminary estimates are presented for Bose-Einstein condensates, low temperature mechanical resonators, and nonlinear optical systems prepared in large amplitude coherent states.

Berman, G P; Dalvit, D A R; Berman, Gennady P.; Borgonovi, Fausto; Dalvit, Diego A.R.

2006-01-01

119

KNIT : An open source code for quantum transport in multi-terminal systems

This paper is the documentation for a numerical code for quantum transport called KNIT. The KNIT library implements a generalization of the well known recursive Green function technique for a large class of multi-terminal mesoscopic systems with arbitrary geometries, topology and dimension. The systems are described by tight-biding Hamiltonians (with arbitrary internal degree of freedom like spin, electron/hole grading, orbitals...) and the calculation done within the non equilibrium Green function formalism (equivalent to the Landauer-Buttiker Scattering approach). KNIT can (and has) been applied to many different physical systems including quantum Hall effect, topological insulators, graphene ribbons, hybrid superconducting systems and ferromagnetic multilayers. KNIT main functionality is written in C++ and wrapped into Python, providing a simple and flexible interface for the user. Usual "input files" of numerical codes are replaced by small python scripts where the user builds the system and then computes...

Rychkova, Irina; Kazymyrenko, Kyryl; Borlenghi, Simone; Waintal, Xavier

2010-01-01

120

Non-Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system with nonstationary coupling

The spectral, dissipative, and statistical properties of the damped quantum oscillator are studied in the case of non-Markovian and nonstationary system-heat bath coupling. The dissipation of collective energy is shown to be slowed down, and the decoherence rate and entropy grow with modulation frequency.

Kalandarov, S. A.; Adamian, G. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

2011-04-15

121

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explanation of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in systems with few degrees of freedom demands a deep theoretical analysis that considers the observed system as an open quantum system. In this work, we study the problem of decoherence of an observed system of quantum interacting particles, coupled to a quantum lattice. Our strategy is based on treating the environment and the system-environment Hamiltonians fully quantum mechanically, which yields a representation of the time evolution operator useful for disentangling the different time scales underlying in the observed system dynamics. To describe the possible different stages of the dynamics of the observed system, we introduce quantum mechanical definitions of essentially isolated, essentially adiabatic, and thermal-contact system-environment interactions. This general approach is then applied to the study of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) of nematic liquid crystals. A summary of the original results of this work is as follows. We calculate the decoherence function and apply it to describe the evolution of a coherent spin state, induced by the coupling with the molecular environment, in absence of spin-lattice relaxation. By assuming quantum energy conserving or non-demolition interactions, we identify an intermediate time scale, between those controlled by self-interactions and thermalization, where coherence decays irreversibly. This treatment is also adequate for explaining the buildup of quasi-equilibrium of the proton spin system, via the process we called eigen-selectivity. By analyzing a hypothetical time reversal experiment, we identify two sources of coherence loss which are of a very different nature and give rise to distinct time scales of the spin dynamics: (a) reversible or adiabatic quantum decoherence and (b) irreversible or essentially adiabatic quantum decoherence. Local irreversibility arises as a consequence of the uncertainty introduced by the coupling with an infinite quantum environment. The reversible part can be represented by a semiclassical model, similar to standard line-shape adiabatic models. By exploiting the separation existing between the time scales of the spin coherences and the irreversible decoherence, we present a novel technique to obtain the orientational molecular distribution function for a nematic liquid crystal. The procedure is based on the comparison of the observed coherence time evolution and numerical calculation under the adiabatic quantum decoherence approach. As an example, it is used the experimental free induction decay from a nematic PAAd6 sample to extract such an orientational distribution. This is the first theoretical description of the experimental liquid crystal NMR signal in the time domain. On the contrary, the irreversible decoherence is intrinsically full-quantum mechanical, as it is governed by the commutation properties of the environment and the spin-lattice Hamiltonians. Consistently, it depends on the molecular correlation in a decisive way, since it vanishes under a mean-field model for the molecular dynamics. The results of this work can contribute to the understanding of the open question of the applicability of the spin-temperature concept in spin systems with few degrees of freedom.

Segnorile, Héctor H.; Zamar, Ricardo C.

2011-12-01

122

Explanation of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in systems with few degrees of freedom demands a deep theoretical analysis that considers the observed system as an open quantum system. In this work, we study the problem of decoherence of an observed system of quantum interacting particles, coupled to a quantum lattice. Our strategy is based on treating the environment and the system-environment Hamiltonians fully quantum mechanically, which yields a representation of the time evolution operator useful for disentangling the different time scales underlying in the observed system dynamics. To describe the possible different stages of the dynamics of the observed system, we introduce quantum mechanical definitions of essentially isolated, essentially adiabatic, and thermal-contact system-environment interactions. This general approach is then applied to the study of decoherence and quasi-equilibrium in proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) of nematic liquid crystals. A summary of the original results of this work is as follows. We calculate the decoherence function and apply it to describe the evolution of a coherent spin state, induced by the coupling with the molecular environment, in absence of spin-lattice relaxation. By assuming quantum energy conserving or non-demolition interactions, we identify an intermediate time scale, between those controlled by self-interactions and thermalization, where coherence decays irreversibly. This treatment is also adequate for explaining the buildup of quasi-equilibrium of the proton spin system, via the process we called eigen-selectivity. By analyzing a hypothetical time reversal experiment, we identify two sources of coherence loss which are of a very different nature and give rise to distinct time scales of the spin dynamics: (a) reversible or adiabatic quantum decoherence and (b) irreversible or essentially adiabatic quantum decoherence. Local irreversibility arises as a consequence of the uncertainty introduced by the coupling with an infinite quantum environment. The reversible part can be represented by a semiclassical model, similar to standard line-shape adiabatic models. By exploiting the separation existing between the time scales of the spin coherences and the irreversible decoherence, we present a novel technique to obtain the orientational molecular distribution function for a nematic liquid crystal. The procedure is based on the comparison of the observed coherence time evolution and numerical calculation under the adiabatic quantum decoherence approach. As an example, it is used the experimental free induction decay from a nematic PAA(d6) sample to extract such an orientational distribution. This is the first theoretical description of the experimental liquid crystal NMR signal in the time domain. On the contrary, the irreversible decoherence is intrinsically full-quantum mechanical, as it is governed by the commutation properties of the environment and the spin-lattice Hamiltonians. Consistently, it depends on the molecular correlation in a decisive way, since it vanishes under a mean-field model for the molecular dynamics. The results of this work can contribute to the understanding of the open question of the applicability of the spin-temperature concept in spin systems with few degrees of freedom. PMID:22225171

Segnorile, Héctor H; Zamar, Ricardo C

2011-12-28

123

Real-Time Simulation of Large Open Quantum Spin Systems driven by Measurements

We consider a large quantum system with spins $\\frac{1}{2}$ whose dynamics is driven entirely by measurements of the total spin of spin pairs. This gives rise to a dissipative coupling to the environment. When one averages over the measurement results, the corresponding real-time path integral does not suffer from a sign problem. Using an efficient cluster algorithm, we study the real-time evolution of a 2-d Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which is driven to a disordered phase, either by sporadic measurements or by continuous monitoring described by Lindblad evolution.

Banerjee, D; Kon, M; Wiese, U -J

2014-01-01

124

Real-time simulation of large open quantum spin systems driven by dissipation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a large quantum system with spins 1/2 whose dynamics is driven entirely by measurements of the total spin of spin pairs. This gives rise to a dissipative coupling to the environment. When one averages over the measurement results, the corresponding real-time path integral does not suffer from a sign problem. Using an efficient cluster algorithm, we study the real-time evolution from an initial antiferromagnetic state of the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, which is driven to a disordered phase, not by a Hamiltonian, but by sporadic measurements or by continuous Lindblad evolution.

Banerjee, D.; Jiang, F.-J.; Kon, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

2014-12-01

125

Real-Time Simulation of Large Open Quantum Spin Systems driven by Measurements

We consider a large quantum system with spins $\\frac{1}{2}$ whose dynamics is driven entirely by measurements of the total spin of spin pairs. This gives rise to a dissipative coupling to the environment. When one averages over the measurement results, the corresponding real-time path integral does not suffer from a sign problem. Using an efficient cluster algorithm, we study the real-time evolution of a 2-d Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which is driven to a disordered phase, either by sporadic measurements or by continuous monitoring described by Lindblad evolution.

D. Banerjee; F. -J. Jiang; M. Kon; U. -J. Wiese

2014-05-30

126

Multiscale dynamics of open three-level quantum systems with two quasi-degenerate levels

We consider a three-level quantum system interacting with a bosonic thermal reservoir. Two energy levels of the system are nearly degenerate but well separated from the third one. The system-reservoir interaction constant is larger than the energy difference of the degenerate levels, but it is smaller than the separation between the latter and the remaining level. We show that the quasi-degeneracy of energy levels leads to the existence of a manifold of quasi-stationary states, and the dynamics exhibits two characteristic time scales. On the first, shorter one, initial states approach the quasi-stationary manifold. Then, on the much longer second time scale, the final unique equilibrium is reached.

Marco Merkli; Haifeng Song; Gennady Berman

2014-11-11

127

Optimal Measurement and Control in Quantum Dynamical Systems.

', February 1979 Abstract A Markovian model for a quantum automata, i.e. an open quantum dynamical system containing quantum channels. Due to fundamental limitations of quantum-mechanical measurement a speci c prob, and the time development of the discrete models of quantum open systems for commu- nication and control became

Belavkin, Viacheslav P.

128

Today's most popular techniques for accurately calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator in an open quantum system, either require, or gain great computational benefits, from representing the bath response function a(t) in the form a(t)={\\Sigma}_k^K p_k e^{O_k t} . For some of these techniques, the number of terms in the series K plays the lead role in the computational cost of the calculation, and is therefore often a limiting factor in simulating open quantum system dynamics. We present an open source MATLAB program called BATHFIT 1, whose input is any spectral distribution functions J(w) or bath response function, and whose output attempts to be the set of parameters {p_k,w_k}_k=1^K such that for a given value of K, the series {\\Sigma}_k^k p_k e^{O_k t} is as close as possible to a(t). This should allow the user to represent a(t) as accurately as possible with as few parameters as possible. The program executes non-linear least squares fitting, and for a very wide variety of spectral distribution functions, competent starting parameters are used for these fits. For most forms of J(w), these starting parameters, and the exact a(t) corresponding to the given J(w), are calculated using the recent Pade decomposition technique - therefore this program can also be used to merely implement the Pade decomposition for these spectral distribution functions; and it can also be used just to efficiently and accurately calculate a(t) for any given J(w) . The program also gives the J(w) corresponding to a given a(t), which may allow one to assess the quality (in the w-domain) of a representation of a(t) being used. Finally, the program can calculate the discretized influence functional coefficients for any J(w), and this is computed very efficiently for most forms of J(w) by implementing the recent technique published in [Quantum Physics Letters (2012) 1 (1) pg. 35].

Nikesh S. Dattani; David M. Wilkins; Felix A. Pollock

2012-05-27

129

Open Source and Open Access Resources for Quantum Physics Education

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quantum mechanics is both a topic of great importance to modern science, engineering, and technology, and a topic with many inherent barriers to learning and understanding. Computational resources are vital tools for developing deep conceptual understanding of quantum systems for students new to the subject. This article outlines two projects that are taking an open source/open access approach to create and share teaching and learning resources for quantum physics. The Open Source Physics project provides program libraries, programming tools, example simulations, and pedagogical resources for instructors wishing to give a rich experience to their students. These simulations and student activities are, in turn, being integrated into a world?wide collection of teaching and learning resources available through the Quantum Exchange, a part of the ComPADRE Portal to the National Science Digital Library. Both of these projects use technologies that encourage community development and collaboration. Using these tools, faculty can create learning experiences, share and discuss their content with others, and combine resources in new ways. Examples of the available content and tools are given, along with an introduction to accessing and using these resources.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Mason, Bruce

2008-04-28

130

Robust quantum gates for open systems via optimal control: Markovian versus non-Markovian dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the implementation of one-, two- and three-qubit quantum gates for interacting qubits using optimal control. Markovian and non-Markovian environments are compared and efficient optimization algorithms utilizing analytic gradient expressions and quasi-Newton updates are given for both cases. The performance of the algorithms is analysed for a large set of problems in terms of the fidelities attained and the observed convergence behaviour. New notions of success rate and success speed are introduced and density plots are utilized to study the effects of key parameters, such as gate operation times, and random variables such as the initial fields required to start the iterative algorithm. Core characteristics of the optimal fields are analysed statistically. Substantial differences between Markovian and non-Markovian environments in terms of the possibilities for control and the control mechanisms are uncovered. In the non-Markovian case, gate fidelities improve substantially when the details of the system bath coupling are taken into account, although imperfections such as field leakage can be a significant problem. In the Markovian case, computation time is saved if the fields are pre-optimized neglecting the environment, while including the latter generally does not significantly improve gate fidelities.

Floether, Frederik F.; de Fouquieres, Pierre; Schirmer, Sophie G.

2012-07-01

131

Error-suppression by energy-gap protection for quantum computation in open systems

Adiabatic Quantum Computation, while attractive due to its "hands-off" approach and intrinsic tolerance of noise, has not been shown to be fully fault-tolerant in a satisfying manner. The protection of the evolution from ...

Zhou, Xiang-Yu (Xiang-Yu Leo)

2014-01-01

132

Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit.

Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian

2012-06-01

133

In this paper, the exact non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.

Tan, Hua-Tang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Wei-Min [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum information Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-03-15

134

A model of epigenetic evolution based on theory of open quantum systems.

We present a very general model of epigenetic evolution unifying (neo-)Darwinian and (neo-)Lamarckian viewpoints. The evolution is represented in the form of adaptive dynamics given by the quantum(-like) master equation. This equation describes development of the information state of epigenome under the pressure of an environment. We use the formalism of quantum mechanics in the purely operational framework. (Hence, our model has no direct relation to quantum physical processes inside a cell.) Thus our model is about probabilities for observations which can be done on epigenomes and it does not provide a detailed description of cellular processes. Usage of the operational approach provides a possibility to describe by one model all known types of cellular epigenetic inheritance. PMID:24432153

Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

2013-12-01

135

Fractal Weyl laws for chaotic open systems

We present a result relating the density of quantum resonances for an open chaotic system to the fractal dimension of the associated classical repeller. The result is supported by numerical computation of the resonances of the system of n disks on a plane. The result generalizes the Weyl law for the density of states of a closed system to chaotic open systems.

W. T. Lu; S. Sridhar; Maciej Zworski

2003-05-30

136

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth most abundant greenhouse gas, is rapidly increasing with emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources [1]. Soil and aquatic areas are important sources and sinks for N2O due to complicated biogenic processes. However, N2O emissions are poorly constrained in space and time, despite its importance to global climate change and ozone depletion. We report our recent N2O emission measurements with an open-path quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based sensor for ecological systems. The newly emergent QCLs have been used to build compact, sensitive trace gas sensors in the mid-IR spectral region. A compact open-path QCL based sensor was developed to detect atmospheric N2O and CO at ~ 4.5 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to achieve a sensitivity of 0.26 ppbv of N2O and 0.24 ppbv of CO in 1 s with a power consumption of ~50 W [2]. This portable sensor system has been used to perform N2O emission flux measurement both with a static flux chamber and on an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower. In the flux chamber measurements, custom chambers were used to host the laser sensor, while gas samples for gas chromatograph (GC) were collected at the same time in the same chamber for validation and comparison. Different soil treatments have been applied in different chambers to study the relationship between N2O emission and the amount of fertilizer (and water) addition. Measurements from two methods agreed with each other (95% or higher confidence interval) for emission flux results, while laser sensor gave measurements with a much high temporal resolution. We have also performed the first open-path eddy covariance N2O flux measurement at Kellogg research station, Michigan State University for a month in June, 2012. Our sensor was placed on a 4-meter tower in a corn field and powered by batteries (connected with solar panels). We have observed the diurnal cycle of N2O flux. During this deployment, an inter-comparison between our sensor and a commercial gas sensor was done to check the sensor's performance. Overall, our sensor showed a good performance with both static chamber measurement and EC flux measurement of N2O. Its open-path, compact and portable design with low power consumption provides lots of advantages for N2O emission flux measurement in the ecological systems. [1] S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, "Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change," Nature 476, 43-50 (2011). [2] L. Tao, K, Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan and M.A. Zondlo, "Optimizations for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser," CLEO, 2012

Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Gelfand, I.; Zenone, T.; Cui, M.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

2012-12-01

137

QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems

We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1760], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version.

J. R. Johansson; P. D. Nation; Franco Nori

2012-11-28

138

Quantum Dissipative Systems and Feedback Control Design by Interconnection

The purpose of this paper is to extend J.C. Willems' theory of dissipative systems to open quantum systems described by quantum noise models. This theory, which combines ideas from quantum physics and control theory, provides useful methods for analysis and design of dissipative quantum systems. We describe the interaction of the plant and a class of external systems, called exosystems,

Matthew R. James; John E. Gough

2010-01-01

139

Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum {{H}? } optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.

Vuglar, Shanon L.; Amini, Hadis

2014-12-01

140

Limit theorems for open quantum random walks

We consider the limit distributions of open quantum random walks on one-dimensional lattice space. We introduce a dual process to the original quantum walk process, which is quite similar to the relation of Schr\\"odinger-Heisenberg representation in quantum mechanics. By this, we can compute the distribution of the open quantum random walks concretely for many examples and thereby we can also obtain the limit distributions of them. In particular, it is possible to get rid of the initial state when we consider the evolution of the walk, it appears only in the last step of the computation.

Norio Konno; Hyun Jae Yoo

2012-09-06

141

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation allows us to model the process of decision making in US elections. The crucial point we attempt to make is that the voter's mental state can be represented as a superposition of two possible choices for either republicans or democrats. However, reality dictates a more complicated situation: typically a voter participates in two elections, i.e. the congress and the presidential elections. In both elections the voter has to decide between two choices. This very feature of the US election system requires that the mental state is represented by a 2-qubit state corresponding to the superposition of 4 different choices. The main issue is to describe the dynamics of the voters' mental states taking into account the mental and political environment. What is novel in this paper is that we apply the theory of open quantum systems to social science. The quantum master equation describes the resolution of uncertainty (represented in the form of superposition) to a definite choice.

Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

2014-04-01

142

Non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems without rotating wave approximation

We study the non-Markovian dynamics of a damped oscillator coupled with a reservoir. We present exact formulas for the oscillator's evolution directly from the BCH formula by series expansion with neither Markovian nor rotating wave approximation (RWA). Based on these, we show the existence of the non-Markovian feature of the system's evolution for the damped oscillator. By numerical simulation we find that the non-Markovian feature exists within a wide range of the coupling strength, even when the coupling strength is very small. To this problem, prior art results have assumed RWA and the existence of non-Markovian feature was found when the system-reservoir coupling is strong enough. However, as we show, given such a strong coupling, the original Hamiltonian without RWA is actually not physical. Therefore, our exact study here has thoroughly concluded the issue of non-Markovian feature.

Ming-Jia Tang; Yu-Kai Wu; Ming Lyu; Jia-Nan Tang; Zhen Guo; Tian Chen; Xiang-Bin Wang

2014-07-22

143

Mappings of open quantum systems onto chain representations and Markovian embeddings

We study systems coupled linearly to a bath of oscillators. In an iterative process, the bath is transformed into a chain of oscillators with nearest neighbour interactions. A systematic procedure is provided to obtain the spectral density of the residual bath in each step, and it is shown that under general conditions these data converge. That is, the asymptotic part of the chain is universal, translation invariant with semicircular spectral density. The methods are based on orthogonal polynomials, in which we also solve the outstanding so-called “sequence of secondary measures problem” and give them a physical interpretation.

Woods, M. P., E-mail: mischa.woods05@imperial.ac.uk [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Groux, R. [Lycée Polyvalent Rouvière, Rue Sainte Claire Deville. BP 1205, 83070 Toulon (France)] [Lycée Polyvalent Rouvière, Rue Sainte Claire Deville. BP 1205, 83070 Toulon (France); Chin, A. W.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B. [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2014-03-15

144

Continuously Diagonalized Density Operatorof Open Systems

We showed several years ago that the density operator of Markovian open systems can be diagonalized continuously in time. The resulting pure state jump processes correspond to quantum trajectories proposed in recent quantum optics calculations or, at fundamental level, to exact consistent histories.

Lajos Diosi

1994-10-26

145

Quantum Open-Closed Homotopy Algebra and String Field Theory

We reformulate the algebraic structure of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory in terms of homotopy algebras. We call it the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra (QOCHA) which is the generalization of the open-closed homotopy algebra (OCHA) of Kajiura and Stasheff. The homotopy formulation reveals new insights about deformations of open string field theory by closed string backgrounds. In particular, deformations by Maurer Cartan elements of the quantum closed homotopy algebra define consistent quantum open string field theories.

Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs

2011-10-19

146

This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.

Yan, YiJing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2014-02-07

147

We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The general method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system. We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the two-state system and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.

M. Carrega; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti; U. Weiss

2014-12-22

148

Open Source Physics: Quantum Spins

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OSP Spins is an interactive computer program that simulates Stern-Gerlach-type measurements on spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles. This package provides the user with a sequence of tutorials and exercises to help them explore the physics of quantum spin. Fundamental issues such as incompatible observables, eigenstate expansions, interference, and quantum dynamics are included.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-08-12

149

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate tunneling of conduction band electrons in a system of an asymmetric double quantum dot which interacts with an environment. First we consider the case in which the system only interacts with the environment and demonstrate that as time goes to infinity they both reach an equilibrium, which is expected, and there is always a maximum and minimum for the populations of the states of the system. Then we investigate the case in which an external resonant optical pulse (a laser) is applied to the system interacting with the environment. However, in this case for different intensities we have different populations of the states in equilibrium and as the intensity of the laser gets stronger, the populations of the states in equilibrium approach the same constant.

Ahmadi, B.; Salimi, S.; Khorashad, A. S.

2015-01-01

150

For discrete-time systems, governed by Kraus maps, the work of D. Petz has characterized the set of universal contraction metrics. In the present paper, we use this characterization to derive a set of quadratic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems, governed by Lindblad differential equations, that have a steady-state with full rank. An extremity of this set is given by the Bures metric, for which the quadratic Lyapunov function is obtained by inverting a Sylvester equation. We illustrate the method by providing a strict Lyapunov function for a Lindblad equation designed to stabilize a quantum electrodynamic "cat" state by reservoir engineering. In fact we prove that any Lindblad equation on the Hilbert space of the (truncated) harmonic oscillator, which has a full-rank equilibrium and which has, among its decoherence channels, a channel corresponding to the photon loss operator, globally converges to that equilibrium.

Pierre Rouchon; Alain Sarlette

2013-02-27

151

Open systems storage platforms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

Collins, Kirby

1992-01-01

152

Magmatic "Quantum-Like" Systems

Quantum computation has suggested, among others, the consideration of "non-quantum" systems which in certain respects may behave "quantum-like". Here, what algebraically appears to be the most general possible known setup, namely, of {\\it magmas} is used in order to construct "quantum-like" systems. The resulting magmatic composition of systems has as a well known particular case the tensor products.

Elemer E Rosinger

2008-12-16

153

Possible ''new'' quantum systems

Systems of spin-aligned hydrogen isotopes are studied. They are shown to exhibit even more extreme ''quantum'' behavior than the helium isotopes. Spin-aligned hydrogen is predicted to be a gas at all temperatures and its Bose-Einstein condensation and possible superfluidity are discussed. Spin-aligned deuterium is predicted to show critical behavior strongly influence by quantum mechanics. The preparation of spin-aligned hydrogen (in

Willian Stwalley; L. H. Nosanow

1976-01-01

154

Simulating quantum systems on a quantum computer

We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a

C. Zalka

1998-01-01

155

Open Source Physics: Quantum Mechanical Measurement

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of quantum mechanics java applets, part of the Open Source Physics project, provides simulations that demonstrate the effect of measurement on the time-dependence of quantum states. Exercises are available that demonstrate the results of measurement of energy, position, and momentum on states in potential wells (square well, harmonic oscillator, asymmetric well, etc). Eigenstates, superpositions of eigenstates, and wave packets can all be studied. Tutorials are also available. The material stresses the measurement of a quantum-mechanical wave function. The simulations can be delivered either through the OSP Launcher interface or embedded in html pages. The source code is available, and users are invited to contribute to the collection's development by submitting improvements. The simulations are available through the "View attached documents" link below.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-02

156

i t = H A Multi-Stage Ab-initio Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics Formalism for Electronic Structure University, Bloomington, IN 47405 Outline Â· Multi-Stage quantum Wavepacket Ab-initio Dynamical (MS- tive/regenerative behavior . Â· Multiple stages allows for computational simplicity and accuracy

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

157

Quantum Systems Bound by Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum systems contain charged particles around mini-holes called graviatoms. Electromagnetic and gravitational radiations for the graviatoms are calculated. Graviatoms with neutrino can form quantum macro-systems.

Fil'Chenkov, Michael L.; Kopylov, Sergey V.; Laptev, Yuri P.

2009-01-01

158

We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502–R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C{sub 2}, CN, Cr {sub 2}, and NO {sub 2}.

Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A., E-mail: damazz@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-03-28

159

Quantum generalized Toda system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a "spectral curve" for the generalized Toda system, which allows efficiently finding its quantization. In turn, the quantization is realized using the technique of the quantum characteristic polynomial for the Gaudin system and an appropriate Alder-Kostant-Symes reduction. We also discuss some relations of this result to the recent consideration of the Drinfeld Zastava space, the monopole space, and corresponding symmetries of the Borel Yangian.

Talalaev, D. V.

2012-05-01

160

Dynamical regimes of dissipative quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reveal several distinct regimes of the relaxation dynamics of a small quantum system coupled to an environment within the plane of the dissipation strength and the reservoir temperature. This is achieved by discriminating between coherent dynamics with damped oscillatory behavior on all time scales, partially coherent behavior being nonmonotonic at intermediate times but monotonic at large ones, and purely monotonic incoherent decay. Surprisingly, elevated temperature can render the system "more coherent" by inducing a transition from the partially coherent to the coherent regime. This provides a refined view on the relaxation dynamics of open quantum systems.

Kennes, D. M.; Kashuba, O.; Meden, V.

2013-12-01

161

We argue that a full account of the set of quantum states prevents one from applying the rigorous definition of complete positivity. However, we give three equivalent proofs that any quantum evolution of a finite system always admits a Kraus-type decomposition, i.e., a Kraus decomposition but with Kraus matrices dependent on the initial state upon which they apply.

D. Salgado; J. L. Sánchez-Gómez; M. Ferrero

2004-01-01

162

Dynamics of open systems governed by the Milburn equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Milburn model of intrinsic decoherence [G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. A 44, 5401 (1991)], which is based on an assumption of an existence of the fundamental time step, we study the dynamics of open systems. We show that evolution of an open system governed by the Milburn equation can be significantly modified compared to the standard Schrödinger quantum mechanics. This modification is most pronounced when an open system is strongly coupled to its environment.

Bužek, V.; Konôpka, M.

1998-09-01

163

Naval open systems architecture

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

2013-05-01

164

The non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation for open systems

We present the non-Markovian generalisation of the widely used stochastic Schrödinger equation. Our result allows one to describe open quantum systems in terms of stochastic state vectors rather than density operators, without Markov approximation. Moreover, it unifies two recent independent attempts towards a stochastic description of non-Markovian open systems, based on path integrals on the one hand and coherent states

Lajos Diósi; Walter T. Strunz

1997-01-01

165

The non-Markovian stochastic Schrodinger equation for open systems

We present the non-Markovian generalization of the widely used stochastic Schrodinger equation. Our result allows to describe open quantum systems in terms of stochastic state vectors rather than density operators, without Markov approximation. Moreover, it unifies two recent independent attempts towards a stochastic description of non-Markovian open systems, based on path integrals on the one hand and coherent states on

Lajos Diosi; Walter T. Strunz

166

Classical and quantum massive cosmology for the open FRW universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space background, we study the classical and quantum cosmological models in the framework of the recently proposed nonlinear massive gravity theory. Although the constraints which are present in this theory prevent it from admitting the flat and closed FRW models as its cosmological solutions, for the open FRW universe it is not the case. We have shown that, either in the absence of matter or in the presence of a perfect fluid, the classical field equations of such a theory adopt physical solutions for the open FRW model, in which the mass term shows itself as a cosmological constant. These classical solutions consist of two distinguishable branches: One is a contacting universe which tends to a future singularity with zero size, while another is an expanding universe having a past singularity from which it begins its evolution. A classically forbidden region separates these two branches from each other. We then employ the familiar canonical quantization procedure in the given cosmological setting to find the cosmological wave functions. We use the resulting wave function to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects. It is shown that the quantum expectation values of the scale factor, although they have either contracting or expanding phases like their classical counterparts, are not disconnected from each other. Indeed, the classically forbidden region may be replaced by a bouncing period in which the scale factor bounces from the contraction to its expansion eras. Using the Bohmian approach of quantum mechanics, we also compute the Bohmian trajectory and the quantum potential related to the system, which their analysis shows are the direct effects of the mass term on the dynamics of the universe.

Vakili, Babak; Khosravi, Nima

2012-04-01

167

Open quantum dots—probing the quantum to classical transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both quantum and classical features of transport. As a closed testbed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigenstates. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which classically would compose a mixed phase space. The manner of this breakup is governed strongly by Zurek's decoherence theory, and the remaining coherent states possess all the properties of his pointer states. These states are naturally studied via traditional magnetotransport at low temperatures. More recently, we have used scanning gate (conductance) microscopy to probe the nature of the coherent states, and have shown that families of states exist through the spectrum in a manner consistent with quantum Darwinism. In this review, we discuss the nature of the various states, how they are formed, and the signatures that appear in magnetotransport and general conductance studies.

Ferry, D. K.; Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.; Day, T. E.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Bird, J. P.; Bennett, B. R.

2011-04-01

168

Quantum game theory and open access publishing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.

Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt

2007-08-01

169

Classical transients and the support of open quantum maps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic ingredients in a semiclassical theory are the classical invariant objects serving as a support for quantization. Recent studies, mainly obtained on quantum maps, have led to the commonly accepted belief that the classical repeller—the set of nonescaping orbits in the future and past evolution—is the object that suitably plays this role in open scattering systems. In this paper we present numerical evidence warning that this may not always be the case. For this purpose we study recently introduced families of tribaker maps [L. Ermann, G. G. Carlo, J. M. Pedrosa, and M. Saraceno, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.066204 85, 066204 (2012)], which share the same asymptotic properties but differ in their short-time behavior. We have found that although the eigenvalue distribution of the evolution operator of these maps follows the fractal Weyl law prediction, the theory of short periodic orbits for open maps fails to describe the resonance eigenfunctions of some of them. This is a strong indication that new elements must be included in the semiclassical description of open quantum systems. We provide an interpretation of the results in order to have hints about them.

Carlo, Gabriel G.; Wisniacki, D. A.; Ermann, Leonardo; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

2013-01-01

170

Classical transients and the support of open quantum maps.

The basic ingredients in a semiclassical theory are the classical invariant objects serving as a support for quantization. Recent studies, mainly obtained on quantum maps, have led to the commonly accepted belief that the classical repeller-the set of nonescaping orbits in the future and past evolution-is the object that suitably plays this role in open scattering systems. In this paper we present numerical evidence warning that this may not always be the case. For this purpose we study recently introduced families of tribaker maps [L. Ermann, G. G. Carlo, J. M. Pedrosa, and M. Saraceno, Phys. Rev. E 85, 066204 (2012)], which share the same asymptotic properties but differ in their short-time behavior. We have found that although the eigenvalue distribution of the evolution operator of these maps follows the fractal Weyl law prediction, the theory of short periodic orbits for open maps fails to describe the resonance eigenfunctions of some of them. This is a strong indication that new elements must be included in the semiclassical description of open quantum systems. We provide an interpretation of the results in order to have hints about them. PMID:23410406

Carlo, Gabriel G; Wisniacki, D A; Ermann, Leonardo; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

2013-01-01

171

Distribution of resonances in the quantum open baker map

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study relevant features of the spectrum of the quantum open baker map. The opening consists of a cut along the momentum p direction of the 2-torus phase space, modeling an open chaotic cavity. We study briefly the classical forward trapped set and analyze the corresponding quantum nonunitary evolution operator. The distribution of eigenvalues depends strongly on the location of the escape region with respect to the central discontinuity of this map. This introduces new ingredients to the association among the classical escape and quantum decay rates. Finally, we could verify that the validity of the fractal Weyl law holds in all cases.

Pedrosa, Juan M.; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Wisniacki, Diego A.; Ermann, Leonardo

2009-01-01

172

Classical command of quantum systems.

Quantum computation and cryptography both involve scenarios in which a user interacts with an imperfectly modelled or 'untrusted' system. It is therefore of fundamental and practical interest to devise tests that reveal whether the system is behaving as instructed. In 1969, Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt proposed an experimental test that can be passed by a quantum-mechanical system but not by a system restricted to classical physics. Here we extend this test to enable the characterization of a large quantum system. We describe a scheme that can be used to determine the initial state and to classically command the system to evolve according to desired dynamics. The bipartite system is treated as two black boxes, with no assumptions about their inner workings except that they obey quantum physics. The scheme works even if the system is explicitly designed to undermine it; any misbehaviour is detected. Among its applications, our scheme makes it possible to test whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. It also advances towards a goal of quantum cryptography: namely, the use of 'untrusted' devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the validity of quantum physics. PMID:23619692

Reichardt, Ben W; Unger, Falk; Vazirani, Umesh

2013-04-25

173

We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory i.e. an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.

A. Iqbal; A. H. Toor

2002-01-10

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory, i.e., an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.

Iqbal, A.; Toor, A. H.

2002-03-01

175

Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems

What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.

Michael A. Nielsen

2002-08-13

176

Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

Roy, Sisir

2014-07-01

177

Periodic thermodynamics of isolated quantum systems.

The nature of the behavior of an isolated many-body quantum system periodically driven in time has been an open question since the beginning of quantum mechanics. After an initial transient period, such a system is known to synchronize with the driving; in contrast to the nondriven case, no fundamental principle has been proposed for constructing the resulting nonequilibrium state. Here, we analytically show that, for a class of integrable systems, the relevant ensemble is constructed by maximizing an appropriately defined entropy subject to constraints, which we explicitly identify. This result constitutes a generalization of the concepts of equilibrium statistical mechanics to a class of far-from-equilibrium systems, up to now mainly accessible using ad hoc methods. PMID:24785013

Lazarides, Achilleas; Das, Arnab; Moessner, Roderich

2014-04-18

178

Quantum models of classical systems

Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.

Petr Hajicek

2014-12-12

179

Classical equations for quantum systems

The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that decohere, which means

Murray Gell-Mann; James B. Hartle

1993-01-01

180

Approximation, Proof Systems, and Correlations in a Quantum World

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis studies three topics in quantum computation and information: The approximability of quantum problems, quantum proof systems, and non-classical correlations in quantum systems. In the first area, we demonstrate a polynomial-time (classical) approximation algorithm for dense instances of the canonical QMA-complete quantum constraint satisfaction problem, the local Hamiltonian problem. In the opposite direction, we next introduce a quantum generalization of the polynomial-time hierarchy, and define problems which we prove are not only complete for the second level of this hierarchy, but are in fact hard to approximate. In the second area, we study variants of the interesting and stubbornly open question of whether a quantum proof system with multiple unentangled quantum provers is equal in expressive power to a proof system with a single quantum prover. Our results concern classes such as BellQMA(poly), and include a novel proof of perfect parallel repetition for SepQMA(m) based on cone programming duality. In the third area, we study non-classical quantum correlations beyond entanglement, often dubbed "non-classicality". Among our results are two novel schemes for quantifying non-classicality: The first proposes the new paradigm of exploiting local unitary operations to study non-classical correlations, and the second introduces a protocol through which non-classical correlations in a starting system can be "activated" into distillable entanglement with an ancilla system. An introduction to all required linear algebra and quantum mechanics is included.

Gharibian, Sevag

2013-01-01

181

Nonequilibrium Quantum Systems: Fluctuations and Interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore some aspects of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems. Two chapters are devoted to fluctuation theorems which were originally derived for classical systems. The main challenge in formulating them in quantum mechanics is the fact that fundamental quantities of interest, like work, are defined via the classical concept of a phase space trajectory. We utilize the decoherent histories conceptual framework, in which classical trajectories emerge in quantum mechanics as a result of coarse graining, and provide a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work relation of Jarzynski and Crooks's fluctuation theorem for a quantum system interacting with a general environment based on the quantum Brownian motion (QBM) model. We indicate a parameter range at low temperatures where the theorems might fail in their original form. Fluctuation theorems of Jarzynski and Crooks for systems obeying classical Hamiltonian dynamics are derived under the assumption that the initial conditions are sampled from a canonical ensemble, even though the equilibrium state of an isolated system is typically associated with the microcanonical ensemble. We address this issue through an exact analysis of the classical Brownian motion model. We argue that a stronger form of ensemble equivalence than usually discussed in equilibrium statistical mechanics is required for these theorems to hold in the infinite environment limit irrespective of the ensemble used, and proceed to prove it for this model. An exact expression for the probability distribution of work is obtained for finite environments. Intuitively one expects a system to relax to an equilibrium state when brought into contact with a thermal environment. Yet it is important to have rigorous results that provide conditions for equilibration and characterize the equilibrium state. We consider the dynamics of open quantum systems using the Langevin and master equations and rigorously show that under fairly general conditions quantum systems interacting with a heat bath relax to the equilibrium state defined as the reduced thermal state of the system plus environment, even in the strong coupling regime. Our proof is valid to second-order in interaction strength for general systems and exact for the linear QBM model, for which we also show the equivalence of multi-time correlations. In the final chapter we give a sampling of our investigations into macroscopic quantum phenomena. We work out in detail a specific example of how and under what conditions the center of mass (CoM) coordinate of a macroscopic object emerges as the relevant degree of freedom. Interaction patterns are studied in terms of the couplings they induce between the CoM and relative coordinates of two macroscopic objects. We discuss the implications of these interaction patterns on macroscopic entanglement.

Subasi, Yigit

182

Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.

Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

2007-09-01

183

The non-Markovian stochastic Schrodinger equation for open systems

We present the non-Markovian generalization of the widely used stochastic Schrodinger equation. Our result allows to describe open quantum systems in terms of stochastic state vectors rather than density operators, without approximation. Moreover, it unifies two recent independent attempts towards a stochastic description of non-Markovian open systems, based on path integrals on the one hand and coherent states on the other. The latter approach utilizes the analytical properties of coherent states and enables a microscopic interpretation of the stochastic states. The alternative first approach is based on the general description of open systems using path integrals as originated by Feynman and Vernon.

Lajos Diosi; Walter T. Strunz

1997-06-22

184

The non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation for open systems

We present the non-Markovian generalization of the widely used stochastic Schrodinger equation. Our result allows to describe open quantum systems in terms of stochastic state vectors rather than density operators, without approximation. Moreover, it unifies two recent independent attempts towards a stochastic description of non-Markovian open systems, based on path integrals on the one hand and coherent states on the other. The latter approach utilizes the analytical properties of coherent states and enables a microscopic interpretation of the stochastic states. The alternative first approach is based on the general description of open systems using path integrals as originated by Feynman and Vernon.

Diósi, L; Diosi, Lajos; Strunz, Walter T.

1997-01-01

185

Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems

Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the its input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by Adaptive Hybrid Optimal Control (Ad-HOC). This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity measure with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, Ad-Hoc enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude hence making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

D. J. Egger; F. K. Wilhelm

2014-02-28

186

Adiabatic theorem for bipartite quantum systems in weak coupling limit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the adiabatic approximation of the dynamics of a bipartite quantum system with respect to one of its components, when the coupling between the two components is perturbative. We show that the density matrix of the considered component is described by adiabatic transport formulae exhibiting operator-valued geometric and dynamical phases. The present results can be used to study the quantum control of the dynamics of qubits and of open quantum systems where the two components are the system and its environment. We treat two examples, the control of an atomic qubit interacting with another one and the control of a spin in the middle of a Heisenberg spin chain.

Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

2015-01-01

187

Staggered repulsion of transmission eigenvalues in symmetric open mesoscopic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum systems with discrete symmetries can usually be desymmetrized, but this strategy fails when considering transport in open systems with a symmetry that maps different openings onto each other. We investigate the joint probability density of transmission eigenvalues for such systems in random-matrix theory. In the orthogonal symmetry class we show that the eigenvalue statistics manifests level repulsion only between every second transmission eigenvalue. This finds its natural statistical interpretation as a staggered superposition of two eigenvalue sequences. For a large number of channels, the statistics for a system with a lead-transposing symmetry approaches that of a superposition of two uncorrelated sets of eigenvalues as in systems with a lead-preserving symmetry (which can be desymmetrized). These predictions are confirmed by numerical computations of the transmission-eigenvalue spacing distribution for quantum billiards and for the open kicked rotator.

Kopp, Marten; Schomerus, Henning; Rotter, Stefan

2008-08-01

188

Contextual logic for quantum systems

In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated to the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Differently to standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction.

Graciela Domenech; Hector Freytes

2007-02-02

189

Periodic scarred States in open quantum dots as evidence of quantum Darwinism.

Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism. PMID:20482124

Burke, A M; Akis, R; Day, T E; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D K; Bennett, B R

2010-04-30

190

Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism.

Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Day, T. E.; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D. K.; Bennett, B. R.

2010-04-01

191

Discerning "indistinguishable" quantum systems

In a series of recent papers, Simon Saunders, Fred Muller and Michael Seevinck have collectively argued, against the philosophy of quantum mechanics folklore, that some non-trivial version of Leibniz's principle of the identity of indiscernibles is upheld in quantum mechanics. They argue that all particles -- fermions, paraparticles, anyons, even bosons -- may be weakly discerned by some physical relation. Here I show that their arguments make illegitimate appeal to non-symmetric, i.e. permutation-non-invariant, quantities, and that therefore their conclusions do not go through. However, I show that alternative, symmetric quantities may be found to do the required work. I conclude that the Saunders-Muller-Seevinck heterodoxy can be saved after all.

Adam Caulton

2014-08-31

192

Time-local quantum-state-diffusion equation for multilevel quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open quantum system with multiple levels coupled to a bosonic environment at zero temperature is investigated systematically using the non-Markovian quantum-state-diffusion (QSD) method [W. T. Strunz, L. Diósi, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1801 82, 1801 (1999)]. We have established exact time-local QSD equations for a set of interesting multilevel open systems, including high-spin systems, multiple-transition atomic models, and multilevel atomic models driven by time-dependent external fields. These exact QSD equations have paved the way to evaluate the dynamics of open multilevel atomic systems in the general non-Markovian regimes without any approximation.

Jing, Jun; Zhao, Xinyu; You, J. Q.; Yu, Ting

2012-04-01

193

Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems

We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems

Kurt Jacobs

2006-01-01

194

Quantum information processing in mesoscopic systems

introduce the Quantum Dots as the solid state system that will primarily be used as the hardware of quantum computation in quantum dots is described. The principal sources of decoherence and the measurementQuantum information processing in mesoscopic systems Jose Luis Garcia Coello A dissertation

Guillas, Serge

195

Preparation of Pure Gaussian States via Cascaded Quantum Systems

This paper provides an alternative approach to the problem of preparing pure Gaussian states in a linear quantum system. It is shown that any pure Gaussian state can be generated by a cascade of one-dimensional open quantum harmonic oscillators, without any direct interaction Hamiltonians between these oscillators. This is physically advantageous from an experimental point of view. An example on the preparation of two-mode squeezed states is given to illustrate the theory.

Shan Ma; Matthew J. Woolley; Ian R. Petersen; Naoki Yamamoto

2014-08-11

196

Is measurement-based feedback still better for quantum control systems?

Is measurement-based feedback still better for quantum control systems? Bo Qi , Lei Guo Key Laboratory of Systems and Control, ISS, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy feedback control of quantum systems: Is measurement-based feedback control still better than open- loop

Guo, Lei

197

Transient features of quantum open maps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study families of open chaotic maps that classically share the same asymptotic properties—forward and backward trapped sets, repeller dimensions, and escape rate—but differ in their short time behavior. When these maps are quantized we find that the fine details of the distribution of resonances and the corresponding eigenfunctions are sensitive to the initial shape and size of the openings. We study phase space localization of the resonances with respect to the repeller and find strong delocalization effects when the area of the openings is smaller than ?.

Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Pedrosa, Juan M.; Saraceno, Marcos

2012-06-01

198

An Open Source Simulation System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

Slack, Thomas

2005-01-01

199

Disentanglement and decoherence by open system dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destruction of quantum interference, decoherence, and the destruction of entanglement both appear to occur under the same circumstances. To address the connection between these two phenomena, we consider the evolution of arbitrary initial states of a two-particle system under open system dynamics described by a class of master equations which produce decoherence of each particle. We show that all initial states become separable after a finite time, and we produce the explicit form of the separated state. The result extends and amplifies an earlier result of Diósi. We illustrate the general result by considering the case in which the initial state is an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state (in which both the positions and momenta of a particle pair are perfectly correlated). This example clearly illustrates how the spreading out in phase space produced by the environment leads to certain disentanglement conditions becoming satisfied.

Dodd, P. J.; Halliwell, J. J.

2004-05-01

200

Disentanglement and decoherence by open system dynamics

The destruction of quantum interference, decoherence, and the destruction of entanglement both appear to occur under the same circumstances. To address the connection between these two phenomena, we consider the evolution of arbitrary initial states of a two-particle system under open system dynamics described by a class of master equations which produce decoherence of each particle. We show that all initial states become separable after a finite time, and we produce the explicit form of the separated state. The result extends and amplifies an earlier result of Diosi. We illustrate the general result by considering the case in which the initial state is an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state (in which both the positions and momenta of a particle pair are perfectly correlated). This example clearly illustrates how the spreading out in phase space produced by the environment leads to certain disentanglement conditions becoming satisfied.

Dodd, P.J.; Halliwell, J.J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2004-05-01

201

Propagation of Disturbances in Degenerate Quantum Systems

Disturbances in gapless quantum many-body models are known to travel an unlimited distance throughout the system. Here, we explore this phenomenon in finite clusters with degenerate ground states. The specific model studied here is the one-dimensional J1-J2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian at and close to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Both open and periodic boundary conditions are considered. Quenches are performed using a local magnetic field. The degenerate Majumdar-Ghosh ground state allows disturbances which carry quantum entanglement to propagate throughout the system, and thus dephase the entire system within the degenerate subspace. These disturbances can also carry polarization, but not energy, as all energy is stored locally. The local evolution of the part of the system where energy is stored drives the rest of the system through long-range entanglement. We also examine approximations for the ground state of this Hamiltonian in the strong field limit, and study how couplings away from the Majumdar-Ghosh point affect the propagation of disturbances. We find that even in the case of approximate degeneracy, a disturbance can be propagated throughout a finite system.

Nicholas Chancellor; Stephan Haas

2011-07-06

202

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375

Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

2014-01-01

203

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems.

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed. PMID:25248375

Shen, H Z; Wang, W; Yi, X X

2014-01-01

204

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.

Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

2014-09-01

205

Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems

The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of the quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for a quantum system without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formalism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance for a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory of open system. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.

H. Z. Shen; W. Wang; X. X. Yi

2014-10-07

206

The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.

Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.

2014-12-01

207

Open quantum random walks: bi-stability on pure states and ballistically induced diffusion

Open quantum random walks (OQRWs) deal with quantum random motions on the line for systems with internal and orbital degrees of freedom. The internal system behaves as a quantum random gyroscope coding for the direction of the orbital moves. We reveal the existence of a transition, depending on OQRW moduli, in the internal system behaviors from simple oscillations to random flips between two unstable pure states. This induces a transition in the orbital motions from usual diffusion to ballistically induced diffusion with large mean free path and large effective diffusion constant at large time. We also show that mixed states of the internal system are converted into random pure states during the process. We touch upon possible experimental realizations.

Michel Bauer; Denis Bernard; Antoine Tilloy

2014-02-12

208

Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior.

Barbosa, A. L. R.; Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

2014-10-01

209

Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots.

We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior. PMID:25375575

Barbosa, A L R; Bazeia, D; Ramos, J G G S

2014-10-01

210

System identification for passive linear quantum systems

System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

2014-08-27

211

Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers

We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a

Christof Zalka

1998-01-01

212

Thermalization of isolated quantum systems

Understanding the evolution towards thermal equilibrium of an isolated quantum system is at the foundation of statistical mechanics and a subject of interest in such diverse areas as cold atom physics or the quantum mechanics of black holes. Since a pure state can never evolve into a thermal density matrix, the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) has been put forward by Deutsch and Srednicki as a way to explain this apparent thermalization, similarly to what the ergodic theorem does in classical mechanics. In this paper this hypothesis is tested numerically. First, it is observed that thermalization happens in a subspace of states (the Krylov subspace) with dimension much smaller than that of the total Hilbert space. We check numerically the validity of ETH in such a subspace, for a system of hard core bosons on a two-dimensional lattice. We then discuss how well the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian projected on the Krylov subspace represent the true eigenstates. This discussion is aided by bringing the projected Hamiltonian to the tridiagonal form and interpreting it as an Anderson localization problem for a finite one-dimensional chain. We also consider thermalization of a subsystem and argue that generation of a large entanglement entropy can lead to a thermal density matrix for the subsystem well before the whole system thermalizes. Finally, we comment on possible implications of ETH in quantum gravity.

Sergei Khlebnikov; Martin Kruczenski

2014-03-12

213

Dissipative Properties of Quantum Systems

We consider the dissipative properties of large quantum systems from the point of view of kinetic theory. The existence of a nontrivial collision operator imposes restrictions on the possible collisional invariants of the system. We consider a model in which a discrete level is coupled to a set of quantum states and which, in the limit of a large “volume,” becomes the Friedrichs model. Because of its simplicity this model allows a direct calculation of the collision operator as well as of related operators and the constants of the motion. For a degenerate spectrum the calculations become more involved but the conclusions remain simple. The special role played by the invariants that are functions of the Hamiltonion is shown to be a direct consequence of the existence of a nonvanishing collision operator. For a class of observables we obtain ergodic behavior, and this reformulation of the ergodic problem may be used in statistical mechanics to study the ergodicity of large quantum systems containing a small physical parameter such as the coupling constant or the concentration. PMID:16591994

Grecos, A. P.; Prigogine, I.

1972-01-01

214

Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.

Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis

2012-02-01

215

Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.

Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

2014-10-01

216

Inconsistency between alternative approaches to Quantum Decoherence in special systems

We study the decoherence properties of a certain class of Markovian quantum open systems from both the Decohering Histories and Environment Induced Superselection paradigms. The class studied includes many familiar quantum optical cases. For this class, we show that there always exists a basis which leads to {\\em exactly} consistent histories for any coarse graining {\\em irrespective} of the initial conditions. The magnitude of the off--diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix $\\rho$ in this basis however, depends on the initial conditions. Necessary requirements for classicality as advanced by the two paradigms are thus in direct conflict in these systems.

J. Twamley

1993-03-19

217

Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers

We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a system, can be obtained. We also indicate that ultimately the simulation of quantum field theory might be possible on large quantum computers. We want to demonstrate that in principle various interesting things can be done. Actual applications will have to be worked out in detail also depending on what kind of quantum computer may be available one day...

Christof Zalka

1996-03-25

218

Could nanostructure be unspeakable quantum system?

Heisenberg, Bohr and others were forced to renounce on the description of the objective reality as the aim of physics because of the paradoxical quantum phenomena observed on the atomic level. The contemporary quantum mechanics created on the base of their positivism point of view must divide the world into speakable apparatus which amplifies microscopic events to macroscopic consequences and unspeakable quantum system. Examination of the quantum phenomena corroborates the confidence expressed by creators of quantum theory that the renunciation of realism should not apply on our everyday macroscopic world. Nanostructures may be considered for the present as a boundary of realistic description for all phenomena including the quantum one.

V. V. Aristov; A. V. Nikulov

2010-06-28

219

Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2011-10-15

220

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; Part I. Basic Features of Quantum Mechanics: 1. From classical mechanics to quantum mechanics; 2. Quantum observable and states; 3. Quantum dynamics; 4. Examples of quantum dynamics; 5. Density matrix; Part II. More Advanced Topics: 6. Angular momentum and spin; 7. Identical particles; 8. Symmetries and conservation laws; 9. The measurement problem; Part III. Matter and Light: 10. Perturbations and approximation methods; 11. Hydrogen and helium atoms; 12. Hydrogen molecular ion; 13. Quantum optics; Part IV. Quantum Information: State and Correlations: 14. Quantum theory of open systems; 15. State measurement in quantum mechanics; 16. Entanglement: non-separability; 17. Entanglement: quantum information; References; Index.

Auletta, Gennaro; Fortunato, Mauro; Parisi, Giorgio

2014-01-01

221

Coherent versus measurement feedback: Linear systems theory for quantum information

To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages/disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal, hence their comparison in several situation is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals; back-action evasion (BAE), generation of a quantum non-demolished (QND) variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem (DFS), all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Then some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand it is shown that, for each control goal, there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of BAE, QND, and DFS in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

Naoki Yamamoto

2014-10-10

222

Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers

We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical\\u000amany particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer.\\u000aThe computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a\\u000aconventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch\\u000ahow results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a

Christof Zalka

1996-01-01

223

QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials

QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General

Paolo Giannozzi; Stefano Baroni; Nicola Bonini; Matteo Calandra; Roberto Car; Carlo Cavazzoni; Davide Ceresoli; Guido L. Chiarotti; Matteo Cococcioni; Ismaila Dabo; Andrea Dal Corso; Stefano de Gironcoli; Stefano Fabris; Guido Fratesi; Ralph Gebauer; Uwe Gerstmann; Christos Gougoussis; Anton Kokalj; Michele Lazzeri; Layla Martin-Samos; Nicola Marzari; Francesco Mauri; Riccardo Mazzarello; Stefano Paolini; Alfredo Pasquarello; Lorenzo Paulatto; Carlo Sbraccia; Sandro Scandolo; Gabriele Sclauzero; Ari P. Seitsonen; Alexander Smogunov; Paolo Umari; Renata M. Wentzcovitch

2009-01-01

224

78 FR 11988 - Open Video Systems

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...47 CFR Part 76 [CS Docket No. 96-46, FCC 96-334] Open Video Systems AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...The final rules modified rules and policies concerning Open Video Systems. DATES: The amendments to 47 CFR 76.1505(d)...

2013-02-21

225

Quantum criticality in a double-quantum-dot system.

We discuss the realization of the quantum-critical non-Fermi-liquid state, originally discovered within the two-impurity Kondo model, in double-quantum-dot systems. Contrary to common belief, the corresponding fixed point is robust against particle-hole and various other asymmetries and is unstable only to charge transfer between the two dots. We propose an experimental setup where such charge transfer processes are suppressed, allowing a controlled approach to the quantum-critical state. We also discuss transport and scaling properties in the vicinity of the critical point. PMID:17155422

Zaránd, Gergely; Chung, Chung-Hou; Simon, Pascal; Vojta, Matthias

2006-10-20

226

Spin Accumulation and Spin Relaxation in a Large Open Quantum Dot E. J. Koop,1

Spin Accumulation and Spin Relaxation in a Large Open Quantum Dot E. J. Koop,1 B. J. van Wees,1 D; published 29 July 2008) We report electronic control and measurement of an imbalance between spin-up and spin-down electrons in micron-scale open quantum dots. Spin injection and detection were achieved

van der Wal, Caspar H.

227

Classical Equations for Quantum Systems

The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...

Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.

1993-01-01

228

Controlling the shannon entropy of quantum systems.

This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

2013-01-01

229

Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

2013-01-01

230

Observation of quantum stochastic synchronization in a dissipative quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of quantum stochastic synchronization (QSS) in a dissipative quantum system—a moderately damped current-biased Josephson junction. We show that when the junction is biased subcritically by a combination of a constant current and a small sinusoidal modulation signal, forced phase synchronization between the otherwise random, incoherent quantum tunneling and the signal may arise as a consequence of the interplay between quantum fluctuation and the weak periodic drive. It is found that optimal synchronization occurs at a signal frequency fQSS that is comparable to the quantum tunneling rate. We also find a phenomenon called "modulation induced suppression of quantum noise": for signal frequency well below fQSS, the power spectral density of escape time distribution of the junction could be reduced substantially from the floor level of the unmodulated system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the application of a small signal with proper phase can suppress the average tunneling rate and enhance the stability of the metastable system. Our experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations without the use of adjustable parameters.

Xue, G. M.; Gong, Ming; Xu, H. K.; Liu, W. Y.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Yu, H. F.; Yu, Yang; Zheng, D. N.; Zhao, S. P.; Han, Siyuan

2014-12-01

231

Alternative linear structures for classical and quantum systems

The possibility of deforming the (associative or Lie) product to obtain alternative descriptions for a given classical or quantum system has been considered in many papers. Here we discuss the possibility of obtaining some novel alternative descriptions by changing the linear structure instead. In particular we show how it is possible to construct alternative linear structures on the tangent bundle TQ of some classical configuration space Q that can be considered as "adapted" to the given dynamical system. This fact opens the possibility to use the Weyl scheme to quantize the system in different non equivalent ways, "evading", so to speak, the von Neumann uniqueness theorem.

E. Ercolessi; A. Ibort; G. Marmo; G. Morandi

2007-06-12

232

Sliding mode control of quantum systems

This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e., eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum sliding mode control systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This sliding mode control approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.

Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen

2009-10-31

233

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that software-defined quantum communication provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.

Travis S. Humble; Ronald J. Sadlier

2014-10-20

234

Local Unitary Invariants for Multipartite Quantum Systems

We present an approach of constructing invariants under local unitary transformations for multipartite quantum systems. The invariants constructed in this way can be complement to that in [Science 340 (2013) 1205-1208]. Detailed examples are given to compute such invariant in detail. It is shown that these invariants can be used to detect the local unitary equivalence of degenerated quantum states.

Jing Wang; Ming Li; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

2014-10-23

235

The classical limit of quantum spin systems

We derive a classical integral representation for the partition function,ZQ, of a quantum spin system. With it we can obtain upper and lower bounds to the quantum free energy (or ground state energy) in terms of two classical free energies (or ground state energies). These bounds permit us to prove that when the spin angular momentumJ ? 8 (but after

Elliott H. Lieb

1973-01-01

236

Galilei invariant technique for quantum system description

Problems with quantum systems models, violating Galilei invariance are examined. The method for arbitrary non-relativistic quantum system Galilei invariant wave function construction, applying a modified basis where center-of-mass excitations have been removed before Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization, is developed. For identical fermion system, the Galilei invariant wave function can be obtained while applying conventional antisymmetrization methods of wave functions, dependent on single particle spatial variables.

Kamuntavi?ius, Gintautas P. [Department of Physics, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, Kaunas 44404 (Lithuania)] [Department of Physics, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos 8, Kaunas 44404 (Lithuania)

2014-04-15

237

QUANTUM METHODS FOR INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS II,

of observables for the system. The following analysis involves a finite size system whose kinematical environQUANTUM METHODS FOR INTERACTING PARTICLE SYSTEMS II, GLAUBER DYNAMICS FOR ISING SPIN SYSTEMS M in dimension two coincides with the one computed with equilibrium statistical mechanics techniques. 1

238

Black Holes and Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems

We describe black holes in d+3 dimensions, whose thermodynamic properties correspond to those of a scale-invariant nonrelativistic (d+1)-dimensional quantum system with a dynamical exponent z=2. The gravitational model ...

Nickel, Marcel Dominik Johannes

239

Magnetic Quantum System R. Helling & E. Stockmeyer

Seminar Magnetic Quantum System R. Helling & E. Stockmeyer ---------- This seminar is intended for students of both mathematics and physics. If you are interested please send an e-mail to Edgardo Stockmeyer

Gerkmann, Ralf

240

Classical and Quantum Discrete Dynamical Systems

We study deterministic and quantum dynamics from a constructive "finite" point of view, since the introduction of a continuum, or other actual infinities in physics poses serious conceptual and technical difficulties, without any need for these concepts to physics as an empirical science. For a consistent description of the symmetries of dynamical systems at different times and the symmetries of the various parts of such systems, we introduce discrete analogs of the gauge connections. Gauge structures are particularly important to describe the quantum behavior. We show that quantum behavior is the result of a fundamental inability to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in the process of evolution. Information is available only on invariant statements and values, relating to such objects. Using mathematical arguments of a general nature we can show that any quantum dynamics can be reduced to a sequence of permutations. Quantum interferences occur in the invariant subspaces of permutation representations of symmetry groups of dynamical systems. The observable values can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. We also show that for the description of quantum phenomena, instead of a nonconstructive number system --- the field of complex numbers, it is enough to use cyclotomic fields --- the minimal extentions of natural numbers suitable for quantum mechanics. Finite groups of symmetries play a central role in this article. The interest in such groups has an additional motivation in physics. Numerous experiments and observations in particle physics point to an important role of finite groups of relatively low orders in a number of fundamental processes.

Vladimir V. Kornyak

2014-04-21

241

Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.

Humble, Travis S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

242

University of California, Santa Barbara Optimal Control of Quantum Systems

of Quantum Systems. At the same time, Control Theory itself is been enriched by new models and paradigms. Our.1 Introduction to quantum systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 Quantum Mechanics at a glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Controlled quantum systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.3 Two model systems

Bamieh, Bassam

243

General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.

Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza

2014-12-01

244

General transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control.

We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed. PMID:25554866

Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Viola, Lorenza

2014-12-19

245

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.

Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.

2014-12-01

246

Open quantum systems are often encountered in many different physical situations. From quantum optics to statistical mechanics, they are fundamental in the understanding of a great variety of different phenomena. Some of the most common examples are the relaxation to equilibrium, the existence of nonequilibrium stationary states, and the dynamics of atoms in interaction with electromagnetic fields. A crucial step in the analysis is to consider the quantum open system and its environment as the two mutually interacting components of a larger isolated system. Thereafter, the so-called Markov approximation is often considered, which consists on assuming that the time scales associated to the dynamics of the quantum open system are larger than those of the environment. It is the interplay of the different time scales associated with the system and the environment what determines the validity of the different approximations made. In this paper we will discuss the dynamics of a open quantum system in contact with a reservoir when the Markov approximation is not valid, and we have to include some non-Markovian or memory effects.

Alonso, Daniel [Instituto Universitario de Estudios Avanzados (IUdEA) en Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Fotonica Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas. Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38203, Tenerife (Spain); Vega, Ines de [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann-Str, 1., 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-06-15

247

OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics Management system.

The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting orders, performing exam resource scheduling, providing Digital communications in Medicine (DICOM) work list information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third-party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an open database connectivity bridge to a Linux server with Health Level 7 (HL7), DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a browser, whereas other informatics systems communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete, as are key pieces of the Web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12105742

Langer, Steve G

2002-01-01

248

An open laboratory automatic management system based on RFID

Open laboratories have great significance in university's education of science and technology, because it is difficult to manage open laboratories, basically many universities don't set up or seldom set up open laboratories. Combined with RFID technology, this paper discusses a kind of open laboratory management system suitable for electronic specialty. This system can realize open laboratory automatic management, doesn't need

Lu Ang; Fan Ying; Guan Zong qi

2010-01-01

249

Second-order superintegrable quantum systems

A classical (or quantum) superintegrable system on an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold is an integrable Hamiltonian system with potential that admits 2n - 1 functionally independent constants of the motion that are polynomial in the momenta, the maximum number possible. If these constants of the motion are all quadratic, then the system is second-order superintegrable, the most tractable case and the one we study here. Such systems have remarkable properties: multi-integrability and separability, a quadratic algebra of symmetries whose representation theory yields spectral information about the Schroedinger operator, and deep connections with expansion formulas relating classes of special functions. For n = 2 and for conformally flat spaces when n = 3, we have worked out the structure of the classical systems and shown that the quadratic algebra always closes at order 6. Here, we describe the quantum analogs of these results. We show that, for nondegenerate potentials, each classical system has a unique quantum extension.

Miller, W. [University of Minnesota, School of Mathematics (United States); Kalnins, E. G. [University of Waikato, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (New Zealand); Kress, J. M. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics (Australia)], E-mail: j.kress@unsw.edu.au

2007-03-15

250

Quadratic Plus Linear Operators which Preserve Pure States of Quantum Systems: Small Dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics says that a pure state of a quantum system corresponds to a vector of norm 1 and an observable is a self-adjoint operator on the space of states. It is of interest to describe all linear or nonlinear operators which preserve the pure states of the system. In the linear case, it is nothing more than isometries of Hilbert spaces. In the nonlinear case, this problem was open. In this paper, in the small dimensional spaces, we shall describe all quadratic plus linear operators which preserve pure states of the quantum system.

Saburov, Mansoor

2014-11-01

251

Rapid mixing renders quantum dissipative systems stable

The physics of many materials is modeled by quantum many-body systems with local interactions. If the model of the system is sensitive to noise from the environment, or small perturbations to the original interactions, it will not model properly the robustness of the real physical system it aims to describe, or be useful when engineering novel systems for quantum information processing. We show that local observables and correlation functions of local Liouvillians are stable to local perturbations if the dynamics is rapidly mixing and has a unique fixed point. No other condition is required.

Angelo Lucia; Toby S. Cubitt; Spyridon Michalakis; David Pérez-García

2014-09-27

252

Engineering coherent control of quantum information in spin systems

Quantum Information Processing (QIP) promises increased efficiency in computation. A key step in QIP is implementing quantum logic gates by engineering the dynamics of a quantum system. This thesis explores the requirements ...

Hodges, Jonathan Stuart

2007-01-01

253

Experimental recovery of quantum correlations in absence of system-environment back-action

Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties. PMID:24287554

Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Guo, Guang-Can; Andersson, Erika; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

254

On a class of quantum channels, open random walks and recurrence

We study a particular class of trace-preserving completely positive maps, called PQ-channels, for which classical and quantum evolutions are isolated in a certain sense. By combining open quantum random walks with a notion of recurrence, we are able to describe criteria for recurrence of the walk related to this class of channels. Positive recurrence for open walks is also discussed in this context.

Carlos F. Lardizabal; Rafael R. Souza

2015-01-29

255

Localised Systems in Relativistic Quantum Information

This thesis collects my own and collaborative work I have been involved with finding localised systems in quantum field theory that are useful for quantum information. It draws from many well established physical theories such as quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, quantum optics and Gaussian state quantum information. The results are split between three chapters. For the first results, we set-up the basic framework for working with quantum fields confined to cavities. By considering the real Klein-Gordon field, we describe how to model the non-uniform motion of a rigid cavity through spacetime. We employ the use of Bogoliubov transformations to describe the effects of changing acceleration. The second set of results investigate how the Dirac field can be confined to a cavity for quantum information purposes. By again considering Bogoliubov transformations, we thoroughly investigate how the entanglement shared between two cavities is affected by non-uniform motion. It is shown that different types of Dirac field states are more robust against motion than others. The final results look at using our second notion of localisation, Unruh- DeWitt detectors. We investigate how allowing for a "non-point-like" spatial profile of the Unruh-DeWitt detector affects how it interacts with a quantum field around it. By engineering suitable detector-field interactions, we use techniques from symplectic geometry to compute the dynamics of a quantum state beyond commonly used perturbation theory. There is also a conclusions chapter at the end of the thesis which summarises the results presented and suggestions of possible new directions of research in relativistic quantum information are made.

Antony Richard Lee

2013-09-17

256

Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.

García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.

2015-01-01

257

Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos.

In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is-to say the least-fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system. PMID:25679559

García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J; Wisniacki, Diego A

2015-01-01

258

Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

Dong Daoyi [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China and Institute of Systems Science, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Chenbin [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Tarn, T.-J. [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

2008-10-21

259

Quantum systems with time-dependent boundaries

We present here a set of lecture notes on quantum systems with time-dependent boundaries. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of a non-relativistic particle in a bounded domain of physical space, when the boundaries are moving or changing. In all cases, unitarity is preserved and the change of boundaries does not introduce any decoherence in the system.

Sara Di Martino; Paolo Facchi

2015-01-26

260

Density of states approach to dense quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a first-principle generalized density-of-states method for numerically studying quantum field theories with a complex action. As a proof of concept, we show that with our approach we can numerically solve the strong sign problem of the Z3 spin model at finite density. Our results are confirmed by standard simulations of the theory dual to the considered model, which is free from a sign problem. Our method opens new perspectives on ab initio simulations of cold dense quantum systems, and in particular of Yang-Mills theories with matter at finite densities, for which Monte Carlo-based importance sampling is unable to produce sufficiently accurate results.

Langfeld, Kurt; Lucini, Biagio

2014-11-01

261

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent ``quantumness'' still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two ``quantum witnesses'' to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.

Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

2012-11-01

262

Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent “quantumness” still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two “quantum witnesses” to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems. PMID:23185690

Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

2012-01-01

263

Open Quantum Dynamics Calculations with the Hierarchy Equations of Motion on Parallel Computers.

Calculating the evolution of an open quantum system, i.e., a system in contact with a thermal environment, has presented a theoretical and computational challenge for many years. With the advent of supercomputers containing large amounts of memory and many processors, the computational challenge posed by the previously intractable theoretical models can now be addressed. The hierarchy equations of motion present one such model and offer a powerful method that remained under-utilized so far due to its considerable computational expense. By exploiting concurrent processing on parallel computers the hierarchy equations of motion can be applied to biological-scale systems. Herein we introduce the quantum dynamics software PHI, that solves the hierarchical equations of motion. We describe the integrator employed by PHI and demonstrate PHI's scaling and efficiency running on large parallel computers by applying the software to the calculation of inter-complex excitation transfer between the light harvesting complexes 1 and 2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria, a 50 pigment system. PMID:23105920

Strümpfer, Johan; Schulten, Klaus

2012-08-14

264

OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics management system.

The benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system (PACS/RIS) archive built with open source tools and methods are 2-fold. Open source permits an inexpensive development model where interfaces can be updated as needed, and the code is peer reviewed by many eyes (analogous to the scientific model). Integration of PACS/RIS functionality reduces the risk of inconsistent data by reducing interfaces among databases that contain largely redundant information. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools--reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting HL7 orders, performing examination and resource scheduling, providing digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) worklist information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an ODBC bridge to a Linux server with HL7, DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a web browser, whereas automated informatics services communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete as well as key pieces of the web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12297975

Langer, Steve

2002-06-01

265

Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.

1988-04-01

266

Exact positivity of the Wigner and P-functions of a Markovian open system

We discuss the case of a Markovian master equation for an open system, as it is frequently found from environmental decoherence. We prove two theorems for the evolution of the quantum state. The first one states that for a generic initial state the corresponding Wigner function becomes strictly positive after a finite time has elapsed. The second one states that

Lajos Diósi; Claus Kiefer

2002-01-01

267

Spectral theorem for the Lindblad equation for quadratic open fermionic systems

The spectral theorem is proven for the quantum dynamics of quadratic open systems of n fermions described by the Lindblad equation. Invariant eigenspaces of the many-body Liouvillean dynamics and their largest Jordan blocks are explicitly constructed for all eigenvalues. For eigenvalue zero we describe an algebraic procedure for constructing (possibly higher dimensional) spaces of (degenerate) non-equilibrium steady states.

Tomaz Prosen

2010-05-05

268

Quantum weak chaos in a degenerate system

Quantum weak chaos is studied in a perturbed degenerate system --- a charged particle interacting with a monochromatic wave in a transverse magnetic field. The evolution operator for an arbitrary number of periods of the external field is built and its structure is explored in terms of the QE (quasienergy eigenstates) under resonance condition (wave frequency $=$ cyclotron frequency) in the regime of weak classical chaos. The new phenomenon of diffusion via the quantum separatrices and the influence of chaos on diffusion are investigated and, in the quasi classical limit, compared with its classical dynamics. We determine the crossover from purely quantum diffusion to a diffusion which is the quantum manifestation of classical diffusion along the stochastic web. This crossover results from the non-monotonic dependence of the characteristic localization length of the QE states on the wave amplitude. The width of the quantum separatrices was computed and compared with the width of the classical stochastic web. We give the physical parameters which can be realized experimentally to show the manifestation of quantum chaos in nonlinear acoustic resonance.

V. Ya. Demikhovskii; D. I. Kamenev; G. A. Luna-Acosta

1998-09-27

269

Open Source Course Management and Assessment System

Cross-Institutional Resource Library Resource Assembly Course Management Resource Assembly Course-CAPA Architecture Shared Cross-Institutional Resource Library Resource Assembly Course Management Resource AssemblyLON-CAPA: Open Source Course Management and Assessment System Gerd Kortemeyer Michigan State

270

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a quantitative criterion to determine whether the coupled quantum systems can achieve complete synchronization or phase synchronization in the process of analyzing quantum synchronization. Adopting the criterion, we discuss the quantum synchronization effects between optomechanical systems and find that the error between the systems and the fluctuation of error is sensitive to coupling intensity by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent of the model and quantum fluctuation, respectively. By taking the appropriate coupling intensity, we can control quantum synchronization even under different logical relationships between switches. Finally, we simulate the dynamical evolution of the system to verify the quantum synchronization criterion and to show the ability of synchronization control.

Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

2015-02-01

271

Exact non-Markovian master equations for multiple qubit systems: Quantum-trajectory approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide class of exact master equations for a multiple qubit system can be explicitly constructed by using the corresponding exact non-Markovian quantum-state diffusion equations. These exact master equations arise naturally from the quantum decoherence dynamics of qubit system as a quantum memory coupled to a collective colored noisy source. The exact master equations are also important in optimal quantum control, quantum dissipation, and quantum thermodynamics. In this paper, we show that the exact non-Markovian master equation for a dissipative N -qubit system can be derived explicitly from the statistical average of the corresponding non-Markovian quantum trajectories. We illustrated our general formulation by an explicit construction of a three-qubit system coupled to a non-Markovian bosonic environment. This multiple qubit master equation offers an accurate time evolution of quantum systems in various domains, and paves the way to investigate the memory effect of an open system in a non-Markovian regime without any approximation.

Chen, Yusui; You, J. Q.; Yu, Ting

2014-11-01

272

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation Dedicated to the memory of Itamar Pitowsky Abstract The feasibility of computationally superior quantum towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes

Kalai, Gil

273

Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems

We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.

Anastopoulos, Charis, E-mail: anastop@physics.upatras.gr; Savvidou, Ntina, E-mail: ksavvidou@physics.upatras.gr

2013-09-15

274

A quantum dynamics study of the benzopyran ring opening guided by laser pulses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-opening photoisomerization of benzopyran, which occurs via a photochemical route involving a conical intersection, has been studied with quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method (MCTDH). We introduce a mechanistic strategy to control the conversion of benzopyran to merocyanine with laser pulses. We use a six-dimensional model developed in a previous work for the potential energy surfaces (PES) based on an extension of the vibronic-coupling Hamiltonian model (diabatization method by ansatz), which depends on the most active degrees of freedom. The main objective of these quantum dynamics simulations is to provide a set of strategies that could help experimentalists to control the photoreactivity vs. photostability ratio (selectivity). In this work we present: (i) a pump-dump technique used to control the photostability, (ii) a two-step strategy to enhance the reactivity of the system: first, a pure vibrational excitation in the electronic ground state that prepares the system and, second, an ultraviolet excitation that brings the system to the first adiabatic electronic state; (iii) finally the effect of a non-resonant pulse (Stark effect) on the dynamics.

Saab, Mohamad; Doriol, Loïc Joubert; Lasorne, Benjamin; Guérin, Stéphane; Gatti, Fabien

2014-10-01

275

Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum in a quantum dot-cavity system

We introduce the Green's functions technique as an alternative theory to the quantum regression theorem formalism for calculating the two-time correlation functions in open quantum systems. In particular, we investigate the potential of this theoretical approach by its application to compute the emission spectrum of a dissipative system composed by a single quantum dot inside of a semiconductor cavity. We also describe a simple algorithm based on the Green's functions technique for calculating the emission spectrum of the quantum dot as well as of the cavity which can easily be implemented in any numerical linear algebra package. We find that the Green's functions technique demonstrates a better accuracy and efficiency in the calculation of the emission spectrum and it allows to overcome the inherent theoretical difficulties associated to the direct application of the quantum regression theorem approach.

Gomez, Edgar A; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

2015-01-01

276

Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems

This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs. (JDH)

Milonni, P.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Goggin, M.E.

1987-01-01

277

Quantum information processing in multi-spin systems

Coherence and entanglement in multi-spin systems are valuable resources for quantum information processing. In this thesis, I explore the manipulation of quantum information in complex multi-spin systems, with particular ...

Cappellaro, Paola

2006-01-01

278

Lithography system using quantum entangled photons

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

2002-01-01

279

Coherent control in simple quantum systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

Prants, Sergey V.

1995-01-01

280

Open Source Real Time Operating Systems Overview

Modern control systems applications are often built on top of a real time operating system (RTOS) which provides the necessary hardware abstraction as well as scheduling, networking and other services. Several open source RTOS solutions are publicly available, which is very attractive, both from an economic (no licensing fees) as well as from a technical (control over the source code) point of view. This contribution gives an overview of the RTLinux and RTEMS systems (architecture, development environment, API etc.). Both systems feature most popular CPUs, several APIs (including Posix), networking, portability and optional commercial support. Some performance figures are presented, focusing on interrupt latency and context switching delay.

Straumann, Till

2001-12-11

281

This paper explains some fundamental ideas of {\\em feedback} control of quantum systems through the study of a relatively simple two-level system coupled to optical field channels. The model for this system includes both continuous and impulsive dynamics. Topics covered in this paper include open and closed loop control, impulsive control, optimal control, quantum filtering, quantum feedback networks, and coherent feedback control.

Matthew James

2014-06-20

282

Observation of dark states in a superconductor diamond quantum hybrid system

The hybridization of distinct quantum systems has opened new avenues to exploit the best properties of these individual systems. Superconducting circuits and electron spin ensembles are one such example. Strong coupling and the coherent transfer and storage of quantum information has been achieved with nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond. Recently, we have observed a remarkably sharp resonance (~1?MHz) at 2.878?GHz in the spectrum of flux qubit negatively charged nitrogen vacancy diamond hybrid quantum system under zero external magnetic field. This width is much narrower than that of both the flux qubit and spin ensemble. Here we show that this resonance is evidence of a collective dark state in the ensemble, which is coherently driven by the superposition of clockwise and counter-clockwise macroscopic persistent supercurrents flowing in the flux qubit. The collective dark state is a unique physical system and could provide a long-lived quantum memory. PMID:24709792

Zhu, Xiaobo; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Amsüss, Robert; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro

2014-01-01

283

Resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in SQUID systems

A detailed theoretical analysis of the resonant macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting quantum interference device systems is presented. Our approach allows us to include the effect of both temperature and sweeping rate of the external flux, and to study the phenomenon both in quasistationary and nonstationary conditions, which can be induced by a fast sweep of the external bias. Moreover we compare our theory with the experimental data of Rouse, Han, and Lukens [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 75}, 1614 (1995)] referring to the quasistationary case, while other observable effects are predicted in the nonstationary case. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Silvestrini, P.; Ruggiero, B.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N. [Istituto di Cibernetica del C.N.R., I-80072, Arco Felice, Napoli (Italy)] [Istituto di Cibernetica del C.N.R., I-80072, Arco Felice, Napoli (Italy)

1996-07-01

284

Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

Fields, Chris

285

Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

Chris Fields

2011-05-19

286

Waves in Open Systems: Eigenfunction Expansions

An open system is not conservative because energy can escape to the outside. An open system by itself is thus not conservative. As a result, the time-evolution operator is not hermitian in the usual sense and the eigenfunctions (factorized solutions in space and time) are no longer normal modes but quasinormal modes (QNMs) whose frequencies $\\omega$ are complex. QNM analysis has been a powerful tool for investigating open systems. Previous studies have been mostly system specific, and use a few QNMs to provide approximate descriptions. Here we review recent developments which aim at a unifying treatment. The formulation leads to a mathematical structure in close analogy to that in conservative, hermitian systems. Many of the mathematical tools for the latter can hence be transcribed. Emphasis is placed on those cases in which the QNMs form a complete set for outgoing wavefunctions, so that in principle all the QNMs together give an exact description of the dynamics. Applications to optics in microspheres and to gravitational waves from black holes are reviewed, and directions for further development are outlined.

E. S. C. Ching; P. T. Leung; W. M. Suen; S. S. Tong; K. Young

1999-04-06

287

A Convergent control strategy for quantum systems

In the interaction picture, a sufficient and necessary condition that guarantees the convergence of closed quantum control system is proposed in this paper. Theoretical derivation and the proof show that it is possible to achieve the convergence to the target state by constructing an observable operator in an energy function and selecting control Hamiltonians. Numerical simulation experiments on a four-level system verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

Shuang Cong; Yuesheng Lou; Jianxiu Liu; Sen Kuang

2014-02-27

288

The quantum human central neural system.

In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114

Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John

2015-01-01

289

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

1998-03-24

290

Edge reconstructions in fractional quantum Hall systems.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two dimensional electron systems exhibiting fractional quantum Hall effects are characterized by a quantized Hall conductance and a dissipationless bulk. The transport in these systems occurs only at the edges where gapless excitations are possible [1]. We present a microscopic calculation of these egde-states at filling factors ?=1/3 and ?=2/5 using the Hamiltonian theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect [2]. We find that the quantum Hall egde undergoes a reconstruction as the confining potential, produced by the background charge density, softens [3,4]. Our results have implications to the tunneling experiments into the edge of a fractional quantum Hall system [5]. 1: X. G.Wen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2206 (1990). 2: R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997). 3: C. de C. Chamon and X. G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8227 (1994). 4: X. Wan, K. Yang, and E. H. Razayi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 056802 (2002). 5: A.M.Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 143 (2000).

Joglekar, Yogesh; Nguyen, Hoang; Murthy, Ganpathy

2003-03-01

291

Geometrical Excess Entropy Production in Nonequilibrium Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For open systems described by the quantum Markovian master equation, we study a possible extension of the Clausius equality to quasistatic operations between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). We investigate the excess heat divided by temperature (i.e., excess entropy production) which is transferred into the system during the operations. We derive a geometrical expression for the excess entropy production, which is analogous to the Berry phase in unitary evolution. Our result implies that in general one cannot define a scalar potential whose difference coincides with the excess entropy production in a thermodynamic process, and that a vector potential plays a crucial role in the thermodynamics for NESSs. In the weakly nonequilibrium regime, we show that the geometrical expression reduces to the extended Clausius equality derived by Saito and Tasaki (J. Stat. Phys. 145:1275, 2011). As an example, we investigate a spinless electron system in quantum dots. We find that one can define a scalar potential when the parameters of only one of the reservoirs are modified in a non-interacting system, but this is no longer the case for an interacting system.

Yuge, Tatsuro; Sagawa, Takahiro; Sugita, Ayumu; Hayakawa, Hisao

2013-11-01

292

Open systems for plant process computers

Arizona Public Service (APS) Company recently upgraded the Emergency Response Facility (ERF) computer at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Stations (PVNGS). The project was initiated to provide the ability to record and display plant data for later analysis of plant events and operational problems (one of the great oversights at nearly every nuclear plant constructed) and to resolve a commitment to correct performance problems on the display side of the system. A major forming objective for the project was to lay a foundation with ample capability and flexibility to provide solutions for future real-time data needs at the plants. The Halliburton NUS Corporation`s Idaho Center (NUS) was selected to develop the system. Because of the constant changes occurring in the computer hardware and software industry, NUS designed and implemented a distributed Open Systems solution based on the UNIX Operating System. This Open System is highly portable across a variety of computer architectures and operating systems and is based on NUS` R*TIME{reg_sign}, a mature software system successfully operating in 14 nuclear plants and over 80 fossil plants. Along with R*TIME, NUS developed two Man-Machine Interface (MMI) versions: R*TIME/WIN, a Microsoft Windows application designed for INTEL-based personal computers operating either Microsoft`s Windows 3.1 or Windows NT operating systems; and R*TIME/X, based on the standard X Window System utilizing the Motif Window Manager.

Norris, D.L. [Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pate, R.L. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-03-01

293

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. I. Quantum registers and quantum gates

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, quantum computations and the study of n-qubit quantum systems have attracted a lot of interest, both in theory and experiment. Apart from the promise of performing quantum computations, however, these investigations also revealed a great deal of difficulties which still need to be solved in practice. In quantum computing, unitary and non-unitary quantum operations act on a given set of qubits to form (entangled) states, in which the information is encoded by the overall system often referred to as quantum registers. To facilitate the simulation of such n-qubit quantum systems, we present the FEYNMAN program to provide all necessary tools in order to define and to deal with quantum registers and quantum operations. Although the present version of the program is restricted to unitary transformations, it equally supports—whenever possible—the representation of the quantum registers both, in terms of their state vectors and density matrices. In addition to the composition of two or more quantum registers, moreover, the program also supports their decomposition into various parts by applying the partial trace operation and the concept of the reduced density matrix. Using an interactive design within the framework of MAPLE, therefore, we expect the FEYNMAN program to be helpful not only for teaching the basic elements of quantum computing but also for studying their physical realization in the future. Program summaryTitle of program:FEYNMAN Catalogue number:ADWE Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed:All computers with a license of the computer algebra system MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterlo Maple Inc.] Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, MS Windows XP Programming language used:MAPLE 9.5 (but should be compatible with 9.0 and 8.0, too) Memory and time required to execute with typical data:Storage and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits, n, in the quantum registers due to the exponential increase of the associated Hilbert space. In particular, complex algebraic operations may require large amounts of memory even for small qubit numbers. However, most of the standard commands (see Section 4 for simple examples) react promptly for up to five qubits on a normal single-processor machine ( ?1GHz with 512 MB memory) and use less than 10 MB memory. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8864 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 493 182 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:During the last decade, quantum computing has been found to provide a revolutionary new form of computation. The algorithms by Shor [P.W. Shor, SIAM J. Sci. Statist. Comput. 26 (1997) 1484] and Grover [L.K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 325. [2

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2005-12-01

294

Thermalization of field driven quantum systems

There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404

Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.

2014-01-01

295

Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems

General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.

Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

296

Nematic valley ordering in quantum Hall systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken “internal” symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. Here we develop a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue is a point-group element that combines a spatial rotation with a permutation of valley indices. The anisotropy of the dispersion relation, generally present in such systems, favors states where all electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley “pseudospin” ordering occurs via a finite-temperature transition accompanied by a nematic pattern of spatial symmetry breaking. In weakly disordered systems, domains of pseudospin polarization are formed, which prevents macroscopic valley and nematic ordering; however, the resulting state still asymptotically exhibits the quantum Hall effect. We discuss the transport properties in the ordered and disordered regimes, and the relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs.

Abanin, D. A.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

2010-07-01

297

Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

298

Mesoscopic systems: classical irreversibility and quantum coherence.

Mesoscopic physics is a sub-discipline of condensed-matter physics that focuses on the properties of solids in a size range intermediate between bulk matter and individual atoms. In particular, it is characteristic of a domain where a certain number of interacting objects can easily be tuned between classical and quantum regimes, thus enabling studies at the border of the two. In magnetism, such a tuning was first realized with large-spin magnetic molecules called single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with archetype Mn(12)-ac. In general, the mesoscopic scale can be relatively large (e.g. micrometre-sized superconducting circuits), but, in magnetism, it is much smaller and can reach the atomic scale with rare earth (RE) ions. In all cases, it is shown how quantum relaxation can drastically reduce classical irreversibility. Taking the example of mesoscopic spin systems, the origin of irreversibility is discussed on the basis of the Landau-Zener model. A classical counterpart of this model is described enabling, in particular, intuitive understanding of most aspects of quantum spin dynamics. The spin dynamics of mesoscopic spin systems (SMM or RE systems) becomes coherent if they are well isolated. The study of the damping of their Rabi oscillations gives access to most relevant decoherence mechanisms by different environmental baths, including the electromagnetic bath of microwave excitation. This type of decoherence, clearly seen with spin systems, is easily recovered in quantum simulations. It is also observed with other types of qubits such as a single spin in a quantum dot or a superconducting loop, despite the presence of other competitive decoherence mechanisms. As in the molecular magnet V(15), the leading decoherence terms of superconducting qubits seem to be associated with a non-Markovian channel in which short-living entanglements with distributions of two-level systems (nuclear spins, impurity spins and/or charges) leading to 1/f noise induce ?(1)-like relaxation of S(z) with dissipation to the bath of two-level systems with which they interact most. Finally, let us mention that these experiments on quantum oscillations are, most of the time, performed in the classical regime of Rabi oscillations, suggesting that decoherence mechanisms might also be treated classically. PMID:22908339

Barbara, Bernard

2012-09-28

299

This paper is concerned with a stochastic dissipativity theory using quadratic-exponential storage functions for open quantum systems with canonically commuting dynamic variables governed by quantum stochastic differential equations. The system is linearly coupled to external boson fields and has a quadratic Hamiltonian which is perturbed by nonquadratic functions of linear combinations of system variables. Such perturbations are similar to those in the classical Lur'e systems and make the quantum dynamics nonlinear. We study their effect on the quantum expectation of the exponential of a positive definite quadratic form of the system variables. This allows conditions to be established for the risk-sensitive stochastic storage function of the quantum system to remain bounded, thus securing boundedness for the moments of system variables of arbitrary order. These results employ a noncommutative analogue of the Doleans-Dade exponential and a multivariate partial differential version of the Gronwall-Bellman lemma.

Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen

2012-05-16

300

Simulating two- and three-dimensional frustrated quantum systems with string-bond states

Simulating frustrated quantum magnets is among the most challenging tasks in computational physics. We apply String-Bond States, a recently introduced ansatz which combines Tensor Networks with Monte Carlo based methods, to the simulation of frustrated quantum systems in both two and three dimensions. We compare our results with existing results for unfrustrated and two-dimensional systems with open boundary conditions, and demonstrate that the method applies equally well to the simulation of frustrated systems with periodic boundaries in both two and three dimensions.

Alessandro Sfondrini; Javier Cerrillo; Norbert Schuch; J. Ignacio Cirac

2009-08-27

301

Simulating two- and three-dimensional frustrated quantum systems with string-bond states

Simulating frustrated quantum magnets is among the most challenging tasks in computational physics. We apply String-Bond States, a recently introduced ansatz which combines Tensor Networks with Monte Carlo based methods, to the simulation of frustrated quantum systems in both two and three dimensions. Our results compare well to existing results for unfrustrated and two-dimensional systems with open boundary conditions, while the method applies equally well to the simulation of frustrated systems with periodic boundaries in both two and three dimensions.

Sfondrini, Alessandro; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio

2009-01-01

302

Shear flow pumping in open microfluidic systems

We propose to drive open microfluidic systems by shear in a covering fluid layer, e.g., oil covering water-filled chemical channels. The advantages as compared to other means of pumping are simpler forcing and prevention of evaporation of volatile components. We calculate the expected throughput for straight channels and show that devices can be built with off-the-shelf technology. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this concept is scalable down to the nanoscale.

Markus Rauscher; S. Dietrich; Joel Koplik

2006-10-26

303

An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.

Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.

2014-09-01

304

Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems

We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.

Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F

2011-01-01

305

An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570

Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei

2013-01-01

306

Observable Measure of Quantum Coherence in Finite Dimensional Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

Girolami, Davide

2014-10-01

307

Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.

Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903

Girolami, Davide

2014-10-24

308

Kondo Destruction and Quantum Criticality in Kondo Lattice Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to theoretically understand quantum phase transitions in Kondo lattice systems. A particular focus is on Kondo destruction, which leads to quantum criticality that goes beyond the Landau framework of order-parameter fluctuations. This unconventional quantum criticality has provided an understanding of the unusual dynamical scaling observed experimentally. It also predicted a sudden jump of the Fermi surface and an extra (Kondo destruction) energy scale, both of which have been verified by systematic experiments. Considerations of Kondo destruction have in addition yielded a global phase diagram, which has motivated the current interest in heavy fermion materials with variable dimensionality or geometrical frustration. Here we summarize these developments, and discuss some of the ongoing work and open issues. We also consider the implications of these results for superconductivity. Finally, we address the effect of spin–orbit coupling on the global phase diagram, suggest that SmB6 under pressure may display unconventional superconductivity in the transition regime between a Kondo insulator phase and an antiferroamgnetic metal phase, and argue that the interfaces of heavy-fermion heterostructures will provide a fertile setting to explore topological properties of both Kondo insulators and heavy-fermion superconductors.

Si, Qimiao; Pixley, Jedediah H.; Nica, Emilian; Yamamoto, Seiji J.; Goswami, Pallab; Yu, Rong; Kirchner, Stefan

2014-06-01

309

SUSY transformations for quasinormal modes of open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersymmetry (SUSY) in quantum mechanics is extended from square-integrable states to those satisfying the outgoing-wave boundary condition, in a Klein-Gordon formulation. This boundary condition allows both the usual normal modes and quasinormal modes with complex eigenvalues ?. The simple generalization leads to three features: The counting of eigenstates under SUSY becomes more systematic; the linear-space structure of outgoing waves (nontrivially different from the usual Hilbert space of square-integrable states) is preserved by SUSY; and multiple states at the same frequency (not allowed for normal modes) are also preserved. The existence or otherwise of SUSY partners is furthermore relevant to the question of inversion: Are open systems uniquely determined by their complex outgoing-wave spectra?

Leung, P. T.; Maassen van den Brink, Alec; Suen, W. M.; Wong, C. W.; Young, K.

2001-10-01

310

Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system

Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate that these qudit unitary maps can be made robust to both static and dynamic perturbations. Potential applications include improved fault-tolerance in universal quantum computation, nonclassical state preparation for high-precision metrology, implementation of quantum simulations, and the study of fundamental physics related to open quantum systems and quantum chaos.

B. E. Anderson; H. Sosa-Martinez; C. A. Riofrío; I. H. Deutsch; P. S. Jessen

2014-10-14

311

Orbits of hybrid systems as qualitative indicators of quantum dynamics

Hamiltonian theory of hybrid quantum-classical systems is used to study dynamics of the classical subsystem coupled to different types of quantum systems. It is shown that the qualitative properties of orbits of the classical subsystem clearly indicate if the quantum subsystem does or does not have additional conserved observables.

N. Buric; D. B. Popovic; M. Radonjic; S. Prvanovic

2014-03-03

312

On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems

The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.

Achuthan, P. [Department of Mathematics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India); Dept. of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 600 036 (India); Narayanankutty, Karuppath [Dept. of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 105 (India)

2009-07-02

313

Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system

We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.

Ryszard Tana?

2012-10-22

314

Time fractional development of quantum systems

In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a Schroedinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order {alpha}, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case {alpha}=1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order {alpha} is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.

Ertik, Hueseyin; Demirhan, Dogan; Sirin, Hueseyin; Bueyuekkilic, Fevzi [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)

2010-08-15

315

Quantum entanglement in multiparticle systems of two-level atoms

We propose the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of quantum entanglement in arbitrary symmetric pure states of two-level atomic systems. We introduce a parameter to quantify quantum entanglement in such systems. We express the inherent quantum fluctuations of a composite system of two-level atoms as a sum of the quantum fluctuations of the individual constituent atoms and their correlation terms. This helps to separate out and study solely the quantum correlations among the atoms and obtain the criterion for the presence of entanglement in such multiatomic systems.

Deb, Ram Narayan [Department of Physics, Krishnagar Government College, Krishnagar, Nadia, Pin 741101, West Bengal (India)

2011-09-15

316

Quantum Signatures of Solar System Dynamics

Let w(i) be a period of rotation of the i-th planet around the Sun (or w(j;i) be a period of rotation of j-th satellite around the i-th planet). From empirical observations it is known that the sum of n(i)w(i)=0 (or the sum of n(j)w(j;i)=0) for some integers n(i) (or n(j)), different for different satellite systems. These conditions, known as resonance conditions, make uses of theories such as KAM difficult to implement. The resonances in Solar System are similar to those encountered in old quantum mechanics where applications of methods of celestial mechanics to atomic and molecular physics were highly sucsessful. With such a success, the birth of new quantum mechanics is difficult to understand. In short, the rationale for its birth lies in simplicity with which the same type of calculations are done using new methods capable of taking care of resonances. The solution of quantization puzzle was found by Heisenberg. In this paper new uses of Heisenberg's ideas are found. When superimposed with the equivalence principle of general relativity, they lead to quantum mechanical tratment of observed resonances in Solar System. To test correctness of our theoretical predictions the number of allowed stable orbits for planets and for equatorial stable orbits of satellites of heavy planets is calculated resulting in good agreement with observational data. In addition, the paper briefly discusses quantum mechanical nature of rings of heavy planets and potential usefulness of the obtained results for cosmology.

Arkady L. Kholodenko

2007-07-26

317

Dynamical Localization in Disordered Quantum Spin Systems

We say that a quantum spin system is dynamically localized if the time-evolution of local observables satisfies a zero-velocity Lieb-Robinson bound. In terms of this definition we have the following main results: First, for general systems with short range interactions, dynamical localization implies exponential decay of ground state correlations, up to an explicit correction. Second, the dynamical localization of random xy spin chains can be reduced to dynamical localization of an effective one-particle Hamiltonian. In particular, the isotropic xy chain in random exterior magnetic field is dynamically localized.

Eman Hamza; Robert Sims; Günter Stolz

2011-08-18

318

Quantum simulations of helium clusters with ionic and open shell dopants

+He) and halogen atoms and ions interacting with helium, in particular iodine. Spin-orbit coupling betweenQuantum simulations of helium clusters with ionic and open shell dopants Marius Lewerenz Â·Helium-helium interaction is of weak van der Waals type, closed shell atoms of very low polarisability

Boyer, Edmond

319

Distance growth of quantum states due to initial system--environment correlations

Intriguing features of the distance between two arbitrary states of an open quantum system are identified that are induced by initial system-environment correlations. As an example, we analyze a qubit dephasingly coupled to a bosonic environment. Within tailored parameter regimes, initial correlations are shown to substantially increase a distance between two qubit states evolving to long-time limit states according to exact non-Markovian dynamics. It exemplifies the breakdown of the distance contractivity of the reduced dynamics.

J. Dajka; J. Luczka

2010-05-03

320

Nonequilibrium electron transport in quantum dot and quantum point contact systems

Much experimental research has been performed in the equilibrium regime on individual quantum dots and quantum point contacts (QPCs). The focus of the research presented here is electron transport in the nonequilibrium regime in coupled quantum dot and QPC systems fabricated on AlGaAs\\/GaAs material using the split gate technique. Near equilibrium magnetoconductance measurements were performed on a quantum dot and

Anasuya Erin Krishnaswamy

1999-01-01

321

Many electronic systems exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions, this identification is not universal. To better understand such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic, or supersymmetric, quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general non-equilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods (or holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our exact result is that a Wick rotation relates (i) dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this cor...

Nussinov, Zohar; Graf, Matthias J; Balatsky, Alexander V

2013-01-01

322

In the effective mass approximation in the model of rectangular potentials, the scattering cross section of electrons in an open spherical quantum dot is calculated for the first time. It is shown that, for such a nanosystem with a barrier of several monolayers, the experimental measurements of the scattering cross section allow adequate identification of the resonance energies and the widths of resonance states in the low-energy region of the quasi-stationary electron spectrum. It is also shown that, for an open spherical quantum dot with a low-strength potential barrier, the adequate spectral parameters of the quasi-stationary spectrum are the generalized resonance energies and widths determined via the probability of an electron being inside the quantum dot.

Tkach, N. V., E-mail: ktf@chnu.edu.ua; Seti, Ju. [Chernovtsy National University (Ukraine)

2009-03-15

323

Quantum Rotational Effects in Nanomagnetic Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a nanomagnet must conserve the total angular momentum. For a nanomagnet embedded in a rigid body, reversal of the magnetic moment will cause the body to rotate as a whole. When embedded in an elastic environment, tunneling of the magnetic moment will cause local elastic twists of the crystal structure. In this thesis, I will present a theoretical study of the interplay between magnetization and rotations in a variety of nanomagnetic systems which have some degree of rotational freedom. We investigate the effect of rotational freedom on the tunnel splitting of a nanomagnet which is free to rotate about its easy axis. Calculating the exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion shows that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes the easy axis anisotropy, increasing the tunnel splitting. To understand magnetization dynamics in free particles, we study a quantum mechanical model of a tunneling spin embedded in a rigid rotor. The exact energy levels for a symmetric rotor exhibit first and second order quantum phase transitions between states with different values the magnetic moment. A quantum phase diagram is obtained in which the magnetic moment depends strongly on the moments of inertia. An intrinsic contribution to decoherence of current oscillations of a flux qubit must come from the angular momentum it transfers to the surrounding body. Within exactly solvable models of a qubit embedded in a rigid body and an elastic medium, we show that slow decoherence is permitted if the solid is macroscopically large. The spin-boson model is one of the simplest representations of a two-level system interacting with a quantum harmonic oscillator, yet has eluded a closed-form solution. I investigate some possible approaches to understanding its spectrum. The Landau-Zener dynamics of a tunneling spin coupled to a torsional resonator show that for certain parameter ranges the system exhibits multiple Landau-Zener transitions. These transitions coincide in time with changes in the oscillator dynamics. A large number of spins on a single oscillator coupled only through the in-phase oscillations behaves as a single large spin, greatly enhancing the spin-phonon coupling.

O'Keeffe, Michael F.

324

QUANTUM TRANSFER OPERATORS AND QUANTUM SCATTERING STEPHANE NONNENMACHER

QUANTUM TRANSFER OPERATORS AND QUANTUM SCATTERING STÂ´EPHANE NONNENMACHER 1. IntroductionÂ¨ostrand and Maciej Zworski, the aim of which is a better understanding of quantum scattering systems, in situations are physically relevant: for instance, mesoscopic quantum dots are often modelled by open chaotic billiards [17

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

325

Three Level Systems for Quantum Memories in Erbium Doped Materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum memories for single photons could play an important role in quantum communication and optical quantum computing. We are working towards the realization of such a quantum memory based on the controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening (CRIB) of a single absorption line in a rare earth ion. The implementation of the CRIB protocol for such a quantum memory requires a three level system such that the absorption over a broad bandwidth in a material can be greatly reduced via optical pumping to the auxiliary level. We report on the first experimental steps towards the realization of such a three level systems in Erbium doped materials with spectral hole burning techniques.

Hastings-Simon, Sara; Staudt, Matthias; Lauritzen, Bjoern; Afzelius, Mikael; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

2007-03-01

326

Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology

Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of non-separable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.

F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; U. Marzolino

2014-03-05

327

Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system: ORCAS.

A digital signal processing (DSP)-based digital data acquisition system has been developed to support novel flow cytometry efforts. The system flexibility includes how it detects, captures, and processes event data. Custom data capture boards utilizing analog to digital converters (ADCs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) detect events and capture correlated event data. A commercial DSP board processes the captured data and sends the results over the IEEE 1394 bus to the host computer that provides a user interface for acquisition, display, analysis, and storage. The system collects list mode data, correlated pulse shapes, or streaming data from a variety of detector types using Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows host computers. It extracts pulse features not found on commercial systems with excellent sensitivity and linearity over a wide dynamic range. List mode data are saved in FCS 3.0 formatted files while streaming or correlated waveform data are saved in custom format files for postprocessing. Open, reconfigurable cytometric acquisition system is compact, scaleable, flexible, and modular. Programmable feature extraction algorithms have exciting possibilities for both new and existing applications. The recent availability of a commercial data capture board will enable general availability of similar systems. PMID:17680705

Naivar, Mark A; Parson, Jimmie D; Wilder, Mark E; Habbersett, Robert C; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry; Nolan, John P; Graves, Steven W; Martin, John C; Jett, James H; Freyer, James P

2007-11-01

328

Dressed-state approach to quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the nonperturbative method of dressed states introduced in a previous publication [N. P. Andion, A. P. C. Malbouisson, and A. Mattos Neto, J. Phys. A 34, 3735 (2001)], we study effects of the environment on a quantum-mechanical system, in the case in which the environment is modeled by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. This method makes it possible to separate the whole system into the dressed mechanical system and the dressed environment, in terms of which a nonperturbative approach is possible. When applied to the Brownian motion, we give explicit nonperturbative formulas for the classical path of the particle in the weak and strong coupling regimes. When applied to studying atomic behaviors in cavities, the method accounts for experimentally observed inhibition of atomic decay in small cavities.

Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Malbouisson, A. P.

2002-10-01

329

The Quantum H4 Integrable System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum H4 integrable system is a 4D system with rational potential related to the non-crystallographic root system H4 with 600-cell symmetry. It is shown that the gauge-rotated H4 Hamiltonian as well as one of the integrals, when written in terms of the invariants of the Coxeter group H4, is in algebraic form: it has polynomial coefficients in front of the derivatives. Any eigenfunction is a polynomial multiplied by ground-state function (factorization property). Spectra correspond to one of the anisotropic harmonic oscillators. The Hamiltonian has infinitely-many finite-dimensional invariant subspaces in polynomials, they form the infinite flag with the characteristic vector ? = (1, 5, 8, 12).

García, Marcos A. G.; Turbiner, Alexander V.

330

Statistical Mechanics of Quantum-Classical Systems with Holonomic Constraints

The statistical mechanics of quantum-classical systems with holonomic constraints is formulated rigorously by unifying the classical Dirac bracket and the quantum-classical bracket in matrix form. The resulting Dirac quantum-classical theory, which conserves the holonomic constraints exactly, is then used to formulate time evolution and statistical mechanics. The correct momentum-jump approximation for constrained system arises naturally from this formalism. Finally, in analogy with what was found in the classical case, it is shown that the rigorous linear response function of constrained quantum-classical systems contains non-trivial additional terms which are absent in the response of unconstrained systems.

Alessandro Sergi

2005-11-15

331

Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems

We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.

S. M. Giampaolo; G. Gualdi; A. Monras; F. Illuminati

2012-01-05

332

Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.

We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147

Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F

2011-12-23

333

Control of non-controllable quantum systems: A quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration

A new notion of controllability, eigenstate controllability, is defined for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum mechanical systems which are neither strongly completely controllably nor completely controllable. And a quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration is designed to perform a quantum control task of steering a system, which is eigenstate controllable but may not be (strongly) completely controllable, from an arbitrary state to a target state.

Chen-Bin Zhang; Dao-Yi Dong; Zong-Hai Chen

2005-03-02

334

An Open-Source Learning Content Management and Assessment System

-CAPA Architecture Shared Cross-Institutional Resource Library Resource Assembly Course Management Resource AssemblyLON-CAPA An Open-Source Learning Content Management and Assessment System Gerd Kortemeyer-CAPA is free open-source a learning content management system an assessment system around since 1992 #12

335

Topics in biophysics and disordered quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a collection of problems applying the tools of statistical physics to biology. We also present work on the effects of disorder on quantum systems. First, we derive a mean-field phase diagram for the folding of a generic RNA molecule, focusing on the conditions under which a stable ribozyme may fold. Then, we study the statistical mechanics of nucleosorne positioning and trans-membrane protein alpha-helix prediction, applying related techniques. We compare the physical outcomes of each model, finding nucleosomes suffer from ubiquitous metastability while transmembrane proteins are designed to avoid this problem. Next we study the dynamical properties of a collection of neurons, believed to generate the spontaneous breathing rhythms of mammals, focusing on its ability to produce stable oscillations of activity. Next we address the competition between disorder and strong interaction in 2 D fermionic systems, finding that the Mott gap is completely washed out, leading to a glassy state. Finally, we study the rounding by disorder of first, order quantum phase transitions, both through a general heuristic argument and an in-depth study of a particular model.

Schwab, David Jason

336

On Invariant Subspace In Quantum Control Systems and Some Concepts of Integrable Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trajectories of some dynamical systems can be analysed by algebraic methods. In this paper we discuss certain applications of the so-called Shemesh criterion and its generalisations to analysis of properties of quantum control systems. In particular, some Hamiltonians with non-degenerated spectrum are considered, and also the case of a Hamiltonian with m 1,...,m N degeneracies, where {sum }N_{i=1}mi=n, is discussed.

Jamio?kowski, Andrzej; Kamizawa, Takeo; Pastuszak, Grzegorz

2015-01-01

337

Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model

With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a system, one based on the generalized factorization approximation, the other based on generalized definitions of work and heat. By means of those methods, we show that small quantum systems can, indeed, act as work reservoirs. We illustrate this behavior for a simple system consisting of a spin coupled to an oscillator and investigate the effects of two different interactions on the work source quality. One case will be shown to allow for a work source functionality of arbitrarily high quality.

Heiko Schröder; Günter Mahler

2009-11-27

338

Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. II. Separability and entanglement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the entanglement of n-qubit quantum systems have attracted a lot of interest during recent years. Despite the central role of entanglement in quantum information theory, however, there are still a number of open problems in the theoretical characterization of entangled systems that make symbolic and numerical simulation on n-qubit quantum registers indispensable for present-day research. To facilitate the investigation of the separability and entanglement properties of n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program in the framework of the computer algebra system MAPLE. In addition to all previous capabilities of this MAPLE code for defining and manipulating quantum registers, the program now provides various tools which are necessary for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of entanglement in n-qubit quantum registers. A simple access, in particular, is given to several algebraic separability criteria as well as a number of entanglement measures and related quantities. As in the previous version, symbolic and numeric computations are equally supported. Program summaryTitle of program:FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier:ADWE_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:None Computers for which the program is designed: All computers with a license of the computer algebra system MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux, MS Windows XP Programming language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements:Most commands acting on quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 with ?2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. However, storage and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits, n, in the quantum registers due to the exponential increase of the associated Hilbert space. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3107 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 859 Distribution format:tar.gz Reasons for new version:The first program version established the data structures and commands which are needed to build and manipulate quantum registers. Since the (evolution of) entanglement is a central aspect in quantum information processing the current version adds the capability to analyze separability and entanglement of quantum registers by implementing algebraic separability criteria and entanglement measures and related quantities. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Entanglement has been identified as an essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. Therefore, the detection and quantification of entanglement is a necessary prerequisite for many applications, such as quantum computation, communications or quantum cryptography. Up to the present, however, the multipartite entanglement of n-qubit systems has remained largely unexplored owing to the exponential growth of complexity with the number of qubits involved. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, a set of procedures has been developed which supports the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers and quantum logic gates [T. Radtke, S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 173 (2005) 91]. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate the behavior of n-qubit quantum systems (by applying a number of unitary or non-unitary operations) and to analyze their separability and entanglement properties. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The present version of the program facilitates the setup and the manipulation of quantum registers by means of (predefined) quantum logic gates; it now also provides the tools for performing a symbolic and/or numeric analysis of the entanglement for the quantum states of such registers. Owing to the rapid increase in

Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

2006-07-01

339

Device-independent certification of high-dimensional quantum systems.

An important problem in quantum information processing is the certification of the dimension of quantum systems without making assumptions about the devices used to prepare and measure them, that is, in a device-independent manner. A crucial question is whether such certification is experimentally feasible for high-dimensional quantum systems. Here we experimentally witness in a device-independent manner the generation of six-dimensional quantum systems encoded in the orbital angular momentum of single photons and show that the same method can be scaled, at least, up to dimension 13. PMID:24765933

D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Bisesto, Fabrizio; Sciarrino, Fabio; Barra, Johanna F; Lima, Gustavo; Cabello, Adán

2014-04-11

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop analytical tools and numerical methods for time evolving the total density matrix of the finite-size Anderson model. The model is composed of two finite metal grains, each prepared in canonical states of differing chemical potential and connected through a single electronic level (quantum dot or impurity). Coulomb interactions are either excluded all together or allowed on the dot only. We extend this basic model to emulate decohering and inelastic scattering processes for the dot electrons with the probe technique. Three methods, originally developed to treat impurity dynamics, are augmented to yield global system dynamics: the quantum Langevin equation method, the well-known fermionic trace formula and an iterative path integral approach. The latter accommodates interactions on the dot in a numerically exact fashion. We apply the developed techniques to two open topics in nonequilibrium many-body physics. (i) We explore the role of many-body electron-electron repulsion effects on the dynamics of the system. Results, obtained using exact path integral simulations, are compared with mean-field quantum Langevin equation predictions. (ii) We analyze aspects of quantum equilibration and thermalization in large quantum systems using the probe technique, mimicking elastic-dephasing effects and inelastic interactions on the dot. Here, unitary simulations based on the fermionic trace formula are accompanied by quantum Langevin equation calculations.

Kulkarni, Manas; Tiwari, Kunal L.; Segal, Dvira

2013-01-01

341

Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet

Lorenza Viola; David Tannor

2011-01-01

342

How open should an open system be? : essays on mobile computing

"Systems" goods-such as computers, telecom networks, and automobiles-are made up of multiple components. This dissertation comprises three essays that study the decisions of system innovators in mobile computing to "open" ...

Boudreau, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

2006-01-01

343

A basic quantum-mechanical model for wave functions and current flow in open quantum dots or billiards is investigated. The model involves non-Hertmitian quantum mechanics, parity-time (PT) symmetry, and PT-symmetry breaking. Attached leads are represented by positive and negative imaginary potentials. Thus probability densities, currents flows, etc., for open quantum dots or billiards may be simulated in this way by solving the Schrödinger equation with a complex potential. Here we consider a nominally open ballistic quantum dot emulated by a planar microwave billiard. Results for probability distributions for densities, currents (Poynting vector), and stress tensor components are presented and compared with predictions based on Gaussian random wave theory. The results are also discussed in view of the corresponding measurements for the analogous microwave cavity. The model is of conceptual as well as of practical and educational interest. PMID:25019854

Wahlstrand, B; Yakimenko, I I; Berggren, K-F

2014-06-01

344

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic quantum-mechanical model for wave functions and current flow in open quantum dots or billiards is investigated. The model involves non-Hertmitian quantum mechanics, parity-time (PT) symmetry, and PT-symmetry breaking. Attached leads are represented by positive and negative imaginary potentials. Thus probability densities, currents flows, etc., for open quantum dots or billiards may be simulated in this way by solving the Schrödinger equation with a complex potential. Here we consider a nominally open ballistic quantum dot emulated by a planar microwave billiard. Results for probability distributions for densities, currents (Poynting vector), and stress tensor components are presented and compared with predictions based on Gaussian random wave theory. The results are also discussed in view of the corresponding measurements for the analogous microwave cavity. The model is of conceptual as well as of practical and educational interest.

Wahlstrand, B.; Yakimenko, I. I.; Berggren, K.-F.

2014-06-01

345

Quantum computing in power system simulation

The concept of quantum computing has been conjectured as the next major breakthrough in computing. The basis of quantum computing, its strengths, weaknesses, and challenges are outlined. The specific application to electric power engineering is discussed.

Daniel J. Tylavsky; G. T. Heydt

2003-01-01

346

Many electronic systems exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions, this identification is not universal. To better understand such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic, or supersymmetric, quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general non-equilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods (or holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our exact result is that a Wick rotation relates (i) dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this correspondence, we illustrate that, even in the absence of imposed disorder, many continuum quantum fluid systems (and possible lattice counterparts) may exhibit a zero-point "quantum dynamical heterogeneity" wherein the dynamics, at a given instant, is spatially non-uniform. While the static length scales accompanying this phenomenon do not exhibit a clear divergence in standard correlation functions, the length scale of the dynamical heterogeneities can increase dramatically. We study "quantum jamming" and illustrate how a hard core bosonic system may undergo a zero temperature quantum critical metal-to-insulator-type transition with an extremely large effective dynamical exponent z>4 consistent with length scales that increase far more slowly than the relaxation time as a putative critical transition is approached. We suggest ways to analyze experimental data.

Zohar Nussinov; Patrick Johnson; Matthias J. Graf; Alexander V. Balatsky

2013-04-15

347

The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research

Ping Cui

2006-01-01

348

Real-time nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum glassy systems

We develop a systematic analytic approach to aging effects in quantum disordered systems in contact with an environment. Within the closed-time path-integral formalism we include dissipation by coupling the system to a set of independent harmonic oscillators that mimic a quantum thermal bath. After integrating over the bath variables and averaging over disorder we obtain an effective action that determines

Leticia F. Cugliandolo; Gustavo Lozano

1999-01-01

349

Nonlocal entanglement analysis using quantum dot and microcavity coupled system

We propose an optimal nonlocal entanglement analysis protocol for a two-electron system exploiting the quantum dot and microcavity coupled system, resorting to the projective measurement on the entangled photon pair. The maximally entangled states can, in principle, been distinguished by two nonlocal parties without destroying them, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication.

Chuan Wang

2012-01-01

350

Quantum nuclear effects on surfaces and dispersion bonded systems

Quantum nuclear effects on surfaces and dispersion bonded systems Erlend Davidson A dissertation model systems. By comparing with experiment whenever possible we provide new insight into how quantum . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 Born-Oppenheimer approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3 Density functional

Guillas, Serge

351

GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System

1 GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System CHUN-YING HUANG, National Taiwan Ocean source cloud gaming system, called GamingAnywhere. In addition to its openness, we design Gaming by the researchers, game developers, service providers, and end users for setting up cloud gaming testbeds, which, we

Chen, Sheng-Wei

352

Empowering open systems through cross-platform interoperability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the motivations for open systems lie in the expectation of interoperability, sometimes referred to as "plug-and-play". Nothing in the notion of "open-ness", however, guarantees this outcome, which makes the increased interest in open architecture more perplexing. In this paper, we explore certain themes of open architecture. We introduce the concept of "windows of interoperability", which can be used to align disparate portions of architecture. Such "windows of interoperability", which concentrate on a reduced set of protocol and interface features, might achieve many of the broader purposes assigned as benefits in open architecture. Since it is possible to engineer proprietary systems that interoperate effectively, this nuanced definition of interoperability may in fact be a more important concept to understand and nurture for effective systems engineering and maintenance.

Lyke, James C.

2014-06-01

353

Detective quantum efficiency of the LODOX system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of a digital x-ray imaging system describes how much of the signal to noise ratio of the incident radiation is sustained in the resultant digital image. This measure of dose efficiency is suitable for the comparison of detectors produced by different manufacturers. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) stipulates standard methods and conditions for the measurement of the DQE for single exposure imaging systems such as flat panel detectors. This paper shows how the calculation is adapted for DQE measurements of scanning systems. In this paper it is described how to measure the presampled Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) using an edge test method and how to extract the horizontal and vertical components of the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) in a way that is insensitive to structured noise patterns often found in scanned images. The calculation of the total number of incident photons from the radiation dose measurement is explained and results are provided for the Lodox low dose full body digital x-ray scanning system which is developed in South Africa.

de Villiers, Mattieu; de Jager, Gerhard

2003-06-01

354

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum simulators are controllable quantum systems that can be used to mimic other quantum systems. They have the potential to enable the tackling of problems that are intractable on conventional computers. The photonic quantum technology available today is reaching the stage where significant advantages arise for the simulation of interesting problems in quantum chemistry, quantum biology and solid-state physics. In addition, photonic quantum systems also offer the unique benefit of being mobile over free space and in waveguide structures, which opens new perspectives to the field by enabling the natural investigation of quantum transport phenomena. Here, we review recent progress in the field of photonic quantum simulation, which should break the ground towards the realization of versatile quantum simulators.

Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Walther, Philip

2012-04-01

355

Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a non-equilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer–Büttiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However, the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

Mintchev, Mihail; Santoni, Luca; Sorba, Paul

2015-02-01

356

The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify and speed up code development, common evaluation and plotting tools, and simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out serial or parallel numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) both in a static version and a dynamic time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) code, and quantum Monte Carlo solvers for dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The ALPS libraries provide a powerful framework for programmers to develop their own applications, which, for instance, greatly simplify the steps of porting a serial code onto a parallel, distributed memory machine. Major changes in release 2.0 include the use of HDF5 for binary data, evaluation tools in Python, support for the Windows operating system, the use of CMake as build system and binary installation packages for Mac OS X and Windows, and integration with the VisTrails workflow provenance tool. The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org/.

Bauer, B.; Carr, L. D.; Evertz, H. G.; Feiguin, A.; Freire, J.; Fuchs, S.; Gamper, L.; Gukelberger, J.; Gull, E.; Guertler, S.; Hehn, A.; Igarashi, R.; Isakov, S. V.; Koop, D.; Ma, P. N.; Mates, P.; Matsuo, H.; Parcollet, O.; Paw?owski, G.; Picon, J. D.; Pollet, L.; Santos, E.; Scarola, V. W.; Schollwöck, U.; Silva, C.; Surer, B.; Todo, S.; Trebst, S.; Troyer, M.; Wall, M. L.; Werner, P.; Wessel, S.

2011-05-01

357

Experimental Quantum Simulation of Entanglement in Many-body Systems

We employ a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum information processor to simulate the ground state of an XXZ spin chain and measure its NMR analog of entanglement, or pseudo-entanglement. The observed pseudo-entanglement for a small-size system already displays singularity, a signature which is qualitatively similar to that in the thermodynamical limit across quantum phase transitions, including an infinite-order critical point. The experimental results illustrate a successful approach to investigate quantum correlations in many-body systems using quantum simulators.

Jingfu Zhang; Tzu-Chieh Wei; Raymond Laflamme

2011-07-25

358

RESEARCH Open Access Fractional order polytopic systems: robust

RESEARCH Open Access Fractional order polytopic systems: robust stability and stabilisation of commensurate fractional order polytopic systems (FOS). In the proposed approach, Linear Matrix Inequalities of a fractional order such that 0

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

359

3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System

A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.

Gordon, K J; Collins, R J; Rech, I; Cova, S D; Townsend, P D; Buller, G S; Gordon, Karen J.; Fernandez, Veronica; Collins, Robert J.; Rech, Ivan; Cova, Sergio D.; Townsend, Paul D.; Buller, Gerald S.

2006-01-01

360

Strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical oscillator hybrid system.

Recent progress in nanotechnology has allowed the fabrication of new hybrid systems in which a single two-level system is coupled to a mechanical nanoresonator. In such systems the quantum nature of a macroscopic degree of freedom can be revealed and manipulated. This opens up appealing perspectives for quantum information technologies, and for the exploration of the quantum-classical boundary. Here we present the experimental realization of a monolithic solid-state hybrid system governed by material strain: a quantum dot is embedded within a nanowire that features discrete mechanical resonances corresponding to flexural vibration modes. Mechanical vibrations result in a time-varying strain field that modulates the quantum dot transition energy. This approach simultaneously offers a large light-extraction efficiency and a large exciton-phonon coupling strength g0. By means of optical and mechanical spectroscopy, we find that g0/2 ? is nearly as large as the mechanical frequency, a criterion that defines the ultrastrong coupling regime. PMID:24362234

Yeo, I; de Assis, P-L; Gloppe, A; Dupont-Ferrier, E; Verlot, P; Malik, N S; Dupuy, E; Claudon, J; Gérard, J-M; Auffèves, A; Nogues, G; Seidelin, S; Poizat, J-Ph; Arcizet, O; Richard, M

2014-02-01

361

The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age

Computational Quantum Chemistry has developed into a powerful, efficient, reliable and increasingly routine tool for exploring the structure and properties of small to medium sized molecules. Many thousands of calculations are performed every day, some offering results which approach experimental accuracy. However, in contrast to other disciplines, such as crystallography, or bioinformatics, where standard formats and well-known, unified databases exist, this QC data is generally destined to remain locally held in files which are not designed to be machine-readable. Only a very small subset of these results will become accessible to the wider community through publication. In this paper we describe how the Quixote Project is developing the infrastructure required to convert output from a number of different molecular quantum chemistry packages to a common semantically rich, machine-readable format and to build respositories of QC results. Such an infrastructure offers benefits at many levels. The standardised representation of the results will facilitate software interoperability, for example making it easier for analysis tools to take data from different QC packages, and will also help with archival and deposition of results. The repository infrastructure, which is lightweight and built using Open software components, can be implemented at individual researcher, project, organisation or community level, offering the exciting possibility that in future many of these QC results can be made publically available, to be searched and interpreted just as crystallography and bioinformatics results are today. Although we believe that quantum chemists will appreciate the contribution the Quixote infrastructure can make to the organisation and and exchange of their results, we anticipate that greater rewards will come from enabling their results to be consumed by a wider community. As the respositories grow they will become a valuable source of chemical data for use by other disciplines in both research and education. The Quixote project is unconventional in that the infrastructure is being implemented in advance of a full definition of the data model which will eventually underpin it. We believe that a working system which offers real value to researchers based on tools and shared, searchable repositories will encourage early participation from a broader community, including both producers and consumers of data. In the early stages, searching and indexing can be performed on the chemical subject of the calculations, and well defined calculation meta-data. The process of defining more specific quantum chemical definitions, adding them to dictionaries and extracting them consistently from the results of the various software packages can then proceed in an incremental manner, adding additional value at each stage. Not only will these results help to change the data management model in the field of Quantum Chemistry, but the methodology can be applied to other pressing problems related to data in computational and experimental science. PMID:21999363

2011-01-01

362

Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination

The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to grow a private, secret key, even if the eavesdropper can do anything permitted by the laws of nature. In quantum key distribution (QKD) the parties exchange non-orthogonal or entangled quantum states to generate quantum correlated classical data. Consequently, QKD implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of the signal states. However, practical detectors are not only sensitive to quantum states. Here we show how an eavesdropper can exploit such deviations from the ideal behaviour: We demonstrate experimentally how the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to acquire the full secret key without leaving any trace; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built of off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photo diodes (APDs) to detect ...

Lydersen, Lars; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; 10.1038/NPHOTON.2010.214

2010-01-01

363

A novel hyperchaos in the quantum Zakharov system for plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear interaction of quantum Langmuir waves (QLWs) and quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) described by the one-dimensional quantum Zakharov equations (QZEs) is reinvestigated. A Galerkin type approximation is used to reduce the QZS to a simplified system (SS) of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which governs the temporal behaviors of the slowly varying envelope of the high-frequency electric field and the low frequency density fluctuation. This SS is then shown to establish the coexistence of novel hyperchaotic attractors, whose appearance is explained by means of the analysis of Lyapunov exponent spectra as well as the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. The system has an equilibrium point which depends parametrically on the nondimensional quantum parameter (H) proportional to quantum diffraction, the plasmon number (N) and the wave number of perturbation (?), and which can evolve into periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic and hyperchaotic states in both semiclassical and quantum cases.

Misra, A. P.; Ghosh, D.; Chowdhury, A. R.

2008-02-01

364

Open Source Vision Library (OpenVL) Based Local Positioning System Changsong Shen, Steve Oldridge}@ece.ubc.ca Abstract This paper presents an Open Source Vision Library (OpenVL) for hardware acceleration of video-based surveillance systems and other computer vision applications to facilitate low latency, real-time response. Our

British Columbia, University of

365

Performance comparison between classical and quantum control for a simple quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bra?czyk et al. pointed out that the quantum control scheme is superior to the classical control scheme for a simple quantum system using simulation [A.M. Bra?czyk, P.E.M.F. Mendonca, A. Gilchrist, A.C. Doherty, S.D. Barlett, Quantum control theory of a single qubit, Physical Review A 75 (2007) 012329 or arXiv e-print quant-ph/0608037]. Here we rigorously prove the result. Furthermore we will show that any quantum operation does not universally “correct” the dephasing noise.

Xi, Zairong; Jin, Guangsheng

2008-02-01

366

Superpositions of time evolutions of a quantum system and a quantum time-translation machine

A method to obtain a superposition of time evolutions of a quantum system which correspond to different Hamiltonians as well as to different periods of time is derived. Its application to amplification of an effect due to the action of weak forces is considered. A quantum time-translation machine based on the same principle, utilizing the gravitational field, is also considered.

Yakir Aharonov; Jeeva Anandan; Sandu Popescu; Lev Vaidman

1990-01-01

367

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.

Renner, R.; Cirac, J. I.

2009-03-01

368

Correlation approach to work extraction from finite quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversible work extraction from identical quantum systems via collective operations was shown to be possible even without producing entanglement among the sub-parts. Here, we show that implementing such global operations necessarily imply the creation of quantum correlations, as measured by quantum discord. We also reanalyze the conditions under which global transformations outperform local gates as far as maximal work extraction is considered by deriving a necessary and sufficient condition that is based on classical correlations.

Giorgi, Gian Luca; Campbell, Steve

2015-02-01

369

Quantum correlations in B and K meson systems

We study quantum correlations in meson-antimeson systems, as provided for example in meson factories used mainly to probe physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. We use a semigroup formalism to compute a trace-preserving density matrix for these systems, in spite of the fact that the particles are unstable. This is used to compute the time evolution of several measures of quantum correlations for three meson systems (KKbar, BdBdbar and BsBsbar). We find that the quantum correlations for these systems can be non-trivially different from their stable counterparts.

Subhashish Banerjee; Ashutosh Kumar Alok; Richard MacKenzie

2014-09-03

370

Open process and open-source enterprise systems

Enterprise systems have become pervasive, especially at the high end of the market where SAP and Oracle service large organisations. There is a great deal of value in enterprise systems offered to all organisations, but many small and medium businesses (SMBs) cannot afford the excessive software costs of established ERP systems. There have been a number of alternative forms of

Sang M. Lee; David L. Olson; Sang-Heui Lee

2009-01-01

371

Using Local Perturbations To Manipulate and Control Pointer States in Quantum Dot Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, scanning gate microscopy (SGM) was used to image scarred wave functions in an open InAs quantum dot[1]. The SGM tip provides a local potential perturbation and imaging is performed by measuring changes in conductance. Scarred wave functions, long associated with quantum chaos, have been shown in open dots to correspond to pointer states[2], eigenstates that survive the decoherence process that occurs via coupling to the environment. Pointer states modulate the conductance, yielding periodic fluctuations and the scars, normally thought unstable, are stabilized by quantum Darwinism [3]. We shall show that, beyond probing, pointer states can be manipulated by local perturbations. Particularly interesting effects occur in coupled quantum dot arrays, where a pointer state localized in one dot can be shifted over into another with a perturbation in a completely different part of the system. These nonlocal effects may perhaps be exploited to give such systems an exotic functionality. [1] A. M. Burke, R. Akis, T. E. Day, Gil Speyer, D. K. Ferry, and B. R. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2010). [2] D. K. Ferry, R. Akis, and J. P. Bird, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 176801 (2004). [3] R. Brunner, R. Akis,D. K. Ferry, F. Kuchar,and R. Meisels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 024102 (2008).

Akis, Richard; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, David; Brunner, Roland

2012-02-01

372

Witnessing Single-System Steering for Quantum Information Processing

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, inspired by this bipartite concept, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d-level systems (qudits) and devise several quantum witnesses to efficiently verify the steerability therein, which are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering witnesses enable the unambiguous ruling-out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out false-steering scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. In addition, we show that these steering witnesses also have applications in quantum information, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the non-local EPR variant of these witnesses also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation and secure entanglement-based quantum communication.

Che-Ming Li; Yueh-Nan Chen; Neill Lambert; Ching-Yi Chiu; Franco Nori

2014-11-12

373

47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...what the open video system operator, or its affiliate...is applicable to a new market entrant (the open video system operator) that will...but not limited to payments for programming and...2) An open video system operator can...

2011-10-01

374

47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...what the open video system operator, or its affiliate...is applicable to a new market entrant (the open video system operator) that will...but not limited to payments for programming and...2) An open video system operator can...

2013-10-01

375

47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...what the open video system operator, or its affiliate...is applicable to a new market entrant (the open video system operator) that will...but not limited to payments for programming and...2) An open video system operator can...

2010-10-01

376

47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

378

PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems

Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phenomenon not limited to systems having one degree of freedom.

Carl M. Bender; David J. Weir

2012-06-22

379

Huge Quantum Gravity Effects in the Solar System

Normally one thinks of the motion of the planets around the Sun as a highly classical phenomenon, so that one can neglect quantum gravity in the Solar System. However, classical chaos in the planetary motion amplifies quantum uncertainties so that they become very large, giving huge quantum gravity effects. For example, evidence suggests that Uranus may eventually be ejected from the Solar System, but quantum uncertainties would make the direction at which it leaves almost entirely uncertain, and the time of its exit uncertain by about a billion billion years. For a time a billion billion years from now, there are huge quantum uncertainties whether Uranus will be within the Solar System, within the Galaxy, or even within causal contact of the Galaxy.

Don N. Page

2010-05-17

380

Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing in d -Level Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d -level qudit systems with prime d . The codes use n =d -1 qudits and can detect up to ˜d /3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d .

Campbell, Earl T.

2014-12-01

381

Photon statistics: Nonlinear spectroscopy of single quantum systems Shaul Mukamel

Photon statistics: Nonlinear spectroscopy of single quantum systems Shaul Mukamel Department of their infor- mation content. A general formal expression for photon counting statistics from single quantum counting statistics which had proven to be a most valuable measure of coherence has been formulated

Mukamel, Shaul

382

Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems

We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.

Sheridan, Lana [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2010-09-15

383

Equivalence of Two Approaches for Quantum-Classical Hybrid Systems

We discuss two approaches that are used frequently to describe quantum-classical hybrid system. One is the well-known mean-field theory and the other adopts a set of hybrid brackets which is a mixture of quantum commutators and classical Poisson brackets. We prove that these two approaches are equivalent.

Fei Zhan; Yuan Lin; Biao Wu

2008-03-28

384

Chapter 2 A Single Quantum System: Evolution, Prediction, Observation

The evolution of quantum mechanics has followed the critical analysis of “gedanken” experiments. Many of these concrete speculations can become implemented today in the laboratory—thanks to now available techniques. A key experiment is concerned with the time evolution of a quantum system under repeated or continuing observation. Here, three problems overlap: (1) The microphysical measurement by a macroscopic device, (2)

Peter E. Toschek

2008-01-01

385

Photon nonlinear mixing in subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems.

We provide, for the first time to our knowledge, an analysis of the influence of nonlinear photon mixing on the end to end quantum bit error rate (QBER) performance of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution systems. The results show that negligible impact is to be expected for modulation indexes in the range of 2%. PMID:19365470

Capmany, José

2009-04-13

386

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many electronic systems (e.g., the cuprate superconductors and heavy fermions) exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are some empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions in some cases, this identification is not universal and in numerous instances no large correlation length is evident. To better understand, as a matter of principle, such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic or supersymmetric quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general nonequilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods in field theories (as well as more recent holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our very broad and rigorous result is that a Wick rotation exactly relates (i) the dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this correspondence, we illustrate that, even in the absence of imposed disorder, many continuum quantum fluid systems (and possible lattice counterparts) may exhibit a zero-point “quantum dynamical heterogeneity” wherein the dynamics, at a given instant, is spatially nonuniform. While the static length scales accompanying this phenomenon do not seem to exhibit a clear divergence in standard correlation functions, the length scale of the dynamical heterogeneities can increase dramatically. We further study “quantum jamming” and illustrate how a hard-core bosonic system can undergo a zero temperature quantum critical metal-to-insulator-type transition with an extremely large effective dynamical exponent z>4 that is consistent with length scales that increase far more slowly than the relaxation time as a putative critical transition is approached. Similar results may hold for spin-liquid-type as well as interacting electronic systems. We suggest ways to analyze experimental data in order to adduce such phenomena. Our approach may be used to analyze other quenched quantum systems.

Nussinov, Zohar; Johnson, Patrick; Graf, Matthias J.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

2013-05-01

387

Image storage, retrieval, compression and segmentation in a quantum system

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of quantum states for M colors and another set of quantum states for N coordinates are proposed in this paper to represent M colors and coordinates of the N pixels in an image respectively. We design an algorithm by which an image of N pixels and m different colors is stored in a quantum system just using 2N+m qubits. An algorithm for quantum image compression is proposed. Simulation result on the Lena image shows that compression ratio of lossless is 2.058. Moreover, an image segmentation algorithm based on quantum search quantum search which can find all solutions in the expected times in O(tsqrt{N} ) is proposed, where N is the number of pixels and t is the number of targets to be segmented.

Li, Hai-Sheng; Qingxin, Zhu; Lan, Song; Shen, Chen-Yi; Zhou, Rigui; Mo, Jia

2013-06-01

388

Open Source Library Management Systems: A Multidimensional Evaluation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source library management systems have improved steadily in the last five years. They now present a credible option for small to medium libraries and library networks. An approach to their evaluation is proposed that takes account of three additional dimensions that only open source can offer: the developer and support community, the source…

Balnaves, Edmund

2008-01-01

389

Geometrical and Topological Aspects of Quantum Information Systems

In this Thesis we examine the interplay between the encoding of information in quantum systems and their geometrical and topological properties. We first study photonic qubit probes of space-time curvature, showing how gauge-independent trajectories of photons can help to perform quantum information tasks in space. Then we introduce the first example of topologically ordered systems constructed using interacting light modes on a two-dimensional lattice, which paves the way for feasible observations of topological order in bosonic systems. To conclude, motivated by a theory of quantum gravity we analyze the convergence of entropy in unitarily inequivalent quantization schemes.

Tommaso F. Demarie

2014-07-23

390

Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles

In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies ($>$ 95\\%) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. The high speeds of excitation propagation within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observations of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes which occurs even in noisy environmental baths. The exact nature of the association between the high energy propagation rates and strength of quantum coherences remains largely unsolved. This review presents recent developments in quantum theories, and links information-theoretic aspects with photosynthetic light-harvesting processes in biomolecular systems. There is examination of various attempts to pinpoint the processes that underpin coherence features arising from the light harvesting activities of biomolecular systems, with particular emphasis on the effects that factors such non-Markovianity, zeno mechanisms, teleportation, quantum predictability and the role of multipartite states have on the quantum dynamics of biomolecular systems. A discussion of how quantum thermodynamical principles and agent-based modeling and simulation approaches can improve our understanding of natural photosynthetic systems is included.

A. Thilagam

2014-11-23

391

Classical Processing Requirements for a Topological Quantum Computing System

Dedicated research into the design and construction of a large scale Quantum Information Processing (QIP) system is a complicated task. The design of an experimentally feasible quantum processor must draw upon results in multiple fields; from experimental efforts in system control and fabrication through to far more abstract areas such as quantum algorithms and error correction. Recently, the adaptation of topological coding models to physical systems in optics has illustrated a possible long term pathway to truly large scale QIP. As the topological model has well defined protocols for Quantum Error Correction (QEC) built in as part of its construction, a more grounded analysis of the {\\em classical} processing requirements is possible. In this paper we analyze the requirements for a classical processing system, designed specifically for the topological cluster state model. We demonstrate that via extensive parallelization, the construction of a classical "front-end" system capable of processing error correction data for a large topological computer is possible today.

Simon J. Devitt; Austin G. Fowler; Todd Tilma; W. J. Munro; Kae Nemoto

2009-09-07

392

Quantum correlations in a cluster-like system

We discuss a cluster-like 1D system with triplet interaction. We study the topological properties of this system. We find that the degeneracy depends on the topology of the system, and well protected against external local perturbations. All these facts show that the system is topologically ordered. We also find a string order parameter to characterize the quantum phase transition. Besides, we investigate two-site correlations including entanglement, quantum discord and mutual information. We study the different divergency behaviour of the correlations. The quantum correlation decays exponentially in both topological and magnetic phases, and diverges in reversed power law at the critical point. And we find that in TQPT systems, the global difference of topology induced by dimension can be reflected in local quantum correlations.

Yi-Xin Chen; Sheng-Wen Li; Zhi Yin

2010-09-15

393

Decoherent Histories and Quantum State Diffusion

We demonstrate a close connection between the decoherent histories approach to quantum mechanics and the quantum state diffusion picture, for open quantum systems described by a master equation of Lindblad form. The (physically unique) set of variables that localize in the quantum state diffusion picture also define an approximately decoherent set of histories in the decoherent histories approach. The degree

Lajos Diósi; Nicolas Gisin; Jonathan Halliwell; Ian C. Percival

1995-01-01

394

Real-time nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum glassy systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a systematic analytic approach to aging effects in quantum disordered systems in contact with an environment. Within the closed-time path-integral formalism we include dissipation by coupling the system to a set of independent harmonic oscillators that mimic a quantum thermal bath. After integrating over the bath variables and averaging over disorder we obtain an effective action that determines the real-time dynamics of the system. The classical limit yields the Martin-Siggia-Rose generating functional associated to a colored noise. We apply this general formalism to a prototype model related to the p spin glass. We show that the model has a dynamic phase transition separating the paramagnetic from the spin-glass phase and that quantum fluctuations depress the transition temperature until a quantum critical point is reached. We show that the dynamics in the paramagnetic phase is stationary but presents an interesting crossover from a region controlled by the classical critical point to another one controlled by the quantum critical point. The most characteristic property of the dynamics in a glassy phase, namely, aging, survives the quantum fluctuations. In the subcritical region the quantum fluctuation-dissipation theorem is modified in a way that is consistent with the notion of effective temperatures introduced for the classical case. We discuss these results in connection with recent experiments in dipolar quantum spin glasses and the relevance of the effective temperatures with respect to the understanding of the low-temperature dynamics.

Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Lozano, Gustavo

1999-01-01

395

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01

396

Open Source Ch Control System Toolkit and Web-Based

Open Source Ch Control System Toolkit and Web-Based Control System Design for Teaching Automatic, and WCCDM for teaching automatic control of linear time-invariant systems is presented. With the CCST.20454 Keywords: control systems; Web-based education INTRODUCTION Automatic control has become a major

Cheng, Harry H.

397

A robust, scanning quantum system for nanoscale sensing and imaging

Controllable atomic-scale quantum systems hold great potential as sensitive tools for nanoscale imaging and metrology. Possible applications range from nanoscale electric and magnetic field sensing to single photon microscopy, quantum information processing, and bioimaging. At the heart of such schemes is the ability to scan and accurately position a robust sensor within a few nanometers of a sample of interest, while preserving the sensor's quantum coherence and readout fidelity. These combined requirements remain a challenge for all existing approaches that rely on direct grafting of individual solid state quantum systems or single molecules onto scanning-probe tips. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and room temperature operation of a robust and isolated atomic-scale quantum sensor for scanning probe microscopy. Specifically, we employ a high-purity, single-crystalline diamond nanopillar probe containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. We illustrate the versatility and performance of our sc...

Maletinsky, P; Grinolds, M S; Hausmann, B; Lukin, M D; Walsworth, R -L; Loncar, M; Yacoby, A

2011-01-01

398

Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust "topological qubits" to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.

Barkeshli, Maissam; Qi, Xiao-Liang

2014-10-01

399

Quantum Circuit Design for Solving Linear Systems of Equations

Recently, it is shown that quantum computers can be used for obtaining certain information about the solution of a linear system Ax=b exponentially faster than what is possible with classical computation. Here we first review some key aspects of the algorithm from the standpoint of finding its efficient quantum circuit implementation using only elementary quantum operations, which is important for determining the potential usefulness of the algorithm in practical settings. Then we present a small-scale quantum circuit that solves a 2x2 linear system. The quantum circuit uses only 4 qubits, implying a tempting possibility for experimental realization. Furthermore, the circuit is numerically simulated and its performance under different circuit parameter settings is demonstrated.

Yudong Cao; Anmer Daskin; Steven Frankel; Sabre Kais

2013-08-10

400

Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology

Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. Particularly, with this model one can study the mutual transformation of coding/non coding parts in a genome or the presence of an error threshold. The assembly of oligomeric proteins is an important phenomenon which interests the majority of proteins in a cell. I participated to the creation of the project "Gemini" which has for purpose the investigation of the structural data of the interfaces of such proteins. The objective is to differentiate the role of amino acids and determine the presence of patterns characterizing certain geometries.

Giovanni Feverati

2011-01-19

401

The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.

Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629

Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans

2014-05-01

402

Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions.

The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective 'light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable. PMID:25008525

Richerme, Philip; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Lee, Aaron; Senko, Crystal; Smith, Jacob; Foss-Feig, Michael; Michalakis, Spyridon; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Monroe, Christopher

2014-07-10

403

Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective `light cone'. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, because analytic solutions rarely exist and because the best long-range bound is too loose to accurately describe the relevant dynamical timescales for any known spin model. Here we apply a variable-range Ising spin chain Hamiltonian and a variable-range XY spin chain Hamiltonian to a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system and observe its time evolution. For several different interaction ranges, we determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations, extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. This work opens the possibility for studying a wide range of many-body dynamics in quantum systems that are otherwise intractable.

Richerme, Philip; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Lee, Aaron; Senko, Crystal; Smith, Jacob; Foss-Feig, Michael; Michalakis, Spyridon; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Monroe, Christopher

2014-07-01

404

Information Ecology: Open System Environment for Data, Memories and Knowing

Information Ecology: Open System Environment for Data, Memories and Knowing Karen S. Baker@scu.edu Abstract. An information ecology provides a conceptual framework to consider data, the creation Ecological Research (LTER) community, presents some manifestations of traditionally unreported `invisible

Bowker, Geoffrey C.

405

Information Theory Density Matrix for a Simple Quantum System.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Derives the density matrix that best describes, according to information theory, a one-dimensional single particle quantum system when the only information available is the values for the linear and quadratic position-momentum moments. (Author/GA)

Titus, William J.

1979-01-01

406

Density of States of Quantum Spin Systems from Isotropic Entanglement

We propose a method that we call isotropic entanglement (IE), which predicts the eigenvalue distribution of quantum many body (spin) systems with generic interactions. We interpolate between two known approximations by ...

Movassagh, Ramis

407

Microchemical systems for the synthesis of nanostructures : quantum dots

We have developed a continuous multi-stage high-temperature and high-pressure microfluidic system. High-pressure conditions enabled the use low molecular weight solvents that have previously not been available for quantum ...

Baek, Jinyoung

2012-01-01

408

Quantum Brayton cycle with coupled systems as working substance.

We explore the quantum version of the Brayton cycle with a composite system as the working substance. The actual Brayton cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isobaric processes. Two pressures can be defined in our isobaric process; one corresponds to the external magnetic field (characterized by F(x)) exerted on the system, while the other corresponds to the coupling constant between the subsystems (characterized by F(y)). As a consequence, we can define two types of quantum Brayton cycle for the composite system. We find that the subsystem experiences a quantum Brayton cycle in one quantum Brayton cycle (characterized by F(x)), whereas the subsystem's cycle is quantum Otto cycle in another Brayton cycle (characterized by F(y)). The efficiency for the composite system equals to that for the subsystem in both cases, but the work done by the total system is usually larger than the sum of the work done by the two subsystems. The other interesting finding is that for the cycle characterized by F(y), the subsystem can be a refrigerator, while the total system is a heat engine. The result in this paper can be generalized to a quantum Brayton cycle with a general coupled system as the working substance. PMID:23410319

Huang, X L; Wang, L C; Yi, X X

2013-01-01

409

We consider a model of an optical cavity with a nonequilibrium reservoir consisting of a beam of identical two-level atom pairs (TLAPs) in the general X-state. We find that coherence of multiparticle nonequilibrium reservoir plays a central role on the potential work capability of cavity. We show that no matter whether there are quantum correlations in each TLAP (including quantum entanglement and quantum discord) or not the coherence of the TLAPs has an effect on the work capability of the cavity. Additionally, constructive and destructive interferences could be induced to influence the work capability of cavity only by adjusting the relative phase with which quantum correlations have nothing to do. In this paper, the coherence of reservoir rather than the quantum correlations effectively reflecting the effects of reservoir on the system's work capability is demonstrated clearly.

Hai Li; Jian Zou; Wen-Li Yu; Bao-Ming Xu; Jun-Gang Li; Bin Shao

2014-05-12

410

Closed-Loop and Robust Control of Quantum Systems

For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H? control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention. PMID:23997680

Wang, Lin-Cheng

2013-01-01

411

A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung

A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field I.C. RUSET,1 L.L. TSAI,2,3 R describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50Â200 kHz, including

Walsworth, Ronald L.

412

Phases and phase transitions in disordered quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to phase transitions in disordered quantum systems and to the exotic Griffiths phases induced in their vicinity. We first review some fundamental concepts in the physics of phase transitions. We then derive criteria governing under what conditions spatial disorder or randomness can change the properties of a phase transition. After introducing the strong-disorder renormalization group method, we discuss in detail some of the exotic phenomena arising at phase transitions in disordered quantum systems. These include infinite-randomness criticality, rare regions and quantum Griffiths singularities, as well as the smearing of phase transitions. We also present a number of experimental examples.

Vojta, Thomas

2013-08-01

413

Emergent Thermodynamics in a Quenched Quantum Many-Body System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of the work done, fluctuation relations, and irreversible entropy production in a quantum many-body system subject to the sudden quench of a control parameter. By treating the quench as a thermodynamic transformation we show that the emergence of irreversibility in the nonequilibrium dynamics of closed many-body quantum systems can be accurately characterized. We demonstrate our ideas by considering a transverse quantum Ising model that is taken out of equilibrium by an instantaneous change of the transverse field.

Dorner, R.; Goold, J.; Cormick, C.; Paternostro, M.; Vedral, V.

2012-10-01

414

High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796?mV was achieved.

Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Bala, Hari, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)

2014-01-06

415

Invisibility of quantum systems to tunneling of matter waves

We show that an appropriate choice of the potential parameters in one-dimensional quantum systems allows for unity transmission of the tunneling particle at all incident tunneling energies, except at controllable exceedingly small incident energies. The corresponding dwell time and the transmission amplitude are indistinguishable from those of a free particle in the unity-transmission regime. This implies the possibility of designing quantum systems that are invisible to tunneling by a passing wave packet.

Cordero, Sergio; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20 364, 01000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

2009-05-15

416

Single-Photon Detection System for Quantum Optics Applications

We describe the design and characterization of a fiber-coupled double-channel single-photon detection system based on superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD), and its application for quantum optics experiments on semiconductor nanostructures. When operated at 2-K temperature, the system shows 10% quantum efficiency at 1.3-¿m wavelength with dark count rate below 10 counts per second and timing resolution <100 ps. The short recovery

Alexander Korneev; Yury Vachtomin; Olga Minaeva; Alexander Divochiy; Konstantin Smirnov; Oleg Okunev; Gregory Gol'tsman; C. Zinoni; Nicolas Chauvin; Laurent Balet; Francesco Marsili; David Bitauld; Blandine Alloing; Lianhe Li; Andrea Fiore; L. Lunghi; Annamaria Gerardino; MatthÄus Halder; Corentin Jorel; Hugo Zbinden

2007-01-01

417

Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-12-13

418

Open Source Software in Critical Systems

This paper summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations from a Working Group on “Open Source Software and Dependability”.\\u000a The Group was launched in the framework of a cooperative structure, a Network for Dependability Engineering, and gathered\\u000a representatives often academic and industrial organizations.

Philippe David; Hélène Waeselynck; Yves Crouzet

419

Virtual Fingerprinting as a Foundation for Reputation in Open Systems

-to-peer systems. Open systems that attempt to make access control decisions based on the identities of their par entity in attribute-based trust management systems. We then show how these identities can be turned {adamlee,winslett}@cs.uiuc.edu Abstract. The lack of available identity information in attribute

420

RESEARCH Open Access Local and systemic innate immune response

RESEARCH Open Access Local and systemic innate immune response to secondary human peritonitis: Peritonitis triggers an acute systemic and peritoneal innate immune response with a simultaneous release, there is a paucity of data regard- ing systemic and local innate immune responses during peritonitis in humans

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

421

Developing open systems using theories and models of the world

This paper considers an open system as such that can deal with inputs that were not anticipated by the designer. Using an ATR system as an example, we show how the combination of logic with software engineering techniques allowed us to improve the performance of the system.

Kokar, M.M.; Korona, Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

422

Decoherence and localization in quantum two-level systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study and compare the decoherent histories approach, the environment-induced decoherence and the localization properties of the solutions to the stochastic Schrödinger equation in quantum-jump simulation and quantum-state diffusion approaches, for a quantum two-level system model. We show, in particular, that there is a close connection between the decoherent histories and the quantum-jump simulation, complementing a connection with the quantum-state diffusion approach noted earlier by Diósi, Gisin, Halliwell and Percival. In the case of the decoherent histories analysis, the degree of approximate decoherence is discussed in detail. In addition, the various time scales regarding the decoherence and localization are discussed. By using the von Neumann entropy, we also discuss the predictability and its relation to the upper bounds of degree of decoherence.

Yu, Ting

1998-02-01

423

We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, which is essential for classical entanglement percolation.

Mascarenhas, E.; Marques, B.; Santos, M. Franca [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cavalcanti, D. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Cunha, M. Terra [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2010-03-15

424

Real-Space Decoupling Transformation for Quantum Many-Body Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a real-space renormalization group method to explicitly decouple into independent components a many-body system that, as in the phenomenon of spin-charge separation, exhibits separation of degrees of freedom at low energies. Our approach produces a branching holographic description of such systems that opens the path to the efficient simulation of the most entangled phases of quantum matter, such as those whose ground state violates a boundary law for entanglement entropy. As in the coarse-graining transformation of Vidal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220405 (2007)], the key ingredient of this decoupling transformation is the concept of entanglement renormalization, or removal of short-range entanglement. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, both analytically and numerically, by decoupling in real space the ground state of a critical quantum spin chain into two. Generalized notions of renormalization group flow and of scale invariance are also put forward.

Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.

2014-06-01

425

Comments on continuous observation in quantum mechanics

It is shown that in open quantum systems the so-called Zeno paradox is not valid. The equations of ideal continuous measurement for Markovian open systems are elaborated and applied to Pauli's simple open system, the actual energy level of which is shown to be monitorable by a continuous nondemolition measurement.

L. Diósi

1986-01-01

426

Exact positivity of the Wigner and P-functions of a Markovian open system

We discuss the case of a Markovian master equation for an open system, as it is frequently found from environmental decoherence. We prove two theorems for the evolution of the quantum state. The first one states that for a generic initial state the corresponding Wigner function becomes strictly positive after a finite time has elapsed. The second one states that also the P-function becomes exactly positive after a decoherence time of the same order. Therefore the density matrix becomes exactly decomposable into a mixture of Gaussian pointer states.

Lajos Diosi; Claus Kiefer

2001-11-26

427

Exact positivity of the Wigner and P-functions of a Markovian open system

We discuss the case of a Markovian master equation for an open system, as it is frequently found from environmental decoherence. We prove two theorems for the evolution of the quantum state. The first one states that for a generic initial state the corresponding Wigner function becomes strictly positive after a finite time has elapsed. The second one states that also the P-function becomes exactly positive after a decoherence time of the same order. Therefore the density matrix becomes exactly decomposable into a mixture of Gaussian pointer states.

Diósi, L; Diosi, Lajos; Kiefer, Claus

2002-01-01

428

ROOT SYSTEMS AND THE QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY OF ADE RESOLUTIONS

ROOT SYSTEMS AND THE QUANTUM COHOMOLOGY OF ADE RESOLUTIONS JIM BRYAN AND AMIN GHOLAMPOUR Abstract root system canonically associated to G. We generalize the resulting Frobenius manifold to non-simply laced root systems to obtain an n parameter family of algebra structures on the affine root lattice

Bryan, Jim

429

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings volume contains the invited lectures and contributions presented at the International Summer School on Nuclear Physics held at Trei Brazi, a summer resort of the Bioterra University, near the city of Predeal, Romania, on 9-20 July 2012. The long tradition of International Summer Schools on Nuclear Physics in Romania dates as far back as 1964, with the event being scheduled every two years. During this period of almost 50 years, many outstanding nuclear scientists have lectured on various topics related to nuclear physics and particle physics. This year we celebrate the 80th birthday of Aureliu Sandulescu, one of the founders of the Romanian school of theoretical nuclear physics. He was Serban Titeica's PhD student, one of Werner Heisenberg's PhD students, and he organized the first edition of this event. Aureliu Sandulescu's major contributions to the field of theoretical nuclear physics are related in particular to the prediction of cluster radioactivity, the physics of open quantum systems and the innovative technique of detecting superheavy nuclei using the double magic projectile 48Ca (Calcium), nowadays a widely used method at the JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt laboratories. The title of the event, 'Dynamics of Open Nuclear Systems', is in recognition of Aureliu Sandulescu's great personality. The lectures were attended by Romanian and foreign Master and PhD students and young researchers in nuclear physics. About 25 reputable professors and researchers in nuclear physics delivered lectures during this period. According to a well-established tradition, an interval of two hours was allotted for each lecture (including discussions). Therefore we kept a balance between the school and conference format. Two lectures were held during the morning and afternoon sessions. After lecture sessions, three or four oral contributions were given by young scientists. This was a good opportunity for them to present the results of their research in front of renowned professors and researchers in nuclear physics. This proceedings volume is organized into four chapters, which reflects the traditional chapter structure of nuclear physics textbooks, but seen from the perspective of open quantum systems: INuclear structure IIDecay processes IIINuclear reactions and astrophysics IVContributions The lectures and contributions are listed alphabetically by author within each chapter. The volume contains many comprehensive reviews related to the topics of the School. The first week of the School was focused on nuclear structure and decay phenomena, considering the nucleus as an open system. Experts in these fields lectured on cluster radioactivity, the stability of superheavy nuclei, alpha-decay fine structure, fission versus fusion, beta and double beta decay and pairing versus alpha-clustering. New experimental results related to the nuclear stability of low-lying and high spin states were also presented. Recent developments at JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt international laboratories were also reported by their current or former directors. The second week of the event was dedicated to the physics of exotic nuclei, heavy ion reactions and multi-fragmentation, symmetries and phase transitions of open quantum systems. The stability of the atomic nucleus is an important and always interesting discussion point, especially in the context of newly discovered nuclear systems close to the stability line, such as proton/neutron rich or superheavy nuclei. Several lectures and contributions were focused on nuclear structure models describing low-lying states. This includes the status of density functional theory, new developments in Bohr-Mottelsohn Hamiltonian and shell-model theory, proton-neutron correlations, shape coexistence, back-bending phenomena and the thermodynamics of open quantum systems. Open systems in astrophysics, such as supernovae and neutron stars, were presented in detail by several lecturers. Important topics connected to the status of the equation of state, hyperonic and quark matter and neutrino physics, as w

Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

2013-02-01

430

Quantum Magnets and Matrix Lorenz Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for the evolution of the magnetization, in presence of an external torque, can be cast in the form of the Lorenz equations and, thus, can describe chaotic fluctuations. To study quantum effects, we describe the magnetization by matrices, that take values in a Lie algebra. The finite dimensionality of the representation encodes the quantum fluctuations, while the non-linear nature of the equations can describe chaotic fluctuations. We identify a criterion, for the appearance of such non-linear terms. This depends on whether an invariant, symmetric tensor of the algebra can vanish or not. This proposal is studied in detail for the fundamental representation of u(2) = u(1) × su(2). We find a knotted structure for the attractor, a bimodal distribution for the largest Lyapunov exponent and that the dynamics takes place within the Cartan subalgebra, that does not contain only the identity matrix, thereby can describe the quantum fluctuations.

Tranchida, J.; Thibaudeau, P.; Nicolis, S.

2015-01-01

431

H-theorem in quantum systems interacting with reservoir

Boltzmann's H-theorem stating that entropy of a physical system would tend to increase over time remains a foundation of thermodynamics. Original Boltzmann's formulation given for classical gases was resting on the molecular chaos hypothesis. Von Neumann's quantum H-theorem claimed quantum origin of irreversibility but included as a part of the proof macroscopic measurement procedure going thus beyond the strictly quantum consideration. Recent developments related entropy growth to quantum entanglement hinting the solely quantum origin of macroscopic irreversibility. In particular, progress in quantum informatics brought in several rigorous results on the conditions for the non-negative entropy gain, however, many questions of how to adapt them to the realm of physics remain. Utilizing the mathematical formalism, we show that entanglement of electrons with either electromagnetic environment or phonon bath results in the evolution of the electron density matrix that belong in the classes of evolution described in quantum informatics. Using exemplary physical systems we formulate and prove the H-theorem for a wide class of physical phenomena.

G. B. Lesovik; I. A. Sadovskyy; A. V. Lebedev; M. V. Suslov; V. M. Vinokur

2014-07-16

432

Luminescence of a semiconductor quantum dot system

. \\u000a A microscopic theory is used to study photoluminescence of\\u000a semiconductor quantum dots under the influence of Coulomb and carrier-photon correlation effects\\u000a beyond the Hartree-Fock level. We investigate the emission spectrum and the decay properties of the time-resolved luminescence\\u000a from initially excited quantum dots. The influence of\\u000a the correlations is included within a cluster expansion scheme up to the singlet-doublet

N. Baer; C. Gies; J. Wiersig; F. Jahnke

2006-01-01

433

Conventions spreading in open-ended systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a simple open-ended model that describes the emergence of a shared vocabulary. The ordering transition toward consensus is generated only by an agreement mechanism. This interaction defines a finite and small number of states, despite each individual having the ability to invent an unlimited number of new words. The existence of a phase transition is studied by analyzing the convergence times, the cognitive efforts of the agents and the scaling behavior in memory and time.

Brigatti, E.; Roditi, I.

2009-02-01

434

An efficient finite element method applied to quantum billiard systems

An efficient finite element method (FEM) for calculating eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of quantum billiard systems is presented. We consider the FEM based on triangular $C_1$ continuity quartic interpolation. Various shapes of quantum billiards including an integrable unit circle are treated. The numerical results show that the applied method provides accurate set of eigenvalues exceeding a thousand levels for any shape of quantum billiards on a personal computer. Comparison with the results from the FEM based on well-known $C_0$ continuity quadratic interpolation proves the efficiency of the method.

Woo-Sik Son; Sunghwan Rim; Chil-Min Kim

2009-02-25

435

Algebras and universal quantum computations with higher dimensional systems

Here is discussed application of the Weyl pair to construction of universal\\u000aset of quantum gates for high-dimensional quantum system. An application of Lie\\u000aalgebras (Hamiltonians) for construction of universal gates is revisited first.\\u000aIt is shown next, how for quantum computation with qubits can be used\\u000atwo-dimensional analog of this Cayley-Weyl matrix algebras, i.e. Clifford\\u000aalgebras, and discussed well

Alexander Yu. Vlasov

2002-01-01

436

Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

1995-08-01

437

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photochromic Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was employed to disentangle the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in quantum dot/photochromic dye hybrids. In the off-state of the dye the main quenching mechanism is FRET whereas the moderate quenching in the on-state is due to non-FRET pathways opened up upon assembly.A photochromic Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was employed to disentangle the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in quantum dot/photochromic dye hybrids. In the off-state of the dye the main quenching mechanism is FRET whereas the moderate quenching in the on-state is due to non-FRET pathways opened up upon assembly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: QD and DTE synthesis, preparation of the DTE/QD coupled system, TEM image of the nanocrystals and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05144k

Dworak, Lars; Reuss, Andreas J.; Zastrow, Marc; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

2014-11-01

438

Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system `collapses' into a post-measurement state from which the {\\em{same}} observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity, when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and study the `classical' limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimate the state with equal fidelity,regardless of their position in the measurement sequence; and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparata (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.

Peter Rapcan; John Calsamiglia; Ramon Munoz-Tapia; Emilio Bagan; Vladimir Buzek

2011-05-26

439

Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system `collapses' into a post-measurement state from which the {\\em{same}} observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity, when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and study the `classical' limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In add...

Rapcan, Peter; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon; Bagan, Emilio; Buzek, Vladimir

2011-01-01

440

Schroedinger-equation formalism for a dissipative quantum system

We consider a model dissipative quantum-mechanical system realized by coupling a quantum oscillator to a semi-infinite classical string which serves as a means of energy transfer from the oscillator to the infinity and thus plays the role of a dissipative element. The coupling between the two--quantum and classical--parts of the compound system is treated in the spirit of the mean-field approximation and justification of the validity of such an approach is given. The equations of motion of the classical subsystem are solved explicitly and an effective dissipative Schroedinger equation for the quantum subsystem is obtained. The proposed formalism is illustrated by its application to two basic problems: the decay of the quasistationary state and the calculation of the nonlinear resonance line shape.

Anisimovas, E.; Matulis, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

2007-02-15

441

Nuclear magnetometry studies of spin dynamics in quantum Hall systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a nuclear magnetometry study on quantum Hall ferromagnet with a bilayer total filling factor of ?tot=2 . We found not only a rapid nuclear relaxation but also a sudden change in the nuclear-spin polarization distribution after a one-second interaction with a canted antiferromagnetic phase. We discuss the possibility of observing cooperative phenomena coming from nuclear-spin ensemble triggered by hyperfine interaction in quantum Hall system.

Fauzi, M. H.; Watanabe, S.; Hirayama, Y.

2014-12-01

442

On the interaction of mesoscopic quantum systems with gravity

We review the different aspects of the interaction of mesoscopic quantum systems with gravitational fields. We first discuss briefly the foundations of general relativity and quantum mechanics. Then, we consider the non-relativistic expansions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in the post-Newtonian approximation. After a short overview of classical gravitational waves, we discuss two proposed interaction mechanisms: (i) the use

Claus Kiefer; Carsten Weber

2005-01-01

443

Scalable quantum mechanical simulation of large polymer systems

We describe a program for quantum mechanical calculations of very large hydrocarbon polymer systems. It is based on a new algorithmic approach to the quantum mechanical tight binding equations that naturally leads to a very efficient parallel implementation and that scales linearly with respect to the number of atoms. We get both very high single node performance as well as a significant parallel speedup on the SGI Origin 2000 parallel computer.

Goedecker, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hoisie, A.; Kress, J.; Lubeck, O.; Wasserman, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-08-01

444

Formation and interaction of resonance chains in the open 3-disk system

In ballistic open quantum systems one often observes that the resonances in the complex-energy plane form a clear chain structure. Taking the open 3-disk system as a paradigmatic model system, we investigate how this chain structure is reflected in the resonance states and how it is connected to the underlying classical dynamics. Using an efficient scattering approach we observe that resonance states along one chain are clearly correlated while resonance states of different chains show an anticorrelation. Studying the phase space representations of the resonance states we find that their localization in phase space oscillate between different regions of the classical trapped set as one moves along the chains and that these oscillations are connected to a modulation of the resonance spacing. A single resonance chain is thus no WKB quantization of a single periodic orbits, but the structure of several oscillating chains arises from the interaction of several periodic orbits. We illuminate the physical mechanism behind these findings by combining the semiclassical cycle expansion with a quantum graph model.

T. Weich; S. Barkhofen; U. Kuhl; C. Poli; H. Schomerus

2013-11-20

445

Comments on open-ended magnetic systems for fusion

Differentiating characteristics of magnetic confinement systems having externally generated magnetic fields that are open'' are listed and discussed in the light of their several potential advantages for fusion power systems. It is pointed out that at this stage of fusion research high-Q'' (as deduced from long energy confinement times) is not necessarily the most relevant criterion by which to judge the potential of alternate fusion approaches for the economic generation of fusion power. An example is given of a hypothetical open-geometry fusion power system where low-Q operation is essential to meeting one of its main objectives (low neutron power flux).

Post, R.F.

1990-09-24

446

Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems. II. Decay rate, capture, and pure states

On the basis of a master equation for the reduced density matrix of open quantum systems, we study the influence of time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a potential well and the capture probability into a potential well. Taking into account the mixed diffusion coefficient D{sub qp}, the quasistationary decay rates are compared with the analytically derived Kramers-type formulas for different temperatures and frictions. The diffusion coefficients supplying the purity of states are derived for a non-Markovian dynamics.

Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kanokov, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); National University, 700174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 702132 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

2005-01-01

447

Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems

Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a `weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and give a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used it to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu

2014-09-26

448

A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

Elsayed, Tarek A.

2014-09-01

449

A Generalization of Fermat's Principle for Classical and Quantum Systems

The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

Tarek A. Elsayed

2013-02-28