Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems
Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen
Quantum Mechanics + Open Systems = Thermodynamics ? Jochen Gemmer T¨ubingen, 09.02.2006 #12., World Scientific) #12;Fundamental Law or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V or Emergent Description? Quantum Mechanics i t = (- 2 2m + V ) "Heisenberg Cut" Classical Mechanics: m d2
Scarring in open quantum systems.
Wisniacki, Diego; Carlo, Gabriel G
2008-04-01
We study scarring phenomena in open quantum systems. We show numerical evidence that individual resonance eigenstates of an open quantum system present localization around unstable short periodic orbits in a similar way as their closed counterparts. The structure of eigenfunctions around these classical objects is not destroyed by the opening. This is exposed in a paradigmatic system of quantum chaos, the cat map. PMID:18517679
Control of open quantum systems
Boulant, Nicolas
2005-01-01
This thesis describes the development, investigation and experimental implementation via liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques of new methods for controlling open quantum systems. First, methods that improve ...
Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems
Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, F.; Koch, Jens
2014-01-01
The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607
Hypothesis Testing with Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mølmer, Klaus
2015-01-01
Using a quantum circuit model we derive the maximal ability to distinguish which of several candidate Hamiltonians describe an open quantum system. This theory, in particular, provides the maximum information retrievable from continuous quantum measurement records, available when a quantum system is perturbatively coupled to a broadband quantized environment.
Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems
Walls, Jamie D.
2010-03-15
In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, L-circumflex-circumflex(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of L-circumflex-circumflex(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.
Quantum control for open quantum systems
Vallette, Bruno
with environments, such as the quantum error-correction code, decoherence-free subspaces, dynamical decoupling is concerned with only the system dynamics and the key quantity is the reduced system density matrix (t techniques, quantum Zeno effect, quantum feedback control, quantum optimal control theory ... · Here, I
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Bruneau, Laurent; Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states. PMID:26099840
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems.
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states. PMID:26099840
Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Ran; Fan, Heng
2015-06-01
Quantum Zeno effect shows that frequent observations can slow down or even stop the unitary time evolution of an unstable quantum system. This effect can also be regarded as a physical consequence of the statistical indistinguishability of neighboring quantum states. The accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics under unitary time evolution can be quantitatively estimated by quantum Zeno time in terms of Fisher information. In this work, we investigate the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics in quantum open systems by calculating noisy Fisher information when a trace preserving and completely positive map is assumed. We firstly study the consequences of non-Markovian noise on quantum Zeno effect and give the exact forms of the dissipative Fisher information and the quantum Zeno time. Then, for the operator-sum representation, an achievable upper bound of the quantum Zeno time is given with the help of the results in noisy quantum metrology. It is of significance that the noise reducing the accuracy in the entanglement-enhanced parameter estimation can conversely be favorable for the accessibility of quantum Zeno dynamics of entangled states.
Open Quantum Systems with Loss and Gain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eleuch, Hichem; Rotter, Ingrid
2015-11-01
We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system.Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.
The Dynamical Invariant of Open Quantum System
S. L. Wu; X. Y. Zhang; X. X. Yi
2015-10-05
The dynamical invariant, whose expectation value is constant, is generalized to open quantum system. The evolution equation of dynamical invariant (the dynamical invariant condition) is presented for Markovian dynamics. Different with the dynamical invariant for the closed quantum system, the evolution of the dynamical invariant for the open quantum system is no longer unitary, and the eigenvalues of it are time-dependent. Since any hermitian operator fulfilling dynamical invariant condition is a dynamical invariant, we propose a sort of special dynamical invariant (decoherence free dynamical invariant) in which a part of eigenvalues are still constant. The dynamical invariant in the subspace spanned by the corresponding eigenstates evolves unitarily. Via the dynamical invariant condition, the results demonstrate that this dynamical invariant exists under the circumstances of emergence of decoherence free subspaces.
Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems
Isar, Aurelian
2011-10-03
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
Ryan Sweke; Ilya Sinayskiy; Denis Bernard; Francesco Petruccione
2015-07-02
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension $d$, we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by $d^2-3$ continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a $d$ dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Universal simulation of Markovian open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweke, Ryan; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Bernard, Denis; Petruccione, Francesco
2015-06-01
We consider the problem of constructing a "universal set" of Markovian processes, such that any Markovian open quantum system, described by a one-parameter semigroup of quantum channels, can be simulated through sequential simulations of processes from the universal set. In particular, for quantum systems of dimension d , we explicitly construct a universal set of semigroup generators, parametrized by d2-3 continuous parameters, and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the dynamical simulation of a d -dimensional Markovian quantum system is the ability to implement (a) quantum channels from the semigroups generated by elements of the universal set of generators, and (b) unitary operations on the system. Furthermore, we provide an explicit algorithm for simulating the dynamics of a Markovian open quantum system using this universal set of generators, and show that it is efficient, with respect to this universal set, when the number of distinct Lindblad operators (representing physical dissipation processes) scales polynomially with respect to the number of subsystems.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Chaitanya Joshi; Jonas Larson; Timothy P. Spiller
2015-09-11
We investigate a possibility to generate non-classical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems - the Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment induced dissipation drives the system into non-equilibrium steady states. Explicitly, for the Rabi model the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Tian, Zehua; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This resul...
Open quantum systems and Random Matrix Theory
Declan Mulhall
2015-01-09
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with Random Matrix Theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the $\\Delta_3(L)$ statistic, width distribution and level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. A super-radiant transition is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and $\\Delta_3(L)$ statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Mulhall, Declan
2014-10-15
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and ?{sub 3}(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Periodically driven quantum open systems: Tutorial
Robert Alicki; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Gershon Kurizki
2012-05-21
We present a short derivation and discussion of the master equation for an open quantum system weakly coupled to a heat bath and then its generalization to the case of with periodic external driving based on the Floquet theory. Further, a single heat bath is replaced by several ones. We present also the definition of heat currents which satisfies the second law of thermodynamics and apply the general results to a simple model of periodically modulated qubit.
Relativistic quantum metrology in open system dynamics.
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Zehua Tian; Jieci Wang; Heng Fan; Jiliang Jing
2015-01-27
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself.
Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Fan, Heng; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself. PMID:25609187
Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems
Isar, A.
2010-08-04
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.
Quantum arrival time for open systems
Yearsley, J. M.
2010-07-15
We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.
Identification of open quantum systems from observable time traces
Jun Zhang; Mohan Sarovar
2015-07-04
Estimating the parameters that dictate the dynamics of a quantum system is an important task for quantum information processing and quantum metrology, as well as fundamental physics. In this paper we develop a method for parameter estimation for Markovian open quantum systems using a temporal record of measurements on the system. The method is based on system realization theory and is a generalization of our previous work on identification of Hamiltonian parameters [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 080401 (2014)].
Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Heinz-Peter Breuer; Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Bassano Vacchini
2015-05-06
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markov process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modelled by a dynamical semigroup with a generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence and correlations. Here, recent results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This article further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments on the detection, quantification and control of non-Markovian quantum dynamics are also discussed.
Reduced Operator Approximation for Modelling Open Quantum Systems
Agnieszka Werpachowska
2015-08-05
We present the Reduced Operator Approximation: a simple, physically transparent and computationally efficient method of modelling open quantum systems. It employs the Heisenberg picture of the quantum dynamics, which allows us to focus on the system degrees of freedom in a natural and easy way. We describe different variants of the method, low- and high-order in the system-bath interaction operators, defining them for either general quantum harmonic oscillator baths or specialising them for independent baths with Lorentzian spectral densities. Its wide applicability is demonstrated on the examples of systems coupled to different baths (with varying system-bath interaction strength and bath memory length), and compared with the exact pseudomode and the popular quantum state diffusion approach. The method captures the decoherence of the system interacting with the bath, while conserving the total energy. Our results suggest that quantum coherence effects persist in open quantum systems for much longer times than previously thought.
Decoherence and measurement in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Privman, Vladimir; Mozyrsky, Dima V.
2000-07-01
We review results of a recently developed model of a microscopic quantum system interacting with the macroscopic world components which are modeled by collections of bosonic modes. The interaction is via a general operator (Lambda) of the system, coupled to the creation and annihilation operators of the environment modes. We assume that in the process of a nearly instantaneous quantum measurement, the function of the environment involves two distinct parts: the pointer and the bath. Interaction of the system with the bath leads to decoherence such that the system and the pointer both evolve into a statistical mixture state described by the density matrix such that the system is in one of the eigenstates of (Lambda) with the correct quantum mechanical probability, whereas the expectation values of pointer operators retain amplified information on that eigenstate. We argue that this process represents the initial step of a quantum measurement.
Identification of open quantum systems from observable time traces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan
2015-05-01
Estimating the parameters that dictate the dynamics of a quantum system is an important task for quantum information processing and quantum metrology, as well as fundamental physics. In this paper we develop a method for parameter estimation for Markovian open quantum systems using a temporal record of measurements on the system. The method is based on system realization theory and is a generalization of our previous work on identification of Hamiltonian parameters [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 080401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.080401].
Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems
Jyrki Piilo; Sabrina Maniscalco
2006-10-03
We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, the results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals new physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g. the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.
Driven harmonic oscillator as a quantum simulator for open systems
Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina
2006-09-15
We show theoretically how a driven harmonic oscillator can be used as a quantum simulator for the non-Markovian damped harmonic oscillator. In the general framework, our results demonstrate the possibility to use a closed system as a simulator for open quantum systems. The quantum simulator is based on sets of controlled drives of the closed harmonic oscillator with appropriately tailored electric field pulses. The non-Markovian dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator is obtained by using the information about the spectral density of the open system when averaging over the drives of the closed oscillator. We consider single trapped ions as a specific physical implementation of the simulator, and we show how the simulator approach reveals physical insight into the open system dynamics, e.g., the characteristic quantum mechanical non-Markovian oscillatory behavior of the energy of the damped oscillator, usually obtained by the non-Lindblad-type master equation, can have a simple semiclassical interpretation.
Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation
Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.
2006-01-15
We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.
Quantum Metrology in Open Systems: Dissipative Cramér-Rao Bound
S. Alipour; M. Mehboudi; A. T. Rezakhani
2014-03-31
Estimation of parameters is a pivotal task throughout science and technology. Quantum Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound provides a fundamental limit of precision allowed to achieve under quantum theory. For closed quantum systems, it has been shown how the estimation precision depends on the underlying dynamics. Here, we propose a general formulation for metrology scenarios in open quantum systems, aiming to relate the precision more directly to properties of the underlying dynamics. This feature may be employed to enhance an estimation precision, e.g., by quantum control techniques. Specifically, we derive a Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound for a fairly large class of open system dynamics, which is governed by a (time-dependent) dynamical semi-group map. We illustrate the utility of this scenario through three examples.
Open quantum systems approach to atomtronics
Pepino, R. A.; Cooper, J.; Meiser, D.; Anderson, D. Z.; Holland, M. J.
2010-07-15
We derive a quantum master equation to treat quantum systems interacting with multiple reservoirs. The formalism is used to investigate the atomic transport of bosons across a variety of lattice configurations. We demonstrate how the behavior of an electronic diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor can be realized with neutral, ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. An analysis of the current fluctuations is provided for the case of the atomtronic diode. Finally, we show that it is possible to demonstrate and logic gate behavior in an optical lattice.
Nonequilibrium-thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semin, Vitalii; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-11-01
Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local-in-time master equation that provides a direct connection for dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated by the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system, resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and nonequilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.
Geometric phase for open quantum systems and stochastic unravelings
Bassi, Angelo; Ippoliti, Emiliano
2006-06-15
We analyze the geometric phase for an open quantum system when computed by resorting to a stochastic unraveling of the reduced density matrix (quantum jump approach or stochastic Schroedinger equations). We show that the resulting phase strongly depends on the type of unraveling used for the calculations: as such, this phase is not a geometric object since it depends on nonphysical parameters, which are not related to the path followed by the density matrix during the evolution of the system.
Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: Spin-qubit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban; Omkar, S.; Ravishankar, V.
2015-11-01
We study nonclassical features in a number of spin-qubit systems including single, two and three qubit states, as well as an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system, of importance in the fields of quantum optics and information. This is done by analyzing the behavior of the well known Wigner, P, and Q quasiprobability distributions on them. We also discuss the not so well known F function and specify its relation to the Wigner function. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of quasiprobability distributions for spin-qubit systems under general open system effects, including both pure dephasing as well as dissipation. This makes it relevant from the perspective of experimental implementation.
Decay process of quantum open system at finite-temperature
X. Xiao; Y. B. Gao
2012-08-22
Starting from the formal solution to the Heisenberg equation, we revisit an universal model for a quantum open system with a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a boson bath. The analysis of the decay process for a Fock state and a coherent state demonstrate that this method is very useful in dealing with the problems in decay process of the open system. For finite temperature, the calculations of the reduced density matrix and the mean excitation number for the open system show that an initial coherent state will evolve into a temperature-dependant coherent state after tracing over the bath variables. Also in short-time limit, a temperature-dependant effective Hamiltonian for the open system characterizes the decay process of the open system.
Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems
Wei Cui; Zairong Xi; Yu Pan
2010-04-27
There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature plays an important role in controlling popula- tion transfer. At low temperatures the control has active performance, while at high temperatures it has less erect. We also analyze the decoherence be- havior of open quantum systems with optimal population transfer control, and we find that these controls can prolong the coherence time. We hope that active optimal control can help quantum solid-state-based engineering.
Level shift operators for open quantum systems Marco Merkli
theory, [26, 18]. A core strategy common to these methods is to reduce the spectral analysis, McGill University 805 Sherbrooke W., Montreal Canada, QC, H3A 2K6 and Centre de Recherches Math#19 which stem from the structure of open quantum systems at positive temperatures and which are common
Eigenvalue problem of the Liouvillian of open quantum systems
Hatano, Naomichi; Petrosky, Tomio
2015-03-10
It is argued that the Liouvillian that appears in the Liouville-von Neumann equation for open quantum systems can have complex eigenvalues. Attention is paid to the question whether the Liouvillian has an eigenvalue that are not given by the difference of the two Hamiltonian eigenvalues.
Control Landscapes for Observable Preparation with Open Quantum Systems
Rebing Wu; Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz; Michael Hsieh; Benjamin Tsou
2007-08-16
A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false sub-optimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape.
Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems
Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin
2008-02-15
A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape.
The Kraus representation for the dynamics of open quantum systems
Jonas Maziero
2015-10-30
The necessity and usefulness of considering the interaction of a quantum system with the environment when describing its time evolution have been recognized in several branches of physics and of other sciences. The Kraus' representation is a general and succinct approach to describe such open system dynamics in a wide range of relevant physical scenarios. In this article, by abdicating from the generality of the formalism of quantum operations and thus avoiding its associated complications, we show in a simple manner how one can obtain the Kraus representation using basically the closed system (system plus environment) unitary dynamics and the partial trace function. The example of a two-level atom interacting with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field is regarded for the sake of instantiating this formalism, which is then applied to study the time evolution of the atom's quantum coherence.
Understanding Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems
Hongwei Yu; Jianlin Zhang
2008-06-23
We study the Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems by examining the time evolution of a detector (modelled by a two-level atom) interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields. The dynamics of the detector is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom from the complete system. The nonunitary effects are studied by analyzing the time behavior of a particular observable of the detector, i.e., its admissible state, in the Unruh, Hartle-Hawking, as well as Boulware vacua outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the detector in both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua would spontaneously excite with a nonvanishing probability the same as what one would obtain if there is thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole, thus reproducing the basic results concerning the Hawking effect in the framework of open quantum systems.
Coherently tracking the covariance matrix of an open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Zibo; Hush, Michael R.; James, Matthew R.
2015-07-01
Coherent feedback control of quantum systems has demonstrable advantages over measurement-based control, but so far there has been little work done on coherent estimators and more specifically coherent observers. Coherent observers are input the coherent output of a specified quantum plant and are designed such that some subset of the observer's and plant's expectation values converge in the asymptotic limit. We previously developed a class of mean tracking (MT) observers for open harmonic oscillators that only converged in mean position and momentum; here we develop a class of covariance matrix tracking (CMT) coherent observers that track both the mean and the covariance matrix of a quantum plant. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a CMT observer and find that there are more restrictions on a CMT observer than there are on a MT observer. We give examples where we demonstrate how to design a CMT observer and show that it can be used to track properties like the entanglement of a plant. As the CMT observer provides more quantum information than a MT observer, we expect it will have greater application in future coherent feedback schemes mediated by coherent observers. Investigation of coherent quantum estimators and observers is important in the ongoing discussion of quantum measurement because they provide an estimation of a system's quantum state without explicit use of the measurement postulate in their derivation.
Hierarchy of Stochastic Pure States for Open Quantum System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suess, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-10-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) for open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. This hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is generally applicable and provides the exact reduced density operator as an ensemble average over normalized states. The corresponding nonlinear equations are presented. We demonstrate that HOPS provides an efficient theoretical tool and apply it to the spin-boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates, and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex.
Ab-Initio Coupled Cluster Theory for Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagen, G.; Dean, D. J.; Papenbrock, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.
2008-04-01
We discuss peculiarities of open-quantum systems, as compared to closed quantum systems. We emphasize the importance of taking continuum degrees of freedom into account when dealing with systems with a tendency to decay through emission of fragments. In this context we introduce the Coupled-Cluster theory, and argue that this method allows for an accurate description of such systems starting from nucleon-nucleon degrees of freedom. We present Ab-initio Coupled Cluster calculations with singles and doubles excitations (CCSD) for the ground states of the helium isotopes 3-10He. The calculated masses and decay widths are in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. The discrepancy with experiment is suspected to be attributed to the three-nucleon force (3NF) which is not included at this point.
Threshold for Non-Thermal Stabilization of Open Quantum Systems
C. Y. Cai; Li-Ping Yang; C. P. Sun
2013-10-22
We generally study whether or not the information of an open quantum system could be totally erased by its surrounding environment in the long time. For a harmonic oscillator coupled to a bath of a spectral density with zero-value regions, we quantitatively present a threshold of system-bath coupling \\eta_{c}, above which the initial information of the system can remains partially as its long time stablization deviates from the usual thermalization. This non-thermal stabilization happens as a non-Markovian effect.
Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems
Nation, P D
2015-01-01
We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...
Optimal Control for Generating Quantum Gates in Open Dissipative Systems
T. Schulte-Herbrueggen; A. Spoerl; N. Khaneja; S. J. Glaser
2009-05-17
Optimal control methods for implementing quantum modules with least amount of relaxative loss are devised to give best approximations to unitary gates under relaxation. The potential gain by optimal control using relaxation parameters against time-optimal control is explored and exemplified in numerical and in algebraic terms: it is the method of choice to govern quantum systems within subspaces of weak relaxation whenever the drift Hamiltonian would otherwise drive the system through fast decaying modes. In a standard model system generalising decoherence-free subspaces to more realistic scenarios, openGRAPE-derived controls realise a CNOT with fidelities beyond 95% instead of at most 15% for a standard Trotter expansion. As additional benefit it requires control fields orders of magnitude lower than the bang-bang decouplings in the latter.
Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems
P. D. Nation
2015-04-25
We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterations using the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method outperform generalized minimal residual methods. In contrast, minimal residual methods work best for solvers based on direct LU decomposition. This work serves as a guide for solving the steady-state density matrix of an arbitrary quantum optical system, and points to several avenues of future research that will extend the applicability of these classical algorithms in absence of a quantum computer.
Boundary driven open quantum many-body systems
Prosen, Tomaž
2014-01-08
In this lecture course I outline a simple paradigm of non-eqjuilibrium quantum statistical physics, namely we shall study quantum lattice systems with local, Hamiltonian (conservative) interactions which are coupled to the environment via incoherent processes only at the system's boundaries. This is arguably the simplest nontrivial context where one can study far from equilibrium steady states and their transport properties. We shall formulate the problem in terms of a many-body Markovian master equation (the so-called Lindblad equation, and some of its extensions, e.g. the Redfield eqaution). The lecture course consists of two main parts: Firstly, and most extensively we shall present canonical Liouville-space many-body formalism, the so-called 'third quantization' and show how it can be implemented to solve bi-linear open many-particle problems, the key peradigmatic examples being the XY spin 1/2 chains or quasi-free bosonic (or harmonic) chains. Secondly, we shall outline several recent approaches on how to approach exactly solvable open quantum interacting many-body problems, such as anisotropic Heisenberg ((XXZ) spin chain or fermionic Hubbard chain.
Nontrivial Eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Ruri; Hatano, Naomichi; Petrosky, Tomio
2011-04-01
We present methods of finding complex eigenvalues of the Liouvillian of an open quantum system. The goal is to find eigenvalues that cannot be predicted from the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonian. Our model is a T-type quantum dot with an infinitely long lead. We suggest the existence of the non-trivial eigenvalues of the Liouvillian in two ways: one way is to show that the original problem reduces to the problem of a two-particle Hamiltonian with a two-body interaction and the other way is to show that diagram expansion of the Green's function has correlation between the bra state and the ket state. We also introduce the integral equations equivalent to the original eigenvalue problem.
Landauer's Principle in Multipartite Open Quantum System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenzo, S.; McCloskey, R.; Ciccarello, F.; Paternostro, M.; Palma, G. M.
2015-09-01
We investigate the link between information and thermodynamics embodied by Landauer's principle in the open dynamics of a multipartite quantum system. Such irreversible dynamics is described in terms of a collisional model with a finite temperature reservoir. We demonstrate that Landauer's principle holds, for such a configuration, in a form that involves the flow of heat dissipated into the environment and the rate of change of the entropy of the system. Quite remarkably, such a principle for heat and entropy power can be explicitly linked to the rate of creation of correlations among the elements of the multipartite system and, in turn, the non-Markovian nature of their reduced evolution. Such features are illustrated in two exemplary cases.
Landauer's Principle in Multipartite Open Quantum System Dynamics.
Lorenzo, S; McCloskey, R; Ciccarello, F; Paternostro, M; Palma, G M
2015-09-18
We investigate the link between information and thermodynamics embodied by Landauer's principle in the open dynamics of a multipartite quantum system. Such irreversible dynamics is described in terms of a collisional model with a finite temperature reservoir. We demonstrate that Landauer's principle holds, for such a configuration, in a form that involves the flow of heat dissipated into the environment and the rate of change of the entropy of the system. Quite remarkably, such a principle for heat and entropy power can be explicitly linked to the rate of creation of correlations among the elements of the multipartite system and, in turn, the non-Markovian nature of their reduced evolution. Such features are illustrated in two exemplary cases. PMID:26430974
Quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system
Hefeng Wang; S. Ashhab; Franco Nori
2011-06-21
In the study of open quantum systems, one typically obtains the decoherence dynamics by solving a master equation. The master equation is derived using knowledge of some basic properties of the system, the environment and their interaction: one basically needs to know the operators through which the system couples to the environment and the spectral density of the environment. For a large system, it could become prohibitively difficult to even write down the appropriate master equation, let alone solve it on a classical computer. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an open quantum system. On a quantum computer, the environment can be simulated using ancilla qubits with properly chosen single-qubit frequencies and with properly designed coupling to the system qubits. The parameters used in the simulation are easily derived from the parameters of the system+environment Hamiltonian. The algorithm is designed to simulate Markovian dynamics, but it can also be used to simulate non-Markovian dynamics provided that this dynamics can be obtained by embedding the system of interest into a larger system that obeys Markovian dynamics. We estimate the resource requirements for the algorithm. In particular, we show that for sufficiently slow decoherence a single ancilla qubit could be sufficient to represent the entire environment, in principle.
Control landscapes for two-level open quantum systems
Alexander Pechen; Dmitrii Prokhorenko; Rebing Wu; Herschel Rabitz
2008-01-15
A quantum control landscape is defined as the physical objective as a function of the control variables. In this paper the control landscapes for two-level open quantum systems, whose evolution is described by general completely positive trace preserving maps (i.e., Kraus maps), are investigated in details. The objective function, which is the expectation value of a target system operator, is defined on the Stiefel manifold representing the space of Kraus maps. Three practically important properties of the objective function are found: (a) the absence of local maxima or minima (i.e., false traps); (b) the existence of multi-dimensional sub-manifolds of optimal solutions corresponding to the global maximum and minimum; and (c) the connectivity of each level set. All of the critical values and their associated critical sub-manifolds are explicitly found for any initial system state. Away from the absolute extrema there are no local maxima or minima, and only saddles may exist, whose number and the explicit structure of the corresponding critical sub-manifolds are determined by the initial system state. There are no saddles for pure initial states, one saddle for a completely mixed initial state, and two saddles for other initial states. In general, the landscape analysis of critical points and optimal manifolds is relevant to the problem of explaining the relative ease of obtaining good optimal control outcomes in the laboratory, even in the presence of the environment.
Time-dependent density functional theory for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tempel, David; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2012-02-01
We present the extension of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to the realm of open quantum systems (OQS). OQS-TDDFT allows a first principles description of electronic systems undergoing non-unitary dynamics due to coupling with a bath, such as that arising from molecular vibrations, solvent degrees of freedom or photon modes of the electromagnetic field. We first prove extensions of the Runge-Gross and van Leeuwen theorems to OQS-TDDFT, which rigorously establish it as a formally exact theory. We then discuss development of approximate OQS-TDDFT functionals, exact conditions on these functionals, as well as future challenges. Finally, we will discuss the application of OQS-TDDFT in obtaining broadened absorption spectra.
Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems
Carole Addis; Teiko Heinosaari; Jukka Kiukas; Elsi-Mari Laine; Sabrina Maniscalco
2015-08-19
The non-classical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the non-classicality of a quantum system cannot be encapsulated as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the non-classicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and, further, how a non-Markovian environment may help us in maintaining the measurement resources.
Minimal evolution time and quantum speed limit of non-Markovian open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiangyi; Wu, Chengjun; Guo, Hong
2015-11-01
We derive a sharp bound as the quantum speed limit (QSL) for the minimal evolution time of quantum open systems in the non-Markovian strong-coupling regime with initial mixed states by considering the effects of both renormalized Hamiltonian and dissipator. For a non-Markovian quantum open system, the possible evolution time between two arbitrary states is not unique, among the set of which we find that the minimal one and its QSL can decrease more steeply by adjusting the coupling strength of the dissipator, which thus provides potential improvements of efficiency in many quantum physics and quantum information areas.
Minimal evolution time and quantum speed limit of non-Markovian open systems
Meng, Xiangyi; Wu, Chengjun; Guo, Hong
2015-01-01
We derive a sharp bound as the quantum speed limit (QSL) for the minimal evolution time of quantum open systems in the non-Markovian strong-coupling regime with initial mixed states by considering the effects of both renormalized Hamiltonian and dissipator. For a non-Markovian quantum open system, the possible evolution time between two arbitrary states is not unique, among the set of which we find that the minimal one and its QSL can decrease more steeply by adjusting the coupling strength of the dissipator, which thus provides potential improvements of efficiency in many quantum physics and quantum information areas. PMID:26565062
Minimal evolution time and quantum speed limit of non-Markovian open systems.
Meng, Xiangyi; Wu, Chengjun; Guo, Hong
2015-01-01
We derive a sharp bound as the quantum speed limit (QSL) for the minimal evolution time of quantum open systems in the non-Markovian strong-coupling regime with initial mixed states by considering the effects of both renormalized Hamiltonian and dissipator. For a non-Markovian quantum open system, the possible evolution time between two arbitrary states is not unique, among the set of which we find that the minimal one and its QSL can decrease more steeply by adjusting the coupling strength of the dissipator, which thus provides potential improvements of efficiency in many quantum physics and quantum information areas. PMID:26565062
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitambar, Eric; Abu-Nada, Ali; Ceballos, Russell; Byrd, Mark
2015-11-01
The dynamics of an open quantum system is often modeled by introducing a bath initially in a product state with the system, letting the system and bath evolve unitarily together, and then tracing over the bath. However, often this model may not accurately reflect a particular experimental situation. Here, we provide some restrictions on one's ability to model an open quantum system using an initial product state when some information about the system-bath interaction is known. For instance, when certain symmetries exist in the system-bath interaction, we compute limitations on how much the system's purity can be increased if the bath is initially uncorrelated white noise. Furthermore, when the system and bath are qubits, we find that effectively only swap and product unitaries always generate system dynamics capable of being modeled using an initial product state. Finally, we show how any initial correlations between the system and environment are detectable, in principle, by observing the system transformation alone during certain joint evolutions. Our results have application in experimental quantum control and quantum computing where the system and environment are often assumed to be initially uncorrelated.
Spectral properties and classical decays in quantum open systems.
García-Mata, Ignacio; Saraceno, Marcos
2004-05-01
We study the relationship between the spectral properties of diffusive open quantum maps and the classical spectrum of Ruelle-Pollicott resonances. The leading resonances determine the asymptotic time regime for several quantities of interest--the linear entropy, the Loschmidt echo, and the correlations of the initial state. A numerical method that allows an efficient calculation of the leading spectrum is developed using a truncated basis adapted to the dynamics. PMID:15244908
Using sequences of pulses to control coherence in an open quantum computing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Bi; Ruda, Harry E.; Chang, J. F.
2002-06-01
A method for quantum control of coherence in an open quantum computing system is presented. The approach was applied to finding a suitable control sequence for maintaining coherence in a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computing system, subject to Bose-type environmental noise, and under the Born-Markovian and rotating wave approximations. It is shown that the evolution operator remains decoherence free while the three control pulses are being applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo, Alejandro
The 20th century saw the first revolution of quantum mechanics, setting the rules for our understanding of light, matter, and their interaction. The 21st century is focused on using these quantum mechanical laws to develop technologies which allows us to solve challenging practical problems. One of the directions is the use quantum devices which promise to surpass the best computers and best known classical algorithms for solving certain tasks. Crucial to the design of realistic devices and technologies is to account for the open nature of quantum systems and to cope with their interactions with the environment. In the first part of this dissertation, we show how to tackle classical optimization problems of interest in the physical sciences within one of these quantum computing paradigms, known as quantum annealing (QA). We present the largest implementation of QA on a biophysical problem (six different experiments with up to 81 superconducting quantum bits). Although the cases presented here can be solved on a classical computer, we present the first implementation of lattice protein folding on a quantum device under the Miyazawa-Jernigan model. This is the first step towards studying optimization problems in biophysics and statistical mechanics using quantum devices. In the second part of this dissertation, we focus on the problem of excitonic energy transfer. We provide an intuitive platform for engineering exciton transfer dynamics and we show that careful consideration of the properties of the environment leads to opportunities to engineer the transfer of an exciton. Since excitons in nanostructures are proposed for use in quantum information processing and artificial photosynthetic designs, our approach paves the way for engineering a wide range of desired exciton dynamics. Finally, we develop the theory for a two-dimensional electronic spectroscopic technique based on fluorescence (2DFS) and challenge previous theoretical results claiming its equivalence to the two-dimensional photon echo (2DPE) technique which is based on polarization. Experimental realization of this technique confirms our theoretical predictions. The new technique is more sensitive than 2DPE as a tool for conformational determination of excitonically coupled chromophores and offers the possibility of applying two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to single-molecules.
Exceptional points for parameter estimation in open quantum systems: analysis of the Bloch equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Am-Shallem, Morag; Kosloff, Ronnie; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-11-01
We suggest to employ the dissipative nature of open quantum systems for the purpose of parameter estimation: the dynamics of open quantum systems is typically described by a quantum dynamical semigroup generator {L}. The eigenvalues of {L} are complex, reflecting unitary as well as dissipative dynamics. For certain values of parameters defining {L}, non-Hermitian degeneracies emerge, i.e. exceptional points (EP). The dynamical signature of these EPs corresponds to a unique time evolution. This unique feature can be employed experimentally to locate the EPs and thereby to determine the intrinsic system parameters with a high accuracy. This way we turn the disadvantage of the dissipation into an advantage. We demonstrate this method in the open system dynamics of a two-level system described by the Bloch equation, which has become the paradigm of diverse fields in physics, from NMR to quantum information and elementary particles.
Heat-exchange statistics in driven open quantum systems
S. Gasparinetti; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti
2014-07-29
As the dimensions of physical systems approach the nanoscale, the laws of thermodynamics must be reconsidered due to the increased importance of fluctuations and quantum effects. While the statistical mechanics of small classical systems is relatively well understood, the quantum case still poses challenges. Here we set up a formalism that allows to calculate the full probability distribution of energy exchanges between a periodically driven quantum system and a thermalized heat reservoir. The formalism combines Floquet theory with a generalized master equation approach. For a driven two-level system and in the long-time limit, we obtain a universal expression for the distribution, providing clear physical insight into the exchanged energy quanta. We illustrate our approach in two analytically solvable cases and discuss the differences in the corresponding distributions. Our predictions could be directly tested in a variety of systems, including optical cavities and solid-state devices.
Koch, Christiane
2013-01-01
of environmental degrees of freedom. This approach is particularly interesting in view of quantum devices whichPHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 022122 (2013) Renormalization approach to non-Markovian open-quantum induces a dynamical renormalization of the system-environment coupling in open-quantum- system dynamics
Conservation law of operator current in open quantum systems
J. Salmilehto; P. Solinas; M. Möttönen
2012-03-08
We derive a fundamental conservation law of operator current for master equations describing reduced quantum systems. If this law is broken, the temporal integral of the current operator of an arbitrary system observable does not yield in general the change of that observable in the evolution. We study Lindblad-type master equations as examples and prove that the application of the secular approximation during their derivation results in a violation of the conservation law. We show that generally any violation of the law leads to artificial corrections to the complete quantum dynamics, thus questioning the accuracy of the particular master equation.
Rise and fall of quantum and classical correlations in open-system dynamics
Khasin, Michael; Kosloff, Ronnie
2007-07-15
Interacting quantum systems evolving from an uncorrelated composite initial state generically develop quantum correlations--entanglement. As a consequence, a local description of interacting quantum systems is impossible as a rule. A unitarily evolving (isolated) quantum system generically develops extensive entanglement: the magnitude of the generated entanglement will increase without bounds with the effective Hilbert space dimension of the system. It is conceivable that coupling of the interacting subsystems to local dephasing environments will restrict the generation of entanglement to such extent that the evolving composite system may be considered as approximately disentangled. This conjecture is addressed in the context of some common models of a bipartite system with linear and nonlinear interactions and local coupling to dephasing environments. Analytical and numerical results obtained imply that the conjecture is generally false. Open dynamics of the quantum correlations is compared to the corresponding evolution of the classical correlations and a qualitative difference is found.
A mesoscopic magnetron as an open quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pudlik, Tadeusz; Castro Neto, Antonio; Campbell, David
2015-03-01
The emergence of materials with room temperature electron mean free paths of a micron or more opens up new possibilities in the design of solid state devices. One such potential new paradigm are solid state quasi-free electron devices, which promise to combine the wide frequency tunability of classical vacuum tube devices with the small size and low costs of semiconductor technology. As a step towards realistic models of these devices, we develop a quantum mechanical description of a mesoscopic magnetron, in which the vacuum chamber of traditional magnetron is replaced with a semiconductor. We show that the problem can be mapped to a Bose-Hubbard dimer coupled to a dissipative bath and study the effect of the band structure of the medium on device performance.
Many unstable particles from an open quantum systems perspective
Kordian Andrzej Smolinski
2015-05-22
We postulate a master equation, written in the language of creation and annihilation operators, as a candidate for unambiguous quantum mechanical description of unstable particles. We have found Kraus representation for the evolution driven by this master equation and study its properties. Both Schroedinger and Heisenberg picture of the system evolution are presented. We show that the resulting time evolution leads to exponential decay law. Moreover, we analyse mixing of particle flavours and we show that it can lead to flavour oscillation phenomenon.
Entanglement and discord in two-mode Gaussian open quantum systems
Aurelian Isar
2013-01-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems, we give a description of quantum entanglement and quantum discord for two non-interacting modes embedded in a thermal environment. We describe the evolution of entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable squeezed thermal state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for non-zero temperatures of the environment. The Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the state, including entanglement, decays asymptotically in time.
Quantum speed-up transition in open system dynamics
Xiang Hao; Wenjiong Wu
2015-10-20
The rate of the trace distance is used to evaluate quantum speed-up for arbitrary mixed states. Compared with some present methods, the approach based on trace distance can provide an optimal bound to the speed of the evolution. The dynamical transition from no speed-up region to speed-up region takes on in the spontaneous decay of an two-level atom with detuning. The evolution is characteristic of the alternating behavior between quantum speed-up and speed-down in the strong system-reservoir coupling regime. Under the o?ff-resonance condition, the dynamical evolution can be accelerated for short previous times and then decelerated to a normal process either in the weak or strong coupling regime. From the time-energy uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that the potential capacity for quantum speed-up evolution is closely related to the energy flow-back from the reservoir to the system. The negative decay rate for short time intervals leads to the speed-up process where the photons previously emitted by the atom are reabsorbed at a later time. The values of the spontaneous decay rate becomes positive after a long enough time, which results in the normal evolution with no speed-up potential.
Open quantum system approach to Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time
Hongwei Yu
2011-02-14
We analyze, in the paradigm of open quantum systems, the reduced dynamics of a freely-falling two-level detector in de Sitter space-time in weak interaction with a reservoir of fluctuating quantized conformal scalar fields in the de Sitter invariant vacuum. We find that the detector is asymptotically driven to a thermal state at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, regardless of its initial state. Our discussion therefore shows that the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time can be understood as a manifestation of thermalization phenomena that involves decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems.
Quantum response theory for open systems and its application to Hall conductance
H. Z. Shen; M. Qin; Y. H. Zhou; X. Q. Shao; X. X. Yi
2015-05-07
Quantum linear response theory considers only the response of a closed quantum system to a perturbation up to first order in the perturbation. This theory breaks down when the system subjects to environments and the response up to second order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a quantum nonlinear response theory for open systems. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, then apply it to deriving the Hall conductance for the open system at finite temperature. Taking the two-band model as an example, we derive the Hall conductance for the two-band model. We calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model via different expressions for $d_{\\alpha}(\\vec p), \\ \\alpha=x,y,z$. The results show that the transition points of topological phase almost remain unchanged in the presence of environments.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Curtis J. Broadbent; Jun Jing; Ting Yu; Joseph H. Eberly
2011-12-12
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically.
Mohseni, M.; Rezakhani, A. T.
2009-07-15
We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation for the evolution of the process matrix acting on a system. This equation is applicable to non-Markovian and/or strong-coupling regimes. We propose two distinct applications for this dynamical equation. We first demonstrate identification of quantum Hamiltonians generating dynamics of closed or open systems via performing process tomography. In particular, we argue how one can efficiently estimate certain classes of sparse Hamiltonians by performing partial tomography schemes. In addition, we introduce an optimal control theoretic setting for manipulating quantum dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, specifically for the task of decoherence suppression.
M. Mohseni; A. T. Rezakhani
2009-08-09
We develop a general approach for monitoring and controlling evolution of open quantum systems. In contrast to the master equations describing time evolution of density operators, here, we formulate a dynamical equation for the evolution of the process matrix acting on a system. This equation is applicable to non-Markovian and/or strong coupling regimes. We propose two distinct applications for this dynamical equation. We first demonstrate identification of quantum Hamiltonians generating dynamics of closed or open systems via performing process tomography. In particular, we argue how one can efficiently estimate certain classes of sparse Hamiltonians by performing partial tomography schemes. In addition, we introduce a novel optimal control theoretic setting for manipulating quantum dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, specifically for the task of decoherence suppression.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.
2012-08-01
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically.
Equivalence of matrix product ensembles of trajectories in open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiukas, Jukka; GuÅ£?, M?d?lin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-07-01
The equivalence of thermodynamic ensembles is at the heart of statistical mechanics and central to our understanding of equilibrium states of matter. Recently, a formal connection has been established between the dynamics of open quantum systems and statistical mechanics in an extra dimension: an open system dynamics generates a matrix product state (MPS) encoding all possible quantum jump trajectories which allows to construct generating functions akin to partition functions. For dynamics generated by a Lindblad master equation, the corresponding MPS is a so-called continuous MPS which encodes the set of continuous measurement records terminated at some fixed total observation time. Here, we show that if one instead terminates trajectories after a fixed total number of quantum jumps, e.g., emission events into the environment, the associated MPS is discrete. The continuous and discrete MPS correspond to different ensembles of quantum trajectories, one characterized by total time, the other by total number of quantum jumps. Hence, they give rise to quantum versions of different thermodynamic ensembles, akin to "grand canonical" and "isobaric," but for trajectories. Here, we prove that these trajectory ensembles are equivalent in a suitable limit of long time or large number of jumps. This is in direct analogy to equilibrium statistical mechanics where equivalence between ensembles is only strictly established in the thermodynamic limit. An intrinsic quantum feature is that the equivalence holds only for all observables that commute with the number of quantum jumps.
Equivalence of matrix product ensembles of trajectories in open quantum systems.
Kiukas, Jukka; Gu??, M?d?lin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P
2015-07-01
The equivalence of thermodynamic ensembles is at the heart of statistical mechanics and central to our understanding of equilibrium states of matter. Recently, a formal connection has been established between the dynamics of open quantum systems and statistical mechanics in an extra dimension: an open system dynamics generates a matrix product state (MPS) encoding all possible quantum jump trajectories which allows to construct generating functions akin to partition functions. For dynamics generated by a Lindblad master equation, the corresponding MPS is a so-called continuous MPS which encodes the set of continuous measurement records terminated at some fixed total observation time. Here, we show that if one instead terminates trajectories after a fixed total number of quantum jumps, e.g., emission events into the environment, the associated MPS is discrete. The continuous and discrete MPS correspond to different ensembles of quantum trajectories, one characterized by total time, the other by total number of quantum jumps. Hence, they give rise to quantum versions of different thermodynamic ensembles, akin to "grand canonical" and "isobaric," but for trajectories. Here, we prove that these trajectory ensembles are equivalent in a suitable limit of long time or large number of jumps. This is in direct analogy to equilibrium statistical mechanics where equivalence between ensembles is only strictly established in the thermodynamic limit. An intrinsic quantum feature is that the equivalence holds only for all observables that commute with the number of quantum jumps. PMID:26274149
Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks
Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-12-04
An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.
Quantum and classical fluctuation theorems from a decoherent histories, open-system analysis.
Suba??, Y; Hu, B L
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work distribution and the free energy difference of a quantum system interacting with a general environment (with arbitrary spectral density and for all temperatures) based on a well-understood microphysics (quantum Brownian motion) model under the conditions stipulated by the Jarzynski equality [Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)] and Crooks' fluctuation theorem [Crooks, Phys. Rev. E 60, 2721 (1999)] (in short, fluctuation theorems, FTs). We use the decoherent histories conceptual framework to explain how the notion of trajectories in a quantum system can be made viable and use the environment-induced decoherence scheme to assess the strength of noise that could provide sufficient decoherence to warrant the use of trajectories to define work in open quantum systems. From the solutions to the Langevin equation governing the stochastic dynamics of such systems we were able to produce formal expressions for these quantities entering in the FTs and from them prove explicitly the validity of the FTs at the high temperature limit. At low temperatures our general results would enable one to identify the range of parameters where FTs may not hold or need be expressed differently. We explain the relation between classical and quantum FTs and the advantage of this microphysics open-system approach over the phenomenological modeling and energy-level calculations for substitute closed quantum systems. PMID:22400517
Real-time transport in open quantum systems from PT-symmetric quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elenewski, Justin E.; Chen, Hanning
2014-08-01
Nanoscale electronic transport is of intense technological interest, with applications ranging from semiconducting devices and molecular junctions to charge migration in biological systems. Most explicit theoretical approaches treat transport using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions. This is a static formalism, with dynamic response properties accommodated only through complicated extensions. To circumvent this limitation, the carrier density may be propagated using real-time time-dependent DFT (RT-TDDFT), with boundary conditions corresponding to an open quantum system. Complex absorbing potentials can emulate outgoing particles at the simulation boundary, although these do not account for introduction of charge density. It is demonstrated that the desired positive particle flux is afforded by a class of PT-symmetric generating potentials that are characterized by anisotropic transmission resonances. These potentials add density every time a particle traverses the cell boundary, and may be used to engineer a continuous pulse train for incident packets. This is a first step toward developing a complete transport formalism unique to RT-TDDFT.
Lyapunov control on quantum open systems in decoherence-free subspaces
Wang, W.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.
2010-09-15
A scheme to drive and manipulate a finite-dimensional quantum system in decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) by Lyapunov control is proposed. Control fields are established by the Lyapunov function. This proposal can drive the open quantum system into DFSs and manipulate it to any desired eigenstate of the free Hamiltonian. An example which consists of a four-level system with three long-lived states driven by two lasers is presented to demonstrate the scheme. We have performed numerical simulations of the dynamics of the four-level system, which show that the scheme works well.
Coherent and decoherent time evolution of finite Markovian and non-Markovian open quantum systems
Tarek Khalil; Jean Richert
2015-03-31
We examine the properties of open quantum systems with respect to their time evolution in different regimes, Markovian and non-Markovian. We analyze their behaviour with respect to their coherent or decoherent time evolution by means of different models and try to gain some insight into the possible correlations between Markovianity and coherence.
Dynamics of open quantum systems with initial system-reservoir correlations
Hua-Tang Tan; Wei-Min Zhang
2010-12-22
In this paper, the exact dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.
Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-12-01
In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.
General response formula and application to topological insulator in quantum open system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, H. Z.; Qin, M.; Shao, X. Q.; Yi, X. X.
2015-11-01
It is well-known that the quantum linear response theory is based on the first-order perturbation theory for a system in thermal equilibrium. Hence, this theory breaks down when the system is in a steady state far from thermal equilibrium and the response up to higher order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear response theory for such quantum open system. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, after which we apply it to the derivation of Hall conductance for open system at finite temperature. As an example, the Hall conductance of the two-band model is derived. Then we calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model. The calculations show that the transition points of topological phase are robust against the environment. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of the nonlinear response in quantum open system, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and statistical physics.
Bound states and perfect transmission scattering states in P T -symmetric open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi
2014-03-01
We study the point spectrum and transmission scattering spectrum in P T -symmetric open quantum systems containing balanced regions of energy amplification and attenuation, using tight-binding chains with matching sink and source sites as prototype models. For a given system geometry, we write the boundary conditions that permit scattering state and bound state solutions with wave functions that likewise satisfy P T symmetry; we further demonstrate the P T -symmetric scattering states give rise to perfect transmission through the scattering region. We also discuss bound states in continuum and other spectral effects that may be discovered in P T -symmetric open quantum systems. Finally we discuss the potential for experimental realization of our models in systems containing whispering gallery mode resonators with balanced loss and gain. S. G. acknowledges support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
QuTiP: An open-source Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco
2012-08-01
We present an object-oriented open-source framework for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems written in Python. Arbitrary Hamiltonians, including time-dependent systems, may be built up from operators and states defined by a quantum object class, and then passed on to a choice of master equation or Monte Carlo solvers. We give an overview of the basic structure for the framework before detailing the numerical simulation of open system dynamics. Several examples are given to illustrate the build up to a complete calculation. Finally, we measure the performance of our library against that of current implementations. The framework described here is particularly well suited to the fields of quantum optics, superconducting circuit devices, nanomechanics, and trapped ions, while also being ideal for use in classroom instruction. Catalogue identifier: AEMB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 16 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 213 438 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python Computer: i386, x86-64 Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7 External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.org/), Matplotlib (http://matplotlib.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems. Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad master equation or Monte Carlo wave function method. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of minutes, depending on size of underlying Hilbert space.
Demonstration of open-quantum-system optimal control in dynamic nuclear polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, S.; Cory, D. G.
2015-10-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in nuclear magnetic resonance to transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. The resulting nuclear polarization enhancement can, in theory, be two or three orders of magnitude depending on the sample. In solid-state systems, however, there are competing mechanisms of DNP, which, when occurring simultaneously, reduce the net polarization enhancement of the nuclear spin. We present a simple quantum description of DNP and apply optimal control theory (OCT) with an open-quantum-system framework to design pulses that select one DNP process and suppress the others. We demonstrate experimentally an order of magnitude improvement in the DNP enhancement using OCT pulses.
Demonstration of Open Quantum System Optimal Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Sarah Sheldon; David G. Cory
2015-07-20
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to transfer polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. The resulting nuclear polarization enhancement can, in theory, be two or three orders of magnitude depending on the sample. In solid state systems, however, there are competing mechanisms of DNP, which, when occurring simultaneously, reduce the net polarization enhancement of the nuclear spin. We present a simple quantum description of DNP and apply optimal control theory (OCT) with an open quantum system framework to design pulses that select one DNP process and suppress the others. We demonstrate experimentally an order of magnitude improvement in the DNP enhancement using OCT pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Shuai; Mai, Peizhi; Zhong, Fan
2014-03-01
We propose that nonequilibrium quantum criticality in open systems under the Born-Markov approximation can be described by a master equation of the Lindblad form. This master equation is derived from a system coupling weakly to a heat bath microscopically and is suggested to provide an approach to study dynamic quantum critical behavior of the system at finite temperatures. We find that the dissipation rate in the equation representing the coupling must be included in the scaling forms as an indispensable additional scaling variable in order to correctly describe the nonequilibrium quantum critical behavior, yet the equilibrium fixed point determines the nonequilibrium critical behavior in the weak coupling limit. Through numerically solving the Lindblad equation for the quantum Ising chain, we affirm these propositions by finite-time scaling forms with the dissipation rate. Nonequilibrium dynamic critical behavior of spontaneous emissions in dissipative open systems at zero temperature near their quantum critical points is discovered and is also described well by the scaling forms.
Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.
2012-08-15
We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of multi-channel vs. single-channel reservoir coupling is rigorously defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-Markovian quantum state diffusion equation for arbitrary multi-channel reservoir coupling is derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exact time-local master equation is derived under certain conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical solution to the three-level system in a vee-type configuration is found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of the three-level system under generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise is plotted for many parameter regimes.
Archak Purkayastha; Manas Kulkarni; Abhishek Dhar
2015-12-11
We present the Redfield quantum master equation (RQME) description for an open system of non-interacting particles (bosons or fermions) on an arbitrary lattice of $N$ sites in any dimension and connected to multiple reservoirs at different temperatures and chemical potentials. For the $N=2$ case, we show that RQME is robust against pathologies one sees in the conventional Lindblad equation approaches. It gives results which agree with exact analytical results for steady state properties and with exact numerics for time-dependent properties. These results can be experimentally relevant for cold atoms, cavity QED and far-from-equilibrium quantum dot experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B. L.
2015-11-01
The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics.
A probability current analysis of energy transport in open quantum systems
Jan J. J. Roden; K. Birgitta Whaley
2015-01-24
We introduce a probability current analysis of excitation energy transfer between states of an open quantum system. Expressing the energy transfer through currents of excitation probability between the states in a site representation enables us to gain key insights into the energy transfer dynamics. It allows to, i) identify the pathways of energy transport in large networks of sites and to quantify their relative weights, ii) quantify the respective contributions of unitary dynamics, dephasing, and relaxation/dissipation processes to the energy transfer, and iii) quantify the contribution of coherence to the energy transfer. Our analysis is general and can be applied to a broad range of open quantum system descriptions (with coupling to non-Markovian environments) in a straightforward manner.
Problem-free time-dependent variational principle for open quantum systems
Joubert-Doriol, Loic
2015-01-01
Methods of quantum nuclear wave-function dynamics have become very efficient in simulating large isolated systems using the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). However, a straightforward extension of the TDVP to the density matrix framework gives rise to methods that do not conserve the energy in the isolated system limit and the total system population for open systems where only energy exchange with the environment is allowed. These problems arise when the system density is in a mixed state and is simulated using an incomplete basis. Thus, the basis set incompleteness, which is inevitable in practical calculations, creates artificial channels for energy and population dissipation. To overcome this unphysical behavior, we have introduced a constrained Lagrangian formulation of TDVP applied to the non-stochastic open system Schrodinger equation (NOSSE) [L. Joubert-Doriol, I. G. Ryabinkin, and A. F. Izmaylov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 234112 (2014)]. While our formulation can be applied to any variational a...
Optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum systems via feedback
Zairong Xi; Wei Cui; Yu Pan
2010-04-26
The problem of optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum system via weak measurement is presented. Based on the non-Markovian master equation, we evaluate exactly the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the system of interest interacting with a dissipative reservoir. We find that the non-Markovian reservoir has dual effects on the system: dissipation and backaction. The dissipation exhausts the coherence of the quantum system, whereas the backaction revives it. Moreover, we design the control Hamiltonian with the control laws attained by the stochastic optimal control and the corresponding optimal principle. At last, we considered the exact decoherence dynamics of a qubit in a dissipative reservoir composed of harmonic oscillators, and demonstrated the effectiveness of our optimal control strategy. Simulation results showed that the coherence will completely lost in the absence of control neither in non-Markovian nor Markovian system. However, the optimal feedback control steers it to a stationary stochastic process which fluctuates around the target. In this case the decoherence can be controlled effectively, which indicates that the engineered artificial reservoirs with optimal feedback control may be designed to protect the quantum coherence in quantum information and quantum computation.
S. Salimi; S. Haseli; A. S. Khorashad
2015-04-19
In the theory of open quantum systems interaction is a fundamental concepts in the review of the dynamics of open quantum systems. Correlation, both classical and quantum one, is generated due to interaction between system and environment. Here, we recall the quantity which well known as total entropy production. Appearance of total entropy production is due to the entanglement production between system an environment. In this work, we discuss about the role of the total entropy production for detecting non-Markovianity. By utilizing the relation between total entropy production and total correlation between subsystems, one can see a temporary decrease of total entropy production is a signature of non-Markovianity.
Optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum systems via feedback
Xi, Zairong; Pan, Yu
2010-01-01
The problem of optimal control of non-Markovian open quantum system via weak measurement is presented. Based on the non-Markovian master equation, we evaluate exactly the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the system of interest interacting with a dissipative reservoir. We find that the non-Markovian reservoir has dual effects on the system: dissipation and backaction. The dissipation exhausts the coherence of the quantum system, whereas the backaction revives it. Moreover, we design the control Hamiltonian with the control laws attained by the stochastic optimal control and the corresponding optimal principle. At last, we considered the exact decoherence dynamics of a qubit in a dissipative reservoir composed of harmonic oscillators, and demonstrated the effectiveness of our optimal control strategy. Simulation results showed that the coherence will completely lost in the absence of control neither in non-Markovian nor Markovian system. However, the optimal feedback control steers it to a stationary sto...
A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.
2015-11-01
This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q???+???P???=???1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In addition to discussing experiments on mesoscopic quantum point contacts that provide evidence of the environmentally-mediated coupling of quantum states, we also review manifestations of DPTs in mesoscopic devices and other systems. These experiments include observations of resonance-trapping behavior in microwave cavities and open quantum dots, phase lapses in tunneling through single-electron transistors, and spin swapping in atomic ensembles. Other possible manifestations of this phenomenon are presented, including various superradiant phenomena in low-dimensional semiconductors. From these discussions a generic picture of OQSs emerges in which the environmentally-mediated coupling between different quantum states plays a critical role in governing the system behavior. The ability to control or manipulate this interaction may even lead to new applications in photonics and electronics.
A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.
Rotter, I; Bird, J P
2015-11-01
This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q???+???P???=???1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In addition to discussing experiments on mesoscopic quantum point contacts that provide evidence of the environmentally-mediated coupling of quantum states, we also review manifestations of DPTs in mesoscopic devices and other systems. These experiments include observations of resonance-trapping behavior in microwave cavities and open quantum dots, phase lapses in tunneling through single-electron transistors, and spin swapping in atomic ensembles. Other possible manifestations of this phenomenon are presented, including various superradiant phenomena in low-dimensional semiconductors. From these discussions a generic picture of OQSs emerges in which the environmentally-mediated coupling between different quantum states plays a critical role in governing the system behavior. The ability to control or manipulate this interaction may even lead to new applications in photonics and electronics. PMID:26510115
Efficient method to generate time evolution of the Wigner function for open quantum systems
Renan Cabrera; Denys I. Bondar; Kurt Jacobs; Herschel A. Rabitz
2015-11-07
The Wigner function is a useful tool for exploring the transition between quantum and classical dynamics, as well as the behavior of quantum chaotic systems. Evolving the Wigner function for open systems has proved challenging however; a variety of methods have been devised but suffer from being cumbersome and resource intensive. Here we present an efficient fast-Fourier method for evolving the Wigner function, that has a complexity of $O(N\\log N)$ where $N$ is the size of the array storing the Wigner function. The efficiency, stability, and simplicity of this method allows us to simulate open system dynamics previously thought to be prohibitively expensive. As a demonstration we simulate the dynamics of both one-particle and two-particle systems under various environmental interactions. For a single particle we also compare the resulting evolution with that of the classical Fokker-Planck and Koopman-von Neumann equations, and show that the environmental interactions induce the quantum-to-classical transition as expected. In the case of two interacting particles we show that an environment interacting with one of the particles leads to the loss of coherence of the other.
Efficient method to generate time evolution of the Wigner function for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Renan; Bondar, Denys I.; Jacobs, Kurt; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2015-10-01
The Wigner function is a useful tool for exploring the transition between quantum and classical dynamics, as well as the behavior of quantum chaotic systems. Evolving the Wigner function for open systems has proved challenging, however; a variety of methods have been devised but suffer from being cumbersome and resource intensive. Here we present an efficient fast-Fourier method for evolving the Wigner function that has a complexity of O (N logN ) where N is the size of the array storing the Wigner function. The efficiency, stability, and simplicity of this method allows us to simulate open-system dynamics previously thought to be prohibitively expensive. As a demonstration we simulate the dynamics of both one-particle and two-particle systems under various environmental interactions. For a single particle we also compare the resulting evolution with that of the classical Fokker-Planck and Koopman-von Neumann equations and show that the environmental interactions induce the quantum-to-classical transition as expected. In the case of two interacting particles we show that an environment interacting with one of the particles leads to the loss of coherence of the other.
A. R. Usha Devi; A. K. Rajagopl; Sudha
2011-01-28
Dynamical A and B maps have been employed extensively by Sudarshan and co-workers to investigate open system evolution of quantum systems. A canonical structure of the A-map is introduced here. It is shown that this canonical A-map enables us to investigate if the dynamics is completely positive (CP) or non-completely positive (NCP) in an elegant way and hence, it subsumes the basic results on open system dynamics. Identifying memory effects in open system evolution is gaining increasing importance recently and here, a criterion of non-Markovianity, based on the relative entropy of the dynamical state is proposed. The relative entropy difference of the dynamical system serves as a complementary characterization - though not related directly - to the fidelity difference criterion proposed recently. Three typical examples of open system evolution of a qubit, prepared initially in a correlated state with another qubit (environment), and evolving jointly under a specific unitary dynamics - which corresponds to a NCP dynamical map - are investigated by employing both the relative entropy difference and fidelity difference tests of non-Markovianity. The two qubit initial states are chosen to be (i) a pure entangled state, (ii) theWerner state, which exemplifies both entangled and separable states of qubits, depending on a real parameter, and (3) a separable mixed state. Both the relative entropy and fidelity criteria offer a nice display of how non-Markovianity manifests in all the three examples.
Lei, Chan U; Zhang Weimin
2011-11-15
In this paper, we provide a mechanism of decoherence suppression for open quantum systems in general and that for a ''Schroedinger cat-like'' state in particular, through strong couplings to non-Markovian reservoirs. Different from the usual strategies in the literature of suppressing decoherence by decoupling the system from the environment, here the decoherence suppression employs a strong back-reaction from non-Markovian reservoirs. The mechanism relies on the existence of the singularities (bound states) of the nonequilibrium retarded Green function, which completely determines the dissipation and decoherence dynamics of open systems. As an application, we examine the decoherence dynamics of a photonic crystal nanocavity that is coupled to a waveguide. The strong non-Markovian suppression of decoherence for the ''optical cat'' state is attained.
Quantum and classical fluctuation theorems from a decoherent-history open-system analysis
Subasi, Y
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a first-principles analysis of the nonequilibrium work distribution and the free energy difference of a quantum system interacting with a general environment (with arbitrary spectral density and for all temperatures) based on a well-understood micro-physics (quantum Brownian motion) model under the conditions stipulated by the Jarzynski equality [C. Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)] and Crooks' fluctuation theorem [G. E. Crooks, Phys. Rev. E 60, 2721 (1999)] (in short FTs). We use the decoherent history conceptual framework to explain how the notion of trajectories in a quantum system can be made viable and use the environment-induced decoherence scheme to assess the strength of noise which could provide sufficient decoherence to warrant the use of trajectories to define work in open quantum systems. From the solutions to the Langevin equation governing the stochastic dynamics of such systems we were able to produce formal expressions for these quantities entering in the FT...
Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms.
Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M
2011-01-01
The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam. PMID:21405757
Enhancing quantum correlation in open-system dynamics by reliable quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jia Dong; Wang, Dong; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu
2015-09-01
We investigate the decoherence to generate quantum discord between two separable qubits of an unentangled mixed state and propose a series of feasible schemes to enhance quantum discord by means of reliable quantum operations. By combing our schemes with the previous proposal, one can note that the generated quantum discord can be greatly enhanced. Moreover, our success probability entirely depends on the quantum measurement strength.
Bound states, scattering states, and resonant states in PT -symmetric open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmon, Savannah; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna; Hatano, Naomichi
2015-08-01
We study a simple open quantum system with a PT -symmetric defect potential as a prototype in order to illustrate a number of general features of PT -symmetric open quantum systems; however, the potential itself could be mimicked by a number of PT systems that have been experimentally studied quite recently. One key feature is the resonance in continuum (RIC), which appears in both the discrete spectrum and the scattering spectrum of such systems. The RIC wave function forms a standing wave extending throughout the spatial extent of the system and in this sense represents a resonance between the open environment associated with the leads of our model and the central PT -symmetric potential. We also illustrate that as one deforms the system parameters, the RIC may exit the continuum by splitting into a bound state and a virtual bound state at the band edge, a process which should be experimentally observable. We also study the exceptional points appearing in the discrete spectrum at which two eigenvalues coalesce; we categorize these as either EP2As, at which two real-valued solutions coalesce before becoming complex-valued, and EP2Bs, for which the two solutions are complex on either side of the exceptional point. The EP2As are associated with PT -symmetry breaking; we argue that these are more stable against parameter perturbation than the EP2Bs. We also study complex-valued solutions of the discrete spectrum for which the wave function is nevertheless spatially localized, something that is not allowed in traditional open quantum systems; we illustrate that these may form quasibound states in continuum under some circumstances. We also study the scattering properties of the system, including states that support invisible propagation and some general features of perfect transmission states. We finally use our model as a prototype for the construction of scattering states that satisfy PT -symmetric boundary conditions; while these states do not conserve the traditional probability current, we introduce the PT current which is preserved. The perfect transmission states appear as a special case of the PT -symmetric scattering states.
Thermofield-based chain-mapping approach for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vega, Inés; Bañuls, Mari-Carmen
2015-11-01
We consider a thermofield approach to analyze the evolution of an open quantum system coupled to an environment at finite temperature. In this approach, the finite-temperature environment is exactly mapped onto two virtual environments at zero temperature. These two environments are then unitarily transformed into two different chains of oscillators, leading to a one-dimensional structure that can be numerically studied using tensor network techniques. Compared to previous approaches using a single chain mapping, our strategy offers the advantage of an exact description of the initial state at arbitrary temperatures, which results in a gain in computational efficiency and a reduced truncation error.
Creation of Two-Particle Entanglement in Open Macroscopic Quantum Systems
Merkli, M.; Berman, G. P.; Borgonovi, F.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2012-01-01
We consider an open quantum system of N not directly interacting spins (qubits) in contact with both local and collective thermal environments. The qubit-environment interactions are energy conserving. We trace out the variables of the thermal environments and N ? 2 qubits to obtain the time-dependent reduced density matrix for two arbitrary qubits. We numerically simulate the reduced dynamics and the creation of entanglement (concurrence) as a function of the parameters of the thermal environments and the number of qubits, N . Our results demonstrate thatmore »the two-qubit entanglement generally decreases as N increases. We show analytically that, in the limit N ? ? , no entanglement can be created. This indicates that collective thermal environments cannot create two-qubit entanglement when many qubits are located within a region of the size of the environment coherence length. We discuss possible relevance of our consideration to recent quantum information devices and biosystems. « less
Real time approach to tunneling in open quantum systems: decoherence and anomalous diffusion
Esteban Calzetta; Enric Verdaguer
2006-03-06
Macroscopic quantum tunneling is described using the master equation for the reduced Wigner function of an open quantum system at zero temperature. Our model consists of a particle trapped in a cubic potential interacting with an environment characterized by dissipative and normal and anomalous diffusion coefficients. A representation based on the energy eigenfunctions of the isolated system, i.e. the system uncoupled to the environment, is used to write the reduced Wigner function, and the master equation becomes simpler in that representation. The energy eigenfunctions computed in a WKB approximation incorporate the tunneling effect of the isolated system and the effect of the environment is described by an equation that it is in many ways similar to a Fokker-Planck equation. Decoherence is easily identified from the master equation and we find that when the decoherence time is much shorter than the tunneling time the master equation can be approximated by a Kramers like equation describing thermal activation due to the zero point fluctuations of the quantum environment. The effect of anomalous diffusion can be dealt with perturbatively and its overall effect is to inhibit tunneling.
The quantum bit commitment: a finite open system approach for a complete classification of protocols
Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano
2002-09-26
Mayers, Lo and Chau argued that all quantum bit commitment protocols are insecure, because there is no way to prevent an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) cheating attack. However, Yuen presented some protocols which challenged the previous impossibility argument. Up to now, it is still debated whether there exist or not unconditionally secure protocols. In this paper the above controversy is addressed. For such purpose, a complete classification of all possible bit commitment protocols is given, including all possible cheating attacks. Focusing on the simplest class of protocols (non-aborting and with complete and perfect verification), it is shown how naturally a game-theoretical situation arises. For these protocols, bounds for the cheating probabilities are derived, involving the two quantum operations encoding the bit values and their respective alternate Kraus decompositions. Such bounds are different from those given in the impossibility proof. The whole classification and analysis has been carried out using a "finite open system" approach. The discrepancy with the impossibility proof is explained on the basis of the implicit adoption of a "closed system approach"--equivalent to modeling the commitment as performed by two fixed machines interacting unitarily in a overall "closed system"--according to which it is possible to assume as "openly known" both the initial state and the probability distributions for all secret parameters, which can be then "purified". This approach is also motivated by existence of unitary extensions for any open system. However, it is shown that the closed system approach for the classification of commitment protocols unavoidably leads to infinite dimensions, which then invalidate the continuity argument at the basis of the impossibility proof.
Problem-free time-dependent variational principle for open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2015-04-01
Methods of quantum nuclear wave-function dynamics have become very efficient in simulating large isolated systems using the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). However, a straightforward extension of the TDVP to the density matrix framework gives rise to methods that do not conserve the energy in the isolated system limit and the total system population for open systems where only energy exchange with environment is allowed. These problems arise when the system density is in a mixed state and is simulated using an incomplete basis. Thus, the basis set incompleteness, which is inevitable in practical calculations, creates artificial channels for energy and population dissipation. To overcome this unphysical behavior, we have introduced a constrained Lagrangian formulation of TDVP applied to a non-stochastic open system Schrödinger equation [L. Joubert-Doriol, I. G. Ryabinkin, and A. F. Izmaylov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 234112 (2014)]. While our formulation can be applied to any variational ansatz for the system density matrix, derivation of working equations and numerical assessment is done within the variational multiconfiguration Gaussian approach for a two-dimensional linear vibronic coupling model system interacting with a harmonic bath.
Neutral kaons as an open quantum system in a second quantization approach
Kordian Andrzej Smolinski
2015-09-25
We have shown that it is possible to formulate the consistent and probability-preserving description of the $CP$-symmetry-violating evolution of a system of decaying particles. This has been done within the framework of quantum mechanics of open systems. This approach allows the description of both the exponential decay and flavour oscillations. We have solved explicitly the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for a system of particles with violated $CP$ symmetry and found the evolution of _any_ observable bilinear in creation and annihilation operators. The choice of a concrete observable can be done by the proper choice of initial conditions for the system of differential equations. We have calculated the evolution as well as mean values of the observables most interesting from the physical point of view, and we have found their lowest order difference with the $CP$-preserved values.
Neutral kaons as an open quantum system in a second quantization approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smoli?ski, Kordian Andrzej
2015-09-01
We have shown that it is possible to formulate the consistent and probability-preserving description of the CP -symmetry-violating evolution of a system of decaying particles. This has been done within the framework of quantum mechanics of open systems. This approach allows the description of both the exponential decay and flavor oscillations. We have solved explicitly the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for a system of particles with violated CP symmetry and found the evolution of any observable bilinear in creation and annihilation operators. The choice of a concrete observable can be done by the proper choice of initial conditions for the system of differential equations. We have calculated the evolution as well as mean values of the observables most interesting from the physical point of view, and we have found their lowest order difference with the CP -preserved values.
General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.
2013-01-01
We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.
Asplund, Erik; Kluener, Thorsten
2012-03-28
In this paper, control of open quantum systems with emphasis on the control of surface photochemical reactions is presented. A quantum system in a condensed phase undergoes strong dissipative processes. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is important to model such processes in a rigorous way. In this work, the description of open quantum systems is realized within the surrogate Hamiltonian approach [R. Baer and R. Kosloff, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8862 (1997)]. An efficient and accurate method to find control fields is optimal control theory (OCT) [W. Zhu, J. Botina, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1953 (1998); Y. Ohtsuki, G. Turinici, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5509 (2004)]. To gain control of open quantum systems, the surrogate Hamiltonian approach and OCT, with time-dependent targets, are combined. Three open quantum systems are investigated by the combined method, a harmonic oscillator immersed in an ohmic bath, CO adsorbed on a platinum surface, and NO adsorbed on a nickel oxide surface. Throughout this paper, atomic units, i.e., ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})=m{sub e}=e=a{sub 0}= 1, have been used unless otherwise stated.
Ultracold Mixtures of Rubidium and Ytterbium for Open Quantum System Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herold, Creston David
Exquisite experimental control of quantum systems has led to sharp growth of basic quantum research in recent years. Controlling dissipation has been crucial in producing ultracold, trapped atomic samples. Recent theoretical work has suggested dissipation can be a useful tool for quantum state preparation. Controlling not only how a system interacts with a reservoir, but the ability to engineer the reservoir itself would be a powerful platform for open quantum system research. Toward this end, we have constructed an apparatus to study ultracold mixtures of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb). We have developed a Rb-blind optical lattice at 423.018(7) nm, which will enable us to immerse a lattice of Yb atoms (the system) into a Rb BEC (superfluid reservoir). We have produced Bose-Einstein condensates of 170Yb and 174Yb, two of the five bosonic isotopes of Yb, which also has two fermionic isotopes. Flexible optical trapping of Rb and Yb was achieved with a two-color dipole trap of 532 and 1064 nm, and we observed thermalization in ultracold mixtures of Rb and Yb. Using the Rb-blind optical lattice, we measured very small light shifts of 87Rb BECs near the light shift zero-wavelengths adjacent the 6p electronic states, through a coherent series of lattice pulses. The positions of the zero-wavelengths are sensitive to the electric dipole matrix elements between the 5s and 6p states, and we made the first experimental measurement of their strength. By measuring a light shift, we were not sensitive to excited state branching ratios, and we achieved a precision better than 0.3%.
Basharov, A. M.
2012-09-15
It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian representation, as it is formulated in author's papers, serves as a basis for distinguishing, in a broadband environment of an open quantum system, independent noise sources that determine, in terms of the stationary quantum Wiener and Poisson processes in the Markov approximation, the effective Hamiltonian and the equation for the evolution operator of the open system and its environment. General stochastic differential equations of generalized Langevin (non-Wiener) type for the evolution operator and the kinetic equation for the density matrix of an open system are obtained, which allow one to analyze the dynamics of a wide class of localized open systems in the Markov approximation. The main distinctive features of the dynamics of open quantum systems described in this way are the stabilization of excited states with respect to collective processes and an additional frequency shift of the spectrum of the open system. As an illustration of the general approach developed, the photon dynamics in a single-mode cavity without losses on the mirrors is considered, which contains identical intracavity atoms coupled to the external vacuum electromagnetic field. For some atomic densities, the photons of the cavity mode are 'locked' inside the cavity, thus exhibiting a new phenomenon of radiation trapping and non-Wiener dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin
2014-04-01
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
Chen, Xin
2014-04-21
Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.
Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Anna P. M.; Liu, Peter Q.; Yeung, June K.; Corrigan, Paul; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Wang, Zifa; Day, Timothy; Smith, James A.
2010-11-01
Exploiting several key characteristics of quantum cascade (QC) lasers, including wide tunability and room-temperature operation, the Quantum Cascade Laser Open-Path System (QCLOPS) was designed for the detection of a range of trace gases and for field deployment in urban environments. Tunability over a wavelength range from 9.3 to 9.8 ?m potentially provides the capability for monitoring ozone, ammonia, and carbon dioxide, a suite of trace gases important for air quality and regional climate applications in urban environments. The 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China drew attention to air quality problems in urban environments. Prior to and during the Olympic games, regional air quality modifications through factory shutdowns, car restrictions, and construction halts in Beijing and its surrounding areas created a unique test bed for new sensor technologies such as the QCLOPS sensor. We report the design of this novel, open-path air quality sensor and the results of both laboratory tests and field trials during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China.
Information propagation in a quantum system. Examples of open spin-1/2 chains
A. I. Zenchuk
2012-02-23
If the information is encoded into the state of the subsystem $S$ of a quantum system initially (at $t=0$), then it becomes distributed over the whole quantum system at $t>0$ due to the quantum interactions. Consequently, this information, in general, can be extracted, either completely or partially, from any subsystem of a quantum system. {We suggest a method of extraction of information, which is based on the polarization measurements on the receiver $R$}.
Tracking an open quantum system using a finite state machine: Stability analysis
Karasik, R. I.; Wiseman, H. M.
2011-11-15
A finite-dimensional Markovian open quantum system will undergo quantum jumps between pure states, if we can monitor the bath to which it is coupled with sufficient precision. In general these jumps, plus the between-jump evolution, create a trajectory which passes through infinitely many different pure states, even for ergodic systems. However, as shown recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020406 (2011)], it is possible to construct adaptive monitorings which restrict the system to jumping between a finite number of states. That is, it is possible to track the system using a finite state machine as the apparatus. In this paper we consider the question of the stability of these monitoring schemes. Restricting to cyclic jumps for a qubit, we give a strong analytical argument that these schemes are always stable and supporting analytical and numerical evidence for the example of resonance fluorescence. This example also enables us to explore a range of behaviors in the evolution of individual trajectories, for several different monitoring schemes.
Quantum speed-up of multiqubit open system via dynamical decoupling pulses
Ya-Ju Song; Qing-Shou Tan; Le-Man Kuang
2015-08-19
We present a method to accelerate the dynamical evolution of multiqubit open system by employing dynamical decoupling pulses (DDPs) when the qubits are initially in W-type states. It is found that this speed-up evolution can be achieved in both of the weak-coupling regime and the strong-coupling regime. The physical mechanism behind the acceleration evolution is explained as the result of the joint action of the non-Markovianity of reservoirs and the excited-state population of qubits. It is shown that both of the non-Markovianity and the excited-state population can be controlled by DDPs to realize the quantum speed-up.
Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model
Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.
2011-11-15
In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.
Larsen, Ask Hjorth; De Giovannini, Umberto; Rubio, Angel
2016-01-01
We present a review of different computational methods to describe time-dependent phenomena in open quantum systems and their extension to a density-functional framework. We focus the discussion on electron emission processes in atoms and molecules addressing excited-state lifetimes and dissipative processes. Initially we analyze the concept of an electronic resonance, a central concept in spectroscopy associated with a metastable state from which an electron eventually escapes (electronic lifetime). Resonances play a fundamental role in many time-dependent molecular phenomena but can be rationalized from a time-independent context in terms of scattering states. We introduce the method of complex scaling, which is used to capture resonant states as localized states in the spirit of usual bound-state methods, and work on its extension to static and time-dependent density-functional theory. In a time-dependent setting, complex scaling can be used to describe excitations in the continuum as well as wave packet dynamics leading to electron emission. This process can also be treated by using open boundary conditions which allow time-dependent simulations of emission processes without artificial reflections at the boundaries (i.e., borders of the simulation box). We compare in detail different schemes to implement open boundaries, namely transparent boundaries using Green functions, and absorbing boundaries in the form of complex absorbing potentials and mask functions. The last two are regularly used together with time-dependent density-functional theory to describe the electron emission dynamics of atoms and molecules. Finally, we discuss approaches to the calculation of energy and angle-resolved time-dependent pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular systems. PMID:25860253
Optimal control in an open quantum system : selecting DNP pathways in an electron-nuclear system
Sheldon, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)
2013-01-01
There is much interest in improving quantum control techniques for the purposes of quantum information processing. High fidelity control is necessary for the future of quantum computing. Optimal control theory has been ...
Tunneling Theory for Tunable Open Quantum Systems of Ultracold Atoms in One-Dimensional Traps
R. Lundmark; C. Forssén; J. Rotureau
2015-03-26
The creation of tunable open quantum systems is becoming feasible in current experiments with ultracold atoms in low-dimensional traps. In particular, the high degree of experimental control over these systems allows detailed studies of tunneling dynamics, e.g., as a function of the trapping geometry and the interparticle interaction strength. In order to address this exciting opportunity we present a theoretical framework for two-body tunneling based on the rigged Hilbert space formulation. In this approach, bound, resonant and scattering states are included on an equal footing, and we argue that the coupling of all these components is vital for a correct description of the relevant threshold phenomena. In particular, we study the tunneling mechanism for two-body systems in one-dimensional traps and different interaction regimes. We find a strong dominance of sequential tunneling of single particles for repulsive and weakly attractive systems, while there is a signature of correlated pair tunneling in the calculated many-particle flux for strongly attractive interparticle interaction.
Quantum speed limits in open systems: Non-Markovian dynamics without rotating-wave approximation
Sun, Zhe; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang
2015-01-01
We derive an easily computable quantum speed limit (QSL) time bound for open systems whose initial states can be chosen as either pure or mixed states. Moreover, this QSL time is applicable to either Markovian or non-Markovian dynamics. By using of a hierarchy equation method, we numerically study the QSL time bound in a qubit system interacting with a single broadened cavity mode without rotating-wave, Born and Markovian approximation. By comparing with rotating-wave approximation (RWA) results, we show that the counter-rotating terms are helpful to increase evolution speed. The problem of non-Markovianity is also considered. We find that for non-RWA cases, increasing system-bath coupling can not always enhance the non-Markovianity, which is qualitatively different from the results with RWA. When considering the relation between QSL and non-Markovianity, we find that for small broadening widths of the cavity mode, non-Markovianity can increase the evolution speed in either RWA or non-RWA cases, while, for larger broadening widths, it is not true for non-RWA cases. PMID:25676589
Quantum speed limits in open systems: Non-Markovian dynamics without rotating-wave approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhe; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang
2015-02-01
We derive an easily computable quantum speed limit (QSL) time bound for open systems whose initial states can be chosen as either pure or mixed states. Moreover, this QSL time is applicable to either Markovian or non-Markovian dynamics. By using of a hierarchy equation method, we numerically study the QSL time bound in a qubit system interacting with a single broadened cavity mode without rotating-wave, Born and Markovian approximation. By comparing with rotating-wave approximation (RWA) results, we show that the counter-rotating terms are helpful to increase evolution speed. The problem of non-Markovianity is also considered. We find that for non-RWA cases, increasing system-bath coupling can not always enhance the non-Markovianity, which is qualitatively different from the results with RWA. When considering the relation between QSL and non-Markovianity, we find that for small broadening widths of the cavity mode, non-Markovianity can increase the evolution speed in either RWA or non-RWA cases, while, for larger broadening widths, it is not true for non-RWA cases.
Time-reversal symmetric resolution of unity without background integrals in open quantum systems
Hatano, Naomichi; Ordonez, Gonzalo
2014-12-15
We present a new complete set of states for a class of open quantum systems, to be used in expansion of the Green’s function and the time-evolution operator. A remarkable feature of the complete set is that it observes time-reversal symmetry in the sense that it contains decaying states (resonant states) and growing states (anti-resonant states) parallelly. We can thereby pinpoint the occurrence of the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the choice of whether we solve Schrödinger equation as an initial-condition problem or a terminal-condition problem. Another feature of the complete set is that in the subspace of the central scattering area of the system, it consists of contributions of all states with point spectra but does not contain any background integrals. In computing the time evolution, we can clearly see contribution of which point spectrum produces which time dependence. In the whole infinite state space, the complete set does contain an integral but it is over unperturbed eigenstates of the environmental area of the system and hence can be calculated analytically. We demonstrate the usefulness of the complete set by computing explicitly the survival probability and the escaping probability as well as the dynamics of wave packets. The origin of each term of matrix elements is clear in our formulation, particularly, the exponential decays due to the resonance poles.
Time-reversal symmetric resolution of unity without background integrals in open quantum systems
Naomichi Hatano; Gonzalo Ordonez
2014-05-26
We present a new complete set of states for a class of open quantum systems, to be used in expansion of the Green's function and the time-evolution operator. A remarkable feature of the complete set is that it observes time-reversal symmetry in the sense that it contains decaying states (resonant states) and growing states (anti-resonant states) parallelly. We can thereby pinpoint the occurrence of the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the choice of whether we solve Schroedinger equation as an initial-condition problem or a terminal-condition problem. Another feature of the complete set is that in the subspace of the central scattering area of the system, it consists of contributions of all states with point spectra but does not contain any background integrals. In computing the time evolution, we can clearly see contribution of which point spectrum produces which time dependence. In the whole infinite state space, the complete set does contain an integral but it is over unperturbed eigenstates of the environmental area of the system and hence can be calculated analytically. We demonstrate the usefulness of the complete set by computing explicitly the survival probability and the escaping probability as well as the dynamics of wave packets. The origin of each term of matrix elements is clear in our formulation, particularly the exponential decays due to the resonance poles.
Transport and dynamics on open quantum graphs
Felipe Barra; Pierre Gaspard
2001-07-13
We study the classical limit of quantum mechanics on graphs by introducing a Wigner function for graphs. The classical dynamics is compared to the quantum dynamics obtained from the propagator. In particular we consider extended open graphs whose classical dynamics generate a diffusion process. The transport properties of the classical system are revealed in the scattering resonances and in the time evolution of the quantum system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dattani, Nikesh S.
2013-12-01
This MATLAB program calculates the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of an open quantum system modeled either by the Feynman-Vernon model or the Caldeira-Leggett model. The user gives the program a Hamiltonian matrix that describes the open quantum system as if it were in isolation, a matrix of the same size that describes how that system couples to its environment, and a spectral distribution function and temperature describing the environment’s influence on it, in addition to the open quantum system’s initial density matrix and a grid of times. With this, the program returns the reduced density matrix of the open quantum system at all moments specified by that grid of times (or just the last moment specified by the grid of times if the user makes this choice). This overall calculation can be divided into two stages: the setup of the Feynman integral, and the actual calculation of the Feynman integral for time propagation of the density matrix. When this program calculates this propagation on a multi-core CPU, it is this propagation that is usually the rate-limiting step of the calculation, but when it is calculated on a GPU, the propagation is calculated so quickly that the setup of the Feynman integral can actually become the rate-limiting step. The overhead of transferring information from the CPU to the GPU and back seems to have a negligible effect on the overall runtime of the program. When the required information cannot fit on the GPU, the user can choose to run the entire program on a CPU. Catalogue identifier: AEPX_v1_0. Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPX_v1_0.html. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 703. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11026. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: MATLAB R2012a. Computer: See “Operating system”. Operating system: Any operating system that can run MATLAB R2007a or above. Classification: 4.4. Nature of problem: Calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator of an open quantum system. Solution method: Numerical Feynman integral. Running time: Depends on the input parameters. See the main text for examples.
Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems
Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen
2015-04-26
This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to laser fields and subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze open quantum systems where the system dynamics involve both classical and quantum random variables, a quantum-classical probability space model is developed. Using a reference probability approach, a fault tolerant quantum filter and a fault detection equation are simultaneously derived for this class of open quantum systems. An example of two-level open quantum systems subject to Poisson-type faults is presented to illustrate the proposed method. These results have the potential to lead to a new fault tolerant control theory for quantum systems.
Fault Tolerant Quantum Filtering and Fault Detection for Quantum Systems
Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen
2015-12-21
This paper aims to determine the fault tolerant quantum filter and fault detection equation for a class of open quantum systems coupled to a laser field that is subject to stochastic faults. In order to analyze this class of open quantum systems, we propose a quantum-classical Bayesian inference method based on the definition of a so-called quantum-classical conditional expectation. It is shown that the proposed Bayesian inference approach provides a convenient tool to simultaneously derive the fault tolerant quantum filter and the fault detection equation for this class of open quantum systems. An example of two-level open quantum systems subject to Poisson-type faults is presented to illustrate the proposed method. These results have the potential to lead to a new fault tolerant control theory for quantum systems.
Resonant purification of mixed states for closed and open quantum systems
Romano, Raffaele
2007-02-15
Pure states are fundamental for the implementation of quantum technologies, and several methods for the purification of the state of a quantum system S have been developed in the past years. In this work we describe a mechanism leading to purification of mixed states, based on the interaction of S with an auxiliary system P. Considering two-level systems and assuming a particular interaction between them, we study how the dynamical parameters of the system P affect the purification of S. By using analytical and numerical tools, we show that the purification process exhibits a resonant behavior in both the cases of system isolated from the external environment or not.
QuTiP 2: A Python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, J. R.; Nation, P. D.; Nori, Franco
2013-04-01
We present version 2 of QuTiP, the Quantum Toolbox in Python. Compared to the preceding version [J.R. Johansson, P.D. Nation, F. Nori, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1760.], we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Here we introduce these new features, demonstrate their use, and give a summary of the important backward-incompatible API changes introduced in this version. Catalog identifier: AEMB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33625 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 410064 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: i386, x86-64. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX. RAM: 2+ Gigabytes Classification: 7. External routines: NumPy, SciPy, Matplotlib, Cython Catalog identifier of previous version: AEMB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1760 Does the new version supercede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Dynamics of open quantum systems Solution method: Numerical solutions to Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, and Bloch-Redfield master equations, as well as the Monte Carlo wave function method. Reasons for new version: Compared to the preceding version we have introduced numerous new features, enhanced performance, and made changes in the Application Programming Interface (API) for improved functionality and consistency within the package, as well as increased compatibility with existing conventions used in other scientific software packages for Python. The most significant new features include efficient solvers for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonians and collapse operators, support for the Floquet formalism, and new solvers for Bloch-Redfield and Floquet-Markov master equations. Restrictions: Problems must meet the criteria for using the master equation in Lindblad, Floquet-Markov, or Bloch-Redfield form. Running time: A few seconds up to several tens of hours, depending on size of the underlying Hilbert space.
Connecting two jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems
Luoma, Kimmo; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Piilo, Jyrki
2011-09-15
The development and use of Monte Carlo algorithms plays a visible role in the study of non-Markovian quantum dynamics due to the provided insight and powerful numerical methods for solving the system dynamics. In the Markovian case, the connections between the various types of methods are fairly well understood while, for the non-Markovian case, there has so far been only a few studies. We focus here on two jumplike unravelings of non-Markovian dynamics: the non-Markovian quantum jump (NMQJ) method and the property state method by Gambetta, Askerud, and Wiseman (GAW). The results for simple quantum optical systems illustrate the connections between the realizations of the two methods and also highlight how the probability currents between the system and environment, or between the property states of the total system, are associated with the decay rates of time-local master equations and, consequently, with the jump rates of the NMQJ method.
Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.; Sudha
2011-02-15
Dynamical A and B maps have been employed extensively by Sudarshan and co-workers to investigate open-system evolution of quantum systems. A canonical structure of the A map is introduced here. It is shown that this canonical A map enables us to investigate whether the dynamics is completely positive (CP) or not completely positive (NCP) in an elegant way and, hence, it subsumes the basic results on open-system dynamics. Identifying memory effects in open-system evolution is gaining increasing importance recently and, here, a criterion of non-Markovianity, based on the relative entropy of the dynamical state is proposed. The relative entropy difference of the dynamical system serves as a complementary characterization--though not related directly--to the fidelity difference criterion proposed recently. Three typical examples of open-system evolution of a qubit, prepared initially in a correlated state with another qubit (environment), and evolving jointly under a specific unitary dynamics--which corresponds to a NCP dynamical map--are investigated by employing both the relative entropy difference and fidelity difference tests of non-Markovianity. The two-qubit initial states are chosen to be (i) a pure entangled state, (ii) the Werner state, which exemplifies both entangled and separable states of qubits, depending on a real parameter, and (iii) a separable mixed state. Both the relative entropy and fidelity criteria offer a nice display of how non-Markovianity manifests itself in all three examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isar, Aurelian
1995-01-01
The harmonic oscillator with dissipation is studied within the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. By using the Wang-Uhlenbeck method, the Fokker-Planck equation, obtained from the master equation for the density operator, is solved for the Wigner distribution function, subject to either the Gaussian type or the delta-function type of initial conditions. The obtained Wigner functions are two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths. Then a closed expression for the density operator is extracted. The entropy of the system is subsequently calculated and its temporal behavior shows that this quantity relaxes to its equilibrium value.
Non-Markovian dynamics of an open quantum system with nonstationary coupling
Kalandarov, S. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Kanokov, Z.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.
2011-04-15
The spectral, dissipative, and statistical properties of the damped quantum oscillator are studied in the case of non-Markovian and nonstationary system-heat bath coupling. The dissipation of collective energy is shown to be slowed down, and the decoherence rate and entropy grow with modulation frequency.
Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestri, Luciano; Jacobs, Kurt; Dunjko, Vanja; Olshanii, Maxim
2014-04-01
There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the electromagnetic field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization."
I. Rotter
2001-05-15
A relation between the eigenvalues of an effective Hamilton operator and the poles of the $S$ matrix is derived which holds for isolated as well as for overlapping resonance states. The system may be a many-particle quantum system with two-body forces between the constituents or it may be a quantum billiard without any two-body forces. Avoided crossings of discrete states as well as of resonance states are traced back to the existence of branch points in the complex plane. Under certain conditions, these branch points appear as double poles of the $S$ matrix. They influence the dynamics of open as well as of closed quantum systems. The dynamics of the two-level system is studied in detail analytically as well as numerically.
Lattice mapping for many-body open quantum systems and its application to atoms in photonic cystals
Ines de Vega
2014-10-17
We present a derivation that maps the original problem of a many body open quantum system (OQS) coupled to a harmonic oscillator reservoir into that of a many body OQS coupled to a lattice of harmonic oscillators. The present method is particularly suitable to analyse the dynamics of atoms arranged in a periodic structure and coupled the EM field within a photonic crystal. It allows to solve the dynamics of a many body OQS with methods alternative to the commonly used master, stochastic Schr\\"{o}dinger and Heisenberg equations, and thus to reach regimes well beyond the weak coupling and Born-Markov approximations.
Demonstration of Jarzynski's Equality in Open Quantum Systems Using a Step-Wise Pulling Protocol
Van A. Ngo; Stephan Haas
2012-07-10
We present a generalization of Jarzynski's Equality, applicable to quantum systems, relating discretized mechanical work and free-energy changes. The theory is based on a step-wise pulling protocol. We find that work distribution functions can be constructed from fluctuations of a reaction coordinate along a reaction pathway in the step-wise pulling protocol. We also propose two sets of equations to determine the two possible optimal pathways that provide the most significant contributions to free-energy changes. We find that the transitions along these most optimal pathways, satisfying both sets of equations, follow the principle of detailed balance. We then test the theory by explicitly computing the free-energy changes for a one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator. This approach suggests a feasible way of measuring the fluctuations to experimentally test Jarzynski's Equality in many-body systems, such as Bose-Einstein condensates.
Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.
2015-10-01
Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.
Quantum circuits for strongly correlated quantum systems
Frank Verstraete; J. Ignacio Cirac; Jose I. Latorre
2008-04-11
In recent years, we have witnessed an explosion of experimental tools by which quantum systems can be manipulated in a controlled and coherent way. One of the most important goals now is to build quantum simulators, which would open up the possibility of exciting experiments probing various theories in regimes that are not achievable under normal lab circumstances. Here we present a novel approach to gain detailed control on the quantum simulation of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems by constructing the explicit quantum circuits that diagonalize their dynamics. We show that the exact quantum circuits underlying some of the most relevant many-body Hamiltonians only need a finite amount of local gates. As a particularly simple instance, the full dynamics of a one-dimensional Quantum Ising model in a transverse field with four spins is shown to be reproduced using a quantum circuit of only six local gates. This opens up the possibility of experimentally producing strongly correlated states, their time evolution at zero time and even thermal superpositions at zero temperature. Our method also allows to uncover the exact circuits corresponding to models that exhibit topological order and to stabilizer states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitin, N. V.; Sotnikov, V. P.; Toms, K. S.
2015-10-01
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner's form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov's axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner's form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr' complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion-antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett-Garg approach, for example.
Twenty open problems in quantum control
Kurt Jacobs
2014-01-27
The subject of controlling quantum systems is not new, but concepts that have been introduced in the last decade and a half, especially that of coherent feedback, suggest new questions that broaden and deepen the field. Here we provide a concise overview and definition of quantum feedback control, both coherent and measurement-based, and discuss its relationship to "standard" time-dependent control; there is a sense in which the latter subsumes the rest. There are many open questions within quantum control and its subfields, and we highlight and discuss some of them here. These questions are of theoretical as well as practical interest: the answers will help to determine the relative power of the different methods of control, and the limits to our ability to control quantum systems imposed by available resources.
Nonequilibrium Phase Transition in a Two-Dimensional Driven Open Quantum System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dagvadorj, G.; Fellows, J. M.; Matyja?kiewicz, S.; Marchetti, F. M.; Carusotto, I.; Szyma?ska, M. H.
2015-10-01
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behavior of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from spin systems to superconducting thin films and two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly nonequilibrium system driven into a steady state. By considering a quantum fluid of polaritons of an experimentally relevant size, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a phase transition associated with a vortex binding-unbinding mechanism. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first-order correlation function in the (algebraically) ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit: this shows that the ordered phase of driven-dissipative systems can sustain a higher level of collective excitations before the order is destroyed by topological defects. Our work suggests that the macroscopic coherence phenomena, observed recently in interacting two-dimensional light-matter systems, result from a nonequilibrium phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless rather than the Bose-Einstein condensation type.
From open quantum walks to unitary quantum walks
Chaobin Liu
2015-02-05
We present an idea to convert to a unitary quantum walk any open quantum walk which is defined on lattices as well as on finite graphs. This approach generalizes to the domain of open quantum walks (or quantum Markov chains) the framework introduced by Szegedy for quantizing Markov chains. For the unitary quantum walks formulated in this article, we define the probability and the mean probability of finding the walk at a node, then derive the asymptotic mean probability.
A resonance theory for open quantum systems with time-dependent dynamics
Marco Merkli; Shannon Starr
2008-10-20
We develop a resonance theory to describe the evolution of open systems with time-dependent dynamics. Our approach is based on piecewise constant Hamiltonians: we represent the evolution on each constant bit using a recently developed dynamical resonance theory, and we piece them together to obtain the total evolution. The initial state corresponding to one time-interval with constant Hamiltonian is the final state of the system corresponding to the interval before. This results in a non-markovian dynamics. We find a representation of the dynamics in terms of resonance energies and resonance states associated to the Hamiltonians, valid for all times $t\\geq 0$ and for small (but fixed) interaction strengths. The representation has the form of a path integral over resonances. We present applications to a spin-fermion system, where the energy levels of the spin may undergo rather arbitrary crossings in the course of time. In particular, we find the probability for transition between ground- and excited state at all times.
Laguna, Humberto G; Sagar, Robin P; Tempel, David G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2016-01-01
The effects of bath coupling on an interacting two-particle quantum system are studied using tools from information theory. Shannon entropies of the one (reduced) and two-particle distribution functions in position, momentum and separable phase-space are examined. Results show that the presence of the bath leads to a delocalization of the distribution functions in position space, and a localization in momentum space. This can be interpreted as a loss of information in position space and a gain of information in momentum space. The entropy sum of the system, in the presence of a bath, is shown to be dependent on the strength of the interparticle potential and also on the strength of the coupling to the bath. The statistical correlation between the particles, and its dependence on the bath and interparticle potential, is examined using mutual information. A stronger repulsive potential between particles, in the presence of the bath, yields a smaller correlation between the particles positions, and a larger one between their momenta. PMID:26616490
Tan, Hua-Tang; Zhang, Wei-Min
2011-03-15
In this paper, the exact non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems in the presence of initial system-reservoir correlations is investigated for a photonic cavity system coupled to a general non-Markovian reservoir. The exact time-convolutionless master equation incorporating with initial system-reservoir correlations is obtained. The non-Markovian dynamics of the reservoir and the effects of the initial correlations are embedded into the time-dependent coefficients in the master equation. We show that the effects induced by the initial correlations play an important role in the non-Markovian dynamics of the cavity but they are washed out in the steady-state limit in the Markovian regime. Moreover, the initial two-photon correlation between the cavity and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the cavity field.
Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit.
Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian
2012-06-13
We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit. PMID:22568973
Measurement theory for closed quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wouters, Michiel
2015-07-01
We introduce the concept of a “classical observable” as an operator with vanishingly small quantum fluctuations on a set of density matrices. Their study provides a natural starting point to analyse the quantum measurement problem. In particular, it allows to identify Schrödinger cats and the associated projection operators intrinsically, without the need to invoke an environment. We discuss how our new approach relates to the open system analysis of quantum measurements and to thermalization studies in closed quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Gelfand, I.; Zenone, T.; Cui, M.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.
2012-12-01
The ambient concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth most abundant greenhouse gas, is rapidly increasing with emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources [1]. Soil and aquatic areas are important sources and sinks for N2O due to complicated biogenic processes. However, N2O emissions are poorly constrained in space and time, despite its importance to global climate change and ozone depletion. We report our recent N2O emission measurements with an open-path quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based sensor for ecological systems. The newly emergent QCLs have been used to build compact, sensitive trace gas sensors in the mid-IR spectral region. A compact open-path QCL based sensor was developed to detect atmospheric N2O and CO at ~ 4.5 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to achieve a sensitivity of 0.26 ppbv of N2O and 0.24 ppbv of CO in 1 s with a power consumption of ~50 W [2]. This portable sensor system has been used to perform N2O emission flux measurement both with a static flux chamber and on an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower. In the flux chamber measurements, custom chambers were used to host the laser sensor, while gas samples for gas chromatograph (GC) were collected at the same time in the same chamber for validation and comparison. Different soil treatments have been applied in different chambers to study the relationship between N2O emission and the amount of fertilizer (and water) addition. Measurements from two methods agreed with each other (95% or higher confidence interval) for emission flux results, while laser sensor gave measurements with a much high temporal resolution. We have also performed the first open-path eddy covariance N2O flux measurement at Kellogg research station, Michigan State University for a month in June, 2012. Our sensor was placed on a 4-meter tower in a corn field and powered by batteries (connected with solar panels). We have observed the diurnal cycle of N2O flux. During this deployment, an inter-comparison between our sensor and a commercial gas sensor was done to check the sensor's performance. Overall, our sensor showed a good performance with both static chamber measurement and EC flux measurement of N2O. Its open-path, compact and portable design with low power consumption provides lots of advantages for N2O emission flux measurement in the ecological systems. [1] S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, "Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change," Nature 476, 43-50 (2011). [2] L. Tao, K, Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan and M.A. Zondlo, "Optimizations for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser," CLEO, 2012
A model of epigenetic evolution based on theory of open quantum systems.
Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2013-12-01
We present a very general model of epigenetic evolution unifying (neo-)Darwinian and (neo-)Lamarckian viewpoints. The evolution is represented in the form of adaptive dynamics given by the quantum(-like) master equation. This equation describes development of the information state of epigenome under the pressure of an environment. We use the formalism of quantum mechanics in the purely operational framework. (Hence, our model has no direct relation to quantum physical processes inside a cell.) Thus our model is about probabilities for observations which can be done on epigenomes and it does not provide a detailed description of cellular processes. Usage of the operational approach provides a possibility to describe by one model all known types of cellular epigenetic inheritance. PMID:24432153
Generalized Kac's Lemma for Recurrence Time in Iterated Open Quantum Systems
P. Sinkovicz; T. Kiss; J. K. Asbóth
2015-10-30
We consider recurrence to the initial state after repeated actions of a quantum channel. After each iteration a projective measurement is applied to check recurrence. The corresponding return time is known to be an integer for the special case of unital channels, including unitary channels. We prove that for a more general class of quantum channels the expected return time can be given as the inverse of the weight of the initial state in the steady state. This statement is a generalization of the Kac lemma for classical Markov chains.
OPEN ACCESS Classical and Quantum Gravity
Galloway, Greg
OPEN ACCESS Classical and Quantum Gravity Class. Quantum Grav. 31 (2014) 045013 (11pp) doi:10 a `no KIDs' condition can be perturbed near S so that S becomes strictly outer trapped in the new vacuum S S that is separating: S \\ S = U W where U,W S are disjoint and open and where U, say, has noncompact closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei
2014-04-01
The Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation allows us to model the process of decision making in US elections. The crucial point we attempt to make is that the voter's mental state can be represented as a superposition of two possible choices for either republicans or democrats. However, reality dictates a more complicated situation: typically a voter participates in two elections, i.e. the congress and the presidential elections. In both elections the voter has to decide between two choices. This very feature of the US election system requires that the mental state is represented by a 2-qubit state corresponding to the superposition of 4 different choices. The main issue is to describe the dynamics of the voters' mental states taking into account the mental and political environment. What is novel in this paper is that we apply the theory of open quantum systems to social science. The quantum master equation describes the resolution of uncertainty (represented in the form of superposition) to a definite choice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, Reginald T.
2002-10-01
So far proposed quantum computers use fragile and environmentally sensitive natural quantum systems. Here we explore the new notion that synthetic quantum systems suitable for quantum computation may be fabricated from smart nanostructures using topological excitations of a stochastic neural-type network that can mimic natural quantum systems. These developments are a technological application of process physics which is an information theory of reality in which space and quantum phenomena are emergent, and so indicates the deep origins of quantum phenomena. Analogous complex stochastic dynamical systems have recently been proposed within neurobiology to deal with the emergent complexity of biosystems, particularly the biodynamics of higher brain function. The reasons for analogous discoveries in fundamental physics and neurobiology are discussed.
Mappings of open quantum systems onto chain representations and Markovian embeddings
Woods, M. P.; Groux, R.; Chin, A. W.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.
2014-03-15
We study systems coupled linearly to a bath of oscillators. In an iterative process, the bath is transformed into a chain of oscillators with nearest neighbour interactions. A systematic procedure is provided to obtain the spectral density of the residual bath in each step, and it is shown that under general conditions these data converge. That is, the asymptotic part of the chain is universal, translation invariant with semicircular spectral density. The methods are based on orthogonal polynomials, in which we also solve the outstanding so-called “sequence of secondary measures problem” and give them a physical interpretation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrega, M.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.; Weiss, U.
2015-04-01
We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system (TSS). We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the TSS and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.
Open quantum system approach to the modeling of spin recombination reactions.
Tiersch, M; Steiner, U E; Popescu, S; Briegel, H J
2012-04-26
In theories of spin-dependent radical pair reactions, the time evolution of the radical pair, including the effect of the chemical kinetics, is described by a master equation in the Liouville formalism. For the description of the chemical kinetics, a number of possible reaction operators have been formulated in the literature. In this work, we present a framework that allows for a unified description of the various proposed mechanisms and the forms of reaction operators for the spin-selective recombination processes. On the basis of the concept that master equations can be derived from a microscopic description of the spin system interacting with external degrees of freedom, it is possible to gain insight into the underlying microscopic processes and develop a systematic approach toward determining the specific form of the reaction operator in concrete scenarios. PMID:22401141
Generalized Open Quantum Walks on Apollonian Networks
Pawela, ?ukasz; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jaros?aw Adam; Sadowski, Przemys?aw
2015-01-01
We introduce the model of generalized open quantum walks on networks using the Transition Operation Matrices formalism. We focus our analysis on the mean first passage time and the average return time in Apollonian networks. These results differ significantly from a classical walk on these networks. We show a comparison of the classical and quantum behaviour of walks on these networks. PMID:26177452
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
G. Nenciu
2006-10-26
A general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open noninteracting mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-Buettiker formula is pointed out. Time reversal symmetry is not assumed. As a consequence it follows that, as far as the system has a nontrivial scattering theory and the reservoirs have different temperatures and/or chemical potentials, the entropy production is strictly positive.
Quantum Open-Closed Homotopy Algebra and String Field Theory
Korbinian Muenster; Ivo Sachs
2011-10-19
We reformulate the algebraic structure of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory in terms of homotopy algebras. We call it the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra (QOCHA) which is the generalization of the open-closed homotopy algebra (OCHA) of Kajiura and Stasheff. The homotopy formulation reveals new insights about deformations of open string field theory by closed string backgrounds. In particular, deformations by Maurer Cartan elements of the quantum closed homotopy algebra define consistent quantum open string field theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, YiJing
2014-02-01
This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.
Yan, YiJing
2014-02-07
This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.
M. Carrega; P. Solinas; A. Braggio; M. Sassetti; U. Weiss
2014-12-22
We establish the path integral approach for the time-dependent heat exchange of an externally driven quantum system coupled to a thermal reservoir. We derive the relevant influence functional and present an exact formal expression for the moment generating functional which carries all statistical properties of the heat exchange process for general linear dissipation. The general method is applied to the time-dependent average heat transfer in the dissipative two-state system. We show that the heat can be written as a convolution integral which involves the population and coherence correlation functions of the two-state system and additional correlations due to a polarization of the reservoir. The corresponding expression can be solved in the weak-damping limit both for white noise and for quantum mechanical coloured noise. The implications of pure quantum effects are discussed. Altogether a complete description of the dynamics of the average heat transfer ranging from the classical regime down to zero temperature is achieved.
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
Shanon L. Vuglar; Hadis Amini
2015-01-27
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H infinity optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs.
Md. Manirul Ali; Ping-Yuan Lo; Matisse Wei-Yuan Tu; Wei-Min Zhang
2015-05-21
We investigate non-Markovianity measure using two-time correlation functions for open quantum systems. We define non-Markovianity measure as the difference between the exact two-time correlation function and the one obtained in the Markov limit. Such non-Markovianity measure can easily be measured in experiments. We found that the non-Markovianity dynamics in different time scale crucially depends on the system-environment coupling strength and other physical parameters such as the initial temperature of the environment and the initial state of the system. In particular, we obtain the short-time and long-time behaviors of non-Markovianity for different spectral densities. We also find that the thermal fluctuation always reduce the non-Markovian memory effect. Also, the non-Markovianity measure shows non-trivial initial state dependence in different time scales.
B. Ahmadi; S. Salimi; A. S. Khorashad
2013-11-13
In this paper, we investigate tunneling of conduction band electrons in a system of an asymmetric double quantum dot which interacts with an environment. First, we consider the case in which the system only interacts with the environment and demonstrate that as time goes to infinity they both reach an equilibrium, which is expected, and there is always a maximum and minimum for the populations of the states of the system. Then we investigate the case in which an external resonant optical pulse (a laser) is applied to the system interacting with the environment. However, in this case for different intensities we have different populations of the states in equilibrium and as the intensity of the laser gets stronger, the populations of the states in equilibrium approach the same constant.
Timing attacks on practical quantum cryptographic systems
Nitin Jain
2012-06-29
With photons being the only available candidates for long-distance quantum communication, most quantum cryptographic devices are physically realized as optical systems that operate a security protocol based on the laws of quantum mechanics. But to finally yield a stream of bits (secret key) usable for encryption, a quantum-to-classical transition is required. Synchronization of electronic & optoelectronic components involved in such tasks thus becomes a necessary and important step. However, it also opens up the possibility of timing-based loopholes and attacks.
John W. Clark; Dennis G. Lucarelli; Tzyh-Jong Tarn
2002-05-01
A quantum system subject to external fields is said to be controllable if these fields can be adjusted to guide the state vector to a desired destination in the state space of the system. Fundamental results on controllability are reviewed against the background of recent ideas and advances in two seemingly disparate endeavors: (i) laser control of chemical reactions and (ii) quantum computation. Using Lie-algebraic methods, sufficient conditions have been derived for global controllability on a finite-dimensional manifold of an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, in the case that the Hamiltonian and control operators, possibly unbounded, possess a common dense domain of analytic vectors. Some simple examples are presented. A synergism between quantum control and quantum computation is creating a host of exciting new opportunities for both activities. The impact of these developments on computational many-body theory could be profound.
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.
2015-02-07
For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system’s density matrix. While Lindblad’s modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and BeH{sub 2} subject to environmental noise.
Rapid Swept-Wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Open Path Sensing
Brumfield, Brian E.; Phillips, Mark C.
2015-07-01
A rapidly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system is used for open path sensing. The system permits acquisition of transient absorption spectra over a 125 cm-1 tuning range in less than 0.01 s.
Some Open Problems in Quantum Information Theory
Mary Beth Ruskai
2007-08-14
Some open questions in quantum information theory (QIT) are described. Most of them were presented in Banff during the BIRS workshop on Operator Structures in QIT 11-16 February 2007. New material has been added in view of the recent counter-examples to p-norm multiplicativity.
Micheli, Fiorenza de; Zanelli, Jorge
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
Open systems storage platforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Kirby
1992-01-01
The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2009-11-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Curtright, Thomas; Mezincescu, Luca
2007-09-15
Models of PT symmetric quantum mechanics provide examples of biorthogonal quantum systems. The latter incorporate all the structure of PT symmetric models, and allow for generalizations, especially in situations where the PT construction of the dual space fails. The formalism is illustrated by a few exact results for models of the form H=(p+{nu}){sup 2}+{sigma}{sub k>0}{mu}{sub k} exp(ikx). In some nontrivial cases, equivalent Hermitian theories are obtained and shown to be very simple: They are just free (chiral) particles. Field theory extensions are briefly considered.
Magnetic ordering in quantum dots: Open versus closed shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pientka, J. M.; Oszwa?dowski, R.; Petukhov, A. G.; Han, J. E.; Žuti?, Igor
2015-10-01
In magnetically doped quantum dots, changing the carrier occupancy from open to closed shells leads to qualitatively different forms of carrier-mediated magnetic ordering. While it is common to study such nanoscale magnets within a mean-field approximation, excluding the spin fluctuations can mask important phenomena and lead to spurious thermodynamic phase transitions in small magnetic systems. By employing coarse-grained, variational, and Monte Carlo methods on singly and doubly occupied quantum dots to include spin fluctuations, we evaluate the relevance of the mean-field description and distinguish different finite-size scaling in nanoscale magnets.
Fractal Weyl Laws for Chaotic Open Systems S. Sridhar,1
Sridhar, Srinivas
Fractal Weyl Laws for Chaotic Open Systems W.T. Lu,1 S. Sridhar,1 and Maciej Zworski2 1 Department a conjecture relating the density of quantum resonances for an open chaotic system to the fractal dimension. A notable example is the conjecture by Berry [2] for the density of states of closed systems with fractal
Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.
1995-04-01
In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.
Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A.
2014-03-28
We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502–R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C{sub 2}, CN, Cr {sub 2}, and NO {sub 2}.
Witness for initial system-environment correlations in open system dynamics
Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Heinz-Peter Breuer
2010-04-13
We study the evolution of a general open quantum system when the system and its environment are initially correlated. We show that the trace distance between two states of the open system can increase above its initial value, and derive tight upper bounds for the growth of the distinguishability of open system states. This represents a generalization of the contraction property of quantum dynamical maps. The obtained inequalities can be interpreted in terms of the exchange of information between the system and the environment, and lead to a witness for system-environment correlations which can be determined through measurements on the open system alone.
Quantum simulations of one dimensional quantum systems
Rolando D. Somma
2015-03-21
We present several quantum algorithms for the simulation of quantum systems in one spatial dimension. First, we provide a method to simulate the evolution of the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) and compute scattering amplitudes using a discrete QHO. To achieve precision \\epsilon, it suffices to choose the dimension of the Hilbert space of the discrete system, N, proportional to N' and logarithmic in |t|/\\epsilon, where N' is the largest eigenvalue in the spectral decomposition of the initial state, and t is the evolution time. We then present a Trotter-Suzuki product formula to approximate the evolution. The number of terms in the product is subexponential, and the complexity of simulating the evolution on a quantum computer is O(|t| \\exp( \\gamma \\sqrt{\\log(N' |t|/\\epsilon)})), where \\gamma >0 is constant. Our results suggest a superpolynomial speedup. Next, we describe a quantum algorithm to prepare the ground state of the discrete QHO with complexity polynomial in \\log(1/\\epsilon) and \\log (N). Such a quantum algorithm may be of independent interest, as it gives a way to prepare states of Gaussian-like amplitudes. Other eigenstates can be prepared by evolving with a Hamiltonian that is a discrete version of the Jaynes-Cummings model, with complexity polynomial in \\log (N) and 1/\\epsilon. We then study a quantum system with a quartic potential and numerically show that the evolution operator can be approximated using the Trotter-Suzuki formula, where the number of terms scales as N^{q}, for q simulating a large class of one-dimensional quantum systems, and describe a quantum algorithm of complexity almost linear in N|t| and logarithmic in 1/\\epsilon. We discuss further applications of our results, in particular with regards to the fractional Fourier transform.
Quantum coherence in multipartite systems
Yao Yao; Xing Xiao; Li Ge; C. P. Sun
2015-06-05
Within the unified framework of exploiting the relative entropy as a distance measure of quantum correlations, we make explicit the hierarchical structure of quantum coherence, quantum discord and quantum entanglement in multipartite systems. On this basis, we introduce a new measure of quantum coherence, the basis-free quantum coherence and prove that this quantity is exactly equivalent to quantum discord. Furthermore, since the original relative entropy of coherence is a basis-dependent quantity, we investigate the local and nonlocal unitary creation of quantum coherence, focusing on the two-qubit unitary gates. Intriguingly, our results demonstrate that nonlocal unitary gates do not necessarily outperform the local unitary gates. Finally, the additivity relationship of quantum coherence in tripartite systems is discussed in detail, where the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy plays an essential role.
Decoherence properties of finite quantum systems Goran Lindblad \\Lambda
Lindblad, GÃ¶ran
instead with a single closed quantum system with a reversible, Hamiltonian evolution. The motivation comes is that of an open quantum system, which means that the Hamiltonian evolution is modified by dissipative terms whichÂ¨odinger's cats and all). Some authors expect this kind of formalism to explain why there is an objectively
General System theory, Like-Quantum Semantics and Fuzzy Sets
Ignazio Licata
2007-03-31
It is outlined the possibility to extend the quantum formalism in relation to the requirements of the general systems theory. It can be done by using a quantum semantics arising from the deep logical structure of quantum theory. It is so possible taking into account the logical openness relationship between observer and system. We are going to show how considering the truth-values of quantum propositions within the context of the fuzzy sets is here more useful for systemics . In conclusion we propose an example of formal quantum coherence.
Hybrid Quantum Systems of Atoms and Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael
2015-09-01
In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
I. Sinayskiy; F. Petruccione
2014-01-26
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probability of detection of the outcome of the computation.
Equilibration of quantum chaotic systems.
Zhuang, Quntao; Wu, Biao
2013-12-01
The quantum ergordic theorem for a large class of quantum systems was proved by von Neumann [Z. Phys. 57, 30 (1929)] and again by Reimann [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190403 (2008)] in a more practical and well-defined form. However, it is not clear whether the theorem applies to quantum chaotic systems. With a rigorous proof still elusive, we illustrate and verify this theorem for quantum chaotic systems with examples. Our numerical results show that a quantum chaotic system with an initial low-entropy state will dynamically relax to a high-entropy state and reach equilibrium. The quantum equilibrium state reached after dynamical relaxation bears a remarkable resemblance to the classical microcanonical ensemble. However, the fluctuations around equilibrium are distinct: The quantum fluctuations are exponential while the classical fluctuations are Gaussian. PMID:24483425
Quantum coherence in multipartite systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yao; Xiao, Xing; Ge, Li; Sun, C. P.
2015-08-01
Within the unified framework of exploiting the relative entropy as a distance measure of quantum correlations, we make explicit the hierarchical structure of quantum coherence, quantum discord, and quantum entanglement in multipartite systems. On this basis, we define a basis-independent measure of quantum coherence and prove that it is exactly equivalent to quantum discord. Furthermore, since the original relative entropy of coherence is a basis-dependent quantity, we investigate the local and nonlocal unitary creation of quantum coherence, focusing on the two-qubit unitary gates. Intriguingly, our results demonstrate that nonlocal unitary gates do not necessarily outperform the local unitary gates. Finally, the additivity relationship of quantum coherence in tripartite systems is discussed in detail, where the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy plays an essential role.
Naval open systems architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia
2013-05-01
For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.
DPS Quantum Key Distribution System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Kyo
Differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) is one scheme of quantum key distribution whose security is based on the quantum nature of lightwave. This protocol features simplicity, a high key creation rate, and robustness against photon-number-splitting attacks. We describe DPS-QKD in this paper, including its setup and operation, eavesdropping against DPS-QKD, system performance, and modified systems to improve the system performance.
Open-loop quantum control as a resource for secure communications
Davide Pastorello
2015-12-17
Properties of unitary time evolution of quantum systems can be applied to define quantum cryptographic protocols. Dynamics of a qubit can be exploited as a data encryption/decryption procedure by means of timed measurements, implementation of an open-loop control scheme over a qubit increases robustness of a protocol employing this principle.
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Jordan M.; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-01
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.
Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems.
Horowitz, Jordan M; Jacobs, Kurt
2015-09-25
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples, we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state and the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing. PMID:26451540
Photodissociation in Quantum Chaotic Systems: Random Matrix Theory of Cross-Section Fluctuations
Yan V. Fyodorov; Yoram Alhassid
1998-02-10
Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos.
Classical transients and the support of open quantum maps
Gabriel G. Carlo; D. A. Wisniacki; Leonardo Ermann; R. M. Benito; F. Borondo
2012-07-24
The basic ingredients in a semiclassical theory are the classical invariant objects serving as a support for the quantization. Recent studies, mainly obtained on quantum maps, have led to the commonly accepted belief that it is the classical repeller -- the set of non escaping orbits in the future and past evolution -- the object that suitably plays this role in open scattering systems. In this paper we present numerical evidence warning that this may not always be the case. For this purpose we study recently introduced families of tribaker maps [L. Ermann, G.G. Carlo, J.M. Pedrosa, and M. Saraceno, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 85}, 066204 (2012)], which share the same asymptotic properties but differ in their short time behavior. We have found that although the eigenvalue distribution of the evolution operator of these maps follows the fractal Weyl law prediction, the theory of short periodic orbits for open maps fails to describe the resonance eigenfunctions of some of them. This is a strong indication that new elements must be included in the semiclassical description of open quantum systems.
Classical transients and the support of open quantum maps.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Wisniacki, D A; Ermann, Leonardo; Benito, R M; Borondo, F
2013-01-01
The basic ingredients in a semiclassical theory are the classical invariant objects serving as a support for quantization. Recent studies, mainly obtained on quantum maps, have led to the commonly accepted belief that the classical repeller-the set of nonescaping orbits in the future and past evolution-is the object that suitably plays this role in open scattering systems. In this paper we present numerical evidence warning that this may not always be the case. For this purpose we study recently introduced families of tribaker maps [L. Ermann, G. G. Carlo, J. M. Pedrosa, and M. Saraceno, Phys. Rev. E 85, 066204 (2012)], which share the same asymptotic properties but differ in their short-time behavior. We have found that although the eigenvalue distribution of the evolution operator of these maps follows the fractal Weyl law prediction, the theory of short periodic orbits for open maps fails to describe the resonance eigenfunctions of some of them. This is a strong indication that new elements must be included in the semiclassical description of open quantum systems. We provide an interpretation of the results in order to have hints about them. PMID:23410406
Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems
Michael A. Nielsen
2002-08-13
What makes quantum information science a science? These notes explore the idea that quantum information science may offer a powerful approach to the study of complex quantum systems. We discuss how to quantify complexity in quantum systems, and argue that there are two qualitatively different types of complex quantum system. We also explore ways of understanding complex quantum dynamics by quantifying the strength of a quantum dynamical operation as a physical resource. This is the text for a talk at the ``Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing'', held at MIT, July 2002. Viewgraphs for the talk may be found at http://www.qinfo.org/talks/.
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-01-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sisir
2014-07-01
The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.
Ultracold Quantum Gases and Lattice Systems: Quantum Simulation of Lattice Gauge Theories
Wiese, U -J
2013-01-01
Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are of central importance in many areas of physics. In condensed matter physics, Abelian U(1) lattice gauge theories arise in the description of certain quantum spin liquids. In quantum information theory, Kitaev's toric code is a Z(2) lattice gauge theory. In particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, is non-perturbatively regularized on a lattice. Quantum link models extend the concept of lattice gauge theories beyond the Wilson formulation, and are well suited for both digital and analog quantum simulation using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices. Since quantum simulators do not suffer from the notorious sign problem, they open the door to studies of the real-time evolution of strongly coupled quantum systems, which are impossible with classical simulation methods. A plethora of interesting lattice gauge theories suggests itself for quantum simulation, which should al...
Periodic thermodynamics of isolated quantum systems.
Lazarides, Achilleas; Das, Arnab; Moessner, Roderich
2014-04-18
The nature of the behavior of an isolated many-body quantum system periodically driven in time has been an open question since the beginning of quantum mechanics. After an initial transient period, such a system is known to synchronize with the driving; in contrast to the nondriven case, no fundamental principle has been proposed for constructing the resulting nonequilibrium state. Here, we analytically show that, for a class of integrable systems, the relevant ensemble is constructed by maximizing an appropriately defined entropy subject to constraints, which we explicitly identify. This result constitutes a generalization of the concepts of equilibrium statistical mechanics to a class of far-from-equilibrium systems, up to now mainly accessible using ad hoc methods. PMID:24785013
2015-04-17
The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.
Decoherence in infinite quantum systems
Blanchard, Philippe; Hellmich, Mario
2012-09-01
We review and discuss a notion of decoherence formulated in the algebraic framework of quantum physics. Besides presenting some sufficient conditions for the appearance of decoherence in the case of Markovian time evolutions we provide an overview over possible decoherence scenarios. The framework for decoherence we establish is sufficiently general to accommodate quantum systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom.
Quantum models of classical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hájí?ek, P.
2015-07-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
Decoherence in nonlinear quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadiek, Gehad Kandeel
2002-01-01
Decoherence represents one of the most fundamental problems in quantum mechanics since its birth. Interest in decoherence has been primarily academic until recently when the advances in experimental techniques in different fields of physics such as superconducting quantum interferometers; quantum optics and neutron interferometry sparked the practical interest in this quantum mechanical phenomenon. One particular field where decoherence is of crucial role is quantum computing, where decoherence stands as one of the main obstacles toward realizing practical progress in the field. On the other hand, the ability to manipulate linear superpositions of quantum states is expected to lead to considerable advances in that field. The purpose of this dissertation is to present a study of decoherence in nonlinear quantum systems. We started by studying the coherent superposition of distinct basis states in a single-degree-of-freedom model of SQUID with a variable potential barrier between the basis flux states. We numerically integrated Schrodinger equation of the system. We found that linear superpositions of the basis states, with relatively little residual excitation, can be formed by pulsed modulation of the potential barrier, provided the pulse duration exceeds the period of small oscillations of the flux. Two pulses applied in sequence exhibit strong interference effects, which we propose to use for an experimental determination of the decoherence time in SQUIDS. In addition, we developed, using quantum field theory techniques, a general formalism to study decoherence in a quantum system due to coupling to a non-linear environment. This formalism can be used to investigate decoherence in many of the existing two state quantum systems proposed for quantum computing and reveals important information about them such as decoherence time. Moreover, we used this formalism to compare decoherence induced in a simple two-state quantum system (qubit) for two different initial states of the environment: canonical (fixed temperature) and microcanonical (fixed energy), for the general case of a fully interacting oscillator environment. We found that even a relatively compact oscillator bath (with effective number of degrees of freedom as low as 10), initially in a microcanonical state, will typically cause decoherence almost indistinguishable from that caused by a macroscopic, thermal environment, except possibly at singularities of the environment's specific heat (critical points). In the latter case the precise magnitude of the difference between the canonical and microcanonical results depends on the critical behavior of the dissipative coefficient, characterizing the interaction of the two-state quantum system with the environment.
Quantum measurements of coupled systems
Fedichkin, L.; Dykman, M. I.; Shapiro, M.
2009-07-15
We propose an approach to measuring coupled systems, which gives a parametrically smaller error than the conventional fast projective measurements. The measurement error is due to the excitations being not entirely localized on individual systems even where the excitation energies are different. Our approach combines spectral selectivity of the detector with temporal resolution and uses the ideas of the quantum diffusion theory. The results bear on quantum computing with perpetually coupled qubits.
Experimental test of Jarzynski equality in a quasi-open quantum using a trapped ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yao; An, Shuoming; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Quan, H. T.; Smith, A. M.; Jarzynski, Christopher; Kim, Kihwan
2015-05-01
We report on an experimental test of the Jarzynski equality in a quantum system consisting of a single 171Yb+ ion that undergoes dephasing. The Jarzynski equality, which relates equilibrium free energy differences to nonequilibrium work distributions, has been tested in many classical open systems and recently in isolated quantum systems. For open quantum systems, however, the definitions of work and heat are not fully settled, which hinders experimental verification. Here, we study a quantum system that interacts with an environment which causes dephasing (or decoherence) without dissipation. We observe that although the work distribution varies with the strength of dephasing, the Jarzynski equality remains valid. Our investigation constitutes the first experimental test of the quantum Jarzynski equality in an effectively open quantum system. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grants No. 2011CBA00300 (No. 2011CBA00301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 11374178 and 11375012, and the US National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR 1206971.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kyungdeock; Darabad, Robabeh; Feng, Guanru; Labruyere, Stephane; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2015-03-01
The ability to perform multiple rounds of Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is an essential task for scalable quantum information processing, but experimental realizations of it are still in their infancy. Key requirements for QEC are high control fidelity and the ability to extract entropy from ancilla qubits. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) quantum processors have demonstrated high control fidelity with up to 12 qubits. A remaining challenge is to prepare nearly pure ancilla qubits to enable QEC. Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling (HBAC) is an efficient tool for extracting entropy from qubits that interact with a heat bath, allowing cooling below the bath temperature. For implementing HBAC with spins, a hyperfine coupled electron-nuclear system in a single crystal is more advantageous than conventional NMR systems since the electron, with higher polarization and faster relaxation, can act as a heat bath. We characterize 3 and 5 qubit spin systems in gamma-irradiated malonic acid and present simulation and experimental results of HBAC to benchmark our quantum control. Two control schemes are compared: electron nuclear double resonance and indirect control of nuclei via the anisotropic hyperfine interaction.
Center for Quantum Science and Engineering Opening Ceremony
Wu, Yih-Min
for Forum in Condensed Matter Science Speakers: Topics: Attendance is Open For more information, please Discussion 15:20-15:50 Break 15:50-16:10 New trend of condensed matter science in 21th Century Prof Center for Quantum Science and Engineering (CQSE) Opening Ceremony & NTU Forum in Condensed Matter
Quantum proof systems and entanglement theory
Abolfathe Beikidezfuli, Salman
2009-01-01
Quantum complexity theory is important from the point of view of not only theory of computation but also quantum information theory. In particular, quantum multi-prover interactive proof systems are defined based on ...
Dynamics of an Open System for Repeated Harmonic Perturbation
Hiroshi Tamura; Valentin A. Zagrebnov
2015-06-18
We use the Kossakowski-Lindblad-Davies formalism to consider an open system defined as the Markovian extension of one-mode quantum oscillator S, perturbed by a piecewise stationary harmonic interaction with a chain of oscillators C. The long-time asymptotic behaviour of various subsystems of S+C are obtained in the framework of the dual W-dynamical system approach.
Rapid readout of a register of qubits using open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, Joshua; Denney, Aaron; Wiseman, Howard M.
2015-02-01
Measurements are a primitive for characterizing quantum systems. Reducing the time taken to perform a measurement may be beneficial in many areas of quantum information processing. We show that permuting the eigenvalues of the state matrix in the logical basis, using open-loop control, provides an O (n ) reduction in the measurement time, where n is the number of qubits in the register. This reduction is of the same order as the (previously introduced) locally optimal feedback protocol. The advantage of the open-loop protocol is that it is far less difficult experimentally. Because the control commutes with the measured observable at all times, our rapid measurement protocol could be used for characterizing a quantum system, by state or process tomography, or to implement measurement-based quantum error correction.
Qing Gao; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen; Herschel Rabitz
2015-08-11
The purpose of this paper is to derive the quantum filtering and fault detection equations for a class of open quantum systems driven by a continuous-mode bosonic input field in single photon states when the systems are subject to stochastic faults. A quantum-classical probability space model is used as a convenient tool to simultaneously estimate the system observables and the fault process, that are characterized by a quantum filter and a fault detection equation, respectively.
Effective Constraints for Quantum Systems
Martin Bojowald; Barbara Sandhoefer; Aureliano Skirzewski; Artur Tsobanjan
2008-04-21
An effective formalism for quantum constrained systems is presented which allows manageable derivations of solutions and observables, including a treatment of physical reality conditions without requiring full knowledge of the physical inner product. Instead of a state equation from a constraint operator, an infinite system of constraint functions on the quantum phase space of expectation values and moments of states is used. The examples of linear constraints as well as the free non-relativistic particle in parameterized form illustrate how standard problems of constrained systems can be dealt with in this framework.
Localization in chaotic systems with a single-channel opening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippolis, Domenico; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Sang Wook
2015-07-01
We introduce a single-channel opening in a random Hamiltonian and a quantized chaotic map: localization on the opening occurs as a sensible deviation of the wave-function statistics from the predictions of random matrix theory, even in the semiclassical limit. Increasing the coupling to the open channel in the quantum model, we observe a similar picture to resonance trapping, made of a few fast-decaying states, whose left (right) eigenfunctions are entirely localized on the (preimage of the) opening, and plentiful long-lived states, whose probability density is instead suppressed at the opening. For the latter, we derive and test a linear relation between the wave-function intensities and the decay rates, similar to the Breit-Wigner law. We then analyze the statistics of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding (discretized) classical propagator, finding a similar behavior to the quantum system only in the weak-coupling regime.
Localization in chaotic systems with a single-channel opening
Domenico Lippolis; Jung-Wan Ryu; Sang Wook Kim
2015-06-02
We introduce a single-channel opening in a random Hamiltonian and a quantized chaotic map: localization on the opening occurs as a sensible deviation of the wavefunction statistics from the predictions of random matrix theory, even in the semiclassical limit. Increasing the coupling to the open channel in the quantum model, we observe a similar picture to resonance trapping, made of few fast-decaying states, whose left (right) eigenfunctions are entirely localized on the (preimage of the) opening, and plentiful long-lived states, whose probability density is instead suppressed at the opening. For the latter we derive and test a linear relation between the wavefunction intensities and the decay rates, similar to Breit-Wigner law. We then analyze the statistics of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding (discretized) classical propagator, finding a similar behavior to the quantum system only in the weak-coupling regime.
Knowledge in Quantum Systems (Extended Abstract)
van der Meyden, Ron
for the epistemic analysis of areas such as quantum cryptographic protocols [Ben92], quantum distributed computingKnowledge in Quantum Systems (Extended Abstract) R. van der Meyden Manas Patra School of Computer applies to quantum systems a modelling for the logic of knowledge, originally developed for reasoning
Lorentz transformations of open systems
Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno
2001-07-29
We consider open dynamical systems, subject to external interventions by agents that are not completely described by the theory (classical or quantal). These interventions are localized in regions that are relatively spacelike. Under these circumstances, no relativistic transformation law exists that relates the descriptions of the physical system by observers in relative motion. Still, physical laws are the same in all Lorentz frames.
Open quantum random walks, hitting times, gambler's ruin and potential theory
Carlos F. Lardizabal
2015-07-02
We consider a model of open quantum random walk and together with a quantum trajectory approach we are able to examine a notion of hitting time. We see that many constructions, such as minimal solutions to hitting time problems, are variations of well-known classical probability results, but the density matrix degree of freedom on each site gives rise to systems which are seen to be nonclassical. As a more specific application we study the collection of walks induced by normal commuting contractions, for which the corresponding probability expressions are obtained. We examine quantum versions of the gambler's ruin, birth-and-death chain and a basic theorem on potential theory.
RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system
Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J.; Zwicknagl, G.; Schuh, D.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-04
The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.
On Entropy of Quantum Compound Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Noboru
2015-10-01
We review some notions for general quantum entropies. The entropy of the compound systems is discussed and a numerical computation of the quantum dynamical systems is carried for the noisy optical channel.
Heat Machines and Quantum Systems
Kosloff, Ronnie
Heat Machines and Quantum Systems: Towards the Third Law Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor of Philosophy" by Yair Rezek Submitted to the senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem October 2011 #12;Heat century BCE), showing that Democritus (5th century BCE) already understood heat as molecular (atomic
Quantum Bi-Hamiltonian Systems
José F. Cariñena; Janusz Grabowski; Giuseppe Marmo
2006-10-06
We define quantum bi-Hamiltonian systems, by analogy with the classical case, as derivations in operator algebras which are inner derivations with respect to two compatible associative structures. We find such structures by means of the associative version of Nijenhuis tensors. Explicit examples, e.g. for the harmonic oscillator, are given.
Quantum Indeterminacy of Cosmic Systems
Hogan, Craig J.
2013-12-30
It is shown that quantum uncertainty of motion in systems controlled mainly by gravity generally grows with orbital timescale $H^{-1}$, and dominates classical motion for trajectories separated by distances less than $\\approx H^{-3/5}$ in Planck units. For example, the cosmological metric today becomes indeterminate at macroscopic separations, $H_0^{-3/5}\\approx 60$ meters. Estimates suggest that entangled non-localized quantum states of geometry and matter may significantly affect fluctuations during inflation, and connect the scale of dark energy to that of strong interactions.
Quantum gate entangler for general multipartite systems
Hoshang Heydari
2007-02-09
We construct quantum gate entangler for general multipartite states based on topological unitary operators. We show that these operators can entangle quantum states if they satisfy the separability condition that is given by the complex multi-projective Segre variety. We also in detail discuss the construction of quantum gate entangler for higher dimensional bipartite and three-partite quantum systems.
Defense frontier analysis of quantum cryptographic systems
Fainman, Yeshaiahu
Defense frontier analysis of quantum cryptographic systems Boris Slutsky, Ramesh Rao, Pan-Cheng Sun, Ljubisa Tancevski, and Shaya Fainman When a quantum cryptographic system operates in the presence quantum crypto- systems, taking into account data sacrifice during key distillation, and conclude
Quantum control of infinite-dimensional many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliss, Roger S.; Burgarth, Daniel
2014-03-01
A major challenge to the control of infinite-dimensional quantum systems is the irreversibility which is often present in the system dynamics. Here we consider systems with discrete-spectrum Hamiltonians operating over a Schwartz space domain and show that by utilizing the implications of the quantum recurrence theorem this irreversibility may be overcome, in the case of individual states more generally, but also in certain specified cases over larger subsets of the Hilbert space. We discuss briefly the possibility of using these results in the control of infinite-dimensional coupled harmonic oscillators and also draw attention to some of the issues and open questions arising from this and related work.
An Open Source Simulation System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slack, Thomas
2005-01-01
An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.
Transient features of quantum open maps.
Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G; Pedrosa, Juan M; Saraceno, Marcos
2012-06-01
We study families of open chaotic maps that classically share the same asymptotic properties--forward and backward trapped sets, repeller dimensions, and escape rate--but differ in their short time behavior. When these maps are quantized we find that the fine details of the distribution of resonances and the corresponding eigenfunctions are sensitive to the initial shape and size of the openings. We study phase space localization of the resonances with respect to the repeller and find strong delocalization effects when the area of the openings is smaller than ?. PMID:23005193
Supersymmetric biorthogonal quantum systems
Curtright, Thomas; Mezincescu, Luca; Schuster, David
2007-09-15
We discuss supersymmetric biorthogonal systems, with emphasis given to the periodic solutions that occur at spectral singularities of PT symmetric models. For these periodic solutions, the dual functions are associated polynomials that obey inhomogeneous equations. We construct in detail some explicit examples for the supersymmetric pairs of potentials V{sub {+-}}(z)=-U(z){sup 2}{+-}z(d/dz)U(z) where U(z){identical_to}{sigma}{sub k>0}{upsilon}{sub k}z{sup k}. In particular, we consider the cases generated by U(z)=z and z/(1-z). We also briefly consider the effects of magnetic vector potentials on the partition functions of these systems.
Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zulkowski, Patrick R.; DeWeese, Michael R.
2015-09-01
The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing.
Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.
Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R
2015-09-01
The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have consistently solved the control dynamics of open quantum systems using this stochastic QSD approach. By implementing the QSD equation, our numerical results have revealed that how the control efficacy depends on the designed time points and shapes of the applied control pulses, and the environment memory time scale.
Dissipative quantum metrology in manybody systems of identical particles
F. Benatti; S. Alipour; A. T. Rezakhani
2013-08-24
Estimation of physical parameters is a must in almost any part of science and technology. The enhancement of the performances in this task, e.g., beating the standard classical shot-noise limit, using available physical resources is a major goal in metrology. Quantum metrology in closed systems has indicated that entanglement in such systems may be a useful resource. However, it is not yet fully understood whether in open quantum systems such enhancements may still show up. Here, we consider a dissipative (open) quantum system of identical particles in which a parameter of the open dynamics itself is to be estimated. We employ a recently-developed dissipative quantum metrology framework, and investigate whether the entanglement produced in the course of the dissipative dynamics may help the estimation task. Specifically, we show that even in a Markovian dynamics, in which states become less distinguishable in time, at small enough times entanglement generated by the dynamics may offer some advantage over the classical shot-noise limit.
Presilla, Carlo
investigate the conditions under which the nonequilibrium steady state of an open quantum system de- scribedObtaining pure steady states in nonequilibrium quantum systems with strong dissipative couplings nonequilibrium steady states, both in the critical and gapped XXZ regimes. These solutions correspond
Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information. PMID:25811809
The classical skeleton of open quantum chaotic maps
Lisandro A. Raviola; Alejandro M. F. Rivas; Gabriel G. Carlo
2011-08-16
We have studied two complementary decoherence measures purity and fidelity for a generic diffusive noise in two different chaotic systems (the baker and the cat maps). For both quantities, we have found classical structures in quantum mechanics - the scar functions - that are specially stable when subjected to environmental perturbations. We show that these quantum states constructed on classical invariants are the most robust significant quantum distributions in generic dissipative maps.
The classical skeleton of open quantum chaotic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raviola, Lisandro A.; Rivas, Alejandro M. F.; Carlo, Gabriel G.
2011-11-01
We have studied two complementary decoherence measures, purity and fidelity, for a generic diffusive noise in two different chaotic systems (the baker map and the cat map). For both quantities, we have found classical structures in quantum mechanics-the scar functions-that are specially stable when subjected to environmental perturbations. We show that these quantum states constructed on classical invariants are the most robust significant quantum distributions in generic dissipative maps.
Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2012-05-15
The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear quantum plants.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2014-10-01
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems
Helena C. Braga; Clodoaldo C. Rulli; Thiago R. de Oliveira; Marcelo S. Sarandy
2014-12-09
We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability of implementing classical or quantum conditional dynamics, respectively. Then, for an n-partite system (A_1, A_2, ..., A_n), we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n-partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.
Characterizing quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations.
Ringbauer, M; Wood, C J; Modi, K; Gilchrist, A; White, A G; Fedrizzi, A
2015-03-01
We fully characterize the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system initially correlated with its environment. Using a photonic qubit coupled to a simulated environment, we tomographically reconstruct a superchannel-a generalized channel that treats preparation procedures as inputs-from measurement of the system alone. We introduce novel quantitative measures for determining the strength of initial correlations, and to allow an experiment to be optimized in regard to its environment. PMID:25793785
Characterizing Quantum Dynamics with Initial System-Environment Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ringbauer, M.; Wood, C. J.; Modi, K.; Gilchrist, A.; White, A. G.; Fedrizzi, A.
2015-03-01
We fully characterize the reduced dynamics of an open quantum system initially correlated with its environment. Using a photonic qubit coupled to a simulated environment, we tomographically reconstruct a superchannel—a generalized channel that treats preparation procedures as inputs—from measurement of the system alone. We introduce novel quantitative measures for determining the strength of initial correlations, and to allow an experiment to be optimized in regard to its environment.
Lai, Ying-Cheng
2013-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 052908 (2013) Quantum chaotic scattering in graphene systems in the absence; published 15 May 2013) Quantum chaotic scattering is referred to as the study of quantum behaviors of open in this field is how the elements of the scattering matrix or their functions fluctuate as a system parameter, e
Work, heat and entropy production in bipartite quantum systems
Hoda Hossein-Nejad; Edward J. O'Reilly; Alexandra Olaya-Castro
2015-07-02
In bipartite quantum systems commutation relations between the Hamiltonian of each subsystem and the interaction impose fundamental constraints on the dynamics of each partition. Here we investigate work, heat and entropy production in bipartite systems characterized by particular commutators between their local Hamiltonians and the interaction operator. We consider the formalism of [Weimer, EPL, 83:30008, 2008], in which heat (work) is identified with energy changes that (do not) alter the local von Neumann entropy, as observed in an effective local measurement basis. We demonstrate the consequences of the commutation relations on the work and heat fluxes into each partition, and extend the formalism to open quantum systems where one, or both, partitions are subject to a Markovian thermal bath. We also discuss the relation between heat and entropy in bipartite quantum systems out of thermal equilibrium, and reconcile the aforementioned approach with the second law of thermodynamics.
Information theory of quantum systems with some hydrogenic applications
J. S. Dehesa; D. Manzano; P. S. Sánchez-Moreno; R. J. Yáñez
2010-09-14
The information-theoretic representation of quantum systems, which complements the familiar energy description of the density-functional and wave-function-based theories, is here discussed. According to it, the internal disorder of the quantum-mechanical non-relativistic systems can be quantified by various single (Fisher information, Shannon entropy) and composite (e.g. Cramer-Rao, LMC shape and Fisher-Shannon complexity) functionals of the Schr\\"odinger probability density. First, we examine these concepts and its application to quantum systems with central potentials. Then, we calculate these measures for hydrogenic systems, emphasizing their predictive power for various physical phenomena. Finally, some recent open problems are pointed out.
Artur Czerwi?ski
2015-07-15
In this paper we analyze selected evolution models of $N-$level open quantum systems in order to find the minimal number of observables (Hermitian operators) such that their expectation values at some time instants determine the accurate representation of the quantum system. The assumption that lies at the foundation of this approach to quantum tomography claims that time evolution of an open quantum system can be expressed by the Kossakowski - Lindblad equation of the form $\\dot{\\rho} = \\mathbb{L} \\rho$, which is the most general type of Markovian and time-homogeneous master equation which preserves trace and positivity. We consider the cases when the generator of evolution can be presented by means of two or more double commutators. Determining the minimal number of observables required for quantum tomography can be the first step towards optimal tomography models for $N-$level quantum systems.
Global quantum discord in multipartite systems
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.
2011-10-15
We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.
Non-Markovian dynamical maps: numerical processing of open quantum trajectories.
Cerrillo, Javier; Cao, Jianshu
2014-03-21
The initial stages of the evolution of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn can predict the trajectory at later stages. We propose a general approach based on non-Markovian dynamical maps to extract this information from the initial trajectories and compress it into non-Markovian transfer tensors. Assuming time-translational invariance, the tensors can be used to accurately and efficiently propagate the state of the system to arbitrarily long time scales. The non-Markovian transfer tensor method (TTM) demonstrates the coherent-to-incoherent transition as a function of the strength of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system-bath entanglement. TTM is equivalent to solving the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and, therefore, can be used to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories obtained in simulations or experiments. The concept underlying the approach can be generalized to physical observables with the goal of learning and manipulating the trajectories of an open quantum system. PMID:24702332
Homogeneous Open Quantum Random Walks on a Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan
2015-09-01
We study open quantum random walks (OQRWs) for which the underlying graph is a lattice, and the generators of the walk are homogeneous in space. Using the results recently obtained in Carbone and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré, 2015), we study the quantum trajectory associated with the OQRW, which is described by a position process and a state process. We obtain a central limit theorem and a large deviation principle for the position process. We study in detail the case of homogeneous OQRWs on the lattice , with internal space.
Applications of Feedback Control in Quantum Systems
Kurt Jacobs
2006-05-02
We give an introduction to feedback control in quantum systems, as well as an overview of the variety of applications which have been explored to date. This introductory review is aimed primarily at control theorists unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, but should also be useful to quantum physicists interested in applications of feedback control. We explain how feedback in quantum systems differs from that in traditional classical systems, and how in certain cases the results from modern optimal control theory can be applied directly to quantum systems. In addition to noise reduction and stabilization, an important application of feedback in quantum systems is adaptive measurement, and we discuss the various applications of adaptive measurements. We finish by describing specific examples of the application of feedback control to cooling and state-preparation in nano-electro-mechanical systems and single trapped atoms.
Thermodynamics of weakly measured quantum systems
Jose Joaquin Alonso; Eric Lutz; Alessandro Romito
2015-08-03
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superpositions of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
The ALPS project: open source software for strongly correlated systems
F. Alet; P. Dayal; A. Grzesik; A. Honecker; M. Koerner; A. Laeuchli; S. R. Manmana; I. P. McCulloch; F. Michel; R. M. Noack; G. Schmid; U. Schollwoeck; F. Stoeckli; S. Todo; S. Trebst; M. Troyer; P. Werner; S. Wessel; for the ALPS collaboration
2004-10-15
We present the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an international open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. Development is centered on common XML and binary data formats, on libraries to simplify and speed up code development, and on full-featured simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), as well as the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org.
Adiabatic quantum metrology with strongly correlated quantum optical systems
P. A. Ivanov; D. Porras
2013-05-24
We show that the quasi-adiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, that leads to the collapse of the wavefunciton into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final state properties with the number of atoms and with the intensity of the symmetry breaking field, can be interpreted in terms of the precession time of an effective quantum metrological protocol. We show that our ideas can be tested with spin-phonon interactions in trapped ion setups. Our work points to a classification of quantum phase transitions in terms of the capability of many-body quantum systems for parameter estimation.
Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution
Aurel Bulgac; Michael McNeil Forbes; Kenneth J. Roche; Gabriel Wlaz?owski
2013-05-29
We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.
Quantum theory of a two-mode open-cavity laser
V. Eremeev; S. E. Skipetrov; M. Orszag
2011-08-25
We develop the quantum theory of an open-cavity laser assuming that only two modes compete for gain. We show that the modes interact to build up a collective mode that becomes the lasing mode when pumping exceeds a threshold. This collective mode exhibits all the features of a typical laser mode, whereas its precise behavior depends explicitly on the openness of the cavity. We approach the problem by using the density-matrix formalism and derive the master equation for the light field. Our results are of particular interest in the context random laser systems.
The Energy Cost of Controlling Mesoscopic Quantum Systems
Jordan Horowitz; Kurt Jacobs
2015-09-03
We determine the minimum energy required to control the evolution of any mesoscopic quantum system in the presence of arbitrary Markovian noise processes. This result provides the mesoscopic equivalent of the fundamental cost of refrigeration, sets the minimum power consumption of mesoscopic devices that operate out of equilibrium, and allows one to calculate the efficiency of any control protocol, whether it be open-loop or feedback control. As examples we calculate the energy cost of maintaining a qubit in the ground state, the efficiency of resolved-sideband cooling of nano-mechanical resonators, and discuss the energy cost of quantum information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2008-11-01
Entanglement is known today as a key resource in many protocols from quantum computation and quantum information theory. However, despite the successful demonstration of several protocols, such as teleportation or quantum key distribution, there are still many open questions of how entanglement affects the efficiency of quantum algorithms or how it can be protected against noisy environments. The investigation of these and related questions often requires a search or optimization over the set of quantum states and, hence, a parametrization of them and various other objects. To facilitate this kind of studies in quantum information theory, here we present an extension of the FEYNMAN program that was developed during recent years as a toolbox for the simulation and analysis of quantum registers. In particular, we implement parameterizations of hermitian and unitary matrices (of arbitrary order), pure and mixed quantum states as well as separable states. In addition to being a prerequisite for the study of many optimization problems, these parameterizations also provide the necessary basis for heuristic studies which make use of random states, unitary matrices and other objects. Program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 231 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 416 085 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 11 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Linux Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decades, quantum information science has contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics and has provided also new and efficient protocols, based on the use of entangled quantum states. To determine the behavior and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be applied in order to analyze how these quantum information protocols work and which role the entanglement plays hereby. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act upon the quantum registers. With the parameterization of various frequently-applied objects, that are implemented in the present version, the program now facilitates a wider range of symbolic and numerical studies. All commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: In the first version of the FEYNMAN program [1], we implemented the data structures and tools that are necessary to create, manipulate and to analyze the state of quantum registers. Later [2,3], support was added to deal with quantum operations (noisy channels) as an ingredient which is essential for studying the effects of decoherence. With the present extension, we add a number of parametrizations of objects frequently utilized in decoherence and entanglement studies, such that as hermitian and unitary matrices, probability distributions, or various kinds of quantum states. This extension therefore provides the basis, for example, for the optimization of a given function over the set of pure states or the simple generation of random objects. Running time: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2GHz or newer, and about 5-20 MB of working memory (in addition to the memory for the
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. V. Quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2010-02-01
The FEYNMAN program has been developed during the last years to support case studies on the dynamics and entanglement of n-qubit quantum registers. Apart from basic transformations and (gate) operations, it currently supports a good number of separability criteria and entanglement measures, quantum channels as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects in quantum information theory, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions. With the present update of the FEYNMAN program, we provide a simple access to (the simulation of) quantum measurements. This includes not only the widely-applied projective measurements upon the eigenspaces of some given operator but also single-qubit measurements in various pre- and user-defined bases as well as the support for two-qubit Bell measurements. In addition, we help perform generalized and POVM measurements. Knowing the importance of measurements for many quantum information protocols, e.g., one-way computing, we hope that this update makes the FEYNMAN code an attractive and versatile tool for both, research and education. New version program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 210 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 960 471 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 12 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; the program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux Classification: 4.15 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWE_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 179 (2008) 647 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decade, the field of quantum information science has largely contributed to our understanding of quantum mechanics, and has provided also new and efficient protocols that are used on quantum entanglement. To further analyze the amount and transfer of entanglement in n-qubit quantum protocols, symbolic and numerical simulations need to be handled efficiently. Solution method: Using the computer algebra system Maple, we developed a set of procedures in order to support the definition, manipulation and analysis of n-qubit quantum registers. These procedures also help to deal with (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations and measurements that act upon the quantum registers. All commands are organized in a hierarchical order and can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems, both in ideal and noisy quantum circuits. Reasons for new version: Until the present, the FEYNMAN program supported the basic data structures and operations of n-qubit quantum registers [1], a good number of separability and entanglement measures [2], quantum operations (noisy channels) [3] as well as the parametrizations of various frequently applied objects, such as (pure and mixed) quantum states, hermitian and unitary matrices or classical probability distributions [4]. With the current extension, we here add all necessary features to simulate quantum measurements, including the projective measurements in various single-qubit and the two-qubit Bell basis, and POVM measurements. Together with the previously implemented functionality, this greatly enhances the possibilities of analyzing quantum information protocols in which measurements play a central role, e.g., one-way computation. Running time: Most commands require ?10 seconds of processor time on a Pentium 4 processor with ?2 GHz RAM or newer, if they work with quantum registers with five or less qubits. Moreover, about 5-20 MB of working memory is typically n
Sparse Control of Quantum Systems
Gero Friesecke; Felix Henneke; Karl Kunisch
2015-07-02
A new class of cost functionals for optimal control of quantum systems which produces controls which are sparse in frequency and smooth in time is proposed. This is achieved by penalizing a suitable time-frequency representation of the control field, rather than the control field itself, and by employing norms which are of $L^1$ or measure form with respect to frequency but smooth with respect to time. A mathematical framework is developed which yields existence of optimal controls and necessary optimality conditions of the resulting nonsmooth, nonconvex optimization problem. The framework covers the important systems of physical interest, including (infinite-dimensional) Schr\\"odinger dynamics on multiple potential energy surfaces as arising in laser control of chemical reactions. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the optimal controls, unlike those obtained with the usual $L^2$ or $H^1$ costs, concentrate on just a few frequencies, even in the infinite-dimensional case of laser-controlled chemical reactions.
Extracting work from quantum systems
Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu
2013-02-12
We consider the task of extracting work from quantum systems in the resource theory perspective of thermodynamics, where free states are arbitrary thermal states, and allowed operations are energy conserving unitary transformations. Taking as our work storage system a 'weight' we prove the second law and then present simple protocols which extract average work equal to the free energy change of the system - the same amount as in classical thermodynamics. Crucially, for systems in 'classical' states (mixtures of energy eigenstates) our protocol works on a single copy of the system. This is in sharp contrast to previous results, which showed that in case of almost-deterministic work extraction, collective actions on multiple copies are necessary to extract the free energy. This establishes the fact that free energy is a meaningful notion even for individual systems in classical states. However, for non-classical states, where coherences between energy levels exist, we prove that collective actions are necessary, so long as no external sources of coherence are used.
Quantum computing and information extraction for a dynamical quantum system
Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Simone Montangero
2004-02-02
We discuss the simulation of a complex dynamical system, the so-called quantum sawtooth map model, on a quantum computer. We show that a quantum computer can be used to efficiently extract relevant physical information for this model. It is possible to simulate the dynamical localization of classical chaos and extract the localization length of the system with quadratic speed up with respect to any known classical computation. We can also compute with algebraic speed up the diffusion coefficient and the diffusion exponent both in the regimes of Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Finally, we show that it is possible to extract the fidelity of the quantum motion, which measures the stability of the system under perturbations, with exponential speed up.
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown. These nodes are spaced far enough from each other to minimized the electronic repulsion of the electrons, while still providing adequate enough attraction so as to bind the excess elections into orbitals. We have found that even with relativistic considerations these species are stably bound within the field. It was also found that performing the dimensional scaling calculations for systems within the confines of laser fields to be a much simpler and more cost-effective method than the supporting D=3 SCF method. The dimensional scaling method is general and can be extended to include relativistic corrections to describe the stability of simple molecular systems in super-intense laser fields. Chapter 3, we delineate the model, and aspects therein, of inelastic electron tunneling and map this model to the protein environment. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of receptors that sense molecules outside of a cell and activate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Modeling how an agonist activates such a receptor is important for understanding a wide variety of physiological processes and it is of tremendous value for pharmacology and drug design. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been proposed as the mechanism by which olfactory GPCRs are activated by an encapsulated agonist. In this note we apply this notion to GPCRs within the mammalian nervous system using ab initio quantum chemical modeling. We found that non-endogenous agonists of the serotonin receptor share a singular IET spectral aspect both amongst each other and with the serotonin molecule: a peak that scales in intensity with the known agonist activities. We propose an experiential validation of this model by utilizing lysergic acid dimethylamide (DAM-57), an ergot derivative, and its isotopologues in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium. If validated our theory may provide new avenues for guided drug design and better in silico prediction of efficacies. Our final chapter, explores methods which may be explored to assist in the early instructio
EDITORIAL OPEN Qubit metrology for building a fault-tolerant quantum
Martinis, John M.
EDITORIAL OPEN Qubit metrology for building a fault-tolerant quantum computer npj Quantum improvement - the metrology of qubit errors. We must focus on errors because classical and quantum computation in quantum information has led to the start of several large national and industrial efforts to build
A general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viola, Lorenza
2015-03-01
Hamiltonian engineering via unitary open-loop quantum control provides a versatile and experimentally validated framework for manipulating a broad class of non-Markovian open quantum systems of interest, with applications ranging from dynamical decoupling and dynamically corrected quantum gates, to noise spectroscopy and quantum simulation. In this context, transfer-function techniques directly motivated by control engineering have proved invaluable for obtaining a transparent picture of the controlled dynamics in the frequency domain and for quantitatively analyzing performance. In this talk, I will show how to identify a computationally tractable set of ``fundamental filter functions,'' out of which arbitrary filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and frequency domain. I will show, in particular, how the resulting notion of ``filtering order'' reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the ``cancellation order,'' traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Implications for current quantum control experiments will be discussed. Work supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-14-1-0682.
Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems
Bennett, Steven D.
cantilever. In this case, the damping of the mechanical oscillator is monitored to measure quantum electronic questions in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. These are systems where a mechanical oscillator a way to probe both the mechanics and the electronics with extraordinary sensitivity. We address three
Chaos and Quantum Chaos in Nuclear Systems
Luca Salasnich
1995-10-15
The presence of chaos and quantum chaos is shown in two different nuclear systems. We analyze the chaotic behaviour of the classical SU(2) Yang--Mills--Higgs system, and then we study quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model calculating the spectral statistics of $A=46$--$50$ atomic nuclei.
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Open quantum random walks: ergodicity, hitting times, gambler's ruin and potential theory
Carlos F. Lardizabal; Rafael R. Souza
2015-10-12
Motivated by a model presented by S. Gudder, we study a quantum generalization of Markov chains and discuss the relation between these maps and open quantum random walks, a class of quantum channels described by S. Attal et al. We consider processes which are nonhomogeneous in time, i.e., at each time step, a possibly distinct evolution kernel. Inspired by a spectral technique described by L. Saloff-Coste and J. Z\\'u\\~niga, we define a notion of ergodicity for nonhomogeneous quantum Markov chains and describe a criterion for ergodicity of such objects in terms of singular values. As a consequence we obtain a quantum version of the classical probability result concerning the behavior of the columns (or rows) of the iterates of a stochastic matrix induced by a finite, irreducible, aperiodic Markov chain. We are also able to relate the ergodic property presented here with the notions of weak and uniform ergodicity known in the literature of noncommutative $L^1$-spaces. Together with a quantum trajectory approach we are able to examine a notion of hitting time and we see that many constructions, such as minimal solutions to hitting time problems, are variations of well-known classical probability results, with the density matrix degree of freedom on each site giving rise to systems which are seen to be nonclassical. As a more specific application we study the collection of walks induced by normal commuting contractions, for which the corresponding probability expressions are obtained. We examine open quantum versions of the gambler's ruin, birth-and-death chain and a basic theorem on potential theory.
Slightly anharmonic systems in quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimov, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Sergey M.
1995-01-01
We consider an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atom or many such atoms) interacting with a strong resonant quantum field. The approximate evolution operator for a quantum field case can be produced from the atomic evolution operator in an external classical field by a 'quantization prescription', passing the operator arguments to Wigner D-functions. Many important phenomena arising from the quantum nature of the field can be described by such a way.
Coarse-grained kinetic equations for quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, E. G.
2013-01-01
The nonequilibrium density matrix method is employed to derive a master equation for the averaged state populations of an open quantum system subjected to an external high frequency stochastic field. It is shown that if the characteristic time ?stoch of the stochastic process is much lower than the characteristic time ?steady of the establishment of the system steady state populations, then on the time scale ? t ˜ ?steady, the evolution of the system populations can be described by the coarse-grained kinetic equations with the averaged transition rates. As an example, the exact averaging is carried out for the dichotomous Markov process of the kangaroo type.
Tailored Coupled Spin Systems with Microwave-Driven Trapped Ions for Quantum Information Processing
Ch. Piltz; Th. Sriarunothai; S. Ivanov; S. Wölk; Ch. Wunderlich
2015-09-04
A quantum simulator allows for investigating static and dynamic properties of a complex quantum system, difficult to access directly, by means of another physical system that is well understood and controlled. A universal quantum computer would be suitable for that purpose. However, other, more specialized physical systems -- already in close experimental reach -- promise groundbreaking new insight in quantum phenomena when used as quantum simulators. Here, we show how a tailored and versatile effective spin-system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation is realized using trapped atomic ions. Each single spin can be addressed individually, and, simply by the application of microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system. Furthermore, the sign of the couplings can be changed, as well as the effective strength of spin-spin coupling determined. Thus, all operations for a versatile quantum simulator are implemented. In addition, taking advantage of simultaneous coupling between three spins a coherent quantum Fourier transform -- an essential building block for many quantum algorithms -- is efficiently realized. This approach based on microwave-driven trapped ions, complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcome technical and physics challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and quantum computer.
78 FR 11988 - Open Video Systems
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-02-21
...47 CFR Part 76 [CS Docket No. 96-46, FCC 96-334] Open Video Systems AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...The final rules modified rules and policies concerning Open Video Systems. DATES: The amendments to 47 CFR 76.1505(d)...
Sliding mode control of quantum systems
Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen
2009-10-31
This paper proposes a new robust control method for quantum systems with uncertainties involving sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control is a widely used approach in classical control theory and industrial applications. We show that SMC is also a useful method for robust control of quantum systems. In this paper, we define two specific classes of sliding modes (i.e., eigenstates and state subspaces) and propose two novel methods combining unitary control and periodic projective measurements for the design of quantum sliding mode control systems. Two examples including a two-level system and a three-level system are presented to demonstrate the proposed SMC method. One of main features of the proposed method is that the designed control laws can guarantee desired control performance in the presence of uncertainties in the system Hamiltonian. This sliding mode control approach provides a useful control theoretic tool for robust quantum information processing with uncertainties.
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system
Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S.U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sillanpää, M.A.
2015-01-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum–mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation–pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion. PMID:25912295
Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S. U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Hakonen, P. J.; Sillanpää, M. A.
2015-04-01
Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum-mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation-pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion.
A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN OPEN
#12;#12;A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN OPEN DATA/METADATABASE ARCHITECTURE Jos´e Laurindo, Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands. #12;A BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEM
Periodic excitations of bilinear quantum systems
Thomas Chambrion
2012-08-09
A well-known method of transferring the population of a quantum system from an eigenspace of the free Hamiltonian to another is to use a periodic control law with an angular frequency equal to the difference of the eigenvalues. For finite dimensional quantum systems, the classical theory of averaging provides a rigorous explanation of this experimentally validated result. This paper extends this finite dimensional result, known as the Rotating Wave Approximation, to infinite dimensional systems and provides explicit convergence estimates.
Galilei invariant technique for quantum system description
Kamuntavi?ius, Gintautas P.
2014-04-15
Problems with quantum systems models, violating Galilei invariance are examined. The method for arbitrary non-relativistic quantum system Galilei invariant wave function construction, applying a modified basis where center-of-mass excitations have been removed before Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization, is developed. For identical fermion system, the Galilei invariant wave function can be obtained while applying conventional antisymmetrization methods of wave functions, dependent on single particle spatial variables.
Quasinormal modes of black holes and dissipative open systems
Sang Pyo Kim
2006-01-03
After explaining the physical origin of the quasinormal modes of perturbations in the background geometry of a black hole, I critically review the recent proposal for the quantization of the black-hole area based on the real part of quasinormal modes. As instantons due to the barriers of black-hole potentials lie at the root of a discrete set of complex quasinormal modes frequencies, it is likely that the physics of quasinormal modes can be learned from quantum theory. I propose a connection of a system of quasinormal modes of black holes with a dissipative open system, in particular, the Feshbach-Tikochinsky oscillator. This argument is supported in part by the fact that these two systems have the same group structure SU(1,1) and the same group representation of Hamiltonians; thereby, their quantum states exhibit the same behavior.
Thermalization in closed quantum systems: Semiclassical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosme, J. G.; Fialko, O.
2014-11-01
Thermalization in closed quantum systems can be understood either by means of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis or the concept of canonical typicality. Both concepts are based on quantum-mechanical formalism, such as spectral properties of the eigenstates or entanglement between subsystems, respectively. Here we study instead the onset of thermalization of Bose particles in a two-band double-well potential using the truncated Wigner approximation. This allows us to use the familiar classical formalism to understand quantum thermalization in this system. In particular, we demonstrate that sampling of an initial quantum state mimics a statistical mechanical ensemble, while subsequent chaotic classical evolution turns the initial quantum state into the thermal state.
Characteristic Energy Scales of Quantum Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Michael J.; Jakovidis, Greg
1994-01-01
Provides a particle-in-a-box model to help students understand and estimate the magnitude of the characteristic energy scales of a number of quantum systems. Also discusses the mathematics involved with general computations. (MVL)
Black Holes and Nonrelativistic Quantum Systems
Nickel, Marcel Dominik Johannes
We describe black holes in d+3 dimensions, whose thermodynamic properties correspond to those of a scale-invariant nonrelativistic (d+1)-dimensional quantum system with a dynamical exponent z=2. The gravitational model ...
Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems
Nicolas Laflorencie
2015-12-17
This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial informations can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated R\\'enyi entropies are now well recognized to contains key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in details. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J
2013-01-01
We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.
Emergent "Quantum" Theory in Complex Adaptive Systems
Djordje Minic; Sinisa Pajevic
2014-09-26
Motivated by the question of stability, in this letter we argue that an effective "quantum" theory can emerge in complex adaptive systems. In the concrete example of stochastic Lotka-Volterra dynamics, the relevant effective "Planck constant" associated with such emergent "quantum" theory has the dimensions of the square of the unit of time. Such an emergent quantum-like theory has inherently non-classical stability as well as coherent properties that are not, in principle, endangered by thermal fluctuations and therefore might be of crucial importance in complex adaptive systems.
Effective constraints for relativistic quantum systems
Bojowald, Martin; Tsobanjan, Artur
2009-12-15
Determining the physical Hilbert space is often considered the most difficult but crucial part of completing the quantization of a constrained system. In such a situation it can be more economical to use effective constraint methods, which are extended here to relativistic systems as they arise for instance in quantum cosmology. By sidestepping explicit constructions of states, such tools allow one to arrive much more feasibly at results for physical observables at least in semiclassical regimes. Several questions discussed recently regarding effective equations and state properties in quantum cosmology, including the spreading of states and quantum backreaction, are addressed by the examples studied here.
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
K. Urbanowski
2015-10-08
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.
QUANTUM ESPRESSO: a modular and open-source software project for quantum simulations of materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannozzi, Paolo; Baroni, Stefano; Bonini, Nicola; Calandra, Matteo; Car, Roberto; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Ceresoli, Davide; Chiarotti, Guido L.; Cococcioni, Matteo; Dabo, Ismaila; Dal Corso, Andrea; de Gironcoli, Stefano; Fabris, Stefano; Fratesi, Guido; Gebauer, Ralph; Gerstmann, Uwe; Gougoussis, Christos; Kokalj, Anton; Lazzeri, Michele; Martin-Samos, Layla; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Paolini, Stefano; Pasquarello, Alfredo; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Sbraccia, Carlo; Scandolo, Sandro; Sclauzero, Gabriele; Seitsonen, Ari P.; Smogunov, Alexander; Umari, Paolo; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.
2009-09-01
QUANTUM ESPRESSO is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling, based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials (norm-conserving, ultrasoft, and projector-augmented wave). The acronym ESPRESSO stands for opEn Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization. It is freely available to researchers around the world under the terms of the GNU General Public License. QUANTUM ESPRESSO builds upon newly-restructured electronic-structure codes that have been developed and tested by some of the original authors of novel electronic-structure algorithms and applied in the last twenty years by some of the leading materials modeling groups worldwide. Innovation and efficiency are still its main focus, with special attention paid to massively parallel architectures, and a great effort being devoted to user friendliness. QUANTUM ESPRESSO is evolving towards a distribution of independent and interoperable codes in the spirit of an open-source project, where researchers active in the field of electronic-structure calculations are encouraged to participate in the project by contributing their own codes or by implementing their own ideas into existing codes.
Superconducting Circuitry for Quantum Electromechanical Systems
Matthew D. LaHaye; Francisco Rouxinol; Yu Hao; Seung-Bo Shim; Elinor K. Irish
2015-04-11
Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and efforts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaga, J. K.; Leo?ski, W.; Kowalewska-Kud?aszyk, A.
2014-12-01
A model of a nonlinear, damped kicked oscillator is discussed. For such a model intra-mode correlations described by mutual information parameter I[?] based on the Wehrl entropy are considered. Furthermore, the system's quantum evolution is compared to its classical counterpart. The mutual information parameter is discussed as a proposal for quantum chaos' witness.
Mihail Silaev; Tero T. Heikkilä; Pauli Virtanen
2014-06-25
We formulate the general approach based on the Lindblad equation to calculate the full counting statistics of work and heat produced by driven quantum systems weakly coupled with a Markovian thermal bath. The approach can be applied to a wide class of dissipative quantum systems driven by an arbitrary force protocol. We show the validity of general fluctuation relations and consider several generic examples. The possibilities of using calorimetric measurements to test the presence of coherence and entanglement in the open quantum systems are discussed.
Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder
Kais, Sabre
Entanglement and Quantum Phase Transition in a One-Dimensional System of quantum Dots with Disorder We study the entanglement of formation and quantum phase transition in a one-dimensional quantum dots, for certain parameters, the entanglement is negligible up to a critical point Uc, where a quantum phase
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation
Kalai, Gil
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation Dedicated to the memory of Itamar Pitowsky Abstract The feasibility of computationally superior quantum for quantum evolutions when noise accumulates. 1 Introduction Quantum computers were offered by Feynman [6
Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems
Tobias Zech; Roberto Mulet; Thomas Wellens; Andreas Buchleitner
2012-05-23
For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to be geometrically disordered complexes may well exhibit a hidden symmetry which enhances the energy transport between chromophores. We are confident that our results will motivate research to explore the properties of nearly centro-symmetric Hamiltonians in more realistic environments, and to unveil the role of symmetries for quantum effects in biology. The unravelling of such symmetries may open novel perspectives and suggest new design principles in the development of artificial devices.
A classical leash for a quantum system: Command of quantum systems via rigidity of CHSH games
Ben W. Reichardt; Falk Unger; Umesh Vazirani
2012-09-03
Can a classical system command a general adversarial quantum system to realize arbitrary quantum dynamics? If so, then we could realize the dream of device-independent quantum cryptography: using untrusted quantum devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the correctness of quantum mechanics. It would also allow for testing whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. Here we report a technique by which a classical system can certify the joint, entangled state of a bipartite quantum system, as well as command the application of specific operators on each subsystem. This is accomplished by showing a strong converse to Tsirelson's optimality result for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game: the only way to win many games is if the bipartite state is close to the tensor product of EPR states, and the measurements are the optimal CHSH measurements on successive qubits. This leads directly to a scheme for device-independent quantum key distribution. Control over the state and operators can also be leveraged to create more elaborate protocols for realizing general quantum circuits, and to establish that QMIP = MIP*.
Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura
Martinez, Tony R.
Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura fonix corporation dventura networks to produce competitive learning in a quantum system. The resulting quantum competitive learner has, empirical results from simulation of the quantum competitive learning system on realworld data sets
Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura
Martinez, Tony R.
Implementing Competitive Learning in a Quantum System Dan Ventura fonix corporation dventura networks to produce competitive learning in a quantum system. The resulting quantum competitive learner has, empirical results from simulation of the quantum competitive learning system on real-world data sets
Nonlinear effect on quantum control for two-level systems
Wang, W; Yi, X X
2009-01-01
The traditional quantum control theory focuses on linear quantum system. Here we show the effect of nonlinearity on quantum control of a two-level system, we find that the nonlinearity can change the controllability of quantum system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Lyapunov control can be used to overcome this uncontrollability induced by the nonlinear effect.
Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems
2011-01-01
Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469
Engineering coherent control of quantum information in spin systems
Hodges, Jonathan Stuart
2007-01-01
Quantum Information Processing (QIP) promises increased efficiency in computation. A key step in QIP is implementing quantum logic gates by engineering the dynamics of a quantum system. This thesis explores the requirements ...
Dynamics of quantum correlations in two-qubit systems within non-Markovian environments
Rosario Lo Franco; Bruno Bellomo; Sabrina Maniscalco; Giuseppe Compagno
2012-09-14
Knowledge of the dynamical behavior of correlations with no classical counterpart, like entanglement, nonlocal correlations and quantum discord, in open quantum systems is of primary interest because of the possibility to exploit these correlations for quantum information tasks. Here we review some of the most recent results on the dynamics of correlations in bipartite systems embedded in non-Markovian environments that, with their memory effects, influence in a relevant way the system dynamics and appear to be more fundamental than the Markovian ones for practical purposes. Firstly, we review the phenomenon of entanglement revivals in a two-qubit system for both independent environments and a common environment. We then consider the dynamics of quantum discord in non-Markovian dephasing channel and briefly discuss the occurrence of revivals of quantum correlations in classical environments.
Multi-valley effective mass theory for device-level modeling of open quantum dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Frees, Adam; Gamble, John King; Montano, Ines; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Muller, Richard P.; Nielsen, Erik
2015-03-01
Simple models for semiconductor-based quantum information processors can provide useful qualitative descriptions of device behavior. However, as experimental implementations have matured, more specific guidance from theory has become necessary, particularly in the form of quantitatively reliable yet computationally efficient modeling. Besides modeling static device properties, improved characterization of noisy gate operations requires a more sophisticated description of device dynamics. Making use of recent developments in multi-valley effective mass theory, we discuss device-level simulations of the open system quantum dynamics of a qubit interacting with phonons and other noise sources. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Y.-H.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Bird, J. P.
2005-05-01
We investigate the signatures of dynamical tunnelling in open quantum dots, by implementing a soft-walled microwave cavity as a novel analogue system. We explore the evidence for dynamical tunnelling by studying the evolution of the wavefunction phase as a function of frequency and show evidence for evanescent coupling to isolated orbits, including the existence of 'dirty' states in the wavefunction that are generated from a degenerate pair of 'clean' states when they are degraded by their tunnelling interaction. Our investigations provide a useful analogue of quantum transport in open quantum dots, and demonstrate the importance of dynamical tunnelling that arises from the mixed classical dynamics that is inherent to these structures.
Quantum systems of ultracold bosons with customized interparticle interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, Alexej I.
2013-10-01
Recent progress in cooling and trapping of polarized clouds of chromium 52Cr, dysprosium 164Dy, and erbium 168Er opens a roadmap to quantum systems where the shapes of interparticle interactions can be customized. The main purpose of this work is to get deeper insight into the role the overall shape of the interparticle interaction plays in the context of trapped ultracold bosons. We show that strong interparticle repulsion inevitably leads to multihump fragmentation of the ground state. The fragmentation phenomenon is universal—it takes place in traps of different dimensionalities and topologies and for very broad classes of repulsive interparticle potentials. The physics behind this is identified and explained.
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos
Ignacio García-Mata; Augusto J. Roncaglia; Diego A. Wisniacki
2015-01-23
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is -- to say the least -- fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.
Relaxation of isolated quantum systems beyond chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Mata, Ignacio; Roncaglia, Augusto J.; Wisniacki, Diego A.
2015-01-01
In classical statistical mechanics there is a clear correlation between relaxation to equilibrium and chaos. In contrast, for isolated quantum systems this relation is—to say the least—fuzzy. In this work we try to unveil the intricate relation between the relaxation process and the transition from integrability to chaos. We study the approach to equilibrium in two different many-body quantum systems that can be parametrically tuned from regular to chaotic. We show that a universal relation between relaxation and delocalization of the initial state in the perturbed basis can be established regardless of the chaotic nature of system.
General Transfer-Function Approach to Noise Filtering in Open-Loop Quantum Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Viola, Lorenza
2014-12-01
We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed.
General transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop quantum control.
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Viola, Lorenza
2014-12-19
We present a general transfer-function approach to noise filtering in open-loop Hamiltonian engineering protocols for open quantum systems. We show how to identify a computationally tractable set of fundamental filter functions, out of which arbitrary transfer filter functions may be assembled up to arbitrary high order in principle. Besides avoiding the infinite recursive hierarchy of filter functions that arises in general control scenarios, this fundamental filter-function set suffices to characterize the error suppression capabilities of the control protocol in both the time and the frequency domain. We prove that the resulting notion of filtering order reveals conceptually distinct, albeit complementary, features of the controlled dynamics as compared to the order of error cancellation, traditionally defined in the Magnus sense. Examples and implications are discussed. PMID:25554866
Huang, Yi-Zhi
Quantum Hall systems Representation theory of vertex operator algebras Applications The end Quantum Science, CAS #12;Quantum Hall systems Representation theory of vertex operator algebras Applications quantum computation 2 Representation theory of vertex operator algebras Vetrex operator algebras, modules
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
K. Urbanowski
2015-12-12
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not defined. This effect can affect the form of the decay law of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems.
Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz
Buller, Gerald S.
Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz Karen J. Gordon, Veronica Fernandez, Gerald S-based quantum key distribution test system performance in terms of transmission distance and quantum bit error-179. 2. P.W. Shor and J. Preskill, "Simple Proof of Security of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution
Ground State Entanglement in One Dimensional Translationally Invariant Quantum Systems
Irani, Sandy
Ground State Entanglement in One Dimensional Translationally Invariant Quantum Systems Sandy Irani and quantifying entanglement in quantum systems is a central theme in quantum information science. On one hand quantum entanglement is a valuable re- source that enables novel computation and communication
On the velocity of moving relativistic unstable quantum systems
Urbanowski, K
2015-01-01
We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of moving freely relativistic quantum unstable systems can not be constant in time. We show that this effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: It is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not definite.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
Pan, Yu E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Miao, Zibo E-mail: zibo.miao@anu.edu.au; Amini, Hadis; Gough, John; Ugrinovskii, Valery; James, Matthew R.
2014-06-15
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Heisenberg picture approach to the stability of quantum Markov systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yu; Amini, Hadis; Miao, Zibo; Gough, John; Ugrinovskii, Valery; James, Matthew R.
2014-06-01
Quantum Markovian systems, modeled as unitary dilations in the quantum stochastic calculus of Hudson and Parthasarathy, have become standard in current quantum technological applications. This paper investigates the stability theory of such systems. Lyapunov-type conditions in the Heisenberg picture are derived in order to stabilize the evolution of system operators as well as the underlying dynamics of the quantum states. In particular, using the quantum Markov semigroup associated with this quantum stochastic differential equation, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence and stability of a unique and faithful invariant quantum state. Furthermore, this paper proves the quantum invariance principle, which extends the LaSalle invariance principle to quantum systems in the Heisenberg picture. These results are formulated in terms of algebraic constraints suitable for engineering quantum systems that are used in coherent feedback networks.
Quantum Langevin equations for optomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barchielli, Alberto; Vacchini, Bassano
2015-08-01
We provide a fully quantum description of a mechanical oscillator in the presence of thermal environmental noise by means of a quantum Langevin formulation based on quantum stochastic calculus. The system dynamics is determined by symmetry requirements and equipartition at equilibrium, while the environment is described by quantum Bose fields in a suitable non-Fock representation which allows for the introduction of temperature. A generic spectral density of the environment can be described by introducing its state through a suitable P-representation. Including interaction of the mechanical oscillator with a cavity mode via radiation pressure we obtain a description of a simple optomechanical system in which, besides the Langevin equations for the system, one has the exact input-output relations for the quantum noises. The whole theory is valid at arbitrarily low temperature. This allows the exact calculation of the stationary value of the mean energy of the mechanical oscillator, as well as both homodyne and heterodyne spectra. The present analysis allows in particular to study possible cooling scenarios and to obtain the exact connection between observed spectra and fluctuation spectra of the position of the mechanical oscillator.
Rewriting Modulo SMT and Open System Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rocha, Camilo; Meseguer, Jose; Munoz, Cesar
2014-01-01
This paper proposes rewriting modulo SMT, a new technique that combines the power of SMT solving, rewriting modulo theories, and model checking. Rewriting modulo SMT is ideally suited to model and analyze infinite-state open systems, i.e., systems that interact with a non-deterministic environment. Such systems exhibit both internal non-determinism, which is proper to the system, and external non-determinism, which is due to the environment. In a reflective formalism, such as rewriting logic, rewriting modulo SMT can be reduced to standard rewriting. Hence, rewriting modulo SMT naturally extends rewriting-based reachability analysis techniques, which are available for closed systems, to open systems. The proposed technique is illustrated with the formal analysis of: (i) a real-time system that is beyond the scope of timed-automata methods and (ii) automatic detection of reachability violations in a synchronous language developed to support autonomous spacecraft operations.
Quantum Discord for d?2 Systems
Ma, Zhihao; Chen, Zhihua; Fanchini, Felipe Fernandes; Fei, Shao-Ming
2015-01-01
We present an analytical solution for classical correlation, defined in terms of linear entropy, in an arbitrary system when the second subsystem is measured. We show that the optimal measurements used in the maximization of the classical correlation in terms of linear entropy, when used to calculate the quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy, result in a tight upper bound for arbitrary systems. This bound agrees with all known analytical results about quantum discord in terms of von Neumann entropy and, when comparing it with the numerical results for 106 two-qubit random density matrices, we obtain an average deviation of order 10?4. Furthermore, our results give a way to calculate the quantum discord for arbitrary n-qubit GHZ and W states evolving under the action of the amplitude damping noisy channel. PMID:26036771
Open quantum system parameters from molecular dynamics
Wang, Xiaoqing; Wüster, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander
2015-01-01
We extract the site energies and spectral densities of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment protein complex of green sulphur bacteria from simulations of molecular dynamics combined with energy gap calculations. Comparing four different combinations of methods, we investigate the origin of quantitative differences regarding site energies and spectral densities obtained previously in the literature. We find that different forcefields for molecular dynamics and varying local energy minima found by the structure relaxation yield significantly different results. Nevertheless, a picture averaged over these variations is in good agreement with experiments and some other theory results. Throughout, we discuss how vibrations external- or internal to the pigment molecules enter the extracted quantities differently and can be distinguished. Our results offer some guidance to set up more computationally intensive calculations for a precise determination of spectral densities in the future. These are required to determ...
Quantum temporal probabilities in tunneling systems
Anastopoulos, Charis Savvidou, Ntina
2013-09-15
We study the temporal aspects of quantum tunneling as manifested in time-of-arrival experiments in which the detected particle tunnels through a potential barrier. In particular, we present a general method for constructing temporal probabilities in tunneling systems that (i) defines ‘classical’ time observables for quantum systems and (ii) applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. We show that the relevant probabilities are defined in terms of specific correlation functions of the quantum field associated with tunneling particles. We construct a probability distribution with respect to the time of particle detection that contains all information about the temporal aspects of the tunneling process. In specific cases, this probability distribution leads to the definition of a delay time that, for parity-symmetric potentials, reduces to the phase time of Bohm and Wigner. We apply our results to piecewise constant potentials, by deriving the appropriate junction conditions on the points of discontinuity. For the double square potential, in particular, we demonstrate the existence of (at least) two physically relevant time parameters, the delay time and a decay rate that describes the escape of particles trapped in the inter-barrier region. Finally, we propose a resolution to the paradox of apparent superluminal velocities for tunneling particles. We demonstrate that the idea of faster-than-light speeds in tunneling follows from an inadmissible use of classical reasoning in the description of quantum systems. -- Highlights: •Present a general methodology for deriving temporal probabilities in tunneling systems. •Treatment applies to relativistic particles interacting through quantum fields. •Derive a new expression for tunneling time. •Identify new time parameters relevant to tunneling. •Propose a resolution of the superluminality paradox in tunneling.
Connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems
Wu Rong; Rabitz, Herschel; Turinici, Gabriel; Sola, Ignacio
2004-11-01
A connectivity analysis of controlled quantum systems assesses the feasibility of a field existing that can transfer at least some amplitude between any specified pair of states. Although Hamiltonians with special structure or symmetry may not produce full connectivity, it is argued and demonstrated that virtually any Hamiltonian is expected to be connected. The connectivity of any particular system is generally revealed in the quantum evolution over a single or at most a few time steps. A connectivity analysis is inexpensive to perform and it can also identify statistically significant intermediate states linking a specified initial and final state. These points are illustrated with several simple systems. The likelihood of an arbitrary system being connected implies that at least some product yield can be expected in the laboratory for virtually all systems subjected to a suitable control.
Quantum Attacks on Classical Proof Systems The Hardness of Quantum Rewinding
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
cryptography be made secure against quantum attacks? Much research has been done towards cryptographic schemesQuantum Attacks on Classical Proof Systems The Hardness of Quantum Rewinding Andris Ambainis University of Latvia and Institute for Advanced Study Princeton Ansis Rosmanis Institute for Quantum
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih; Li, Qing
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish a model of an irreversible quantum Brayton engine using many noninteracting spin systems as the working substance and consisting of two irreversible adiabatic and two isomagnetic field processes. The time evolution of the total magnetic moment M is determined by solving the generalized quantum master equation of an open system in the Heisenberg picture. The time of two irreversible adiabatic processes is considered based on finite-rate evolution. The relationship between the power output P and the efficiency ? for the irreversible quantum Brayton engine with spin systems is derived. The optimally operating region (or criteria) for the engine is determined. The influences of these important parameters on the performances ( P and ? ) of the engine are discussed. The results obtained herein will be useful for the further understanding and the selection of the optimal operating conditions for an irreversible quantum Brayton engine with spin systems.
Semiclassical Analysis of Constrained Quantum Systems
Tsobanjan, Artur
2009-12-15
Exact procedures that follow Dirac's constraint quantization of gauge theories are usually technically involved and often difficult to implement in practice. We overview an 'effective' scheme for obtaining the leading order semiclassical corrections to the dynamics of constrained quantum systems developed elsewhere. Motivated by the geometrical view of quantum mechanics, our method mimics the classical Dirac-Bergmann algorithm and avoids direct reference to a particular representation of the physical Hilbert space. We illustrate the procedure through the example of a relativistic particle in Minkowski spacetime.
Statistical Thermodynamics of Polymer Quantum Systems
Guillermo Chacón-Acosta; Elisa Manrique; Leonardo Dagdug; Hugo A. Morales-Técotl
2011-12-02
Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional {\\em polymer} quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. Depending on the dominance of the polymer length we can distinguish two regimes: vibrational and rotational. The first occur for small polymer length and here the standard oscillator in Schr\\"odinger quantization is recovered at leading order. The second one, for large polymer length, features dominant polymer effects. In the case of the polymer particles in the box, a bounded and oscillating spectrum that presents a band structure and a Brillouin zone is found. The thermodynamical quantities calculated with these spectra have corrections with respect to standard ones and they depend on the polymer length. For generic polymer length, thermodynamics of both systems present an anomalous peak in their heat capacity $C_V$.
Thermodynamics of quantum systems under dynamical control
D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Gershon Kurizki
2015-03-04
In this review the debated rapport between thermodynamics and quantum mechanics is addressed in the framework of the theory of periodically-driven/controlled quantum-thermodynamic machines. The basic model studied here is that of a two-level system (TLS), whose energy is periodically modulated while the system is coupled to thermal baths. When the modulation interval is short compared to the bath memory time, the system-bath correlations are affected, thereby causing cooling or heating of the TLS, depending on the interval. In steady state, a periodically-modulated TLS coupled to two distinct baths constitutes the simplest quantum heat machine (QHM) that may operate as either an engine or a refrigerator, depending on the modulation rate. We find their efficiency and power-output bounds and the conditions for attaining these bounds. An extension of this model to multilevel systems shows that the QHM power output can be boosted by the multilevel degeneracy. These results are used to scrutinize basic thermodynamic principles: (i) Externally-driven/modulated QHMs may attain the Carnot efficiency bound, but when the driving is done by a quantum device ("piston"), the efficiency strongly depends on its initial quantum state. Such dependence has been unknown thus far. (ii) The refrigeration rate effected by QHMs does not vanish as the temperature approaches absolute zero for certain quantized baths, e.g., magnons, thous challenging Nernst's unattainability principle. (iii) System-bath correlations allow more work extraction under periodic control than that expected from the Szilard-Landauer principle, provided the period is in the non-Markovian domain. Thus, dynamically-controlled QHMs may benefit from hitherto unexploited thermodynamic resources.
Chiral quantum mechanics (CQM) for antihydrogen systems
G. Van Hooydonk
2005-12-03
A first deception of QM on antiH already appears in one-center integrals for two-center systems (G. Van Hooydonk, physics/0511115). In reality, full QM is a theory for chiral systems but the QM establishment was wrong footed with a permutation of reference frames. With chiral quantum mechanics (CQM), the theoretical ban on natural antiH must be lifted as soon as possible.
Planar lightwave circuits for quantum cryptographic systems
Yoshihiro Nambu; Takaaki Hatanaka; Kazuo Nakamura
2003-07-10
We propose a quantum cryptographic system based on a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) and report on optical interference experiments using PLC-based unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The interferometers exhibited high-visibility (>0.98) interference even when the polarisation in the optical fibre connecting the two MZIs was randomly modulated. The results demonstrate that a PLC-based setup is suitable for achieving a polarisation-insensitive phase-coding cryptographic system.
Repeated Interactions Quantum Systems:. Deterministic and Random
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joye, Alain
2008-08-01
This paper gives an overview of recent results concerning the long time dynamics of repeated interaction quantum systems in a deterministic and random framework. We describe the non equilibrium steady states (NESS) such systems display and we present, as a macroscopic consequence, a second law of thermodynamics these NESS give rise to. We also explain in some details the analysis of products of certain random matrices underlying this dynamical problem.
The quantum human central neural system.
Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John
2015-01-01
In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)
1998-01-01
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.
1998-03-24
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.
Constrained quantum systems as an adiabatic problem
Wachsmuth, Jakob; Teufel, Stefan
2010-08-15
We derive the effective Hamiltonian for a quantum system constrained to a submanifold (the constraint manifold) of configuration space (the ambient space) in the asymptotic limit, where the restoring forces tend to infinity. In contrast to earlier works, we consider, at the same time, the effects of variations in the constraining potential and the effects of interior and exterior geometry, which appear at different energy scales and, thus, provide a complete picture, which ranges over all interesting energy scales. We show that the leading order contribution to the effective Hamiltonian is the adiabatic potential given by an eigenvalue of the confining potential well known in the context of adiabatic quantum waveguides. At next to leading order, we see effects from the variation of the normal eigenfunctions in the form of a Berry connection. We apply our results to quantum waveguides and provide an example for the occurrence of a topological phase due to the geometry of a quantum wave circuit (i.e., a closed quantum waveguide).
LQG feedback control of a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems
Shibei Xue; Matthew R. James; Valery Ugrinovskii; Ian R. Petersen
2016-01-04
In this paper we present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback control strategy for a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems. The feedback control law is designed based on the estimated states of a whitening quantum filter for an augmented Markovian model of the non-Markovian open quantum systems. In this augmented Markovian model, an ancillary system plays the role of internal modes of the environment converting white noise into Lorentzian noise and a principal system obeys non-Markovian dynamics due to the direct interaction with the ancillary system. The simulation results show the LQG controller with the whitening filter obtains a better control performance than that with a Markovian filter in the problem of minimizing the photon numbers of the principal system when the ancillary system is disturbed by thermal noise.
LQG feedback control of a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems
Shibei Xue; Matthew R. James; Valery Ugrinovskii; Ian R. Petersen
2015-09-30
In this paper we present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback control strategy for a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems. The feedback control law is designed based on the estimated states of a whitening quantum filter for an augmented Markovian model of the non-Markovian open quantum systems. In this augmented Markovian model, an ancillary system plays the role of internal modes of the environment converting white noise into Lorentzian noise and a principal system obeys non-Markovian dynamics due to the direct interaction with the ancillary system. The simulation results show the LQG controller with the whitening filter obtains a better control performance than that with a Markovian filter in the problem of minimizing the photon numbers of the principal system when the ancillary system is disturbed by thermal noise.
An E-payment system based on quantum group signature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaojun, Wen
2010-12-01
Security and anonymity are essential to E-payment systems. However, existing E-payment systems will easily be broken into soon with the emergence of quantum computers. In this paper, we propose an E-payment system based on quantum group signature. In contrast to classical E-payment systems, our quantum E-payment system can protect not only the users' anonymity but also the inner structure of customer groups. Because of adopting the two techniques of quantum key distribution, a one-time pad and quantum group signature, unconditional security of our E-payment system is guaranteed.
OPEN PROBLEM: Spatially localized structures in dissipative systems: open problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knobloch, E.
2008-04-01
Stationary spatially localized structures, sometimes called dissipative solitons, arise in many interesting and important applications, including buckling of slender structures under compression, nonlinear optics, fluid flow, surface catalysis, neurobiology and many more. The recent resurgence in interest in these structures has led to significant advances in our understanding of the origin and properties of these states, and these in turn suggest new questions, both general and system-specific. This paper surveys these results focusing on open problems, both mathematical and computational, as well as on new applications.
Thermalization of field driven quantum systems
Fotso, H.; Mikelsons, K.; Freericks, J. K.
2014-01-01
There is much interest in how quantum systems thermalize after a sudden change, because unitary evolution should preclude thermalization. The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis resolves this because all observables for quantum states in a small energy window have essentially the same value; it is violated for integrable systems due to the infinite number of conserved quantities. Here, we show that when a system is driven by a DC electric field there are five generic behaviors: (i) monotonic or (ii) oscillatory approach to an infinite-temperature steady state; (iii) monotonic or (iv) oscillatory approach to a nonthermal steady state; or (v) evolution to an oscillatory state. Examining the Hubbard model (which thermalizes under a quench) and the Falicov-Kimball model (which does not), we find both exhibit scenarios (i–iv), while only Hubbard shows scenario (v). This shows richer behavior than in interaction quenches and integrability in the absence of a field plays no role. PMID:24736404
Improving the Coherence Time of a Quantum System via a Coupling to a Short-Lived System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Zhu, Xiaobo; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Toida, Hiraku; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Nemoto, Kae; Semba, Kouichi; Munro, William J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro
2015-03-01
In this Letter, we propose a counterintuitive use of a hybrid system where the coherence time of a quantum system can be significantly improved by coupling it with a system of a shorter coherence time. Coupling a two-level system with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV- ) center, a dark state of the NV- center naturally forms after the hybridization. We show that this dark state becomes robust against noise due to the coupling even when the coherence time of the two-level system is much shorter than that of the NV- center. Our proposal opens a new way to use a quantum hybrid system for the realization of robust quantum information processing.
Uncertainty relation for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2013-01-15
General forms of uncertainty relations for quantum observables of non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered. Special cases of uncertainty relations are discussed. The uncertainty relations for non-Hamiltonian quantum systems are considered in the Schroedinger-Robertson form since it allows us to take into account Lie-Jordan algebra of quantum observables. In uncertainty relations, the time dependence of quantum observables and the properties of this dependence are discussed. We take into account that a time evolution of observables of a non-Hamiltonian quantum system is not an endomorphism with respect to Lie, Jordan, and associative multiplications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping
The thesis comprises two major themes of quantum statistical dynamics. One is the development of quantum dissipation theory (QDT). It covers the establishment of some basic relations of quantum statistical dynamics, the construction of several nonequivalent complete second-order formulations, and the development of exact QDT. Another is related to the applications of quantum statistical dynamics to a variety of research fields. In particular, unconventional but novel theories of the electron transfer in Debye solvents, quantum transport, and quantum measurement are developed on the basis of QDT formulations. The thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 1, we present some background knowledge in relation to the aforementioned two themes of this thesis. The key quantity in QDT is the reduced density operator rho(t) ? trBrho T(t); i.e., the partial trace of the total system and bath composite rhoT(t) over the bath degrees of freedom. QDT governs the evolution of reduced density operator, where the effects of bath are treated in a quantum statistical manner. In principle, the reduced density operator contains all dynamics information of interest. However, the conventional quantum transport theory is formulated in terms of nonequilibrium Green's function. The newly emerging field of quantum measurement in relation to quantum information and quantum computing does exploit a sort of QDT formalism. Besides the background of the relevant theoretical development, some representative experiments on molecular nanojunctions are also briefly discussed. In chapter 2, we outline some basic (including new) relations that highlight several important issues on QDT. The content includes the background of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics, the general description of the total composite Hamiltonian with stochastic system-bath interaction, a novel parameterization scheme for bath correlation functions, a newly developed exact theory of driven Brownian oscillator (DBO) systems, and its closely related solvation mode transformation of system-bath coupling Hamiltonian in general. The exact QDT of DBO systems is also used to clarify the validity of conventional QDT formulations that involve Markovian approximation. In Chapter 3, we develop three nonequivalent but all complete second-order QDT (CS-QDT) formulations. Two of them are of the conventional prescriptions in terms of time-local dissipation and memory kernel, respectively. The third one is called the correlated driving-dissipation equations of motion (CODDE). This novel CS-QDT combines the merits of the former two for its advantages in both the application and numerical implementation aspects. Also highlighted is the importance of correlated driving-dissipation effects on the dynamics of the reduced system. In Chapter 4, we construct an exact QDT formalism via the calculus on path integrals. The new theory aims at the efficient evaluation of non-Markovian dissipation beyond the weak system-bath interaction regime in the presence of time-dependent external field. By adopting exponential-like expansions for bath correlation function, hierarchical equations of motion formalism and continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism are established. The latter will soon be used together with the Dyson equation technique for an efficient evaluation of non-perturbative reduced density matrix dynamics. The interplay between system-bath interaction strength, non-Markovian property, and the required level of hierarchy is also studied with the aid of simple spin-boson systems, together with the three proposed schemes to truncate the infinite hierarchy. In Chapter 5, we develop a nonperturbative theory of electron transfer (ET) in Debye solvents. The resulting exact and analytical rate expression is constructed on the basis of the aforementioned continued fraction Liouville-space Green's function formalism, together with the Dyson equation technique. Not only does it recover the celebrated Marcus' inversion and Kramers' turnover behaviors, the new theory also shows some disti
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Ronnie Kosloff
2013-05-10
Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations. We claim that inconsistency is the result of faulty analysis pointing to flaws in approximations.
Simulating two- and three-dimensional frustrated quantum systems with string-bond states
Sfondrini, Alessandro; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio
2009-01-01
Simulating frustrated quantum magnets is among the most challenging tasks in computational physics. We apply String-Bond States, a recently introduced ansatz which combines Tensor Networks with Monte Carlo based methods, to the simulation of frustrated quantum systems in both two and three dimensions. Our results compare well to existing results for unfrustrated and two-dimensional systems with open boundary conditions, while the method applies equally well to the simulation of frustrated systems with periodic boundaries in both two and three dimensions.
Simulating two- and three-dimensional frustrated quantum systems with string-bond states
Alessandro Sfondrini; Javier Cerrillo; Norbert Schuch; J. Ignacio Cirac
2010-07-07
Simulating frustrated quantum magnets is among the most challenging tasks in computational physics. We apply String-Bond States, a recently introduced ansatz which combines Tensor Networks with Monte Carlo based methods, to the simulation of frustrated quantum systems in both two and three dimensions. We compare our results with existing results for unfrustrated and two-dimensional systems with open boundary conditions, and demonstrate that the method applies equally well to the simulation of frustrated systems with periodic boundaries in both two and three dimensions.
A quantum dynamics study of the benzopyran ring opening guided by laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saab, Mohamad; Doriol, Loïc Joubert; Lasorne, Benjamin; Guérin, Stéphane; Gatti, Fabien
2014-10-01
The ring-opening photoisomerization of benzopyran, which occurs via a photochemical route involving a conical intersection, has been studied with quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method (MCTDH). We introduce a mechanistic strategy to control the conversion of benzopyran to merocyanine with laser pulses. We use a six-dimensional model developed in a previous work for the potential energy surfaces (PES) based on an extension of the vibronic-coupling Hamiltonian model (diabatization method by ansatz), which depends on the most active degrees of freedom. The main objective of these quantum dynamics simulations is to provide a set of strategies that could help experimentalists to control the photoreactivity vs. photostability ratio (selectivity). In this work we present: (i) a pump-dump technique used to control the photostability, (ii) a two-step strategy to enhance the reactivity of the system: first, a pure vibrational excitation in the electronic ground state that prepares the system and, second, an ultraviolet excitation that brings the system to the first adiabatic electronic state; (iii) finally the effect of a non-resonant pulse (Stark effect) on the dynamics.
E. Mascarenhas; B. Marques; D. Cavalcanti; M. Terra Cunha; M. Fran\\cca Santos
2010-04-12
We study how to protect quantum information in quantum systems subjected to local dissipation. We show that combining the use of three-level systems, environment monitoring, and local feedback can fully and deterministically protect any available quantum information, including entanglement initially shared by different parties. These results can represent a gain in resources and/or distances in quantum communication protocols such as quantum repeaters and teleportation as well as time for quantum memories. Finally, we show that monitoring local environments physically implements the optimum singlet conversion protocol, essential for classical entanglement percolation.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-09-15
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.
Focus on coherent control of complex quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whaley, Birgitta; Milburn, Gerard
2015-10-01
The rapid growth of quantum information sciences over the past few decades has fueled a corresponding rise in high profile applications in fields such as metrology, sensors, spintronics, and attosecond dynamics, in addition to quantum information processing. Realizing this potential of today’s quantum science and the novel technologies based on this requires a high degree of coherent control of quantum systems. While early efforts in systematizing methods for high fidelity quantum control focused on isolated or closed quantum systems, recent advances in experimental design, measurement and monitoring, have stimulated both need and interest in the control of complex or large scale quantum systems that may also be coupled to an interactive environment or reservoir. This focus issue brings together new theoretical and experimental work addressing the formulation and implementation of quantum control for a broad range of applications in quantum science and technology today.
Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems.
Girolami, Davide
2014-10-24
Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes. PMID:25379903
Theory of classical and quantum frustration in quantum many-body systems
Giampaolo, S M; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-01-01
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. After introducing a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems, we derive for it an exact inequality in terms of a class of entanglement monotones. We then state sufficient conditions for the ground states of quantum spin systems to saturate the inequality and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems and establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-10-01
We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.
Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems.
Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio
2015-10-01
We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem. PMID:26565174
Open Source CRM Systems for SMEs
Tereso, Marco
2011-01-01
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems are very common in large companies. However, CRM systems are not very common in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Most SMEs do not implement CRM systems due to several reasons, such as lack of knowledge about CRM or lack of financial resources to implement CRM systems. SMEs have to start implementing Information Systems (IS) technology into their business operations in order to improve business values and gain more competitive advantage over rivals. CRM system has the potential to help improve the business value and competitive capabilities of SMEs. Given the high fixed costs of normal activity of companies, we intend to promote free and viable solutions for small and medium businesses. In this paper, we explain the reasons why SMEs do not implement CRM system and the benefits of using open source CRM system in SMEs. We also describe the functionalities of top open source CRM systems, examining the applicability of these tools in fitting the needs of SMEs.
On Mathematical Modeling Of Quantum Systems
Achuthan, P.; Narayanankutty, Karuppath
2009-07-02
The world of physical systems at the most fundamental levels is replete with efficient, interesting models possessing sufficient ability to represent the reality to a considerable extent. So far, quantum mechanics (QM) forming the basis of almost all natural phenomena, has found beyond doubt its intrinsic ingenuity, capacity and robustness to stand the rigorous tests of validity from and through appropriate calculations and experiments. No serious failures of quantum mechanical predictions have been reported, yet. However, Albert Einstein, the greatest theoretical physicist of the twentieth century and some other eminent men of science have stated firmly and categorically that QM, though successful by and large, is incomplete. There are classical and quantum reality models including those based on consciousness. Relativistic quantum theoretical approaches to clearly understand the ultimate nature of matter as well as radiation have still much to accomplish in order to qualify for a final theory of everything (TOE). Mathematical models of better, suitable character as also strength are needed to achieve satisfactory explanation of natural processes and phenomena. We, in this paper, discuss some of these matters with certain apt illustrations as well.
Evolution of quantum correlations in a two-atom system
Ryszard Tana?
2012-10-22
We discuss the evolution of quantum correlations for a system of two two-level atoms interacting with a common reservoir. The Markovian master equation is used to describe the evolution of various measures of quantum correlations.
Quantum entanglement in multiparticle systems of two-level atoms
Deb, Ram Narayan
2011-09-15
We propose the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of quantum entanglement in arbitrary symmetric pure states of two-level atomic systems. We introduce a parameter to quantify quantum entanglement in such systems. We express the inherent quantum fluctuations of a composite system of two-level atoms as a sum of the quantum fluctuations of the individual constituent atoms and their correlation terms. This helps to separate out and study solely the quantum correlations among the atoms and obtain the criterion for the presence of entanglement in such multiatomic systems.
Time fractional development of quantum systems
Ertik, Hueseyin; Demirhan, Dogan; Sirin, Hueseyin; Bueyuekkilic, Fevzi
2010-08-15
In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a Schroedinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order {alpha}, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case {alpha}=1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order {alpha} is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.
EDITORIAL: How to control decoherence and entanglement in quantum complex systems?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akulin, V. M.; Kurizki, G.; Lidar, D. A.
2007-05-01
Theory and experiment have not fully resolved the apparent dichotomy, which has agonized physics for the past eighty years: on the one hand, the description of microsystems by quantum mechanics and, on the other, the description of macrosystems by classical dynamics or statistical mechanics. Derivations of the time-irreversible Liouville equation for an open quantum system, based on projecting out its environment, have narrowed the gap between the quantum and classical descriptions. Yet our `classical' intuition continues to be confronted by quantum-mechanical results like the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen paradox that challenges the classical notion of locality, or the quantum Zeno effect which suggests that the isolation of a system is not the only way to preserve its quantum state. There are two key concepts in any discussion of such issues. The first, which is responsible for the most salient nonclassical properties, is entanglement, that is partial or complete correlation or, more generally, inseparability of the elements comprising a quantum ensemble. Even after their interaction has ceased, this inseparability, originating from their past interaction, can affect the state of one element when another element is subject to a nonunitary action, such as its measurement, tracing- out, or thermalization. The second key concept is decoherence of open quantum systems, which is the consequence of their entanglement with their environment, a `meter' or a thermal `reservoir', followed by the tracing-out of the latter. Despite new insights into entanglement and decoherence, there are still no complete, unequivocal answers to the fundamental questions of the transition from quantal to classical behaviour: how do irreversibility and classicality emerge from unitarity as systems and their environments become increasingly complex? At what stage does system--meter entanglement give rise to a classical readout of the meter? Is there an upper limit on the size or complexity of systems displaying entanglement? Major developments have opened new vistas into controlled entanglement, which is the resource of quantum information processing. However, these developments have mainly focused on ensembles of simple two- and three-level systems that are thoroughly isolated from their environments. Treatments of coherence in quantum computing have mostly assumed that only a single or a few the elements of the quantum ensemble may simultaneously undergo an uncontrolled intervention---a quantum error. Decoherence-control protocols for more general types of errors are still incomplete. In order to resolve the outstanding issues of the quantum--classical transition, and study the control of entanglement and decoherence without the foregoing restrictions, we must venture into the domain of Quantum Complex Systems (QUACS), either consisting of a large number of inseparable elements or having many coupled degrees of freedom. Our conviction is that fundamental understanding and manipulation of entanglement within QUACS or their entanglement with the environment or a meter, call for the creation of a new conceptual framework or paradigm, that would encompass phenomena common to cold atoms in laser fields, large molecules, Josephson junctions, quantum gases and solids, with the view of employing these systems for quantum information processing and computing. Progress within this paradigm should allow us to answer the questions: does entanglement play an essential role in the evolution of large collections of complex systems? What are the size and complexity limits of systems and ensembles still controllable by an external intervention? What are the most appropriate decoherence protection schemes and control algorithms? This special issue addresses the challenge of understanding in depth and manipulating the basic quantum properties of optical, atomic, molecular and condensed-matter QUACS, and large ensembles thereof. In view of the interdisciplinary character of this issue, we find it expedient to look at the presented articles not only according to the phys
Full distribution of work done on a quantum system for arbitrary initial states
P. Solinas; S. Gasparinetti
2015-08-16
We propose a novel approach to define and measure the statistics of work, internal energy and dissipated heat in a driven quantum system. In our framework the presence of a physical detector arises naturally and work and its statistics can be investigated in the most general case. In particular, we show that the quantum coherence of the initial state can lead to measurable effects on the moments of the work done on the system. At the same time, we recover the known results if the initial state is a statistical mixture of energy eigenstates. Our method can also be applied to measure the dissipated heat in an open quantum system. By sequentially coupling the system to a detector, we can track the energy dissipated in the environment while accessing only the system degrees of freedom.
Full distribution of work done on a quantum system for arbitrary initial states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solinas, P.; Gasparinetti, S.
2015-10-01
We propose an approach to define and measure the statistics of work, internal energy and dissipated heat in a driven quantum system. In our framework the presence of a physical detector arises naturally and work and its statistics can be investigated in the most general case. In particular, we show that the quantum coherence of the initial state can lead to measurable effects on the moments of the work done on the system. At the same time, we recover the known results if the initial state is a statistical mixture of energy eigenstates. Our method can also be applied to measure the dissipated heat in an open quantum system. By sequentially coupling the system to a detector, we can track the energy dissipated in the environment while accessing only the system degrees of freedom.
Quantum Signatures of Solar System Dynamics
Arkady L. Kholodenko
2008-10-17
Let w(i) be a period of rotation of the i-th planet around the Sun (or w(j;i) be a period of rotation of j-th satellite around the i-th planet). From empirical observations it is known that the sum of n(i)w(i)=0 (or the sum of n(j)w(j;i)=0) for some integers n(i) (or n(j)), different for different satellite systems. These conditions, known as resonance conditions, make uses of theories such as KAM difficult to implement. The resonances in Solar System are similar to those encountered in old quantum mechanics where applications of methods of celestial mechanics to atomic and molecular physics were highly sucsessful. With such a success, the birth of new quantum mechanics is difficult to understand. In short, the rationale for its birth lies in simplicity with which the same type of calculations are done using new methods capable of taking care of resonances. The solution of quantization puzzle was found by Heisenberg. In this paper new uses of Heisenberg's ideas are found. When superimposed with the equivalence principle of general relativity, they lead to quantum mechanical tratment of observed resonances in Solar System. To test correctness of our theoretical predictions the number of allowed stable orbits for planets and for equatorial stable orbits of satellites of heavy planets is calculated resulting in good agreement with observational data. In addition, the paper briefly discusses quantum mechanical nature of rings of heavy planets and potential usefulness of the obtained results for cosmology.
Open problems in theory of nuclear open quantum systems
N. Michel; W. Nazarewicz; J. Okolowicz; M. Ploszajczak
2010-02-03
Is there a connection between the branch point singularity at the particle emission threshold and the appearance of cluster states which reveal the structure of a corresponding reaction channel? Which nuclear states are most impacted by the coupling to the scattering continuum? What should be the most important steps in developing the theory that will truly unify nuclear structure and nuclear reactions? The common denominator of these questions is the continuum shell-model approach to bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions.
Open-system dynamics of entanglement:a key issues review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz
2015-04-01
One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors. In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and robustness-enhancement techniques, scaling laws, statistical and geometrical aspects of multipartite-entanglement decay are also reviewed; all in order to give a broad picture of entanglement dynamics in open quantum systems addressed to both theorists and experimentalists inside and outside the field of quantum information.
Teaching the Environment to Control Quantum Systems
Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz
2006-09-12
A non-equilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal non-equilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.
Teaching the environment to control quantum systems
Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel
2006-06-15
A nonequilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal nonequilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.
Identities for Entropy Change Associated with the Time-Evolution of an Open System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majima, Hiroki; Suzuki, Akira
2015-08-01
A general relation between entropy and an evolutionary superoperator is derived based on the theory of the real-time formulation. The formulation establishing the relation relies only on the framework of quantum statistical mechanics and the standard definition of the von Neumann entropy. Applying the theory of the imaginary-time formulation, a similar relation is obtained for the entropy change due to the change in reservoir temperatures. To show the usefulness of these formulas, we derived the expression for the entropy production induced by some dissipation in an open quantum system as the exemplary model system.
Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2015-01-01
This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial informations can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated R\\'enyi entropies are now well recognized to contains key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the u...
EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit QED. Another rapidly growing research field (although its origin can be traced to the beginning of the 1980s) is the quantum control of evolution at the microscopic level. These examples show that quantum non-stationary systems continue to be a living and very interesting part of quantum physics, uniting researchers from many different areas. Thus it is no mere chance that several special scientific meetings devoted to these topics have been organized recently. One was the international seminar 'Time-Dependent Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' organized by Manfred Kleber and Tobias Kramer in 2007 at Blaubeuren, Germany. The proceedings of that event were published in 2008 as volume 99 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Another recent meeting was the International Workshop on Quantum Non-Stationary Systems, held on 19-23 October 2009 at the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics (ICCMP) in Brasilia, Brazil. It was organized and directed by Victor Dodonov (Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia, Brazil), Vladimir Man'ko (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia) and Salomon Mizrahi (Physics Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil). This event was accompanied by a satellite workshop 'Quantum Dynamics in Optics and Matter', organized by Salomon Mizrahi and Victor Dodonov on 25-26 October 2009 at the Physics Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil. These two workshops, supported by the Brazilian federal agencies CAPES and CNPq and the local agencies FAP-DF and FAPESP, were attended by more than 120 participants from 16 countries. Almost 50 invited talks and 20 poster presentations covered a wide area of research in quantum mechanics, quantum optics and quantum information. This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta contains contributions presented by some invited speakers and participants of the workshop in Brasilia. Although they do not cover all of the wide spectrum of problems related to quantum non-stationary systems, they nonetheless show some general trends. However, readers should remember that thes
An Open System for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging
Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiang; Yu, Yanyan; Cheng, Wang Fai; Tsang, Fu Keung; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Dai, Jiyan; Sun, Lei
2013-01-01
Visualization of the blood vessels can provide valuable morphological information for diagnosis and therapy strategies for cardiovascular disease. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution. However, the developed IVUS is insufficient to identify the fibrous cap thickness and tissue composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Novel imaging strategies have been proposed, such as increasing the center frequency of ultrasound or using a modulated excitation technique to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Dual-mode tomography combining IVUS with optical tomography has also been developed to determine tissue morphology and characteristics. The implementation of these new imaging methods requires an open system that allows users to customize the system for various studies. This paper presents the development of an IVUS system that has open structures to support various imaging strategies. The system design is based on electronic components and printed circuit board, and provides reconfigurable hardware implementation, programmable image processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition. In addition, the proposed IVUS system utilized a miniaturized ultrasound transducer constructed using PMN-PT single crystal for better piezoelectric constant and electromechanical coupling coefficient than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Testing results showed that the IVUS system could offer a minimum detectable signal of 25 ?V, allowing a 51 dB dynamic range at 47 dB gain, with a frequency range from 20 to 80 MHz. Finally, phantom imaging, in vitro IVUS vessel imaging, and multimodality imaging with photoacoustics were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the open system. PMID:23143570
Tunable polaritonic molecules in an open microcavity system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufferwiel, S.; Li, Feng; Trichet, A. A. P.; Giriunas, L.; Walker, P. M.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, J. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.
2015-11-01
We experimentally demonstrate tunable coupled cavities based upon open access zero-dimensional hemispherical microcavities. The modes of the photonic molecules are strongly coupled with quantum well excitons forming a system of tunable polaritonic molecules. The cavity-cavity coupling strength, which is determined by the degree of modal overlap, is controlled through the fabricated centre-to-centre distance and tuned in-situ through manipulation of both the exciton-photon and cavity-cavity detunings by using nanopositioners to vary the mirror separation and angle between them. We demonstrate micron sized confinement combined with high photonic Q-factors of 31 000 and lower polariton linewidths of 150 ?eV at resonance along with cavity-cavity coupling strengths between 2.5 meV and 60 ?eV for the ground cavity state.
Variational grand-canonical electronic structure method for open systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobi, Shlomit; Baer, Roi
2005-07-01
An ab initio method is developed for variational grand-canonical molecular electronic structure of open systems based on the Gibbs-Peierls-Boguliobov inequality. We describe the theory and a practical method for performing the calculations within standard quantum chemistry codes using Gaussian basis sets. The computational effort scales similarly to the ground-state Hartree-Fock method. The quality of the approximation is studied on a hydrogen molecule by comparing to the exact Gibbs free energy, computed using full configuration-interaction calculations. We find the approximation quite accurate, with errors similar to those of the Hartree-Fock method for ground-state (zero-temperature) calculations. A further demonstration is given of the temperature effects on the bending potential curve for water. Some future directions and applications of the method are discussed. Several appendices give the mathematical and algorithmic details of the method.
Structure of Amplitude Correlations in open chaotic Systems
Torleif E. O. Ericson
2013-02-14
An analytical approximation is found for the Verbaarschot-Weidenmueller-Zirnbauer solution. Its structure is discussed. The VWZ model is believed to correctly represent the correlations of two S-matrix elements for an open quantum chaotic system, but the solution has considerable complexity and is presently only accessed numerically. The present procedure gives its features explicitly over the full range of the parameter space in a transparent and simple analytical form preserving accuracy to a considerable degree.The bulk of the VWZ correlations are described by the Gorin-Seligman expression for the 2-amplitude correlations of the Ericson-Gorin-Seligman (EGS) model. The structure of the remaining correction factors for correlation functions is discussed with special emphasis of the role of the level correlation hole both for inelastic and elastic correlations.
Chapter 5: Quantum Dynamics in Dissipative Molecular Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, J.; Xu, Rui-Xue; Yan, Y. J.
2014-04-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * HEOM versus Path Integral Formalism: Background * Generic form and terminology of HEOM * Statistical mechanics description of bath influence * Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism * General comments * Memory-Frequency Decomposition of Bath Correlation Functions * PSD of Bose function * Brownian oscillators decomposition of bath spectral density function * Optimized HEOM Theory With Accuracy Control * Construction of HEOM via path integral formalism * Accuracy control on white-noise residue ansatz * Efficient HEOM propagator: Numerical filtering and indexing algorithm * HEOM in Quantum Mechanics for Open Systems * The HEOM space and the Schrödinger picture * HEOM in the Heisenberg picture * Mixed Heisenberg-Schrödinger block-matrix dynamics in nonlinear optical response functions * Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy: Model Calculations * Concluding Remarks * Acknowledgments * References
Universality in spectral statistics of open quantum graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutkin, B.; Osipov, V. Al.
2015-06-01
The quantum evolution maps of closed chaotic quantum graphs are unitary and known to have universal spectral correlations matching predictions of random matrix theory. In chaotic graphs with absorption the quantum maps become nonunitary. We show that their spectral statistics exhibit universality at the soft edges of the spectrum. The same spectral behavior is observed in many classical nonunitary ensembles of random matrices with rotationally invariant measures.
Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, David
2009-03-01
The simulation of quantum many-body systems is a notoriously hard problem in condensed matter physics, but it could easily be handled by a quantum computer [4,1]. There is however one catch: while a quantum computer can naturally implement the dynamics of a quantum system --- i.e. solve Schr"odinger's equation --- there was until now no general method to initialize the computer in a low-energy state of the simulated system. We present a quantum algorithm [5] that can prepare the ground state and thermal states of a quantum many-body system in a time proportional to the square-root of its Hilbert space dimension. This is the same scaling as required by the best known algorithm to prepare the ground state of a classical many-body system on a quantum computer [3,2]. This provides strong evidence that for a quantum computer, preparing the ground state of a quantum system is in the worst case no more difficult than preparing the ground state of a classical system. 1 D. Aharonov and A. Ta-Shma, Adiabatic quantum state generation and statistical zero knowledge, Proc. 35th Annual ACM Symp. on Theo. Comp., (2003), p. 20. F. Barahona, On the computational complexity of ising spin glass models, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen., 15 (1982), p. 3241. C. H. Bennett, E. Bernstein, G. Brassard, and U. Vazirani, Strengths and weaknessess of quantum computing, SIAM J. Comput., 26 (1997), pp. 1510--1523, quant-ph/9701001. S. Lloyd, Universal quantum simulators, Science, 273 (1996), pp. 1073--1078. D. Poulin and P. Wocjan, Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer, 2008, arXiv:0809.2705.
Some aspects of quantum entanglement for CAR systems
Hajime Moriya
2002-08-20
We study quantum entanglement for CAR systems. Since the subsystems of disjoint regions are not independent for CAR systems, there are some distinct features of quantum entanglement which cannot be observed in tensor product systems. We show the failure of triangle inequality of von Neumann and the possible increase of entanglement degree under operations done in a local region for a bipartite CAR system.
Average entanglement dynamics in open two-qubit systems with continuous monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guevara, Ivonne; Viviescas, Carlos
2014-07-01
We present a comprehensive implementation of the quantum trajectory theory for the description of the entanglement dynamics in a Markovian open quantum system made of two qubits. We introduce the average concurrence to characterize the entanglement in the system and derive a deterministic evolution equation for it that depends on the ways in which information is read from the environment. This buildt-in flexibility of the method is used to address two actual issues in quantum information: entanglement protection and entanglement estimation. We identify general physical situations in which an entanglement protection protocol based on local monitoring of the environment can be implemented. Additionally, we methodically find unravelings of the system dynamics providing analytical tight bounds for the unmonitored entanglement in the system at all times. We conclude by showing the independence of the method from the choice of entanglement measure.
Adiabatic quenches of quantum critical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Grandi, Claudia
2011-12-01
The last decade saw numerous advances in experimental techniques using cold atomic gases which allow for the highly controlled study of quantum systems and their time evolution. These results triggered a fervent search for an appropriate theoretical description of the dynamics of non-trivial many-body systems. The present work is devoted to this goal. We focus on the case of one-dimensional Bose gases with repulsive contact interactions. We study two non-equilibrium processes that are realized experimentally: (i) loading a one-dimensional Bose gas into a commensurate optical lattice, and (ii) coupling through tunneling of two identical one-dimensional Bose gases. Both setups can be theoretically described by a time-dependent sine-Gordon model. We analyze this model and consider different quenching protocols of the tuning parameter. We apply adiabatic perturbation theory to describe the scaling behavior of the quantities characterizing the dynamics: the probability of excitations, the number of defects produced during the quench, the excitation energy, and the diagonal entropy. For two specific values of the interaction strength, the hard-core limit, or Tonks-Girardeau regime, and the free bosonic limit, the problem can be solved exactly. We analyze those two exact solutions in detail, also considering their extension to the finite temperature case. Having analyzed the case of the sine-Gordon model, we extend the analysis to arbitrary systems in d-dimensions that are quenched near a quantum phase transition. We suggest a single framework to study both sudden and slow quenches. We show that the universal scaling of the observables can be connected to the singularities of some static quantities at the critical point. Such quantities are the fidelity susceptibility, in the case of a sudden quench, and generalization of it, in the case of a power-law quench. This connection between dynamics and critical behavior promises to provide insights into the time-evolution of a variety of other quantum systems.
OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tkachuk, Oksana
2014-01-01
To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.
Open Architecture Synthesis for Intelligent Systems (OASIS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lum, Henry, Jr.; Lau, Sonie
1991-01-01
The concepts and preliminary results for the OASIS testbed which will permit an evolutionary growth with minimum impact to the existing software and hardware environment are presented. Space Station Freedom's data management system is utilized as the application focus for the evaluation of the OASIS concepts. It is concluded that guidelines for the validation and definition of standards for open architectures must be aggressively pursued with attention paid to the integration of these standards with the hardware platforms, graphics interface, and operating system software infrastructure.
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
Basic Concepts of Quantum Systems versus Classical Networks
Bonnin, Michele
Theory to Quantum Mechanics. Independently on the point of view one can assume, it must be recognizedBasic Concepts of Quantum Systems versus Classical Networks Pier Paolo Civalleri,1, Marco Gilli a conceptual bridge between Classical Network Theory and Quantum Mechanics. The concept of time
Thermalization in Quantum Systems: An Emergent Approach
Clifford Chafin
2015-02-23
The problems with an emergent approach to quantum statistical mechanics are discussed and shown to follow from some of the same sources as those of quantum measurement. A wavefunction of an N atom solid is described in the ground and excited eigenstates with explicit modifications for phonons. Using the particular subclass of wavefunctions that can correspond to classical solids we investigate the localization properties of atomic centers of mass motion and contrast it with more general linear combinations of phonon states. The effectively large mass of longer modes means that localization present in the ground state persists on excitation of the material by macroscopic coherent disturbances. The "thermalization" that arises then follows from the long term well defined motion of these localized peaks in their 3N dimensional harmonic wells in the same fashion as that of a classical solid in phase space. Thermal production of photons then create an internal radiation field and provides the first dynamical derivation of the Planck distribution from material motions. Significantly, this approach resolves a long standing paradox of thermalization of many body quantum systems from Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics alone.
A density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics: retrieving the noise
Stephen L. Adler
2007-07-16
We introduce a density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics, that recovers information about fluctuations lost in passing to the reduced density matrix. For the case of fluctuations arising from a classical probability distribution, the hierarchy is formed from expectations of products of pure state density matrix elements, and can be compactly summarized by a simple generating function. For the case of quantum fluctuations arising when a quantum system interacts with a quantum environment in an overall pure state, the corresponding hierarchy is defined as the environmental trace of products of system matrix elements of the full density matrix. Only the lowest member of the quantum noise hierarchy is directly experimentally measurable. The unit trace and idempotence properties of the pure state density matrix imply descent relations for the tensor hierarchies, that relate the order $n$ tensor, under contraction of appropriate pairs of tensor indices, to the order $n-1$ tensor. As examples to illustrate the classical probability distribution formalism, we consider a quantum system evolving by It\\^o stochastic and by jump process Schr\\"odinger equations. As examples to illustrate the corresponding trace formalism in the quantum fluctuation case, we consider collisional Brownian motion of an infinite mass Brownian particle, and the weak coupling Born-Markov master equation. In different specializations, the latter gives the hierarchies generalizing the quantum optical master equation and the Caldeira--Leggett master equation. As a further application of the density tensor, we contrast stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations that reduce and that do not reduce the state vector, and discuss why a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment behaves like the latter.
On Quantum Lie Algebras and Quantum Root Systems
Gustav W. Delius; Andreas Hueffmann
1996-02-06
As a natural generalization of ordinary Lie algebras we introduce the concept of quantum Lie algebras ${\\cal L}_q(g)$. We define these in terms of certain adjoint submodules of quantized enveloping algebras $U_q(g)$ endowed with a quantum Lie bracket given by the quantum adjoint action. The structure constants of these algebras depend on the quantum deformation parameter $q$ and they go over into the usual Lie algebras when $q=1$. The notions of q-conjugation and q-linearity are introduced. q-linear analogues of the classical antipode and Cartan involution are defined and a generalised Killing form, q-linear in the first entry and linear in the second, is obtained. These structures allow the derivation of symmetries between the structure constants of quantum Lie algebras. The explicitly worked out examples of $g=sl_3$ and $so_5$ illustrate the results.
Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology
F. Benatti; R. Floreanini; U. Marzolino
2014-03-05
Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of non-separable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.
Entanglement in fermion systems and quantum metrology
Benatti, F; Marzolino, U
2014-01-01
Entanglement in fermion many-body systems is studied using a generalized definition of separability based on partitions of the set of observables, rather than on particle tensor products. In this way, the characterizing properties of non-separable fermion states can be explicitly analyzed, allowing a precise description of the geometric structure of the corresponding state space. These results have direct applications in fermion quantum metrology: sub-shot noise accuracy in parameter estimation can be obtained without the need of a preliminary state entangling operation.
Nonequilibrium representative ensembles for isolated quantum systems
V. I. Yukalov
2012-01-25
An isolated quantum system is considered, prepared in a nonequilibrium initial state. In order to uniquely define the system dynamics, one has to construct a representative statistical ensemble. From the principle of least action it follows that the role of the evolution generator is played by a grand Hamiltonian, but not merely by its energy part. A theorem is proved expressing the commutators of field operators with operator products through variational derivatives of these products. A consequence of this theorem is the equivalence of the variational equations for field operators with the Heisenberg equations for the latter. A finite quantum system cannot equilibrate in the strict sense. But it can tend to a quasi-stationary state characterized by ergodic averages and the appropriate representative ensemble depending on initial conditions. Microcanonical ensemble, arising in the eigenstate thermalization, is just a particular case of representative ensembles. Quasi-stationary representative ensembles are defined by the principle of minimal information. The latter also implies the minimization of an effective thermodynamic potential.
Pulse dynamics of quantum systems with pairing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zvyagin, A. A.
2015-11-01
The evolution of the system of fermions with pairing under the action of a pulse (or a quench) of the external potential has been studied. In the dynamical regime the number of fermions oscillates (with beats) as a function of the duration of the pulse (or as a function of time for the quench) about the value determined by the magnitude of the pulse. Oscillations depend on the values of the potential and the pulse. The parameters of those oscillations permit one to determine characteristics of the dynamical quantum phase transitions, such as Fisher's zeros in one-dimensional systems. The effect is absent for zero pairing. In particular, the response of a topological superconductor to the pulse manifests dynamical oscillations, most pronounced for the range of parameters in which the topological superconductivity can occur. The response of Majorana edge states to the pulse is analyzed. The results are generalized for the bosonic system with pairing under the action of the pulse (quench).
Quantum Systems Based upon Galois Fields — from Sub-Quantum to Super-Quantum Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, L. N.; Lewis, Z.; Minic, D.; Takeuchi, T.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we describe our recent work on discrete quantum theory based on Galois fields. In particular, we discuss how discrete quantum theory sheds new light on the foundations of quantum theory and we review an explicit model of super-quantum correlations we have constructed in this context. We also discuss the larger questions of the origins and foundations of quantum theory, as well as the relevance of super-quantum theory for the quantum theory of gravity.
Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.
Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587
Non-Markovianity criteria for open system dynamics
N. Lo Gullo; I. Sinayskiy; Th. Busch; F. Petruccione
2014-01-06
A universal definition of non-Markovianity for open systems dynamics is proposed. It is extended from the classical definition to the quantum realm by showing that a `transition' from the Markov to the non-Markov regime occurs when the correlations between the system and the environment, generated by their joint evolution, can no longer be neglected. The suggested definition is based on the comparison between measured correlation functions and those built by assuming that the system is in a Markov regime thus giving a figure of merit of the error coming from this assumption. It is shown that the knowledge of the dynamical map and initial condition of the system is not enough to fully characterise the non-Markovian dynamics of the reduced system. The example of three exactly solvable models, i.e. decoherence and spontaneous emission of the qubit in a bosonic bath and decoherence of the photon's polarization induced by interaction with its spacial degrees of freedom, reveals that previously proposed Markovianity criteria and measures which are based on dynamical map analysis fail to recognise non-Markov behaviour.
Quantum chaotic system as a model of decohering environment
Jayendra N. Bandyopadhyay
2009-04-24
As a model of decohering environment, we show that quantum chaotic system behave equivalently as many-body system. An approximate formula for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a system interacting with a quantum chaotic environment is derived. This theoretical formulation is substantiated by the numerical study of decoherence of two qubits interacting with a quantum chaotic environment modeled by a chaotic kicked top. Like the many-body model of environment, the quantum chaotic system is efficient decoherer, and it can generate entanglement between the two qubits which have no direct interaction.
Characterizing and quantifying frustration in quantum many-body systems.
Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Monras, A; Illuminati, F
2011-12-23
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration. PMID:22243147
Characterizing and Quantifying Frustration in Quantum Many-Body Systems
S. M. Giampaolo; G. Gualdi; A. Monras; F. Illuminati
2012-01-05
We present a general scheme for the study of frustration in quantum systems. We introduce a universal measure of frustration for arbitrary quantum systems and we relate it to a class of entanglement monotones via an exact inequality. If all the (pure) ground states of a given Hamiltonian saturate the inequality, then the system is said to be inequality saturating. We introduce sufficient conditions for a quantum spin system to be inequality saturating and confirm them with extensive numerical tests. These conditions provide a generalization to the quantum domain of the Toulouse criteria for classical frustration-free systems. The models satisfying these conditions can be reasonably identified as geometrically unfrustrated and subject to frustration of purely quantum origin. Our results therefore establish a unified framework for studying the intertwining of geometric and quantum contributions to frustration.
Huang, Yi-Zhi
Quantum Hall systems Representation theory of vertex operator algebras Applications The end Quantum;Quantum Hall systems Representation theory of vertex operator algebras Applications The end Outline 1 An approach to a fundamental conjecture #12;Quantum Hall systems Representation theory of vertex operator
Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.
2010-01-01
Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.
Open Giant Intelligent Information Systems and Its Multiagent-Oriented System Design
Cao, Longbing
is actually a human-computer-cooperated intelligent information system[2,3]. As for how to build an open giant of an MAS. Among all system complexities of open giant intelligent information system, society and humanOpen Giant Intelligent Information Systems and Its Multiagent-Oriented System Design Longbing Cao
Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonitz, Michael
2007-11-01
Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these ``Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or ?-particle crystals in dense matter and of hole crystals in semiconductors. [1] O. Arp, D. Block, A. Piel, and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golubnychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel, and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] C. Henning, H. Baumgartner, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, V. Golubnychiy, M. Bonitz, and D. Block, Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006) and Phys. Rev. E (2007). [4] A. Filinov, M. Bonitz, and Yu. Lozovik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3851 (2001). [5] M. Bonitz, V. Filinov, P. Levashov, V. Fortov, and H. Fehske, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235006 (2005) and J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 4717 (2006). [6] Introduction to Computational Methods for Many-Body Systems, M. Bonitz and D. Semkat (eds.), Rinton Press, Princeton (2006)
Work exchange between quantum systems: the spin-oscillator model
Heiko Schröder; Günter Mahler
2009-11-27
With the development of quantum thermodynamics it has been shown that relaxation to thermal equilibrium and with it the concept of heat flux may emerge directly from quantum mechanics. This happens for a large class of quantum systems if embedded into another quantum environment. In this paper, we discuss the complementary question of the emergence of work flux from quantum mechanics. We introduce and discuss two different methods to assess the work source quality of a system, one based on the generalized factorization approximation, the other based on generalized definitions of work and heat. By means of those methods, we show that small quantum systems can, indeed, act as work reservoirs. We illustrate this behavior for a simple system consisting of a spin coupled to an oscillator and investigate the effects of two different interactions on the work source quality. One case will be shown to allow for a work source functionality of arbitrarily high quality.
Coherent-Classical Estimation for Linear Quantum Systems
Shibdas Roy; Ian R. Petersen; Elanor H. Huntington
2015-02-12
A coherent-classical estimation scheme for a class of linear quantum systems is considered. Here, the estimator is a mixed quantum-classical system that may or may not involve coherent feedback and yields a classical estimate of a variable for the quantum plant. We demonstrate that with no coherent feedback, such coherent-classical estimation provides no improvement over purely-classical estimation, when the quantum plant or the quantum part of the estimator (called the coherent controller) is a passive annihilation operator system. However, when both the quantum plant and the coherent controller are active systems (that cannot be described by annihilation operators only), coherent-classical estimation without coherent feedback can provide improvement over purely-classical estimation in certain cases. Furthermore, we show that with coherent feedback, it is possible to get better estimation accuracies with coherent-classical estimation, as compared to classical-only estimation.
Open-Path High Sensitivity Atmospheric Ammonia Sensing with a Quantum Cascade Laser Instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, D. J.; Dirisu, A.; Rafferty, K.; Parkes, B.; Zondlo, M. A.
2009-12-01
Atmospheric trace-gas sensing with quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy offers the potential for high sensitivity, fast, selective mid-infrared absorption measurements of atmospheric species such as ammonia (NH3). As the third most abundant nitrogen species and most gaseous base in the atmosphere, ammonia plays important roles in neutralizing acidic species and as a gas-phase precursor to ammoniated fine particulate matter. High precision gas phase measurements are necessary to constrain highly uncertain emission sources and sinks with implications for understanding how chemical components of fine particulate matter affect air quality and climate as well as nitrogen deposition to ecosystems. Conventional ammonia sensors employing chemical ionization, denuder or filter techniques are labor-intensive, not gas-selective and exhibit low time resolution. As an advantageous alternative to conventional measurement techniques, we develop an open-path quantum cascade laser-based ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 ?m for ground-based measurements. A continuous wave, thermoelectrically cooled quantum cascade laser is used to perform wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy (WMS). Room-temperature, unattended operation with minimal surface adsorption effects due to the open-path configuration represent significant improvements over cryogenically cooled, closed path systems. The feasibility of a cylindrical mirror multi-pass optical cell for achieving long path lengths near 50 m in a compact design is also assessed. Meaningful ammonia measurements require fast sub-ppbv detection limits due to ammonia’s large dynamic range and temporal and spatial atmospheric variability. When fully developed, our instrument will achieve high time resolution (up to 10 Hz) measurements with ammonia detection limits in the 100 pptv range. Initial results include ambient laboratory ammonia detection at 58 ppbv relative to a 0.4% ammonia reference cell based on the WMS signal integrated area. We estimate a limit of detection based on our signal to noise ratio of ~400 pptv NH3. Non-cryogenic, unattended operation of this compact sensor offers the potential for applications in particulate matter gas-phase precursor monitoring networks. Future sensor measurements can also be utilized for evaluations of and data assimilation into air quality and aerosol forecast models of particular importance for regions where ammonia plays a critical role in fine particulate matter formation.
Iyengar, Srinivasan S.
calculations are provided for proton transfer systems and the dynamics results are compared with exactQuantum wave packet ab initio molecular dynamics: An approach to study quantum dynamics in large systems Srinivasan S. Iyengara and Jacek Jakowski Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2010-11-15
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Device-independent certification of high-dimensional quantum systems
Vincenzo D'Ambrosio; Fabrizio Bisesto; Fabio Sciarrino; Johanna F. Barra; Gustavo Lima; Adan Cabello
2014-04-09
An important problem in quantum information processing is the certification of the dimension of quantum systems without making assumptions about the devices used to prepare and measure them, that is, in a device-independent manner. A crucial question is whether such certification is experimentally feasible for high-dimensional quantum systems. Here we experimentally witness in a device-independent manner the generation of six-dimensional quantum systems encoded in the orbital angular momentum of single photons and show that the same method can be scaled, at least, up to dimension 13.
A novel thermo-photovoltaic cell with quantum-well for high open circuit voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouhsari, Ezzat Sadat; Faez, Rahim; Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh
2015-07-01
We design a thermo-photovoltaic Tandem cell which produces high open circuit voltage (Voc) that causes to increase efficiency (?). The currently used materials (AlAsSb-InGaSb/InAsSb) have thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) property which can be a p-n junction of a solar cell, but they have low bandgap energy which is the reason for lower open circuit voltage. In this paper, in the bottom cell of the Tandem, there is 30 quantum wells which increase absorption coefficients and quantum efficiency (QE) that causes to increase current. By increasing the current of the bottom cell, the top cell thickness must be increased because the top cell and the bottom cell should have the same current. In the top cell, by increasing the thickness, absorption coefficients and quantum efficiency increase that causes to increase the current. Current increment is also the second factor that causes to increase overall efficiency.
Hanley, Patrick J.; Mei, Zhuyong; Durett, April G.; Cabreira-Harrison, Marie da Graca; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Bing; Parsha, Kaushik; Mir, Osman; Vahidy, Farhaan; Bloom, Debra; Rice, R. Brent; Hematti, Peiman; Savitz, Sean I; Gee, Adrian P.
2014-01-01
Background The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a cellular therapy for various diseases, such as graft-versus-host-disease, diabetes, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and Crohn's disease has produced promising results in early-phase clinical trials. However, for widespread application and use in later phase studies, manufacture of these cells needs to be cost effective, safe, and reproducible. Current methods of manufacturing in flasks or cell factories are labor-intensive, involve a large number of open procedures, and require prolonged culture times. Methods We evaluated the Quantum Cell Expansion system for the expansion of large numbers of MSCs from unprocessed bone marrow in a functionally closed system and compared the results to a flask-based method currently in clinical trials. Results After only two passages, we were able to expand a mean of 6.6×108 MSCs from 25 mL of bone marrow reproducibly. The mean expansion time was 21 days, and cells obtained were able to differentiate into all three lineages: chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. The Quantum was able to generate the target cell number of 2.0×108 cells in an average of 9-fewer days and in half the number of passages required during flask-based expansion. We estimated the Quantum would involve 133 open procedures versus 54,400 in flasks when manufacturing for a clinical trial. Quantum-expanded MSCs infused into an ischemic stroke rat model were therapeutically active. Discussion The Quantum is a novel method of generating high numbers of MSCs in less time and at lower passages when compared to flasks. In the Quantum, the risk of contamination is substantially reduced due to the substantial decrease in open procedures. PMID:24726657
A condition for any realistic theory of quantum systems
Alberto Montina
2007-12-15
In quantum physics, the density operator completely describes the state. Instead, in classical physics the mean value of every physical quantity is evaluated by means of a probability distribution. We study the possibility to describe pure quantum states and events with classical probability distributions and conditional probabilities and prove that the distributions can not be quadratic functions of the quantum state. Some examples are considered. Finally, we deal with the exponential complexity problem of quantum physics and introduce the concept of classical dimension for a quantum system.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of complex and noisy quantum systems
Keisuke Fujii; Shuhei Tamate
2015-06-23
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation above the boundary, we utilize the postselection argument introduced by M. J. Bremner, R. Jozsa, and D. J. Shepherd [Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science 465, 1413 (2009).] and crucially strengthen its statement by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability below the boundary is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Classical command of quantum systems via rigidity of CHSH games
Ben W. Reichardt; Falk Unger; Umesh Vazirani
2012-09-03
Can a classical system command a general adversarial quantum system to realize arbitrary quantum dynamics? If so, then we could realize the dream of device-independent quantum cryptography: using untrusted quantum devices to establish a shared random key, with security based on the correctness of quantum mechanics. It would also allow for testing whether a claimed quantum computer is truly quantum. Here we report a technique by which a classical system can certify the joint, entangled state of a bipartite quantum system, as well as command the application of specific operators on each subsystem. This is accomplished by showing a strong converse to Tsirelson's optimality result for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game: the only way to win many games is if the bipartite state is close to the tensor product of EPR states, and the measurements are the optimal CHSH measurements on successive qubits. This leads directly to a scheme for device-independent quantum key distribution. Control over the state and operators can also be leveraged to create more elaborate protocols for reliably realizing general quantum circuits.
Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.
2014-03-01
The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.
Decoherence-free quantum information in Markovian systems
Manas K. Patra; Peter G. Brooke
2008-08-12
Decoherence in Markovian systems can result indirectly from the action of a system Hamiltonian which is usually fixed and unavoidable. Here, we show that in general in Markovian systems, because of the system Hamiltonian, quantum information decoheres. We give conditions for the system Hamiltonian that must be satisfied if coherence is to be preserved. Finally, we show how to construct robust subspaces for quantum information processing.
BEC-Cryostat Interface: A Novel Platform for Hybrid Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Date, Aditya; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Schwab, Keith; Vengalattore, Mukund
2015-05-01
We present our experimental progress towards the implementation of a unique BEC-cryostat interface. This apparatus allows for the control and manipulation of ultracold atoms in close proximity to cryogenic surfaces. Such a system enables us to realize a hybrid quantum system consisting of a BEC strongly coupled magnetically to an ultra-high Q mechanical resonator, thus enabling precise atomic sensing of mechanical motion. Furthermore, the unprecedented sensitivities afforded by our atomic system open avenues to surface studies of correlated electronic systems at cryogenic temperatures. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO.
A quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock.
Martin, M J; Bishof, M; Swallows, M D; Zhang, X; Benko, C; von-Stecher, J; Gorshkov, A V; Rey, A M; Ye, Jun
2013-08-01
Strongly interacting quantum many-body systems arise in many areas of physics, but their complexity generally precludes exact solutions to their dynamics. We explored a strongly interacting two-level system formed by the clock states in (87)Sr as a laboratory for the study of quantum many-body effects. Our collective spin measurements reveal signatures of the development of many-body correlations during the dynamical evolution. We derived a many-body Hamiltonian that describes the experimental observation of atomic spin coherence decay, density-dependent frequency shifts, severely distorted lineshapes, and correlated spin noise. These investigations open the door to further explorations of quantum many-body effects and entanglement through use of highly coherent and precisely controlled optical lattice clocks. PMID:23929976
Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Kai
2009-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…
Feedback Control of Quantum Systems Dedicated to Slava Belavkin
James, Matthew
Feedback Control of Quantum Systems Matt James ANU #12;Dedicated to Slava Belavkin who pioneered want to control things at the nanoscale - e.g. atoms. Watt used a governor to control steam engines. controller quantum system control actions information #12;Closed loop means feedback, just like in Watt
Monte Carlo solution of antiferromagnetic quantum Heisenberg spin systems
Lee, D.H.; Joannopoulos, J.D.; Negele, J.W.
1984-08-01
A Monte Carlo method is introduced that overcomes the problem of alternating signs in Handscomb's method of simulating antiferromagnetic quantum Heisenberg systems. The scheme is applied to both bipartite and frustrated lattices. Results of internal energy, specific heat, and uniform and staggered susceptibilities are presented suggesting that quantum antiferromagnets may now be studied as extensively as classical spin systems using conventional Monte Carlo techniques.
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1996-08-01
A general theory is presented of the classical and quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. It is shown that adding a total derivative to a Lagrangian does not materially affect either, (a) the canonical analysis of the system, or (b) its quantum mechanics.
Measure synchronization in quantum many-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Haibo; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Polls, Artur
2014-09-01
The concept of measure synchronization between two coupled quantum many-body systems is presented. In general terms we consider two quantum many-body systems whose dynamics gets coupled through the contact particle-particle interaction. This coupling is shown to produce measure synchronization, a generalization of synchrony to a large class of systems which takes place in absence of dissipation. We find that in quantum measure synchronization, the many-body quantum properties for the two subsystems, e.g., condensed fractions and particle fluctuations, behave in a coordinated way. To illustrate the concept we consider a simple case of two species of bosons occupying two distinct quantum states. Measure synchronization can be readily explored with state-of-the-art techniques in ultracold atomic gases and, if properly controlled, be employed to build targeted quantum correlations in a sympathetic way.
Computable Measure of Total Quantum Correlation of Multipartite Systems
Javad Behdani; Seyed Javad Akhtarshenas; Mohsen Sarbishaei
2015-09-29
Quantum discord as a measure of the quantum correlations cannot be easily computed for most of density operators. In this paper, we present a measure of the total quantum correlations that is operationally simple and can be computed effectively for an arbitrary mixed state of a multipartite system. The measure is based on the coherence vector of the party whose quantumness is investigated as well as the correlation matrix of this part with the remainder of the system. Being able to detect the quantumness of multipartite systems, such as detecting the quantum critical points in spin chains, alongside with the computability characteristic of the measure, make it a useful indicator to be exploited in the cases which are out of the scope of the other known measures.
Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassa, Humairah; Goyal, Sandeep K.; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Uys, Hermann; Diósi, Lajos; Konrad, Thomas
2015-09-01
We utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters is encoded into a continuous-variable classical system which is coupled to the two-level quantum system via a generalized Hamiltonian. This combined estimate of the quantum state and dynamical parameters is updated by using the information obtained from sequential measurements on the quantum system and, after a sufficient waiting period, faithful state monitoring and parameter determination is obtained. Numerical evidence is used to demonstrate the convergence of the state estimate to the true state of the hybrid system.
Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...
Classical interventions in quantum systems. I. The measuring process
Asher Peres
2000-02-07
The measuring process is an external intervention in the dynamics of a quantum system. It involves a unitary interaction of that system with a measuring apparatus, a further interaction of both with an unknown environment causing decoherence, and then the deletion of a subsystem. This description of the measuring process is a substantial generalization of current models in quantum measurement theory. In particular, no ancilla is needed. The final result is represented by a completely positive map of the quantum state $\\rho$ (possibly with a change of the dimensions of $\\rho$). A continuous limit of the above process leads to Lindblad's equation for the quantum dynamical semigroup.
Quantum and classical operational complementarity for single systems
Luis, Alfredo
2005-07-15
We investigate duality relations between conjugate observables after measurements performed on a single realization of the system. The application of standard inference methods implies the existence of duality relations for single systems when using classical as well as quantum physics.
3.3 Gigahertz Clocked Quantum Key Distribution System
Karen J. Gordon; Veronica Fernandez; Robert J. Collins; Ivan Rech; Sergio D. Cova; Paul D. Townsend; Gerald S. Buller
2006-05-05
A fibre-based quantum key distribution system operating up to a clock frequency of 3.3GHz is presented. The system demonstrates significantly increased key exchange rate potential and operates at a wavelength of 850nm.
The study of classical dynamical systems using quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.
2014-12-01
We have developed a method for complementing an arbitrary classical dynamical system to a quantum system using the Lorenz and Rössler systems as examples. The Schrödinger equation for the corresponding quantum statistical ensemble is described in terms of the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We consider both the original dynamical system in the coordinate space and the conjugate dynamical system corresponding to the momentum space. Such simultaneous consideration of mutually complementary coordinate and momentum frameworks provides a deeper understanding of the nature of chaotic behavior in dynamical systems. We have shown that the new formalism provides a significant simplification of the Lyapunov exponents calculations. From the point of view of quantum optics, the Lorenz and Rössler systems correspond to three modes of a quantized electromagnetic field in a medium with cubic nonlinearity. From the computational point of view, the new formalism provides a basis for the analysis of complex dynamical systems using quantum computers.
Quantum uncertainty in critical systems with three spins interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrijo, Thiago M.; Avelar, Ardiley T.; Céleri, Lucas C.
2015-06-01
In this article we consider two spin-1/2 chains described, respectively, by the thermodynamic limit of the XY model with the usual two site interaction, and an extension of this model (without taking the thermodynamics limit), called XYT, were a three site interaction term is presented. To investigate the critical behaviour of such systems we employ tools from quantum information theory. Specifically, we show that the local quantum uncertainty, a quantity introduced in order to quantify the minimum quantum share of the variance of a local measurement, can be used to indicate quantum phase transitions presented by these models at zero temperature. Due to the connection of this quantity with the quantum Fisher information, the results presented here may be relevant for quantum metrology and quantum thermodynamics.
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
Lydersen, Lars; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; 10.1038/NPHOTON.2010.214
2010-01-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to grow a private, secret key, even if the eavesdropper can do anything permitted by the laws of nature. In quantum key distribution (QKD) the parties exchange non-orthogonal or entangled quantum states to generate quantum correlated classical data. Consequently, QKD implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of the signal states. However, practical detectors are not only sensitive to quantum states. Here we show how an eavesdropper can exploit such deviations from the ideal behaviour: We demonstrate experimentally how the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to acquire the full secret key without leaving any trace; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built of off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photo diodes (APDs) to detect ...
Why irreversibility? The formulation of classical and quantum mechanics for nonintegrable systems
Prigogine, I.
1995-01-05
Nonintegrable Poincare systems with a continuous spectrum lead to the appearance of diffusive terms in the frame of classical or quantum dynamics. These terms break time symmetry. They lead, therefore, to limitations to classical trajectory theory and of wave-function formalism. These diffusive terms correspond to well-defined classes of dynamical processes. The diffusive effects are amplified in situations corresponding to persistent interactions. As a result, we have to include, already, in the fundamental dynamical description the two basic aspects, probability and irreversibility, which are so conspicuous on the macroscopic level. We have to formulate both classical and quantum mechanics on the Liouville level of probability distributions. For integrable systems, we recover the usual formulation of classical or quantum mechanics. Instead of being primitive concepts, which cannot be further analyzed, trajectories and wave functions appear as special solutions of the Liouville-von Neumann equations. This extension of classical and quantum dynamics permits us to unify the two concepts of nature that we inherited from the nineteenth century, based, on the one hand, on dynamical time-reversible laws and, on the other, on an evolutionary view associated to entropy. It leads also to a unified formulation of quantum theory, avoiding the conventional dual structure based on Schroedinger`s equation, on the one hand, and on the {open_quotes}collapse{close_quotes} of the wave function, on the other. A dynamical interpretation is given to processes such as decoherence or approach to equilibrium without any appeal to extra dynamic considerations. There is a striking parallelism between classical and quantum theory. For large Poincare systems (LPS), we have, in general, both a {open_quotes}collapse{close_quotes} of trajectories and of wave functions. In both cases, we need a generalized formulation of dynamics in terms of probability distributions or density matrices.
How open should an open system be? : essays on mobile computing
Boudreau, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)
2006-01-01
"Systems" goods-such as computers, telecom networks, and automobiles-are made up of multiple components. This dissertation comprises three essays that study the decisions of system innovators in mobile computing to "open" ...
Analytical approach for treating unitary quantum systems with initial mixed states
Faisal A. A. El-Orany
2011-02-23
The mixed states are important in quantum optics since they frequently appear in the decoherence problems. When one of the components of the system is prepared in the mixed state and the evolution operator of this system is not available, one cannot deduce the density matrix. We present analytical approach to accurately solve this problem. The approach can be applied on the condition that the Schr\\"odinger's equation of the system is solvable with any arbitrary initial state. In deriving the solution we exploit the fact that any mixed state can be expressed in terms of a phase state. The approach is illustrated by deriving the density matrix of a single-mode heat environment interacting asymmetrically with two qubits. Our results are in good agreement with the available results in the literature. This approach opens new perspectives for treating complicated systems and may impact other applications in the quantum theory.
Quantum Phase Space, Quantization Hierarchy, and Eclectic Quantum Many-Body System
Dong-Sheng Wang
2014-10-05
An operator-valued quantum phase space formula is constructed. The phase space formula of Quantum Mechanics provides a natural link between first and second quantization, thus contributing to the understanding of quantization problem. By the combination of quantization and hamiltonization of dynamics, a quantization hierarchy is introduced, beyond the framework of first and second quantization and generalizing the standard quantum theory. We apply our quantization method to quantum many-body system and propose an eclectic model, in which the dimension of Hilbert space does not scale exponentially with the number of particles due to the locality of interaction, and the evolution is a constrained Hamiltonian dynamics.
Realization of Quantum State Privacy Amplification in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum System
Liang Hao; Chuan Wang; Gui Lu Long
2010-07-18
Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree with theory well.
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney
Parsons, Simon
Democracy in Open Agent Systems Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University Languages, Deliberative Democracy, Open Agent Systems, Political Philosophy, Philosophical Foundations the participants is closer to one of equality; this in turn suggests that some form of democracy is appropriate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solenov, Dmitry
In this work, we study the effect of environment on quantum systems relevant for quantum information processing. We begin with the analysis of noise-distorted evolution (decoherence) for a single qubit (two-state quantum system) subject to time-dependent control (quantum gates). We develop two unitarity-preserving approximation schemes for the reduced density matrix and quantify decoherence at shortto-intermediate times. It is demonstrated that the structure of a time-dependent external control can suppress as well as enhance decoherence, and therefore should be taken into consideration while constructing quantum-computing schemes. For more complex quantum-computing systems, it turns out that in certain cases some decoherence can be beneficial. We present an analytical treatment of quantum walks on cycles and hyper-cycles and investigate a realistic physical model based on semiconductor heterostructure with the graph represented by coupled quantum dots formed using a split-gate technique. The decoherence is induced by continuous monitoring of each quantum dot by a nearby quantum point contact. We derive expressions for the probability distribution and calculate bounds for the mixing time. We show that mixing time can be minimized for some rates of decoherence. Apart from coherence, a crucial property of a multi-quoit system affected by environment is its ability to develop and maintain entanglement. It is anticipated that quantum noise destroys fragile entanglement between qubits, making dynamics rather classical. It is also expected that common environment can quantum correlate qubits. The interplay of these two phenomena is analyzed on the example of two spin systems emersed in a bosonic bath. We identify the time scales for which the spins develop entanglement for various spatial separations. Estimates for the interaction and the level of quantum noise for localized impurity electron spins in Si-Ge are given. Properties of entanglement are further investigated for larger qubit systems. An idling multi-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic field experiences quantum phase transition as one alters the coupling to the bath. We derive an exact solution in the limit of a large number of qubits and analyze critical behavior of pairwise entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahlstrand, B.; Yakimenko, I. I.; Berggren, K.-F.
2014-06-01
A basic quantum-mechanical model for wave functions and current flow in open quantum dots or billiards is investigated. The model involves non-Hertmitian quantum mechanics, parity-time (PT) symmetry, and PT-symmetry breaking. Attached leads are represented by positive and negative imaginary potentials. Thus probability densities, currents flows, etc., for open quantum dots or billiards may be simulated in this way by solving the Schrödinger equation with a complex potential. Here we consider a nominally open ballistic quantum dot emulated by a planar microwave billiard. Results for probability distributions for densities, currents (Poynting vector), and stress tensor components are presented and compared with predictions based on Gaussian random wave theory. The results are also discussed in view of the corresponding measurements for the analogous microwave cavity. The model is of conceptual as well as of practical and educational interest.
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560
Quantum filter for a class of non-Markovian quantum systems
Shibei Xue; Matthew R. James; Alireza Shabani; Valery Ugrinovskii; Ian R. Petersen
2016-01-04
In this paper we present a Markovian representation approach to constructing quantum filters for a class of non-Markovian quantum systems disturbed by Lorenztian noise. An ancillary system is introduced to convert white noise into Lorentzian noise which is injected into a principal system via a direct interaction. The resulting dynamics of the principal system are non-Markovian, which are driven by the Lorentzian noise. By probing the principal system, a quantum filter for the augmented system can be derived from standard theory, where the conditional state of the principal system can be obtained by tracing out the ancillary system. An example is provided to illustrate the non-Markovian dynamics of the principal system.
Empowering open systems through cross-platform interoperability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyke, James C.
2014-06-01
Most of the motivations for open systems lie in the expectation of interoperability, sometimes referred to as "plug-and-play". Nothing in the notion of "open-ness", however, guarantees this outcome, which makes the increased interest in open architecture more perplexing. In this paper, we explore certain themes of open architecture. We introduce the concept of "windows of interoperability", which can be used to align disparate portions of architecture. Such "windows of interoperability", which concentrate on a reduced set of protocol and interface features, might achieve many of the broader purposes assigned as benefits in open architecture. Since it is possible to engineer proprietary systems that interoperate effectively, this nuanced definition of interoperability may in fact be a more important concept to understand and nurture for effective systems engineering and maintenance.
The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, B.; Carr, L. D.; Evertz, H. G.; Feiguin, A.; Freire, J.; Fuchs, S.; Gamper, L.; Gukelberger, J.; Gull, E.; Guertler, S.; Hehn, A.; Igarashi, R.; Isakov, S. V.; Koop, D.; Ma, P. N.; Mates, P.; Matsuo, H.; Parcollet, O.; Paw?owski, G.; Picon, J. D.; Pollet, L.; Santos, E.; Scarola, V. W.; Schollwöck, U.; Silva, C.; Surer, B.; Todo, S.; Trebst, S.; Troyer, M.; Wall, M. L.; Werner, P.; Wessel, S.
2011-05-01
We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify and speed up code development, common evaluation and plotting tools, and simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out serial or parallel numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) both in a static version and a dynamic time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) code, and quantum Monte Carlo solvers for dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The ALPS libraries provide a powerful framework for programmers to develop their own applications, which, for instance, greatly simplify the steps of porting a serial code onto a parallel, distributed memory machine. Major changes in release 2.0 include the use of HDF5 for binary data, evaluation tools in Python, support for the Windows operating system, the use of CMake as build system and binary installation packages for Mac OS X and Windows, and integration with the VisTrails workflow provenance tool. The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org/.
Develop Direct Geo-referencing System Based on Open Source Software and Hardware Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, H. S.; Liao, H. M.
2015-08-01
Direct geo-referencing system uses the technology of remote sensing to quickly grasp images, GPS tracks, and camera position. These data allows the construction of large volumes of images with geographic coordinates. So that users can be measured directly on the images. In order to properly calculate positioning, all the sensor signals must be synchronized. Traditional aerial photography use Position and Orientation System (POS) to integrate image, coordinates and camera position. However, it is very expensive. And users could not use the result immediately because the position information does not embed into image. To considerations of economy and efficiency, this study aims to develop a direct geo-referencing system based on open source software and hardware platform. After using Arduino microcontroller board to integrate the signals, we then can calculate positioning with open source software OpenCV. In the end, we use open source panorama browser, panini, and integrate all these to open source GIS software, Quantum GIS. A wholesome collection of data - a data processing system could be constructed.
Sampling-based Learning Control for Quantum Systems with Uncertainties
Daoyi Dong; Mohamed A. Mabrok; Ian R. Petersen; Bo Qi; Chunlin Chen; Herschel Rabitz
2015-07-26
Robust control design for quantum systems has been recognized as a key task in the development of practical quantum technology. In this paper, we present a systematic numerical methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) for control design of quantum systems with uncertainties. The SLC method includes two steps of "training" and "testing". In the training step, an augmented system is constructed using artificial samples generated by sampling uncertainty parameters according to a given distribution. A gradient flow based learning algorithm is developed to find the control for the augmented system. In the process of testing, a number of additional samples are tested to evaluate the control performance where these samples are obtained through sampling the uncertainty parameters according to a possible distribution. The SLC method is applied to three significant examples of quantum robust control including state preparation in a three-level quantum system, robust entanglement generation in a two-qubit superconducting circuit and quantum entanglement control in a two-atom system interacting with a quantized field in a cavity. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SLC approach even when uncertainties are quite large, and show its potential for robust control design of quantum systems.
Huge Quantum Gravity Effects in the Solar System
Don N. Page
2010-05-17
Normally one thinks of the motion of the planets around the Sun as a highly classical phenomenon, so that one can neglect quantum gravity in the Solar System. However, classical chaos in the planetary motion amplifies quantum uncertainties so that they become very large, giving huge quantum gravity effects. For example, evidence suggests that Uranus may eventually be ejected from the Solar System, but quantum uncertainties would make the direction at which it leaves almost entirely uncertain, and the time of its exit uncertain by about a billion billion years. For a time a billion billion years from now, there are huge quantum uncertainties whether Uranus will be within the Solar System, within the Galaxy, or even within causal contact of the Galaxy.
Evaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems
Cordy, James R.
software systems, the Barcode Library and Zlib. Surprisingly, unlike large scale open source software is reached it becomes necessary to analyze the structure of the system to identify potential shortcomings
Adaptation in Open Systems: Giving Interaction its Rightful Place
, banking, foreign exchange transactions, trip planning. Trip planning, for example, involves a cus- tomer. Clearly, supporting adaptation in open systems is as valuable as in any other kind of system. In the trip
Pole placement design for quantum systems via coherent observers
Zibo Miao; Matthew R. James; Valery A. Ugrinovskii
2015-09-17
We previously extended Luenberger's approach for observer design to the quantum case, and developed a class of coherent observers which tracks linear quantum stochastic systems in the sense of mean values. In light of the fact that the Luenberger observer is commonly and successfully applied in classical control, it is interesting to investigate the role of coherent observers in quantum feedback. As the first step in exploring observer-based coherent control, in this paper we study pole-placement techniques for quantum systems using coherent observers, and in such a fashion, poles of a closed-loop quantum system can be relocated at any desired locations. In comparison to classical feedback control design incorporating the Luenberger observer, here direct coupling between a quantum plant and the observer-based controller are allowed to enable a greater degree of freedom for the design of controller parameters. A separation principle is presented, and we show how to design the observer and feedback independently to be consistent with the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed scheme is applicable to coherent feedback control of quantum systems, especially when the transient dynamic response is of interest, and this issue is illustrated in an example.
Security proof for quantum key distribution using qudit systems
Sheridan, Lana; Scarani, Valerio
2010-09-15
We provide security bounds against coherent attacks for two families of quantum key distribution protocols that use d-dimensional quantum systems. In the asymptotic regime, both the secret key rate for fixed noise and the robustness to noise increase with d. The finite key corrections are found to be almost insensitive to d < or approx. 20.
A quantum-like description of the planetary systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardigli, Fabio
2007-05-01
The Titius-Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this law in the "quantum-like" language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the 't Hooft idea on the quantum behaviour of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
A Quantum-Like Description of the Planetary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardigli, Fabio
2007-08-01
The Titius Bode law for planetary distances is reviewed. A model describing the basic features of this rule in the “quantum-like” language of a wave equation is proposed. Some considerations about the ’t Hooft idea on the quantum behavior of deterministic systems with dissipation are discussed.
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory II (Bose Systems)
Murayama, Hitoshi
221B Lecture Notes Quantum Field Theory II (Bose Systems) 1 Statistical Mechanics of Bosons 1- tains multi-body states automatically and is also useful from a practical point of view. The path integral in the particle quantum mechanics is given by the summation over all possible paths
Theory of Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems Antidot Lattices
Katsumoto, Shingo
, runaway orbits, and diffusive orbits combined with a magnetic focusing effect. Roles of quantum effectsTheory of Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems Antidot Lattices Tsuneya ANDO Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo 7221 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-8666, Japan A review
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
Ezawa, Z. F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.
2013-12-04
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.
The Quantum-Classical Transition in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs; Hideo Mabuchi; Robert Ryne; Kosuke Shizume; Bala Sundaram
2000-10-26
Viewed as approximations to quantum mechanics, classical evolutions can violate the positive-semidefiniteness of the density matrix. The nature of this violation suggests a classification of dynamical systems based on classical-quantum correspondence; we show that this can be used to identify when environmental interaction (decoherence) will be unsuccessful in inducing the quantum-classical transition. In particular, the late-time Wigner function can become positive without any corresponding approach to classical dynamics. In the light of these results, we emphasize key issues relevant for experiments studying the quantum-classical transition.
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Shohini Ghose; Paul M. Alsing; Ivan H. Deutsch; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs
2003-06-10
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement backaction on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to h-bar.
Quantum-classical transition in nonlinear dynamical systems.
Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Mabuchi, Hideo; Ryne, Robert; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2002-01-28
Viewed as approximations to quantum mechanics, classical evolutions can violate the positive semidefiniteness of the density matrix. The nature of the violation suggests a classification of dynamical systems based on classical-quantum correspondence; we show that this can be used to identify when environmental interaction (decoherence) will be unsuccessful in inducing the quantum-classical transition. In particular, the late-time Wigner function can become positive without any corresponding approach to classical dynamics. In the light of these results, we emphasize key issues relevant for experiments studying the quantum-classical transition. PMID:11801095
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul; Deutsch, Ivan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-05-01
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement back action on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})
The Quantum-Classical Transition in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
Habib, S; Mabuchi, H; Ryne, Robert D; Shizume, K; Sundaram, B; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Mabuchi, Hideo; Ryne, Robert; Shizume, Kosuke; Sundaram, Bala
2002-01-01
Viewed as approximations to quantum mechanics, classical evolutions can violate the positive-semidefiniteness of the density matrix. The nature of this violation suggests a classification of dynamical systems based on classical-quantum correspondence; we show that this can be used to identify when environmental interaction (decoherence) will be unsuccessful in inducing the quantum-classical transition. In particular, the late-time Wigner function can become positive without any corresponding approach to classical dynamics. In the light of these results, we emphasize key issues relevant for experiments studying the quantum-classical transition.
Recovering classical dynamics from coupled quantum systems through continuous measurement
Ghose, S; Deutsch, I H; Bhattacharya, T; Habib, S; Jacobs, K; Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul M.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt
2003-01-01
We study the role of continuous measurement in the quantum to classical transition for a system with coupled internal (spin) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. Even when the measured motional degree of freedom can be treated classically, entanglement between spin and motion causes strong measurement backaction on the quantum spin subsystem so that classical trajectories are not recovered in this mixed quantum-classical regime. The measurement can extract localized quantum trajectories that behave classically only when the internal action also becomes large relative to h-bar.
Nonequilibrium potential and fluctuation theorems for quantum maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzano, Gonzalo; Horowitz, Jordan M.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.
2015-09-01
We derive a general fluctuation theorem for quantum maps. The theorem applies to a broad class of quantum dynamics, such as unitary evolution, decoherence, thermalization, and other types of evolution for quantum open systems. The theorem reproduces well-known fluctuation theorems in a single and simplified framework and extends the Hatano-Sasa theorem to quantum nonequilibrium processes. Moreover, it helps to elucidate the physical nature of the environment that induces a given dynamics in an open quantum system.
Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F; Elliott, Thomas J; Mekhov, Igor B
2015-01-01
Trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices enabled numerous breakthroughs uniting several disciplines. Although the light is a key ingredient in such systems, its quantum properties are typically neglected, reducing the role of light to a classical tool for atom manipulation. Here we show how elevating light to the quantum level leads to novel phenomena, inaccessible in setups based on classical optics. Interfacing a many-body atomic system with quantum light opens it to the environment in an essentially nonlocal way, where spatial coupling can be carefully designed. The competition between typical processes in strongly correlated systems (local tunnelling and interaction) with global measurement backaction leads to novel multimode dynamics and the appearance of long-range correlated tunnelling capable of entangling distant lattices sites, even when tunnelling between neighbouring sites is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. We demonstrate both the break-up and protection of strongly interacting fermion ...
Entanglement generation in spatially separated systems using quantum walk
C. M. Chandrashekar; Sandeep K. Goyal; Subhashish Banerjee
2012-06-22
We present a novel scheme to generate entanglement between two spatially separated systems. The scheme makes use of spatial entanglement generated by a single-particle quantum walk which is used to entangle two spatially separated, not necessarily correlated, systems. This scheme can be used to entangle any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the quantum walk evolution. A notable feature is that we can control the quantum walk dynamics and its ability to localize leads to a substantial control and improvement in the entanglement output.
Stabilization of Stochastic Quantum Dynamics via Open and Closed Loop Control
Ticozzi, Francesco; Altafini, Claudio
2011-01-01
In this paper we investigate parametrization-free solutions of the problem of quantum pure state preparation and subspace stabilization by means of Hamiltonian control, continuous measurement and quantum feedback, in the presence of a Markovian environment. In particular, we show that whenever suitable dissipative effects are induced either by the unmonitored environment or by non Hermitian measurements, there is no need for feedback control to accomplish the task. Constructive necessary and sufficient conditions on the form of the open-loop controller can be provided in this case. When open-loop control is not sufficient, filtering-based feedback control laws steering the evolution towards a target pure state are provided, which generalize those available in the literature.
Stabilization of Stochastic Quantum Dynamics via Open and Closed Loop Control
Francesco Ticozzi; Kazunori Nishio; Claudio Altafini
2011-10-05
In this paper we investigate parametrization-free solutions of the problem of quantum pure state preparation and subspace stabilization by means of Hamiltonian control, continuous measurement and quantum feedback, in the presence of a Markovian environment. In particular, we show that whenever suitable dissipative effects are induced either by the unmonitored environment or by non Hermitian measurements, there is no need for feedback control to accomplish the task. Constructive necessary and sufficient conditions on the form of the open-loop controller can be provided in this case. When open-loop control is not sufficient, filtering-based feedback control laws steering the evolution towards a target pure state are provided, which generalize those available in the literature.
Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities
Liberal, Iñigo
2015-01-01
Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high Q photonics crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. Here, we theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology...). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of both the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide...
Control of quantum correlations in solid state systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, K.
2015-11-01
The quantum correlations between two independent qubits immersed in an anisotropic and isotropic photonic band-gab (PBG) crystal have been studied without Born or Markovian approximation. We show that the amount of the entanglement and quantum discord between the qubits in the photonic crystal is greatly different from that of qubits in vacuum or that subjected to the usual non-Markovian reservoir. The results also show that, for PBG materials as environment, high values of quantum correlation trapping can be achieved and thus prevention of correlation sudden drop occurs, which seriously enhances the coherence and increase the amount of the correlations. Moreover, we show that the quantum correlations in the isotropic PBG are more easily preserved than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. These features make the quantum systems in PBG materials as a good candidate for implementation of different schemes of quantum optics and information with high performance.
Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems.
Feng, Guan-Ru; Lu, Yao; Hao, Liang; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Long, Gui-Lu
2013-01-01
It is well known that quantum computers are superior to classical computers in efficiently simulating quantum systems. Here we report the first experimental simulation of quantum tunneling through potential barriers, a widespread phenomenon of a unique quantum nature, via NMR techniques. Our experiment is based on a digital particle simulation algorithm and requires very few spin-1/2 nuclei without the need of ancillary qubits. The occurrence of quantum tunneling through a barrier, together with the oscillation of the state in potential wells, are clearly observed through the experimental results. This experiment has clearly demonstrated the possibility to observe and study profound physical phenomena within even the reach of small quantum computers. PMID:23958996
Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems
Feng, Guan-Ru; Lu, Yao; Hao, Liang; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Long, Gui-Lu
2013-01-01
It is well known that quantum computers are superior to classical computers in efficiently simulating quantum systems. Here we report the first experimental simulation of quantum tunneling through potential barriers, a widespread phenomenon of a unique quantum nature, via NMR techniques. Our experiment is based on a digital particle simulation algorithm and requires very few spin-1/2 nuclei without the need of ancillary qubits. The occurrence of quantum tunneling through a barrier, together with the oscillation of the state in potential wells, are clearly observed through the experimental results. This experiment has clearly demonstrated the possibility to observe and study profound physical phenomena within even the reach of small quantum computers. PMID:23958996
Quantum cryptography with 3-state systems
Helle Bechmann-Pasquinucci; Asher Peres
2000-01-23
We consider quantum cryptographic schemes where the carriers of information are 3-state particles. One protocol uses four mutually unbiased bases and appears to provide better security than obtainable with 2-state carriers. Another possible method allows quantum states to belong to more than one basis. The security is not better, but many curious features arise.
Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion
Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.
1995-05-01
Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.
Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology
Giovanni Feverati
2011-01-19
Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. Particularly, with this model one can study the mutual transformation of coding/non coding parts in a genome or the presence of an error threshold. The assembly of oligomeric proteins is an important phenomenon which interests the majority of proteins in a cell. I participated to the creation of the project "Gemini" which has for purpose the investigation of the structural data of the interfaces of such proteins. The objective is to differentiate the role of amino acids and determine the presence of patterns characterizing certain geometries.
The Dalton quantum chemistry program system.
Aidas, Kestutis; Angeli, Celestino; Bak, Keld L; Bakken, Vebjørn; Bast, Radovan; Boman, Linus; Christiansen, Ove; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Coriani, Sonia; Dahle, Pål; Dalskov, Erik K; Ekström, Ulf; Enevoldsen, Thomas; Eriksen, Janus J; Ettenhuber, Patrick; Fernández, Berta; Ferrighi, Lara; Fliegl, Heike; Frediani, Luca; Hald, Kasper; Halkier, Asger; Hättig, Christof; Heiberg, Hanne; Helgaker, Trygve; Hennum, Alf Christian; Hettema, Hinne; Hjertenæs, Eirik; Høst, Stinne; Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Iozzi, Maria Francesca; Jansík, Branislav; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Jonsson, Dan; Jørgensen, Poul; Kauczor, Joanna; Kirpekar, Sheela; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Klopper, Wim; Knecht, Stefan; Kobayashi, Rika; Koch, Henrik; Kongsted, Jacob; Krapp, Andreas; Kristensen, Kasper; Ligabue, Andrea; Lutnæs, Ola B; Melo, Juan I; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Myhre, Rolf H; Neiss, Christian; Nielsen, Christian B; Norman, Patrick; Olsen, Jeppe; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H; Osted, Anders; Packer, Martin J; Pawlowski, Filip; Pedersen, Thomas B; Provasi, Patricio F; Reine, Simen; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ruden, Torgeir A; Ruud, Kenneth; Rybkin, Vladimir V; Sa?ek, Pawel; Samson, Claire C M; de Merás, Alfredo Sánchez; Saue, Trond; Sauer, Stephan P A; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Sneskov, Kristian; Steindal, Arnfinn H; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O; Taylor, Peter R; Teale, Andrew M; Tellgren, Erik I; Tew, David P; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J; Thøgersen, Lea; Vahtras, Olav; Watson, Mark A; Wilson, David J D; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Agren, Hans
2014-05-01
Dalton is a powerful general-purpose program system for the study of molecular electronic structure at the Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham, multiconfigurational self-consistent-field, Møller-Plesset, configuration-interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory. Apart from the total energy, a wide variety of molecular properties may be calculated using these electronic-structure models. Molecular gradients and Hessians are available for geometry optimizations, molecular dynamics, and vibrational studies, whereas magnetic resonance and optical activity can be studied in a gauge-origin-invariant manner. Frequency-dependent molecular properties can be calculated using linear, quadratic, and cubic response theory. A large number of singlet and triplet perturbation operators are available for the study of one-, two-, and three-photon processes. Environmental effects may be included using various dielectric-medium and quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics models. Large molecules may be studied using linear-scaling and massively parallel algorithms. Dalton is distributed at no cost from http://www.daltonprogram.org for a number of UNIX platforms. PMID:25309629
Quantum Circuit Design for Solving Linear Systems of Equations
Yudong Cao; Anmer Daskin; Steven Frankel; Sabre Kais
2013-08-10
Recently, it is shown that quantum computers can be used for obtaining certain information about the solution of a linear system Ax=b exponentially faster than what is possible with classical computation. Here we first review some key aspects of the algorithm from the standpoint of finding its efficient quantum circuit implementation using only elementary quantum operations, which is important for determining the potential usefulness of the algorithm in practical settings. Then we present a small-scale quantum circuit that solves a 2x2 linear system. The quantum circuit uses only 4 qubits, implying a tempting possibility for experimental realization. Furthermore, the circuit is numerically simulated and its performance under different circuit parameter settings is demonstrated.
The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age
2011-01-01
Computational Quantum Chemistry has developed into a powerful, efficient, reliable and increasingly routine tool for exploring the structure and properties of small to medium sized molecules. Many thousands of calculations are performed every day, some offering results which approach experimental accuracy. However, in contrast to other disciplines, such as crystallography, or bioinformatics, where standard formats and well-known, unified databases exist, this QC data is generally destined to remain locally held in files which are not designed to be machine-readable. Only a very small subset of these results will become accessible to the wider community through publication. In this paper we describe how the Quixote Project is developing the infrastructure required to convert output from a number of different molecular quantum chemistry packages to a common semantically rich, machine-readable format and to build respositories of QC results. Such an infrastructure offers benefits at many levels. The standardised representation of the results will facilitate software interoperability, for example making it easier for analysis tools to take data from different QC packages, and will also help with archival and deposition of results. The repository infrastructure, which is lightweight and built using Open software components, can be implemented at individual researcher, project, organisation or community level, offering the exciting possibility that in future many of these QC results can be made publically available, to be searched and interpreted just as crystallography and bioinformatics results are today. Although we believe that quantum chemists will appreciate the contribution the Quixote infrastructure can make to the organisation and and exchange of their results, we anticipate that greater rewards will come from enabling their results to be consumed by a wider community. As the respositories grow they will become a valuable source of chemical data for use by other disciplines in both research and education. The Quixote project is unconventional in that the infrastructure is being implemented in advance of a full definition of the data model which will eventually underpin it. We believe that a working system which offers real value to researchers based on tools and shared, searchable repositories will encourage early participation from a broader community, including both producers and consumers of data. In the early stages, searching and indexing can be performed on the chemical subject of the calculations, and well defined calculation meta-data. The process of defining more specific quantum chemical definitions, adding them to dictionaries and extracting them consistently from the results of the various software packages can then proceed in an incremental manner, adding additional value at each stage. Not only will these results help to change the data management model in the field of Quantum Chemistry, but the methodology can be applied to other pressing problems related to data in computational and experimental science. PMID:21999363
The Quixote project: Collaborative and Open Quantum Chemistry data management in the Internet age.
Adams, Sam; de Castro, Pablo; Echenique, Pablo; Estrada, Jorge; Hanwell, Marcus D; Murray-Rust, Peter; Sherwood, Paul; Thomas, Jens; Townsend, Joe
2011-01-01
Computational Quantum Chemistry has developed into a powerful, efficient, reliable and increasingly routine tool for exploring the structure and properties of small to medium sized molecules. Many thousands of calculations are performed every day, some offering results which approach experimental accuracy. However, in contrast to other disciplines, such as crystallography, or bioinformatics, where standard formats and well-known, unified databases exist, this QC data is generally destined to remain locally held in files which are not designed to be machine-readable. Only a very small subset of these results will become accessible to the wider community through publication.In this paper we describe how the Quixote Project is developing the infrastructure required to convert output from a number of different molecular quantum chemistry packages to a common semantically rich, machine-readable format and to build respositories of QC results. Such an infrastructure offers benefits at many levels. The standardised representation of the results will facilitate software interoperability, for example making it easier for analysis tools to take data from different QC packages, and will also help with archival and deposition of results. The repository infrastructure, which is lightweight and built using Open software components, can be implemented at individual researcher, project, organisation or community level, offering the exciting possibility that in future many of these QC results can be made publically available, to be searched and interpreted just as crystallography and bioinformatics results are today.Although we believe that quantum chemists will appreciate the contribution the Quixote infrastructure can make to the organisation and and exchange of their results, we anticipate that greater rewards will come from enabling their results to be consumed by a wider community. As the respositories grow they will become a valuable source of chemical data for use by other disciplines in both research and education.The Quixote project is unconventional in that the infrastructure is being implemented in advance of a full definition of the data model which will eventually underpin it. We believe that a working system which offers real value to researchers based on tools and shared, searchable repositories will encourage early participation from a broader community, including both producers and consumers of data. In the early stages, searching and indexing can be performed on the chemical subject of the calculations, and well defined calculation meta-data. The process of defining more specific quantum chemical definitions, adding them to dictionaries and extracting them consistently from the results of the various software packages can then proceed in an incremental manner, adding additional value at each stage.Not only will these results help to change the data management model in the field of Quantum Chemistry, but the methodology can be applied to other pressing problems related to data in computational and experimental science. PMID:21999363