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1

Shortest Paths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many uses for the shortest path algorithm presented which are limited only by our ability to recognize when a problem may be converted into the shortest path in a graph representation. (Author/TG)

Shore, M. L.

1980-01-01

2

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Protocol Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a dynamic, hierarchical routing protocol designed to support routing in TCP\\/IP networks. A simulation of the OSPF Election Protocol shows three results: (1) The Designated Router (DR) can be elected in constant time. (2) If a router has a limited number of input buffers, a competition for buffers between the Election and the Flooding

Deepinder P. Sidhu; Tayang Fu; Shukri Abdallah; Raj Nair; Rob Coltun

1993-01-01

3

Shortest Paths for Line Segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We study the problem of shortest paths for a line segment in the plane. As a measure of the distance traversed by a path, we take the average curve length of the orbits of prescribed points on the line segment. This problem is nontrivial even in free space (i.e., in the absence of obstacles). We characterize all shortest paths

Christian Icking; Giinter Rote; Emo Welzl; Chee-keng Yap

1993-01-01

4

Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution  

PubMed Central

We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for ? = 1.04 ± 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss.

Pose, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araujo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

2014-01-01

5

Shortest Paths Without a Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papadimitriou, C.H. and M. Yannakakis, Shortest paths without a map, Theoretical Computer Science 84 (1991) 127-150. We study several versions of the shortest-path problem when the map is not known in advance, but is specified dynamically. We are seeking dynamic decision rules that optimize the worst-case ratio of the distance covered to the length of the (statically) optimal path. We

Christos H. Papadimitriou; Mihalis Yannakakis

1989-01-01

6

Finding the k Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe algorithms for finding the k shortest paths connectinga given pair of vertices in a digraph (allowing cycles). Our algorithmsoutput an implicit representation of the paths as an unordered setin time O(m + n log n + k). The paths can be output in order bylength in total time O(m + n log n + k log k). We

David Eppstein

1994-01-01

7

Shortest paths on a polyhedron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for determining the shortest path between a source point and any destination point along the surface of a polyhedron (need not be convex). Our algorithm uses a new approach which deviates from the conventional “continuous Dijkstra” technique. It takes &Ogr;(n2) time and ⊖(n) space to determine the shortest path and to compute the inward layout which

Jindong Chen; Yijie Han

1990-01-01

8

Shortest Paths in Euclidean Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a simple method for finding shortest paths inEuclidean graphs (where vertices are points in a Euclidean space and edge weights are Euclidean distances between points). For many graph\\u000a models, the average running time of the algorithm to find the shortest path between a specified pair of vertices in a graph\\u000a withV vertices andE edges is shown to beO(V)

Robert Sedgewick; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1986-01-01

9

An Appraisal of Some Shortest Path Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical review of the literature of shortest paths in networks that examines methods for determining (1) the shortest path between two specified nodes; (2) the shortest path between all pairs of nodes; (3) the second, third, etc., shortest path; (4) th...

S. E. Dreyfus

1967-01-01

10

Shortest path algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theshortest path problem is considered from a computational point of view. Eight algorithms which solve theshortest path tree problem on directed graphs are presented, together with the results of wide-ranging experimentation designed to compare their relative performances on different graph topologies. The focus of this paper is on the implementation of the different data structures used in the algorithms. A

Giorgio Gallo; Stefano Pallottino

1988-01-01

11

Randomized distributed shortest paths algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with distributed algorithm for finding shortest paths in an asynchronous communication network. For the problem of Breadth First Search, the best previously known algorithms required either &THgr;(V) time, or &THgr; (E + V · D) communication. We present new algorithm, which requires O(D1+?) time, and O(E1+?) messages, for any ? > 0. (Here, V is number

B. Awerbuch

1989-01-01

12

Large margin shortest path routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new discriminative approach to routing inspired by the large margin criterion serving as a basis for support vector machines\\u000a is presented. The proposed formulation uses the benefit of the dualization convex program, and it is possible for standard\\u000a solvers to learn the weighting metrics of the shortest path routing. In order to demonstrate this and due to its simplicity,

Yadamsuren Lutbat; Rentsen Enkhbat; Won-Joo Hwang

13

Another adaptive distributed shortest path algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors give a distributed algorithm to compute shortest paths in a network with changing topology. The authors analyze its behavior. The proof of correctness is discussed. It does not suffer from the routing table looping behavior associated with the Ford-Bellman distributed shortest path algorithm although it uses truly distributed processing. Its time and message complexities are evaluated. Comparisons with

Pierre A. Humblet

1991-01-01

14

Asymptotic Optimality of Shortest Path Routing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many communication networks use adaptive shortest path routing. By this the authors mean that each network link is periodically assigned a length that depends on its congestion level during the preceding period, and all traffic generated between length up...

E. M. Gafni D. P. Pertsekas

1983-01-01

15

Highway Hierarchies Hasten Exact Shortest Path Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a new speedup technique for route planning that exploits the hierarchy inherent in real world road networks. Our\\u000a algorithm preprocesses the eight digit number of nodes needed for maps of the USA or Western Europe in a few hours using linear\\u000a space. Shortest (i.e. fastest) path queries then take around eight milliseconds to produce exact shortest paths. This

Peter Sanders; Dominik Schultes

2005-01-01

16

The Number of Shortest Paths in the  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We enumerate all of the shortest paths between any vertex v and the identity vertex in an (n, k)-star graph by enumerating the minimum factorizations of v in terms of the transpositions corresponding to edges in that graph. This result generalizes a previous one for the star\\u000a graph, and can be applied to obtain the number of the shortest paths

Eddie Cheng; Ke Qiu; Zhi Zhang Shen

2010-01-01

17

Approximating weighted shortest paths on polyhedral surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionShortest path problems are among the fundamental problemsstudied in computational geometry. In this video,we consider the problem of computing a shortest costpath between two points s and t on a (possibly nonconvex)polyhedral surface P. The surface is composedof triangular regions (faces) in which each region has anassociated positive weight. The cost of travel througheach region is the distance traveled times

Mark Lanthier; Anil Maheshwari; Jörg-Rüdiger Sack

1997-01-01

18

A Study on Shortest Path Routing Algorithm on Dataflow Parallel Reconfigurable Processor DAPDNA2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In IP networks, we ordinally use OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) as a routing protocol. OSPF find the shortest path using Dijkstra's Shortest Path Algorithm. Dijkstra's Algorithm is suitable for program counter based CPU, however it is not scalable for the number of nodes in the networks since its computational complexity is O(n2). In this paper, We propose a parallel shortest

Sho SHIMIZU; Yutaka ARAKAWA; Naoaki YAMANAKA; Kosuke SHIBA

19

Shortest paths algorithms: theory and experimental evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct an extensive computational study of shortest paths algorithms, including some very recent algorithms. We also suggest new algorithms motivated by the experimental results and prove interesting theoretical results suggested by the experimental data. Our computational study is based on several natural problem classes which identify strengths and weaknesses of various algorithms. These problem classes and algorithm implementations form

Boris V. Cherkassky; Andrew V. Goldberg; Tomasz Radzikt

1994-01-01

20

Distributed computation on graphs: shortest path algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the paradigm of diffusing computation, introduced by Dijkstra and Scholten, to solve a class of graph problems. We present a detailed solution to the problem of computing shortest paths from a single vertex to all other vertices, in the presence of negative cycles.

K. Mani Chandy; Jayadev Misra

1982-01-01

21

Faster algorithms for the shortest path problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient implementations of Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm are investigated. A new data structure, called the radix heap, is proposed for use in this algorithm. On a network with n vertices, m edges, and nonnegative integer arc costs bounded by C, a one-level form of radix heap gives a time bound for Dijkstra's algorithm of O(m + n log C). A

Ravindra K. Ahuja; Kurt Mehlhorn; James B. Orlin; Robert Endre Tarjan

1990-01-01

22

Stochastic shortest path with unlimited hops  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new results for the Stochastic Shortest Path problem when an unlimited number of hops may be used. Nodes and links in the network may be congested or uncongested, and their states change over time. The goal is to adaptively choose the next node to visit such that the expected cost to the destination is minimized. Since the state

Ananya Das; Charles U. Martel

2009-01-01

23

Balancing minimum spanning and shortest path trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper give a simple linear-time algorithm that, given a weighted\\u000adigraph, finds a spanning tree that simultaneously approximates a shortest-path\\u000atree and a minimum spanning tree. The algorithm provides a continuous\\u000atrade-off: given the two trees and epsilon > 0, the algorithm returns a\\u000aspanning tree in which the distance between any vertex and the root of the\\u000ashortest-path

Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavacharit; Neal E. Young

1993-01-01

24

On shortest paths in polyhedral spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of computing the shortest path between two points in two- or three-dimensional space bounded by polyhedral surfaces. In the 2-D case the problem is easily solved in time O(n2 log n).In the general 3-D case the problem is quite hard to solve, and is not even discrete; we present a doubly-exponential procedure for solving the discrete

Amir Schorr

1984-01-01

25

Computing shortest paths with comparisons and additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an undirected all-pairs shortest paths (APSP) algorithm which runs on a pointer machine in time O(mn?(m,n)) while making O(mnlog ?(m, n)) comparisons and additions, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices, respectively, and ?(m, n) is Tarjan's inverse-Ackermann function. This improves upon all previous comparison & addition-based APSP algorithms when the graph is sparse,

Seth Pettie; Vijaya Ramachandran

2002-01-01

26

An applicable method for solving the shortest path problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem of Hardy, Littlewood, and Polya, first time is used to find the variational form of the well known shortest path problem, and as a consequence of that theorem, one can find the shortest path problem via quadratic programming. In this paper, we use measure theory to solve this problem. The shortest path problem can be written as an

M. Zamirian; M. H. Farahi; A. R. Nazemi

2007-01-01

27

A New Necessary Condition for Shortest Path Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shortest path routing, traffic is routed along shortest paths defined by link weights. However, not all path systems are feasible in that they can be realized in this way. This is something which needs to be taken into account when searching for a set of paths that minimize capacity consumption. In this paper, we discuss a new necessary condition

Mats Petter Pettersson; Krzysztof Kuchcinski

2007-01-01

28

A Distributed Context-Free Language Constrained Shortest Path Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal language constrained shortest path problems are concerned with finding shortest paths in labeled graphs. These labeled paths have the constraint that the concatenation of labels along a path constitute a valid string in some formal language Lambda over alphabet Sigma. These problems are well studied where the formal language is regular or context-free, and have been used in a

Charles B. Ward; Nathan M. Wiegand; Phillip G. Bradford

2008-01-01

29

Shortest paths synthesis for a car-like robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the complete characterization of the shortest paths for a car-like robot. Previous works have shown that the search for a shortest path may be limited to a simple family of trajectories. Our work completes this study by providing a way to select inside this family an optimal path to link any two configurations. We combine the

P. Soueres; J.-P. Laumond

1996-01-01

30

Engineering Label-Constrained Shortest-Path Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a generalization of the shortest-path problem: given an alphabet ?, a graph G whose edges are weighted and ?-labeled, and a regular language L ? ??, the L-constrained shortest-path problem consists of finding a shortest path p in G such that the concatenated labels along p form a word of L. This definition allows to model, e.g., many

Christopher L. Barrett; Keith Bisset; Martin Holzer; Goran Konjevod; Madhav V. Marathe; Dorothea Wagner

2008-01-01

31

Shortest path ray tracing with sparse graphs  

SciTech Connect

A technique for improving the efficiency of shortest path ray tracing (SPR) is presented. The authors analyze situations where SPR fails and provide quantitative measures to assess the performance of SPR ray tracing with varying numbers of nodes. Their improvements include perturbing the ray at interfaces according to Snell's Law, and a method to find correct rays efficiently in regions of low velocity contract. This approach allows the investigator to use fewer nodes in the calculation, thereby increasing the computational efficiency. In two-dimensional (2-D) cross-borehole experiments they find that with their improvements, they need only use 2/3 as many nodes, saving up to 60 percent in time. Savings should be even greater in three dimensions. These improvements make SPR more attractive for tomographic applications in three dimensions.

Fischer, R.; Lees, J.M. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1993-07-01

32

Witnesses for Boolean Matrix Multiplication and for Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcubic methods to compute the shortest distances between all pairs of vertices also do not provide for witnesses; namely they compute the shortest distances but do not generate information for computing quickly the paths themselves. A witness for a shortest path from vi to vj is an index k such that vk is the rst vertex on such a

Noga Alon; Zvi Galilt; Oded Margalit; Moni Naor

1992-01-01

33

Vickrey Prices and Shortest Paths: What is an Edge Worth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve a shortest path problem that is motivated by recent interest in pricing networks or other computational resources. Informally, how much is an edge in a network worth to a user who wants to send data between two nodes along a shortest path? If the network is a decentralized en- tity, such as the Internet, in which multiple self-interest

John Hershberger; Subhash Suri

2001-01-01

34

Computing the shortest path: A search meets graph theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose shortest path algorithms that use A* search in combination with a new graph-theoretic lower-bounding technique based on landmarks and the triangle inequality. Our algorithms compute optimal shortest paths and work on any directed graph. We give experimental results showing that the most efficient of our new algorithms outperforms previous algorithms, in particular A* search with Euclidean bounds, by

Andrew V. Goldberg; Chris Harrelson

2005-01-01

35

On an instance of the inverse shortest paths problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse shortest paths problem in a graph is considered, that is, the problem of recovering the arc costs given some information about the shortest paths in the graph. The problem is first motivated by some practical examples arising from applications. An algorithm based on the Goldfarb-Idnani method for convex quadratic programming is then proposed and analyzed for one of

D. Burton; Philippe L. Toint

1992-01-01

36

A distributed, loop-free, shortest-path routing algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new distributed algorithm for the dynamic computation of the shortest paths in a computer network is presented, validated, and analyzed. According to this algorithm, each node maintains the lengths of the shortest path to each network destination and a feasibility vector. Update messages from a node are sent only to its neighbors; each such message contains one or more

1988-01-01

37

Fast and accurate estimation of shortest paths in large graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing shortest paths between two given nodes is a fundamental operation over graphs, but known to be nontrivial over large disk-resident instances of graph data. While a number of techniques exist for answering reachability queries and approximating node distances efficiently, determining actual shortest paths (i.e. the sequence of nodes involved) is often neglected. However, in applications arising in massive online

Andrey Gubichev; Srikanta J. Bedathur; Stephan Seufert; Gerhard Weikum

2010-01-01

38

Expected shortest paths in dynamic and stochastic traffic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic and stochastic shortest path problem (DSSPP) is defined as finding the expected shortest path in a traffic network where the link travel times are modeled as a continuous-time stochastic process. The objective of this paper is to examine the properties of the problem and to identify a technique that can be used to solve the DSSPP given information

Liping Fu; L. R. Rilett

1998-01-01

39

A fuzzy shortest path with the highest reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concentrates on a shortest path problem on a network where arc lengths (costs) are not deterministic numbers, but imprecise ones. Here, costs of the shortest path problem are fuzzy intervals with increasing membership functions, whereas the membership function of the total cost of the shortest path is a fuzzy interval with a decreasing linear membership function. By the max-min criterion suggested in [R.E. Bellman, L.A. Zade, Decision-making in a fuzzy environment, Management Science 17B (1970) 141-164], the fuzzy shortest path problem can be treated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. We show that this problem can be simplified into a bi-level programming problem that is very solvable. Here, we propose an efficient algorithm, based on the parametric shortest path problem for solving the bi-level programming problem. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate our proposed algorithm.

Keshavarz, Esmaile; Khorram, Esmaile

2009-08-01

40

k-Link Shortest Paths in Weighted Subdivisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the shortest path problem in weighted polygonal subdivisions of the plane, with the additional constraint of an upper bound, k, on the number of links (segments) in the path. We prove structural properties of optimal paths and utilize these results to ob- tain approximation algorithms that yield a path having O(k) links and weighted length at most (1

Ovidiu Daescu; Joseph S. B. Mitchell; Simeon C. Ntafos; James D. Palmer; Chee-keng Yap

2005-01-01

41

Identifying the Shortest Path in Large Networks using Boolean Satisfiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, most routing problems are solved using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. Many efficient implementations of Dijkstra's algorithm exist and can handle large networks in short runtimes. Despite these advances, it is difficult to incorporate user-specific conditions on the solution when using Dijkstra's algorithm. Such conditions can include forcing the path to go through a specific node, forcing the path to

Fadi A. Aloul; Bashar Al Rawi

2006-01-01

42

Faster Parametric Shortest Path and Minimum Balance Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Fibonacci heaps to improve a parametric shortest path algorithm of Karp and Orlin, and we combine our algorithm and the method of Schneider and Schneider's minimum-balance algorithm to obtain a faster minimum-balance algorithm. For a graph with n vertices and m edges, our parametric shortest path algorithm and our minimum-balance algorithm both run in O(nm + n2 logn)

Neal E. Young; James B. Orlinz

1991-01-01

43

Optimal shortest path queries in a simple polygon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let P be a simple polygon with n sides. This paper shows how to preprocess the polygon so that, given two query points p and q inside P, the length of the shortest path inside the polygon from p to q can be found in time &Ogr;(log n). The path itself must be polygonal and can be extracted in additional

Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger

1987-01-01

44

Shortest Paths to Obstacles for a Polygonal Dubins Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we characterize the time-optimal trajectories leading a Dubins car in collision with the obstacles in its workspace. Due to the constant velocity constraint characterizing the Dubins car model, these trajectories form a sufficient set of shortest paths between any robot configuration and the obstacles in the environment. Based on these paths, we define and give the algorithm

Paolo Robuffo Giordano; Marilena Vendittelli

2009-01-01

45

Valid Inequalities for a Shortest-Path Routing Optimization Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In autonomous systems of the Internet packets are routed on shortest paths to their destinations, for example according to the ECMP principle. The problem of finding a feasible traffic routing configuration realized on paths which can be generated by a system of weights assigned to IP links is NP-hard. This problem can be formulated as a mixed-integer program and attempted

M. Dzida; M. Mycek; M. Zago

46

Approximate Shortest Paths Guided by a Small Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance oracles and graph spanners are excerpts of a graph that allow to compute approximate shortest paths. Here, we consider the situation where it is possible to access the original graph in addition to the graph excerpt while computing paths. This allows for asymptotically much smaller excerpts than distance oracles or spanners. The quality of an algorithm in this setting

Jörg Derungs; Riko Jacob; Peter Widmayer

2007-01-01

47

Three Methods for Optimizing Single-Shortest Path Routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-domain routing in IP networks is based on the shortest path principle by assigning administrative weights (costs) to links. The resulting least-cost paths determine routes between pairs of routers. If several such equal-cost paths exist between a pair of routers, it may not be clear which of them is actually used to route traffic. This makes it difficult to predict

Mateusz Dzida; M. Zagozdzon; M. Zotkiewicz; M. P. Pettersson; M. Pioro; M. Duelli; M. Menth

2008-01-01

48

Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen

2013-10-01

49

Shortest Path First with Emergency Exits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under heavy and dynamic traffic, the SPF routing algorithm often suffers from wild oscilla- tion and severe congestion, and results in degradation of the network performance. In this paper, we present a new routing algorithm (SPF-EE) which attempts to eliminate the problems associated with the SPF algo- rithm by providing alternate paths as emergency exits. With the SPF-EE algorithm, traffic

Zheng Wang; Jon Crowcroft

1990-01-01

50

Shortest paths of Bounded Curvature in the Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given two oriented points in the plane, we determine and compute the shortest paths of bounded curvature joigning them. This problem has been solved recently, by Dubins in the no-cusp case, and by Reeds and Shepp otherwise. We propose a new solution based on the minimum principle of Pontryagin. Our approach simplifies the proofs and makes clear the global or

Jean-daniel Boissonnat; André Cérézo; Juliette Leblond

1991-01-01

51

Faster Shortest-Path Algorithms for Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We give a linear-time algorithm for single-source shortest paths in planar graphs with nonnegativeedge-lengths. Our algorithm also yields a linear-time algorithm for maximum flow in a planar graphwith the source and sink on the same face.

Monika Rauch Henzinger; Philip N. Klein; Satish Rao; Sairam Subramanian

1997-01-01

52

Finding the K Shortest Loopless Paths in a Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for finding the K loopless paths that have the shortest lengths from one node to another node in a network. The significance of the new algorithm is that its computational upper bound increases only linearly with the value of K. Consequently, in general, the new algorithm is extremely efficient as compared with the algorithms proposed

Jin Y. Yen

1971-01-01

53

Efficient Algorithms for Shortest Paths in Sparse Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms for finding shortest paths are presented which are faster than algorithms previously known on networks which are relatively sparse in arcs. Known results which the results of this paper extend are surveyed briefly and analyzed. A new implementation for priority queues is employed, and a class of “arc set partition” algorithms is introduced. For the single source problem on

Donald B. Johnson

1977-01-01

54

Shortest Path Games: Computational Complexity of Solution Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortest Path Games: Computational Complexity of Solution Concepts Frank Nebel Abstract: Over the last few years a series of papers has been published that analyse the computational complexity of solution concepts applied to different types of coalitional games, which are expressed by more or less concise representation languages. However, the coalitional games that have been analysed in a computational context

Frank Nebel

2010-01-01

55

Optimal capacity allocation for load balanced shortest path routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we first describe the load balanced shortest path routing (LB-SPR) protocol. Then, we present the linear program for the optimal capacity allocation, to minimize the resource consumption when LB-SPR is applied in the network. We show that when the load balancing is applied, the capacity allocation problem can be expressed only in terms of the total traffic

Marija Antic; Aleksandra Smiljanic

2009-01-01

56

Randomized Shortest-Path Problems: A first study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose you have to route agents through a network from a source node to a destination node in some optimal way; for instance by minimizing the total travel cost. Nothing new up to now - you could use a standard shortest- path algorithm. Suppose, however, that you want to avoid pure deterministic routing policies in order, for instance, to allow

Marco Saerens; Luh Yen; Francois Fouss; Youssef Achbany

57

Incremental Algorithms for the Single-Source Shortest Path Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of updating a single source shortest path tree in either a directed or an undirected graph, with positive real edge weights. Our semidynamic algorithms for the incremental problem (handling edge insertions and cost decrements) work for any graph, but their performances depend on the class of the considered graph. In any case our algorithms have optimal

Daniele Frigioni; Alberto Marchetti-spaccamela; Umberto Nanni

1994-01-01

58

Approximate Shortest Path Queries in Graphs Using Voronoi Duals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approximation method to answer shortest path queries in graphs, based on hierarchical random sampling and Voronoi duals. The lowest level of the hierarchy stores the initial graph. At each higher level, we compute a simplification of the graph on the level below, by selecting a constant fraction of nodes. Edges are generated as the Voronoi dual within

Shinichi Honiden; Michael E. Houle; Christian Sommer; Martin Wolff

2009-01-01

59

Visibility graphs and obstacle-avoiding shortest paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two closely related problems in Computational Geometry are determining visibility graphs and shortest paths in a two- or three-dimensional environment containing obstacles. Applications are within Computer Graphics and Robotics. We give a survey on recent research done on efficient algorithms for these problems.

H. Alt; E. Welzl

1988-01-01

60

A Complete Approximation Algorithm for Shortest Bounded-Curvature Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of finding a polynomial-time approximation scheme for shortest bounded-curvature paths in the presence\\u000a of obstacles. Given an arbitrary environment E\\\\mathcal{E} consisting of polygonal obstacles, two feasible configurations, a length ?, and an approximation factor ?, our algorithm either (i) verifies that every feasible bounded-curvature path joining the two configurations is longer than\\u000a ? or (ii) constructs

Jonathan Backer; David Kirkpatrick

2008-01-01

61

Approximate Shortest Paths Guided by a Small Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance oracles and graph spanners are excerpts of a graph that allow to compute approximate shortest paths. Here, we consider\\u000a the situation where it is possible to access the original graph in addition to the graph excerpt while computing paths. This\\u000a allows for asymptotically much smaller excerpts than distance oracles or spanners. The quality of an algorithm in this setting

Jörg Derungs; Riko Jacob; Peter Widmayer

2010-01-01

62

An Improved Physarum polycephalum Algorithm for the Shortest Path Problem  

PubMed Central

Shortest path is among classical problems of computer science. The problems are solved by hundreds of algorithms, silicon computing architectures and novel substrate, unconventional, computing devices. Acellular slime mould P. polycephalum is originally famous as a computing biological substrate due to its alleged ability to approximate shortest path from its inoculation site to a source of nutrients. Several algorithms were designed based on properties of the slime mould. Many of the Physarum-inspired algorithms suffer from a low converge speed. To accelerate the search of a solution and reduce a number of iterations we combined an original model of Physarum-inspired path solver with a new a parameter, called energy. We undertook a series of computational experiments on approximating shortest paths in networks with different topologies, and number of nodes varying from 15 to 2000. We found that the improved Physarum algorithm matches well with existing Physarum-inspired approaches yet outperforms them in number of iterations executed and a total running time. We also compare our algorithm with other existing algorithms, including the ant colony optimization algorithm and Dijkstra algorithm.

Wang, Qing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Chan, Felix T. S.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

2014-01-01

63

Average Network Flow Problem: Shortest Path and Minimum Cost Flow Formulations, Algorithms, Heuristics, and Complexity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrating value focused thinking with the shortest path problem results in a unique formulation called the multiobjective average shortest path problem. We prove this is NP-complete for general graphs. For directed acyclic graphs, an efficient algorithm...

J. D. Jordan

2012-01-01

64

DT-MRI fiber tracking: a shortest paths approach.  

PubMed

We derive a new fiber tracking algorithm for DT-MRI that parts with the locally "greedy" paradigm intrinsic to conventional tracking algorithms. We demonstrate the ability to precisely reconstruct a diverse range of fiber trajectories in authentic and computer-generated DT-MRI data, for which well-known conventional tracking algorithms are shown to fail. Our approach is to pose fiber tracking as a problem in computing shortest paths in a weighted digraph. Voxels serve as vertices, and edges are included between neighboring voxels. We assign probabilities (weights) to edges using a Bayesian framework. Higher probabilities are assigned to edges that are aligned with fiber trajectories in their close proximity. We compute optimal paths of maximum probability using computationally scalable shortest path algorithms. The salient features of our approach are: global optimality--unlike conventional tracking algorithms, local errors do not accumulate and one "wrong-turn" does not spell disaster; a target point is specified a priori; precise reconstruction is demonstrated for extremely low signal-to-noise ratio; impartiality to which of two endpoints is used as a seed; and, faster computation times than conventional all-paths tracking. We can use our new tracking algorithm in either a single-path tracking mode (deterministic tracking) or an all-paths tracking mode (probabilistic tracking). PMID:18815098

Zalesky, Andrew

2008-10-01

65

A Shortest Path Algorithm with Constraints in Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper deals with the shortest path problem with Constraints, and it is NP-complete problem. The problem is formulated\\u000a as an optimization model. To solve this model Lagrangean relaxation algorithm is adopted. For the solution of the dual problem\\u000a a subgradient method is used. The general algorithm steps for our problem are presented, and a numerical example on communication\\u000a network

Fanguo He; Kuobin Dai

66

Optimal Shortest Path Queries in a Simple Polygon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Let P be a simple polygon with n sides. This paper shows how to preprocess,the polygon so that, given two query points p and q inside P, the length of the shortest,path,inside the polygon($#$to q can be found,in time,O(Iogn). The path,itself must,be polygonal and can be extracted,in additional,time proportional,to the number,of turns,it makes.,The preprocessing consists of triangulation,plus a linear

Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger

1989-01-01

67

ON THE ACCELERATION OF SHORTEST PATH CALCULATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS  

SciTech Connect

Shortest path algorithms are a key element of many graph problems. They are used in such applications as online direction finding and navigation, as well as modeling of traffic for large scale simulations of major metropolitan areas. As the shortest path algorithms are an execution bottleneck, it is beneficial to move their execution to parallel hardware such as Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Hardware implementation is accomplished through the use of a small A core replicated on the order of 20 times on an FPGA device. The objective is to maximize the use of on-board random-access memory bandwidth through the use of multi-threaded latency tolerance. Each shortest path core is responsible for one shortest path calculation, and when it is finished it outputs its result and requests the next source from a queue. One of the innovations of this approach is the use of a small bubble sort core to produce the extract-min function. While bubble sort is not usually considered an appropriate algorithm for any non-trivial usage, it is appropriate in this case as it can produce a single minimum out of the list in O(n) cycles, whwere n is the number of elements in the vertext list. The cost of this min operation does not impact the running time of the architecture, because the queue depth for fetching the next set of edges from memory is roughly equivalent to the number of cores in the system. Additionally, this work provides a collection of simulation results that model the behavior of the node queue in hardware. The results show that a hardware queue, implementing a small bubble-type minimum function, need only be on the order of 16 elements to provide both correct and optimal paths. Because the graph database size is measured in the hundreds of megabytes, the Cray SRAM memory is insufficient. In addition to the A* cores, they have developed a memory management system allowing round-robin servicing of the nodes as well as virtual memory managed over the Hypertransport bus. With support for a DRAM graph store with SRAM-based caching on the FPGA, the system provides a speedup of roughly 8.9x over the CPU-based implementation.

BAKER, ZACHARY K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; GOKHALE, MAYA B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-08

68

A Graph Search Heuristic for Shortest Distance Paths  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a heuristic for guiding A* search for finding the shortest distance path between two vertices in a connected, undirected, and explicitly stored graph. The heuristic requires a small amount of data to be stored at each vertex. The heuristic has application to quickly detecting relationships between two vertices in a large information or knowledge network. We compare the performance of this heuristic with breadth-first search on graphs with various topological properties. The results show that one or more orders of magnitude improvement in the number of vertices expanded is possible for large graphs, including Poisson random graphs.

Chow, E

2005-03-24

69

Universal behavior of the shortest-path aggregation  

SciTech Connect

The shortest-path aggregation in a two-dimensional square lattice is studied numerically. We find universal behavior of the cluster formation when the released particles are weakly correlated, and a distinct universal behavior for clusters generated by a strongly correlated release. In particular, we find the fractal dimension {ital D}=1.20{plus minus}0.01 when the released particles are weakly correlated, while a one-dimensional object is obtained when the correlation is strong. We also find the anisotropic exponent {delta}=1.0 in the weak-correlation region.

Wang, X.R.; Wang, X.F. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States))

1992-01-15

70

A Decentralized Algorithm for Finding the Shortest Paths in Defense Communications Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a decentralized shortest path algorithm which finds the shortest distances between all pairs of nodes without requiring that any particular node have information about the complete topology of the network. The algorithm requires at mos...

J. Y. Yen

1979-01-01

71

A Bio-Inspired Method for the Constrained Shortest Path Problem  

PubMed Central

The constrained shortest path (CSP) problem has been widely used in transportation optimization, crew scheduling, network routing and so on. It is an open issue since it is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose an innovative method which is based on the internal mechanism of the adaptive amoeba algorithm. The proposed method is divided into two parts. In the first part, we employ the original amoeba algorithm to solve the shortest path problem in directed networks. In the second part, we combine the Physarum algorithm with a bio-inspired rule to deal with the CSP. Finally, by comparing the results with other method using an examples in DCLC problem, we demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

Wang, Hongping; Lu, Xi; Wang, Qing

2014-01-01

72

The weighted region problem: finding shortest paths through a weighted planar subdivision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of determining shortest paths through a weighted planar polygonal subdivision with n vertices is considered. Distances are measured according to a weighted Euclidean metric: The length of a path is defined to be the weighted sum of (Euclidean) lengths of the subpaths within each region. An algorithm that constructs a (restricted) “shortest path map” with respect to a

Joseph S. B. Mitchell; Christos H. Papadimitriou

1991-01-01

73

A branch and bound algorithm for the robust shortest path problem with interval data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real problems in transportation and telecommunications can be modelled in mathematical terms as shortest path problems on in- terval digraphs, where an interval of costs is associated with each arc. Intervals represent uncertainty, typical of real situations, about the exact values of costs. In this context, a robust shortest path is a path which is ideally not too far

R. Montemanni; L. M. Gambardella; A. E. Rizzoli; A. V. Donati

2002-01-01

74

A branch and bound algorithm for the robust shortest path problem with interval data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real problems in transportation and telecommunications can be modelled in mathematical terms as shortest path problems on interval digraphs, where an interval cost is associated with each arc. Intervals represent uncertainty, typical of real situations, about the exact values of costs. A robust shortest path is a path which is not too far from the best one, whatever the

Roberto Montemanni; Luca Maria Gambardella; Alberto V. Donati

2004-01-01

75

Corridor location: the multi-gateway shortest path model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of corridor location can be found in a number of fields including power transmission, highways, and pipelines. It involves the placement of a corridor or rights-of-way that traverses a landscape starting at an origin and ending at a destination. Since most systems are subject to environmental review, it is important to generate competitive, but different alternatives. This paper addresses the problem of generating efficient, spatially different alternatives to the corridor location problem. We discuss the weaknesses in current models and propose a new approach which is designed to overcome many of these problems. We present an application of this model to a real landscape and compare the results to past work. Overall, the new model called the multi-gateway shortest path problem can generate a wide variety of efficient alignments, which eclipse what could be generated by past work.

Scaparra, Maria P.; Church, Richard L.; Medrano, F. Antonio

2014-03-01

76

Damage detection via shortest-path network sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large networked systems are constantly exposed to local damages and failures that can alter their functionality. The knowledge of the structure of these systems is, however, often derived through sampling strategies whose effectiveness at damage detection has not been thoroughly investigated so far. Here, we study the performance of shortest-path sampling for damage detection in large-scale networks. We define appropriate metrics to characterize the sampling process before and after the damage, providing statistical estimates for the status of nodes (damaged, not damaged). The proposed methodology is flexible and allows tuning the trade-off between the accuracy of the damage detection and the number of probes used to sample the network. We test and measure the efficiency of our approach considering both synthetic and real networks data. Remarkably, in all of the systems studied, the number of correctly identified damaged nodes exceeds the number of false positives, allowing us to uncover the damage precisely.

Ciulla, Fabio; Perra, Nicola; Baronchelli, Andrea; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-05-01

77

Neural networks for shortest path computation and routing in computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of neural networks to the optimum routing problem in packet-switched computer networks, where the goal is to minimize the network-wide average time delay, is addressed. Under appropriate assumptions, the optimum routing algorithm relies heavily on shortest path computations that have to be carried out in real time. For this purpose an efficient neural network shortest path algorithm that

Mustafa K. Mehmet Ali; Faouzi Kamoun

1993-01-01

78

Undirected single-source shortest paths with positive integer weights in linear time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single-source shortest paths problem (SSSP) is one of the classic problems in algorithmic graph theory: given a positively weighted graph G with a source vertex s, find the shortest path from s to all other vertices in the graph.Since 1959, all theoretical developments in SSSP for general directed and undirected graphs have been based on Dijkstra's algorithm, visiting the

Mikkel Thorup

1999-01-01

79

Dynamic shortest path in stochastic traffic networks based on fluid neural network and Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortest path algorithm is critical for dynamic traffic assignment and for the realization of route guidance in intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this paper, a hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm combined fluid neural network (FNN) to search for the shortest path in stochastic traffic networks is introduced. The algorithm overcomes the weight coefficient symmetry restrictions of the traditional

Yanfang Deng; Hengqing Tong; Xiedong Zhang

2010-01-01

80

Using Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams for Symbolic Generation of Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for the symbolic construction of shortest paths in reachability graphs. Our algorithm relies on a variant of edge{valued decision diagrams that supports ecien t xed{p oint it- erations for the joint computation of both the reachable states and their distance from the initial states. Once the distance function is known, a shortest path from an

Gianfranco Ciardo; Radu Siminiceanu

2002-01-01

81

Shortcut in the Decomposition Algorithm for Shortest Paths in a Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem considered is that of finding the shortest path between the two nodes of every pair in a large n-node network. A decomposition algorithm is proposed for use when the number of arcs is less than n(n - 1). The network is first decomposed into several overlapping subnetworks. Next, with each subnetwork treated separately, conditional shortest paths are obtained

T. C. Hu; W. T. Torres

1969-01-01

82

On the Shortest Path to Solve the Problem Based on Vague Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortest path problem (SPP) is currently being greatly studied in fuzzy sets and systems area. Previously published algorithms and methods for the fuzzy shortest path problem based on discrete or continuous types fuzzy sets of fuzzy arc lengths. However, to present an arc real length in vague set is more reasonable than in fuzzy set. Moreover,carrying on various kinds

Yaling Dou; Hongxing Guo; Jingli Zhou

2008-01-01

83

Size and Weight of Shortest Path Trees with Exponential Link Weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the distribution of the number of links and the average weight for the shortest path tree (SPT) rooted at an arbitrary node to m uniformly chosen nodes in the complete graph of size N with i.i.d. exponential link weights. We rely on the fact that the full shortest path tree to all destinations (i.e., m = N ?

Remco Van Der Hofstad; Gerard Hooghiemstra; Piet Van Mieghem

2006-01-01

84

Gene Function Prediction with the Shortest Path in Functional Linkage Graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for gene function prediction with the shortest path in functional linkage graph. With existing protein-protein interaction data, complex data and gene expression data, a weighted functional linkage graph is inferred. By finding the shortest path in the functional linkage graph, the functions of unknown genes can be predicted with the functions of those that

Xing-Ming Zhao; Luonan Chen; Kazuyuki Aihara

2007-01-01

85

An Efficient Parallel Algorithm for Shortest Paths in Planar Layered Digraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing shortest paths in a directed graph has received considerable attention in the sequential RAM model of computation. However, developing a polylog-time parallel algorithm that is close to the sequential optimal in terms of the total work done remains an elusive goal. We present a first step in this direction by giving efficient parallel algorithms for shortest paths in planar

Sairam Subramanian; Roberto Tamassia; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1995-01-01

86

A comparison of two new exact algorithms for the robust shortest path problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real road networks can be modelled in mathematical terms as interval digraphs, where an interval of travel times (costs) is associated with each arc. Intervals represent uncer- tainty, typical of real situations, about exact travel times. A robust shortest path is a path which is not too far from the shortest one, whatever the exact values of arc costs are.

Roberto Montemanni; Luca Maria; Gambardella Alberto Donati

2004-01-01

87

Color texture classification using shortest paths in graphs.  

PubMed

Color textures are among the most important visual attributes in image analysis. This paper presents a novel method to analyze color textures by modeling a color image as a graph in two different and complementary manners (each color channel separately and the three color channels altogether) and by obtaining statistical moments from the shortest paths between specific vertices of this graph. Such an approach allows to create a set of feature vectors, which were extracted from VisTex, USPTex, and TC00013 color texture databases. The best classification results were 99.07%, 96.85%, and 91.54% (LDA with leave-one-out), 87.62%, 66.71%, and 88.06% (1NN with holdout), and 98.62%, 96.16%, and 91.34% (LDA with holdout) of success rate (percentage of samples correctly classified) for these three databases, respectively. These results prove that the proposed approach is a powerful tool for color texture analysis to be explored. PMID:24988594

de Mesquita Sa Junior, Jarbas Joaci; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Backes, Andre Ricardo

2014-09-01

88

All Pairs Shortest Paths for Graphs with Small Integer Length Edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have solved the all pairs shortest distances (APSD) problem for graphs with integer edge lengths. Our algorithm is subcubic for edge lengths of small (?M) absolute value. In this paper we show how to transform these algorithms to solve the all pairs shortest paths (APSP), in the same time complexity, up to a polylogarithmic factor. Forn=|V| the number

Zvi Galil; Oded Margalit

1997-01-01

89

Trans-dichotomous Algorithms for Minimum Spanning Trees and Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion tree method is extended to develop a linear-time algorithm for the minimum spanning tree problem and an O(m +n log n\\/log log n) implementation of Dijkstra's shortest-path algorithm for a graph with n vertices and m edges. The shortest-path algorithm surpasses information-theoretic limitations. The extension of the fusion tree method involves the development of a new data structure,

Michael L. Fredman; Dan E. Willard

1990-01-01

90

Linear-Time Algorithms for Visibility and Shortest Path Problems Inside Triangulated Simple Polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a triangulation of a simple polygonP, we present linear-time algorithms for solving a collection of problems concerning shortest paths and visibility withinP. These problems include calculation of the collection of all shortest paths insideP from a given source vertexS to all the other vertices ofP, calculation of the subpolygon ofP consisting of points that are visible from a given

Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger; Daniel Leven; Micha Sharir; Robert Endre Tarjan

1987-01-01

91

Approximation Algorithms for Shortest Path Motion Planning (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives approximation algorithms for solvingthe following motion planning problem: Given aset of polyhedral obstacles and points s and t, find ashortest path from s to t that avoids the obstacles.The paths found by the algorithms are piecewise linear,and the length of a path is the sum of the lengthsof the line segments making up the path. Approximationalgorithms will

Kenneth L. Clarkson

1987-01-01

92

Texture recognition by the shortest path on 3D discrete gray-level surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we apply geodesic paths (the shortest path which is an important object in the task of 3D shape analysis) to the description of natural textures. We first introduce an approach called propagation algorithm to estimate the shortest paths on discrete surfaces and then derive a set of texture features (LR, PLR, SDR, DIF and 1c) from them. The results of the experiments indicate that these features can reflect texture surface patterns in various aspects and are suitable for texture description.

Liao, Mengyang; Li, Xinliang; Qin, Jiamei; Wang, Sixian

1995-05-01

93

An Evaluation of Potentials of Genetic Algorithm in Shortest Path Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most typical issues considered in combinatorial systems in transportation networks, is the shortest path problem. In such networks, routing has a significant impact on the network's performance. Due to natural complexity in transportation networks and strong impact of routing in different fields of decision making, such as traffic management and vehicle routing problem (VRP), appropriate solutions to solve this problem are crucial to be determined. During last years, in order to solve the shortest path problem, different solutions are proposed. These techniques are divided into two categories of classic and evolutionary approaches. Two well-known classic algorithms are Dijkstra and A*. Dijkstra is known as a robust, but time consuming algorithm in finding the shortest path problem. A* is also another algorithm very similar to Dijkstra, less robust but with a higher performance. On the other hand, Genetic algorithms are introduced as most applicable evolutionary algorithms. Genetic Algorithm uses a parallel search method in several parts of the domain and is not trapped in local optimums. In this paper, the potentiality of Genetic algorithm for finding the shortest path is evaluated by making a comparison between this algorithm and classic algorithms (Dijkstra and A*). Evaluation of the potential of these techniques on a transportation network in an urban area shows that due to the problem of classic methods in their small search space, GA had a better performance in finding the shortest path.

Hassany Pazooky, S.; Rahmatollahi Namin, Sh; Soleymani, A.; Samadzadegan, F.

2009-04-01

94

Performance of multihop wireless networks: shortest path is not enough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing wireless ad hoc routing protocols typically find routes with the minimum hop-count. This paper presents experimental evidence from two wireless test-beds which shows that there are usually multiple minimum hop-count paths, many of which have poor throughput. As a result, minimum-hop-count routing often chooses routes that have significantly less capacity than the best paths that exist in the network.

Douglas S. J. De Couto; Daniel Aguayo; Benjamin A. Chambers; Robert Morris

2003-01-01

95

Should QoS routing algorithms prefer shortest paths?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia traffic and real-time e-commerce applications can experience quality degradation in traditional networks such as the Internet. These difficulties can be overcome in networks which feature dynamically set up paths with bandwidth and delay guarantees. The problem of selecting such constrained paths is the task of quality of service (QoS) routing. This paper considers link-state routing, and the choice of

Karol Kowalik; Martin Collier

2003-01-01

96

Shortest-path and minimum-delay algorithms in networks with time-dependent edge-length  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the shortest-path problem in networks in which the delay (or weight) of the edges changes with time according to arbitrary functions is considered. Algorithms for finding the shortest path and minimum delay under various waiting constraints are presented and the properties of the derived path are investigated. It is shown that if departure time from the source

Ariel Orda; Raphael Rom

1990-01-01

97

Greedy partitioned algorithms for the shortest-path problem  

SciTech Connect

A partitioned, priority-queue algorithm for solving the single-source best-path problem is defined and evaluated. Finding single-source paths for sparse graphs is notable because of its definite lack of parallelism-no known algorithm are scalable. Qualitatively, they discuss the close relationship between the algorithm and previous work by Quinn, Chikayama, and others. Performance measurements of variations of the algorithm, implemented both in concurrent and imperative programming languages on a shared-memory multiprocessor, are presented. This quantitative analysis of the algorithms provides insights into the tradeoffs between complexity and overhead in graph-searching executed in high-level parallel languages with automatic task scheduling.

Adamson, P.; Tick, E. (Univ. of Oregon (United States))

1991-08-01

98

Fast estimation of diameter and shortest paths (without matrix multiplication)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, there has been considerable progress in devising algorithms for the allpairsshortest paths problem running in time significantly smaller than the obvious time bound ofO(n3). Unfortunately, all the new algorithms are based on fast matrix multiplication algorithmsthat are notoriously impractical. Our work is motivated by the goal of devising purely combinatorialalgorithms that match these improved running times.

Donald Aingworth; Chandra Chekuri; Rajeev Motwani

1996-01-01

99

Finding Shortest Paths on Surfaces Using Level Sets Propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for determining minimal length paths between two regions on a three dimensional surface. The numerical implementation is based on finding equal geodesic distance contours from a given area. These contours are calculated as zero sets of a bivariate function designed to evolve so as to track the equal distance curves on the given surface. The

Ron Kimmel; Arnon Amir; Alfred M. Bruckstein

1995-01-01

100

Faster shortest-path algorithms for planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a linear-time algorithm for single-sourceshortest paths in planar graphs with nonnegative edgelengths.Our algorithm also yields a linear-time algorithmfor maximum flow in a planar graph with thesource and sink on the same face. The previous best algorithmsfor these problemsrequired\\\\Omega\\\\Gammanplog n) timewhere n is the number of nodes in the input graph.For the case where negative edge-lengths are allowed,we give

Philip N. Klein; Satish Rao; Monika Raucht; Sairam Subramanian

1994-01-01

101

The approach for shortest paths in fire succor based on component GIS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire safety is an important issue for the national economy and people's living. Efficiency and exactness of fire department succor directly relate to safety of peoples' lives and property. Many disadvantages of the traditional fire system have been emerged in practical applications. The preparation of pumpers is guided by wireless communication or wire communication, so its real-time and accurate performances are much poorer. The information about the reported fire, such as the position, disaster and map, et al., for alarm and command was processed by persons, which slows the reaction speed and delays the combat opportunity. In order to solve these disadvantages, it has an important role to construct a modern fire command center based on high technology. The construction of modern fire command center can realize the modernization and automation of fire command and management. It will play a great role in protecting safety of peoples' lives and property. The center can enhance battle ability and can reduce the direct and indirect loss of fire damage at most. With the development of science technology, Geographic Information System (GIS) has becoming a new information industry for hardware production, software development, data collection, space analysis and counseling. With the popularization of computers and the development of GIS, GIS has gained increasing broad applications for its strong functionality. Network analysis is one of the most important functions of GIS, and the most elementary and pivotal issue of network analysis is the calculation of shortest paths. The shortest paths are mostly applied to some emergent systems such as 119 fire alarms. These systems mainly require that the computation time of the optimal path should be 1-3 seconds. And during traveling, the next running path of the vehicles should be calculated in time. So the implement of the shortest paths must have a high efficiency. In this paper, the component GIS technology was applied to collect and record the data information (such as, the situation of this disaster, map and road status et al) of the reported fire firstly. The ant colony optimization was used to calculate the shortest path of fire succor secondly. The optimization results were sent to the pumpers, which can let pumpers choose the shortest paths intelligently and come to fire position with least time. The programming method for shortest paths is proposed in section 3. There are three parts in this section. The elementary framework of the proposed programming method is presented in part one. The systematic framework of GIS component is described in part two. The ant colony optimization employed is presented in part three. In section 4, a simple application instance was presented to demonstrate the proposed programming method. There are three parts in this section. The distributed Web application based on component GIS was described in part one. The optimization results without traffic constraint were presented in part two. The optimization results with traffic constraint were presented in part three. The contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows. (1) It proposed an effective approach for shortest paths in fire succor based on component GIS technology. This proposed approach can achieve the real-time decisions of shortest paths for fire succor. (2) It applied the ant colony optimization to implement the shortest path decision. The traffic information was considered in the shortest path decision using ant colony optimization. The final application instance suggests that the proposed approach is feasible, correct and valid.

Han, Jie; Zhao, Yong; Dai, K. W.

2007-08-01

102

Weight of a link in a shortest path tree and the Dedekind Eta function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight of a randomly chosen link in the shortest path tree on the complete graph with exponential i.i.d. link weights is studied. The corresponding exact probability generating function and the asymptotic law are derived. As a remarkable coincidence, this asymptotic law is precisely the same as the distribution of the cost of one \\

Piet Van Mieghem

2010-01-01

103

All pairs shortest paths using bridging sets and rectangular matrix multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two new algorithms for solving the All Pairs Shortest Paths (APSP) problem for weighted directed graphs. Both algorithms use fast matrix multiplication algorithms.The first algorithm solves the APSP problem for weighted directed graphs in which the edge weights are integers of small absolute value in Õ(n2+?) time, where ? satisfies the equation ?(1, ?, 1) = 1 +

Uri Zwick

2002-01-01

104

Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.  

PubMed

Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197

Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

2014-01-01

105

A genetic algorithm for shortest path routing problem and the sizing of populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a genetic algorithmic approach to the shortest path (SP) routing problem. Variable-length chromosomes (strings) and their genes (parameters) have been used for encoding the problem. The crossover operation exchanges partial chromosomes (partial routes) at positionally independent crossing sites and the mutation operation maintains the genetic diversity of the population. The proposed algorithm can cure all the infeasible

Chang Wook Ahn; Rudrapatna S. Ramakrishna

2002-01-01

106

Linear time algorithms for visibility and shortest path problems inside simple polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present linear time algorithms for solving the following problems involving a simple planar polygon P: (i) Computing the collection of all shortest paths inside P from a given source vertex s to all the other vertices of P; (ii) Computing the subpolygon of P consisting of points that are visible from a segment within P; (iii) Preprocessing P so

Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger; Daniel Leven; Micha Sharir; Robert Endre Tarjan

1986-01-01

107

Comparison of k-shortest paths and maximum flow routing for network facility restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of technologies for span failure restoration, a question arises about the restoration rerouting characteristics to be specified. In theory, maximal rerouting capacity is obtained with a maximum flow (Max Flow) criterion. However, rerouting that realizes the k-successively shortest link disjoint paths (KSP) may be faster, easier, and, in distributed implementation, more robust than a distributed counterpart for

D. Anthony Dunn; Wayne D. Grover; Mike H. MacGregor

1994-01-01

108

Transitive Functional Annotation by Shortest-path Analysis of Gene Expression Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

attribute to link genes of the same biological pathway. Based on large-scale yeast microarray expression data, we use the shortest-path analysis to identify transitive genes between two given genes from the same biological process. We find that not only functionally related genes with correlated expression profiles are identified but also those without. In the latter case, we compare our method

Xianghong Zhou; Ming-Chih J. Kao; Wing Hung Wong

2002-01-01

109

Partially observed stochastic shortest path problem - application to sequential paging in cellular networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polling a roaming mobile user in a cellular network to determine its location is called paging and it requires the use of limited wireless resources. We formulate the paging problem as an optimal sequential search problem for a Markovian target and show that the resulting problem is an instance of a Partially Observed Stochastic Shortest Path (POSSP) problem. Using the

Sumeetpal Singh; Vikram Krishnamurthy

2001-01-01

110

Research on the Algorithm for K-Shortest Paths Problem based on A* in Complicated Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the optimization problems about complicated network, this paper presents an algorithm KSPA to solve the K-shortest paths problem in complicated network based on A* algorithm, in which the time cost is taken as target function and the establishment of the target function model is given. Experimental results show the proposed KSPA maintains an excellent efficiency on certain public

Lichao Chen; Jia Liu; Yingjun Zhang; Binhong Xie

2007-01-01

111

Topology and Shortest Path Length Evolution of The Internet Autonomous Systems Interconnectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connection networks are observed in many areas of human knowledge. The characterization and topological studies of these networks may be performed through distribution of connectivity degrees, rank properties, shortest path length between nodes, adjacency matrix etc. This paper characterizes the Internet con- nections evolution over the last 10 years at the Autonomous Systems (AS) level analyzing the complete BGP data

N. ALVES Jr.; M. P. de ALBUQUERQUE; Xavier Sigaud; J. T. de ASSIS

112

Shortest Path Cost Distribution in Random Graphs with Positive Integer Edge Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability distribution of the shortest path cost from a source node to an arbitrary destination node is considered for a random network model consisting of a complete digraph with positive integer random edge costs. Edge costs are chosen according to a common probability distribution for each direction. For this model, the joint distribution of the number of nodes which

Scott K. Walley; Harry H. Tan; Audrey M. Viterbi

1993-01-01

113

NETWORK REPRESENTATION AND SHORTEST PATH REFLECTING THE RAMP ENTRY OR EXIT DIRECTION LIMITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are some ramp entry or exit direction limitations on networks. This kind of limitation is represented by successive passage prohibition (SPP). It indicates that the vehicles cannot successively pass two links with SPP attributes. However, the shortest-path tree sometimes cannot be expressed with a simple tree when a network having this limitation is represented with single nodes. In such

Kazutaka TAKAO; Tohru HIGASHI; Koji YASUDA; Yasuo ASAKURA

114

Spatial Interpolation of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations Using the Shortest Wind-Field Path Distance  

PubMed Central

Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

2014-01-01

115

A temporal ant colony optimization approach to the shortest path problem in dynamic scale-free networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of networks in the real world have a scale-free structure, and the parameters of the networks change stochastically with time. Searching for the shortest paths in a scale-free dynamic and stochastic network is not only necessary for the estimation of the statistical characteristics such as the average shortest path length of the network, but also challenges the traditional concepts related to the “shortest path” of a network and the design of path searching strategies. In this paper, the concept of shortest path is defined on the basis of a scale-free dynamic and stochastic network model, and a temporal ant colony optimization (TACO) algorithm is proposed for searching for the shortest paths in the network. The convergence and the setup for some important parameters of the TACO algorithm are discussed through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, validating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Yu, Feng; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Tie-Jun

2010-02-01

116

Efficiently Answering Probability Threshold-Based Shortest Path Queries over Uncertain Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Efficiently processing shortest path (SP) queries over stochastic networks attracted a lot of research attention as such queries\\u000a are very popular in the emerging real world applications such as Intelligent Transportation Systems and communication networks\\u000a whose edge weights can be modeled as a random variable. Some pervious works aim at finding the most likely SP (the path with\\u000a largest probability

Ye Yuan; Lei Chen; Guoren Wang

2010-01-01

117

Fighting organized crimes: using shortest-path algorithms to identify associations in criminal networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient link analysis techniques are needed to help law enforcement and intelligence agencies fight organized crimes such as narcotics violation, terrorism, and kidnapping. In this paper, we propose a link analysis technique that uses shortest-path algorithms, priority-first-search (PFS) and two-tree PFS, to identify the strongest association paths between entities in a criminal network. To evaluate effectiveness, we compared

Jennifer Jie Xu; Hsinchun Chen

2004-01-01

118

LABELLING METHODS FOR THE GENERAL CASE OF THE MULTI-OBJECTIVE SHORTEST PATH PROBLEM - A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the study of labelling techniques for solving the multi-objective shortest path problem (MSPP) which is an extension of the shortest path problem (SPP) resulting from considering simultaneously more than one cost function (criteria) for the arcs. The generalization of the well known SPP labelling algorithm for the multi- objective situation is studied in detail and

E MANUEL PAIX; E LUIS SANTOS

119

Probabilistic inference and ranking of gene regulatory pathways as a shortest-path problem  

PubMed Central

Background Since the advent of microarray technology, numerous methods have been devised to infer gene regulatory relationships from gene expression data. Many approaches that infer entire regulatory networks. This produces results that are rich in information and yet so complex that they are often of limited usefulness for researchers. One alternative unit of regulatory interactions is a linear path between genes. Linear paths are more comprehensible than networks and still contain important information. Such paths can be extracted from inferred regulatory networks or inferred directly. Since criteria for inferring networks generally differs from criteria for inferring paths, indirect and direct inference of paths may achieve different results. Results This paper explores a strategy to infer linear pathways by converting the path inference problem into a shortest-path problem. The edge weights used are the negative log-transformed probabilities of directness derived from the posterior joint distributions of pairwise mutual information between gene expression levels. Directness is inferred using the data processing inequality. The method was designed with two goals. One is to achieve better accuracy in path inference than extraction of paths from inferred networks. The other is to facilitate priorization of interactions for laboratory validation. A method is proposed for achieving this by ranking paths according to the joint probability of directness of each path's edges. The algorithm is evaluated using simulated expression data and is compared to extraction of shortest paths from networks inferred by two alternative methods, ARACNe and a minimum spanning tree algorithm. Conclusions Direct path inference appears to achieve accuracy competitive with that obtained by extracting paths from networks inferred by the other methods. Preliminary exploration of the use of joint edge probabilities to rank paths is largely inconclusive. Suggestions for a better framework for such comparisons are discussed.

2013-01-01

120

Pectoral muscle detection in mammograms based on polar coordinates and the shortest path.  

PubMed

The automatic detection and segmentation of the pectoral muscle in the medio-lateral oblique view of mammograms is essential for further analysis of breast anormalies. However, it is still a very difficult task since the sizes, shapes and intensity contrasts of pectoral muscles change greatly from image to image. In this paper, an algorithm based on the shortest path on a graph is proposed to automatically detect the pectoral muscle contour. To overcome the difficulties of searching for the path between a lateral and the top margins of the image, this is first transformed, using polar coordinates. In the transformed image, the muscle boundary in amongst the shortest paths between the top and the bottom rows. A comprehensive comparison with manually-drawn contours reveals the strength of the proposed method. PMID:21096253

Cardoso, Jaime S; Domingues, Ines; Amaral, Igor; Moreira, Ines; Passarinho, Pedro; Santa Comba, Joao; Correia, Ricardo; Cardoso, Maria J

2010-01-01

121

A new approach to shortest paths on networks based on the quantum bosonic mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents quantum bosonic shortest path searching (QBSPS), a natural, practical and highly heuristic physical algorithm for reasoning about the recognition of network structure via quantum dynamics. QBSPS is based on an Anderson-like itinerant bosonic system in which a boson's Green function is used as a navigation pointer for one to accurately approach the terminals. QBSPS is demonstrated by rigorous mathematical and physical proofs and plenty of simulations, showing how it can be used as a greedy routing to seek the shortest path between different locations. In methodology, it is an interesting and new algorithm rooted in the quantum mechanism other than combinatorics. In practice, for the all-pairs shortest-path problem in a random scale-free network with N vertices, QBSPS runs in O(?(N) ln ln N) time. In application, we suggest that the corresponding experimental realizations are feasible by considering path searching in quantum optical communication networks; in this situation, the method performs a pure local search on networks without requiring the global structure that is necessary for current graph algorithms.

Jiang, Xin; Wang, Hailong; Tang, Shaoting; Ma, Lili; Zhang, Zhanli; Zheng, Zhiming

2011-01-01

122

The d-edge shortest-path problem for a Monge graph  

SciTech Connect

A complete edge-weighted directed graph on vertices 1,2,...,n that assigns cost c(i,j) to the edge (i,j) is called Monge if its edge costs form a Monge array, i.e., for all i < k and j < l, c[i, j]+c[k,l]{le} < c[i,l]+c[k,j]. One reason Monge graphs are interesting is that shortest paths can be computed quite quickly in such graphs. In particular, Wilber showed that the shortest path from vertex 1 to vertex n of a Monge graph can be computed in O(n) time, and Aggarwal, Klawe, Moran, Shor, and Wilber showed that the shortest d-edge 1-to-n path (i.e., the shortest path among all 1-to-n paths with exactly d edges) can be computed in O(dn) time. This paper`s contribution is a new algorithm for the latter problem. Assuming 0 {le} c[i,j] {le} U and c[i,j + 1] + c[i + 1,j] {minus} c[i,j] {minus} c[i + 1, j + 1] {ge} L > 0 for all i and j, our algorithm runs in O(n(1 + 1g(U/L))) time. Thus, when d {much_gt} 1 + 1g(U/L), our algorithm represents a significant improvement over Aggarwal et al.`s O(dn)-time algorithm. We also present several applications of our algorithm; they include length-limited Huffman coding, finding the maximum-perimeter d-gon inscribed in a given convex n-gon, and a digital-signal-compression problem.

Bein, W.W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Larmore, L.L. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Park, J.K. [Sandia National Labs.,Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-07-14

123

An Incremental Algorithm for a Generalization of the Shortest-Path Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The grammar problem, a generalization of the single-source shortest-path problem introduced by Knuth, is to computethe minimum-cost derivation of a terminal string from each non-terminal of a given context-free grammar, with the costof a derivation being suitably defined. This problem also subsumes the problem of finding optimal hyperpaths indirected hypergraphs (under varying optimization criteria) that has received attention recently.

G. Ramalingam; Thomas W. Reps

1996-01-01

124

Soft-decision Decoding of Block Codes using the k Shortest Paths Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a soft-decision decoding algorithm for block codes using the k shortest paths algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is investigated and compared with other decoding schemes. The results show the proposed algorithm gives large gains over the generalised minimum distance (GMD) decoding algorithm and algebraic hard-decision decoding. Further, the proposed algorithm achieves near-MLD performance for

Ismail Shakeel; Alex Grant

2006-01-01

125

Prediction of Transitive Co-expressed Genes Function by Shortest-Path Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The present paper predicted the function of unknow genes by analyzing the co-expression data of Arabidopsis thaliana from biological pathway based on the shortest-path algorithm. This paper proposed that transitive co-expression among genes\\u000a can be used as an important attribute to link genes of the same biological pathway. The genes from the same biological pathway\\u000a with similar functions are strongly

Huang JiFeng

126

Transmission Scheduling for Sensor Network Lifetime Maximization: A Shortest Path Bandit Formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses optimal sensor scheduling for maximizing network lifetime. We formulate this problem as a stochastic shortest-path multi-armed bandit problem. The optimal transmission scheduling policy is thus to choose the sensor with the largest Gittins index. Exploiting the underlying structure of the sensor scheduling problem, we derive a closed-form expression for the Gittins index. We show that choosing the

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; Vikram Krishnamurthy; Dejan Djonin

2006-01-01

127

F-TPR: fine two-phase IP routing scheme over shortest paths for hose model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter proposes an IP-based finely-distributed routing scheme based on two-phase routing (TPR) over shortest paths for the hose model. It is called the fine-TPR (F-TPR) scheme. Compared to the original TPR, F-TPR distributes traffic from a source node to intermediate nodes more finely, where the distribution ratio is determined for each source-destination pair. To determine an optimum set of

Eiji Oki; Ayako Iwaki

2009-01-01

128

Time-Varying Shortest Path Problems with Perishable Product and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a new version of time-varying shortest path problem. Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph. A set of perishable products will be transferred by vehicles from source s to destination d. Each arc eepsiE has four parameters: transit time b(e, n2, u), transit cost c(e, n2, u), vehicle cost S(e, n2, u, t) and vehicle

Hou. Wenting; Cai Xiaoqiang

2007-01-01

129

Probability distribution of the shortest path on the percolation cluster, its backbone, and skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the mean distribution functions Phi(r\\\\|l), PhiB(r\\\\|l), and PhiS(r\\\\|l), giving the probability that two sites on the incipient percolation cluster, on its backbone and on its skeleton, respectively, connected by a shortest path of length l are separated by an Euclidean distance r. Following a scaling argument due to de Gennes for self-avoiding walks, we derive analytical expressions for

Markus Porto; Shlomo Havlin; H. Eduardo Roman; Armin Bunde

1998-01-01

130

Swapping a Failing Edge of a Single Source Shortest Paths Tree Is Good and Fast  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a \\u000a Abstract. Let G=(V,E) be a 2-edge connected, undirected and nonnegatively weighted graph, and let S(r) be a single source shortest paths tree (SPT) of G rooted at r ? V . Whenever an edge e in S(r) fails, we are interested in reconnecting the nodes now disconnected from the root by means of a single edge e' crossing the

Enrico Nardelli; Guido Proietti; Peter Widmayer

2003-01-01

131

Energy penalties for non-shortest paths in wireless sensor networks with link failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper addresses the additional energy consumption,in wire- less sensor networks where the communication,between the sensor nodes and the sink nodes does not always make,use of the shortest path, due to the presence of link failures. For simplicity, link fail- ures are assumed,to be stochastic and independent. The basis for the analysis is a planned topology, with multiple sinks

Geir Egeland; Paal E. Engelstad

2009-01-01

132

Efficient Parallel Algorithms for Computing All Pair Shortest Paths in Directed Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present parallel algorithms for computing all pair shortest paths in directed graphs. Our algorithm has time complexity O. f.n\\/= pC I.n\\/ log n\\/ on the PRAM using p processors, where I.n\\/ is log n on the EREW PRAM, log logn on the CCRW PRAM, f.n\\/ is o.n3\\/. On the randomized CRCW PRAM we are able to achieve time complexity

Yijie Han; Victor Y. Pan; John H. Reif

1997-01-01

133

A New Closeness Metric for Social Networks Based on the k Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We axiomatically develop a metric of personal connection between individuals in social networks, and construct an optimal\\u000a model to find the best weight of the metric. Our metric optimizes, in some strict-established sense, weighted average of the\\u000a k shortest paths so that it is able to distinguish the closeness between nodes more relevantly than traditional metrics. The\\u000a algorithms are implemented

Chun Shang; Yuexian Hou; Shuo Zhang; Zhaopeng Meng

2010-01-01

134

How to Swap a Failing Edge of a Single Source Shortest Paths Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the notion of best swap for a failing edge of a single source shortest paths tree (SPT) S(r) rooted in r in a weighted graph G =( V; E). Given an edge e 2 S(r), an edge e0 2 E nfeg is a swap edge if the swap tree Se=e0(r) obtained by swapping e with

Enrico Nardelli; Guido Proietti; Peter Widmayer

1999-01-01

135

Approximating Shortest Paths in Large-Scale Networks with an Application to Intelligent Transportation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a hierarchical algorithm for approximating shortest paths between all pairs of nodes in a large-scale network. The algorithm begins by extracting a high-level subnetwork of rela- tively long links (and their associated nodes) where routing decisions are most crucial. This high-level network partitions the shorter links and their nodes into a set of lower-level sub- networks. By fixing

Yu-li Chou; H. Edwin Romeijn; Robert L. Smith

1998-01-01

136

Discrete Dynamic Shortest Path Problems in Transportation Applications: Complexity and Algorithms with Optimal Run Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper solves what appears to be a 30 years old problem dealing with the discovery of most efficient algorithms possible to compute all-to-one shortest paths in discrete dynamic,networks. This problem lies at the heart of efficient solution approaches to dynamic network models that arise in dynamic transportation systems, such as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), applications. While the main

Ismail Chabini

1998-01-01

137

Tight analysis of the (1+1)-EA for the single source shortest path problem.  

PubMed

We conduct a rigorous analysis of the (1+1) evolutionary algorithm for the single source shortest path problem proposed by Scharnow, Tinnefeld, and Wegener (The analyses of evolutionary algorithms on sorting and shortest paths problems, 2004, Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 3(4):349-366). We prove that with high probability, the optimization time is O(n2 max{?, log(n)}), where ? is the smallest integer such that any vertex can be reached from the source via a shortest path having at most ? edges. This bound is tight. For all values of n and ? we provide a graph with edge weights such that, with high probability, the optimization time is of order ?(n2 max{?, log(n)}). To obtain such sharp bounds, we develop a new technique that overcomes the coupon collector behavior of previously used arguments. Also, we exhibit a simple Chernoff type inequality for sums of independent geometrically distributed random variables, and one for sequences of random variables that are not independent, but show a desired behavior independent of the outcomes of the previous random variables. We are optimistic that these tools find further applications in the analysis of evolutionary algorithms. PMID:21838552

Doerr, Benjamin; Happ, Edda; Klein, Christian

2011-01-01

138

On the Approximability of the Minimum Congestion Unsplittable Shortest Path Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We are given an undirected simple graph G = (V,E) with edge capacities ce e<\\/font\\u000a>Z+c_{e} \\\\epsilon \\\\mathcal{Z}+, e ? E, and a set K???V\\u000a 2 of commodities with demand values d\\u000a (s,t)\\u000a ??, (s, t) ? K. An unsplittable shortest path routing (USPR) of the commodities K is a set of flow paths ?(s,t), (s, t) ? K, such

Andreas Bley

2005-01-01

139

Exact and Approximate Truthful Mechanisms for the Shortest Paths Tree Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let a communication network be modeled by an undirected graph G=(V,E) of n nodes and m edges, and assume that edges are controlled by selfish agents. In this paper we analyze the problem of designing a truthful\\u000a mechanism for computing one of the most popular structures in communication networks, i.e., the single-source shortest paths tree.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a More precisely, we will study

Luciano Gualà; Guido Proietti

2007-01-01

140

Parallel shortest augmenting path algorithm for the assignment problem. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

We describe a parallel version of the shortest augmenting path algorithm for the assignment problem. While generating the initial dual solution and partial assignment in parallel does not require substantive changes in the sequential algorithm, using several augmenting paths in parallel does require a new dual variable recalculation method. The parallel algorithm was tested on a 14-processor Butterfly Plus computer, on problems with up to 900 million variables. The speedup obtained increases with problem size. The algorithm was also embedded into a parallel branch and bound procedure for the traveling salesman problem on a directed graph, which was tested on the Butterfly Plus on problems involving up to 7,500 cities. To our knowledge, these are the largest assignment problems and traveling salesman problems solved so far.

Balas, E.; Miller, D.; Pekny, J.; Toth, P.

1989-04-01

141

Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted hierarchical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work on the networks has focused on the weighted hierarchical networks that are significantly different from the un-weighted hierarchical networks. In this paper we study a family of weighted hierarchical networks which are recursively defined from an initial uncompleted graph, in which the weights of edges have been assigned to different values with certain scale. Firstly, we study analytically the average weighted shortest path (AWSP) on the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a recursive method, we determine explicitly the AWSP. The obtained rigorous solution shows that the networks grow unbounded but with the logarithm of the network size, while the weighted shortest paths stay bounded. Then, depending on a biased random walk, we research the mean first-passage time (MFPT) between a hub node and any peripheral node. Finally, we deduce the analytical expression of the average of MFPTs for a random walker originating from any node to first visit to a hub node, which is named as the average receiving time (ART). The obtained result shows that ART is bounded or grows sublinearly with the network order relating to the number of initial nodes and the weighted factor or grows quadratically with the iteration.

Sun, Yu; Dai, Meifeng; Xi, Lifeng

142

An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for the Shortest Path Problem in Time-Dependent Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research of the shortest path problem in time-dependent networks has important practical value. An improved pheromone update strategy suitable for time-dependent networks was proposed. Under this strategy, the residual pheromone of each road can accurately reflect the change of weighted value of each road. An improved selection strategy between adjacent cities was used to compute the cities' transfer probabilities, as a result, the amount of calculation is greatly reduced. To avoid the algorithm converging to the local optimal solution, the ant colony algorithm was combined with genetic algorithm. In this way, the solutions after each traversal were used as the initial species to carry out single-point crossover. An improved ant colony algorithm for the shortest path problem in time-dependent networks based on these improved strategies was presented. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm has greater probability to get the global optimal solution, and the convergence rate of algorithm is better than traditional ant colony algorithm.

Chang, Qing; Liu, Yongqiang; Xiong, Huagang

143

A minimum resource neural network framework for solving multiconstraint shortest path problems.  

PubMed

Characterized by using minimum hard (structural) and soft (computational) resources, a novel parameter-free minimal resource neural network (MRNN) framework is proposed for solving a wide range of single-source shortest path (SP) problems for various graph types. The problems are the k-shortest time path problems with any combination of three constraints: time, hop, and label constraints, and the graphs can be directed, undirected, or bidirected with symmetric and/or asymmetric traversal time, which can be real and time dependent. Isomorphic to the graph where the SP is to be sought, the network is activated by generating autowave at source neuron and the autowave travels automatically along the paths with the speed of a hop in an iteration. Properties of the network are studied, algorithms are presented, and computation complexity is analyzed. The framework guarantees globally optimal solutions of a series of problems during the iteration process of the network, which provides insight into why even the SP is still too long to be satisfied. The network facilitates very large scale integrated circuit implementation and adapt to very large scale problems due to its massively parallel processing and minimum resource utilization. When implemented in a sequentially processing computer, experiments on synthetic graphs, road maps of cities of the USA, and vehicle routing with time windows indicate that the MRNN is especially efficient for large scale sparse graphs and even dense graphs with some constraints, e.g., the CPU time taken and the iteration number used for the road maps of cities of the USA is even less than  ? 2% and 0.5% that of the Dijkstra's algorithm. PMID:25050952

Zhang, Junying; Zhao, Xiaoxue; He, Xiaotao

2014-08-01

144

Identification of Lung-Cancer-Related Genes with the Shortest Path Approach in a Protein-Protein Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this work, a computational method was proposed for identifying lung-cancer-related genes with a shortest path approach in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Based on the PPI data from STRING, a weighted PPI network was constructed. 54 NSCLC- and 84 SCLC-related genes were retrieved from associated KEGG pathways. Then the shortest paths between each pair of these 54 NSCLC genes and 84 SCLC genes were obtained with Dijkstra's algorithm. Finally, all the genes on the shortest paths were extracted, and 25 and 38 shortest genes with a permutation P value less than 0.05 for NSCLC and SCLC were selected for further analysis. Some of the shortest path genes have been reported to be related to lung cancer. Intriguingly, the candidate genes we identified from the PPI network contained more cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. Furthermore, these genes possessed more functional similarity with the known cancer genes than those identified from the gene expression profiles. This study proved the efficiency of the proposed method and showed promising results.

Li, Bi-Qing; You, Jin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Ning; Li, Hai-Peng; Huang, Tao; Kong, Xiang-Yin; Cai, Yu-Dong

2013-01-01

145

Optimal Network Structure for Packet Flow in Shortest-Path Routing Control Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A network structure is responsible for efficient communication through a computer network. In order to obtain a network structure suitable for optimal packet communication on the network, we introduce a cost function for the efficiency of packet communication. By means of numerical simulations, we find an optimized network structure by reconnecting links in the network so as to minimize the defined cost function by using a shortest-path routing control model for packet flow. It turns out that the obtained optimized networks have the small-world property but a different structure from Erdös and Rényi's random graph [P. Erdös and A. Rényi, Publ. Math. (Debrecen) 6 (1959), 290] nor the real Internet. In addition, the distribution of links in the obtained network is not homogeneous and hence different from that obtained by Guimerá} et al., who have also investigated an optimal network structure for packet communication without packet routing processes.

Yamaguchi, C.; Horiguchi, T.

146

The tomography of human mobility -- what do shortest-path trees reveal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to illustrating the anatomy of organs using pictures of tissue slices taken at various depths, we construct shortest-path trees of different nodes to create a tomogram of large-scale mobility networks. This tomography allows us to measure global properties of the system conditioned on a reference location in the network to gain a fuller characterization of a node. Using this technqiue, we discovered a new symmetry that characterizes a large class of mobility networks. Furthermore, introducing the notion of tree similarity, we devised a new technique for clustering nodes with similar topological footprint, yielding a new, unique and efficient method for community identification in these networks and extracting their topological backbone. We applied these methods to a multi-scale human mobility network obtained from the dollar-bill-tracking site wheresgoerge.com and to the U.S. and world-wide air transportation network.

Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Brockmann, Dirk

2010-03-01

147

Shortest path ray tracing in cell model with a second-level forward star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-level forward star is routinely applied in seismic ray tracing using graph theory (sometimes referred to as the shortest path method) with a grid model. For a cell model, the forward star is often restricted to nodes at the same cell (i.e. first-level forward star). The performance of a cell model with second-level forward stars is found to be comparable in both computation time and accuracy to that of a doubly dense cell model with first-level forward stars. Moreover, the cell model with second-level forward stars has the advantage of halving the required computer storage. An optimization of the secondary node geometry leads to a further 20 per cent improvement in accuracy. Concepts derived from grid models for analytical error estimation are found to be less applicable to cell models. An empirical approach works better in the optimization of the secondary node geometry.

Mak, Sum; Koketsu, Kazuki

2011-09-01

148

Critical analysis of hopfield's neural network model for TSP and its comparison with heuristic algorithm for shortest path computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For shortest path computation, Travelling-Salesman problem is NP-complete and is among the intensively studied optimization problems. Hopfield and Tank's proposed neural network based approach, for solving TSP, is discussed. Since original Hopfield's model suffers from some limitations as the number of cities increase, some modifications are discussed for better performance. With the increase in the number of cities, the best

Farah Sarwar; Abdul Aziz Bhatti

2012-01-01

149

Detection of Changes in Transitive Associations by Shortest-path Analysis of Protein Interaction Networks Integrated with Gene Expression Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortest-path (SP) clustering can detect transitive associations in co-expression networks. In this work, we show that it can detect changes of transitive associations caused by perturbations in a protein interaction network (PIN). Specifically, we compare SPs between genes under perturbation and in a reference state. The PIN under perturbation can be obtained through integration with gene expression profiles, using either

Hong Qin; Li Yang

2008-01-01

150

Genetic algorithms with elitism-based immigrants for dynamic shortest path problem in mobile ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the static shortest path (SP) problem has been well addressed using intelligent optimization techniques, e.g., artificial neural networks (ANNs), genetic algorithms (GAs), particle swarm optimization (PSO), etc. However, with the advancement in wireless communications, more and more mobile wireless networks appear, e.g., mobile ad hoc network (MANET), wireless sensor network (WSN), etc. One of the most important

Hui Cheng; Shengxiang Yang

2009-01-01

151

Genetic Algorithms With Immigrants and Memory Schemes for Dynamic Shortest Path Routing Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the static shortest path (SP) problem has been well addressed using intelligent optimization techniques, e.g., artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms (GAs), particle swarm optimization, etc. However, with the advancement in wireless communications, more and more mobile wireless networks appear, e.g., mobile networks [mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)], wireless sensor networks, etc. One of the most important characteristics

Shengxiang Yang; Hui Cheng; Fang Wang

2010-01-01

152

Identification of Colorectal Cancer Related Genes with mRMR and Shortest Path in Protein-Protein Interaction Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important and challenging problems in biomedicine and genomics is how to identify the disease genes. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify colorectal cancer-related genes based on (i) the gene expression profiles, and (ii) the shortest path analysis of functional protein association networks. The former has been used to select differentially expressed genes

Bi-Qing Li; Tao Huang; Lei Liu; Yu-Dong Cai; Kuo-Chen Chou

2012-01-01

153

SHORTEST PATHS FOR THE REEDS-SHEPP CAR: A WORKED OUT EXAMPLE OF THE USE OF GEOMETRIC TECHNIQUES IN NONLINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We illustrate the use of the techniques of modern geometric optimal control theory by studying the shortest paths for a model of a car that can move forwards and backwards. This problem was discussed in recent work by Reeds and Shepp who showed, by special methods, (a) that shortest path motion could always be achieved by means of trajectories of

J. Sussmann; Guoqing Tang

1991-01-01

154

Identification of Thyroid Carcinoma Related Genes with mRMR and Shortest Path Approaches.  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer is a malignant neoplasm originated from thyroid cells. It can be classified into papillary carcinomas (PTCs) and anaplastic carcinomas (ATCs). Although ATCs are in an very aggressive status and cause more death than PTCs, their difference is poorly understood at molecular level. In this study, we focus on the transcriptome difference among PTCs, ATCs and normal tissue from a published dataset including 45 normal tissues, 49 PTCs and 11 ATCs, by applying a machine learning method, maximum relevance minimum redundancy, and identified 9 genes (BCL2, MRPS31, ID4, RASAL2, DLG2, MY01B, ZBTB5, PRKCQ and PPP6C) and 1 miscRNA (miscellaneous RNA, LOC646736) as important candidates involved in the progression of thyroid cancer. We further identified the protein-protein interaction (PPI) sub network from the shortest paths among the 9 genes in a PPI network constructed based on STRING database. Our results may provide insights to the molecular mechanism of the progression of thyroid cancer. PMID:24718460

Xu, Yaping; Deng, Yue; Ji, Zhenhua; Liu, Haibin; Liu, Yueyang; Peng, Hu; Wu, Jian; Fan, Jingping

2014-01-01

155

A Simpler Algorithm for the All Pairs Shortest Path Problem with O(n 2logn) Expected Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best known expected time for the all pairs shortest path problem on a directed graph with non-negative edge costs is O(n 2logn) by Moffat and Takaoka. Let the solution set be the set of vertices to which the given algorithm has established shortest paths. The Moffat-Takaoka algorithm maintains complexities before and after the critical point in balance, which is the moment when the size of the solution set is n - n/logn. In this paper, we remove the concept of critical point and the data structure, called a batch list, whereby we make the algorithm simpler and seamless, resulting in a simpler analysis and speed-up.

Takaoka, Tadao; Hashim, Mashitoh

156

Multi-population Genetic Algorithms with Immigrants Scheme for Dynamic Shortest Path Routing Problems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The static shortest path (SP) problem has been well addressed using intelligent optimization techniques, e.g., artificial\\u000a neural networks, genetic algorithms (GAs), particle swarm optimization, etc. However, with the advancement in wireless communications,\\u000a more and more mobile wireless networks appear, e.g., mobile ad hoc network (MANET), wireless mesh network, etc. One of the\\u000a most important characteristics in mobile wireless networks is

Hui Cheng; Shengxiang Yang

2010-01-01

157

Shortest multiple disconnected path for the analysis of entanglements in two- and three-dimensional polymeric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm which returns a shortest path and related number of entanglements for a given configuration of a polymeric system in 2 or 3 dimensions. Rubinstein and Helfand, and later Everaers et al. introduced a concept to extract primitive paths for dense polymeric melts made of linear chains (a multiple disconnected multibead 'path'), where each primitive path is defined as a path connecting the (space-fixed) ends of a polymer under the constraint of non-interpenetration (excluded volume) between primitive paths of different chains, such that the multiple disconnected path fulfills a minimization criterion. The present algorithm uses geometrical operations and provides a—model independent—efficient approximate solution to this challenging problem. Primitive paths are treated as 'infinitely' thin (we further allow for finite thickness to model excluded volume), and tensionless lines rather than multibead chains, excluded volume is taken into account without a force law. The present implementation allows to construct a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for 2D systems (polymeric chain within spherical obstacles) and an optimal SP for 3D systems (collection of polymeric chains). The number of entanglements is then simply obtained from the SP as either the number of interior kinks, or from the average length of a line segment. Further, information about structure and potentially also the dynamics of entanglements is immediately available from the SP. We apply the method to study the 'concentration' dependence of the degree of entanglement in phantom chain systems. Program summaryTitle of program:Z Catalogue number:ADVG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Silicon Graphics (Irix), Sun (Solaris), PC (Linux) Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: UNIX, Linux Program language used: USANSI Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 1 MByte No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 660 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 119 551 Distribution formet:tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The problem is to obtain primitive paths substantiating a shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) for a given polymer configuration (chains of particles, with or without additional single particles as obstacles for the 2D case). Primitive paths are here defined as in [M. Rubinstein, E. Helfand, J. Chem. Phys. 82 (1985) 2477; R. Everaers, S.K. Sukumaran, G.S. Grest, C. Svaneborg, A. Sivasubramanian, K. Kremer, Science 303 (2004) 823] as the shortest line (path) respecting 'topological' constraints (from neighboring polymers or point obstacles) between ends of polymers. There is a unique solution for the 2D case. For the 3D case it is unique if we construct a primitive path of a single chain embedded within fixed line obstacles [J.S.B. Mitchell, Geometric shortest paths and network optimization, in: J.-R. Sack, J. Urrutia (Eds.), Handbook of Computational Geometry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000, pp. 633-701]. For a large 3D configuration made of several chains, short is meant to be the Euclidean shortest multiple disconnected path (SP) where primitive paths are constructed for all chains simultaneously. While the latter problem, in general, does not possess a unique solution, the algorithm must return a locally optimal solution, robust against minor displacements of the disconnected path and chain re-labeling. The problem is solved if the number of kinks (or entanglements Z), explicitly deduced from the SP, is quite insensitive to the exact conformation of the SP which allows to estimate Z with a small error. Efficient method of solution: Primitive paths are constructed from the given polymer configuration (a non-shortest multiple disconnected path, including obstacles, if present) by first replacing each polymer contour by a line wi

Kröger, Martin

2005-06-01

158

Application of Single-Source Shortest Path Algorithms to an OJCS (Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) Contingency Planning Model and a Vehicle Routing Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the use of single-source shortest path algorithms in two unrelated contexts. In the first application, the label setting and label correcting algorithms are examined for applicability to and implementation with a J-8, Organization...

J. W. Brown

1987-01-01

159

Performance Analysis of Reactive Shortest Single-path and Multipath Routing Mechanism With Load Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on multi-path routing protocols to provideimproved throughput and route resilience as compared withsingle-path routing has been explored in details in the contextof wired networks. However, multi-path routing mechanism hasnot been explored thoroughly in the domain of ad hoc networks.In this paper, we analyze and compare reactive single-path andmulti-path routing with load balance mechanisms in ad hoc networks,in terms of

Peter P. Pham; Sylvie Perreau

2003-01-01

160

A study on design of dynamic route guidance system using forecasted travel time based on GPS data and modified shortest path algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose the design of a dynamic route guidance system using forecasted travel time based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data and a modified shortest path algorithm. The Box-Jenkins method is used to forecast the travel time of each path between network nodes. The Floyd-Warshall algorithm is used to find the optimal route based

Sung-Soo Kim; Jong-Hyun Lee

1999-01-01

161

Algorithms and Bounds for Shortest Paths and Diameter in Faulty Hypercubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an n-dimensional hypercube Qn, with the fault set |F|<2n-2, assuming S and D are not isolated, it is shown that there exists a path of length equal to at most their Hamming distance plus 4. An algorithm with complexity O (|F|logn) is given to find such a path. A bound for the diameter of the faulty hypercube Qn-F, when

Sing-ban Tien; C. S. Raghavendra

1993-01-01

162

A computational study identifies HIV progression-related genes using mRMR and shortest path tracing.  

PubMed

Since statistical relationships between HIV load and CD4+ T cell loss have been demonstrated to be weak, searching for host factors contributing to the pathogenesis of HIV infection becomes a key point for both understanding the disease pathology and developing treatments. We applied Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR) algorithm to a set of microarray data generated from the CD4+ T cells of viremic non-progressors (VNPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) to identify host factors associated with the different responses to HIV infection. Using mRMR algorithm, 147 gene had been identified. Furthermore, we constructed a weighted molecular interaction network with the existing protein-protein interaction data from STRING database and identified 1331 genes on the shortest-paths among the genes identified with mRMR. Functional analysis shows that the functions relating to apoptosis play important roles during the pathogenesis of HIV infection. These results bring new insights of understanding HIV progression. PMID:24244287

Ma, Chengcheng; Dong, Xiao; Li, Rudong; Liu, Lei

2013-01-01

163

A Computational Study Identifies HIV Progression-Related Genes Using mRMR and Shortest Path Tracing  

PubMed Central

Since statistical relationships between HIV load and CD4+ T cell loss have been demonstrated to be weak, searching for host factors contributing to the pathogenesis of HIV infection becomes a key point for both understanding the disease pathology and developing treatments. We applied Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR) algorithm to a set of microarray data generated from the CD4+ T cells of viremic non-progressors (VNPs) and rapid progressors (RPs) to identify host factors associated with the different responses to HIV infection. Using mRMR algorithm, 147 gene had been identified. Furthermore, we constructed a weighted molecular interaction network with the existing protein-protein interaction data from STRING database and identified 1331 genes on the shortest-paths among the genes identified with mRMR. Functional analysis shows that the functions relating to apoptosis play important roles during the pathogenesis of HIV infection. These results bring new insights of understanding HIV progression.

Liu, Lei

2013-01-01

164

Identification of colorectal cancer related genes with mRMR and shortest path in protein-protein interaction network.  

PubMed

One of the most important and challenging problems in biomedicine and genomics is how to identify the disease genes. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify colorectal cancer-related genes based on (i) the gene expression profiles, and (ii) the shortest path analysis of functional protein association networks. The former has been used to select differentially expressed genes as disease genes for quite a long time, while the latter has been widely used to study the mechanism of diseases. With the existing protein-protein interaction data from STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes), a weighted functional protein association network was constructed. By means of the mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy) approach, six genes were identified that can distinguish the colorectal tumors and normal adjacent colonic tissues from their gene expression profiles. Meanwhile, according to the shortest path approach, we further found an additional 35 genes, of which some have been reported to be relevant to colorectal cancer and some are very likely to be relevant to it. Interestingly, the genes we identified from both the gene expression profiles and the functional protein association network have more cancer genes than the genes identified from the gene expression profiles alone. Besides, these genes also had greater functional similarity with the reported colorectal cancer genes than the genes identified from the gene expression profiles alone. All these indicate that our method as presented in this paper is quite promising. The method may become a useful tool, or at least plays a complementary role to the existing method, for identifying colorectal cancer genes. It has not escaped our notice that the method can be applied to identify the genes of other diseases as well. PMID:22496748

Li, Bi-Qing; Huang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2012-01-01

165

More algorithms for all-pairs shortest paths in weighted graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of the paper, we reexamine the all-pairsshortest paths (APSP) problem and present a newalgorithm with running time approaching O(n3\\/log2n), which improves all known algorithms for general real-weighted dense graphs andis perhaps close to the best result possible without using fast matrix multiplication, modulo a few log log n factors. In the second part of the paper,

Timothy M. Chan

2007-01-01

166

New Bounds for Old Algorithms: On the Average-Case Behavior of Classic Single-Source Shortest-Paths Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite disillusioning worst-case behavior, classic algorithms for single-source shortest-paths (SSSP) like Bellman-Ford are still being used in practice, especially due to their simple data structures. However, surprisingly little is known about the average-case complexity of these approaches. We provide new theoretical and experimental results for the performance of classic label-correcting SSSP algorithms on graph classes with non-negative random edge weights. In particular, we prove a tight lower bound of ?(n 2) for the running times of Bellman-Ford on a class of sparse graphs with O(n) nodes and edges; the best previous bound was ?(n 4/3 - ? ). The same improvements are shown for Pallottino's algorithm. We also lift a lower bound for the approximate bucket implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm from ?(n logn / loglogn) to ?(n 1.2 - ? ). Furthermore, we provide an experimental evaluation of our new graph classes in comparison with previously used test inputs.

Meyer, Ulrich; Negoescu, Andrei; Weichert, Volker

167

Identification of hepatocellular carcinoma related genes with k-th shortest paths in a protein-protein interaction network.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer worldwide and one of the deadliest cancers in Asia. But at present, effective targets for HCC clinical therapy are still limited. The "guilt by association" rule suggests that interacting proteins share the same or similar functions and hence may be involved in the same pathway. This assumption can be used to identify disease related genes from protein association networks constructed from existing PPI data. Given the close association between Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis B which may lead to HCC, here we develop a computational method to identify hepatocellular carcinoma related genes based on k-th shortest paths in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network (we set k=1, 2 in this study). Finally, we found 33 genes whose p-values were less than 0.05, and most of them have been reported to be involved in HCC tumorigenesis and development. The results also provide a new reference for research into HCC oncogenesis and for development of new strategies for HCC clinical therapies. PMID:24056857

Jiang, Min; Chen, Yukang; Zhang, Yuchao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong; Kong, XiangYin

2013-11-01

168

Overcoming path dependency: path generation in open systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on societal path dependencies tend to focus on mechanisms that anchor and stabilize national trajectories while paying\\u000a less attention to transnational interactions and multilevel governance. This paper explores processes of path transformation\\u000a in societies that are presumed to have the characteristics of open systems. Two pairs of case studies are presented and compared.\\u000a The first illustrates institutional change through

Marie-Laure Djelic; Sigrid Quack

2007-01-01

169

Identification of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus Infection-Related Human Genes Based on Shortest Paths in a Virus-Human Protein Interaction Network.  

PubMed

The recently emerging Influenza A/H7N9 virus is reported to be able to infect humans and cause mortality. However, viral and host factors associated with the infection are poorly understood. It is suggested by the "guilt by association" rule that interacting proteins share the same or similar functions and hence may be involved in the same pathway. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify Influenza A/H7N9 virus infection-related human genes based on this rule from the shortest paths in a virus-human protein interaction network. Finally, we screened out the most significant 20 human genes, which could be the potential infection related genes, providing guidelines for further experimental validation. Analysis of the 20 genes showed that they were enriched in protein binding, saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. We also compared the results with those from human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by the same method. It was indicated that saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways might be especially associated with the H7N9 infection. These results could shed some light on the understanding of the virus infection mechanism, providing basis for future experimental biology studies and for the development of effective strategies for H7N9 clinical therapies. PMID:24955349

Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Min; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

2014-01-01

170

Identification of Influenza A/H7N9 Virus Infection-Related Human Genes Based on Shortest Paths in a Virus-Human Protein Interaction Network  

PubMed Central

The recently emerging Influenza A/H7N9 virus is reported to be able to infect humans and cause mortality. However, viral and host factors associated with the infection are poorly understood. It is suggested by the “guilt by association” rule that interacting proteins share the same or similar functions and hence may be involved in the same pathway. In this study, we developed a computational method to identify Influenza A/H7N9 virus infection-related human genes based on this rule from the shortest paths in a virus-human protein interaction network. Finally, we screened out the most significant 20 human genes, which could be the potential infection related genes, providing guidelines for further experimental validation. Analysis of the 20 genes showed that they were enriched in protein binding, saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. We also compared the results with those from human rhinovirus (HRV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by the same method. It was indicated that saccharide or polysaccharide metabolism related pathways might be especially associated with the H7N9 infection. These results could shed some light on the understanding of the virus infection mechanism, providing basis for future experimental biology studies and for the development of effective strategies for H7N9 clinical therapies.

Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

2014-01-01

171

Applicability of open-path monitors at Superfund sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air emissions from Superfund sites can potentially have a significant impact on air quality affecting the health and safety of surrounding populations. Although the air pathway is well understood, these air emissions may be difficult to characterize. Remote sensors or open path monitors (OPMs) can have useful applications in measuring site emissions of air toxic compounds during the Superfund process.

Joseph Padgett; Thomas H. Pritchett

1991-01-01

172

OPEN PATH AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTANTS WITH A DOAS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) has been in operation since August 1991 at the U.S. EPA in RTP, NC. he analyzer unit is located in an environmentally-controlled shelter in the EPA parking lot. our separate open optical paths have been established, ranging fr...

173

Real Time Air Monitoring Using Open-Path FTIR  

SciTech Connect

Over the last several years there has been renewed interest in the use of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for a variety of air monitoring applications. The intersect has been motivated by the need for new technology to address the regulator requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Interest has been expressed in exploring the applications of this technology to locate fugitive-source emissions and measuring total emissions from industrial facilities.

Gamiles, D.S

1998-09-23

174

Conflict-free shortest-time bidirectional AGV routeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for finding conflict-free shortest-time routes for automated guided vehicles moving in a bidirectional flow path network. The proposed algorithm is based on Dijkstra's shortest-path method. It maintains, for each node, a list of time windows reserved by scheduled vehicles and a list of free time windows available for vehicles to be scheduled. We introduce

CHANG W. KIM; J. M. A. TANCHOCO

1991-01-01

175

Cross-Validation of Open-Path and Closed-Path Eddy-Covariance Techniques for Observing Methane Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane () fluxes observed with the eddy-covariance technique using an open-path analyzer and a closed-path analyzer in a rice paddy field were evaluated with an emphasis on the flux correction methodology. A comparison of the fluxes obtained by the analyzers revealed that both the open-path and closed-path techniques were reliable, provided that appropriate corrections were applied. For the open-path approach, the influence of fluctuations in air density and the line shape variation in laser absorption spectroscopy (hereafter, spectroscopic effect) was significant, and the relative importance of these corrections would increase when observing small fluxes. A new procedure proposed by Li-Cor Inc. enabled us to accurately adjust for these effects. The high-frequency loss of the open-path analyzer was relatively large (11 % of the uncorrected covariance) at an observation height of 2.5 m above the canopy owing to its longer physical path length, and this correction should be carefully applied before correcting for the influence of fluctuations in air density and the spectroscopic effect. Uncorrected fluxes observed with the closed-path analyzer were substantially underestimated (37 %) due to high-frequency loss because an undersized pump was used in the observation. Both the bandpass and transfer function approaches successfully corrected this flux loss. Careful determination of the bandpass frequency range or the transfer function and the cospectral model is required for the accurate calculation of fluxes with the closed-path technique.

Iwata, Hiroki; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Ono, Keisuke; Mano, Masayoshi; Sakabe, Ayaka; Miyata, Akira; Takahashi, Kenshi

2014-04-01

176

Radar-based open-path chemical sensor created.  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory developed an interference-free, open-path, radar-based, millimeter-wave sensor to remotely detect trace levels of airborne chemicals. The new sensor works in remote positions, for environmental monitoring (continuous emission and fenceline), leak detection, and arms-control treaty verification. However, the transmitter/detector and a reflector have to sandwich the targeted chemical plume to get accurate measurements. Millimeter-wave absorption spectra of plume chemicals are determined by measuring the swept-frequency radar return signals, with and without the plume being in the beam's path. To determine actual chemical concentrations, users match measured spectra to a spectral library.

Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Energy Technology

1999-07-01

177

An advanced open-path atmospheric monitor design  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of an open-path atmospheric monitor combines an acousto-optic tunable filter for emission spectroscopy (3-14 {mu}m) with a mid-IR (4.6-5.4 {mu}m) for absorption spectroscopy. It utilizes mostly commercially available components, covers a large area ({approximately}4 km radius), measures the distance to any reflecting object, can take measurements along any line-of-sight, and is eye safe. Of twenty test pollutants it is to detect, the concentrations of all twenty will be measurable via emission spectroscopy and ten by the more sensitive absorption spectroscopy.

Taylor, L.; Suhre, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mech, S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-01

178

Applicability of open-path monitors at Superfund sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air emissions from Superfund sites can potentially have a significant impact on air quality affecting the health and safety of surrounding populations. Although the air pathway is well understood, these air emissions may be difficult to characterize. Remote sensors or open path monitors (OPMs) can have useful applications in measuring site emissions of air toxic compounds during the Superfund process. The air monitoring needs for each step of the Superfund process are identified in this paper and OPMs are compared and contrasted with traditional point monitoring techniques. Example applications of OPMs to Superfund activities are presented. Desirable improvements in OPM technology are also discussed.

Padgett, Joseph; Pritchett, Thomas H.

1991-05-01

179

Shortest-Path Kernels on Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms are facing the challenge to deal with an increasing number of complex objects. For graph data, a whole toolbox of data mining algorithms becomes available by defining a kernel function on instances of graphs. Graph kernels based on walks, subtrees and cycles in graphs have been proposed so far. As a general problem, these kernels are either

Karsten M. Borgwardt; Hans-peter Kriegel

2005-01-01

180

TATP stand-off detection with open path: FTIR techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TATP is a very easy to synthesize [9], sensitive, high explosive [10] and high volatile explosive [1, 3, 7] with great absorption in the IR Spectra [4, 5, 6]. In this project we detect TATP gas traces with open path FTIR - techniques. The first project phase was to construct and build a heatable multi-reflection cell with adjustable optical path length and a heatable intake to evaporate solid TATP samples. In this cell reference TATP - spectra were collected under controlled conditions with a Bruker FTIR system (Typ OPAG 33). The next step was to find out how the TATP gas will be diluted in the ambient air and validate some physical properties which are described inconsistently in literature e.g. evaporation rates. We constructed a special double - T shaped chamber with stabile air conditions. In this chamber the dispersion kinetics of the TATP vapour could be tested. It turned out that the TATP vapours has the tendency to drop down. Therefore the highest TATP - concentrations were measured below the TATP sample. During the investigation for this study it turned out, that some materials scrub the TATP- vapour out of the air, e.g. Metals, fabric, leather. In the second phase of the project successful open path FTIR- measurements were taken in ambient air and will be continued with different system configurations of the OPAG 33 to lower the detection limits. Also successful measurements were taken in indoor ambient air with a Hyper spectral camera (passive FTIR with array sensor) to detect TATP in solid and gaseous phase. This technique allows detecting TATP and identifying the TATP source. The poster shows some selected results of the continued research.

Fischer, C.; Pohl, T.; Weber, K.; Vogel, A.; van Haren, G.; Schweikert, W.

2012-10-01

181

APPLYING OPEN-PATH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY TO HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Non-dispersive infrared absorption has been used to measure gaseous emissions for both stationary and mobile sources. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used for stationary sources as both extractive and open-path methods. We have applied the open-path method for bo...

182

Open-path airborne tunable diode laser hygrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument has been developed for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. This instrument, dubbed the NASA Langley/Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), has been flown on 10 missions aboard NASA's DC-8 aircraft. The DLH utilizes an open-path, double-pass configuration, where the path is defined on one end by a laser transceiver mounted on the interior of a modified window panel, and on the other by a panel of retroreflecting material mounted on the DC-8's outboard engine nacelle. The DLH operates on one of two spectral absorption lines in the 1.4 ?m spectral region, in a wavelength-modulated (WM) mode, with the laser locked to the center of the absorption line encountered in a reference cell. The spectral line used is determined by the local conditions - a weak line is used at low altitudes and a stronger one at high altitudes - and is changed at various times during a flight by the operator. Signal detection is accomplished by demodulating the return signal at twice the driving frequency (2F detection). The returned laser power (DC) is also measured. The DLH is calibrated in the laboratory at various combinations of pressure and water vapor density. From the calibration data and a multiparameter spectral model, a set of coefficients is developed, and these coefficients are used to convert the measured 2F/DC ratio, along with local temperature and pressure (which are measured by separate instruments aboard the aircraft), to water vapor mixing ratio.

Diskin, Glenn S.; Podolske, James R.; Sachse, Glen W.; Slate, Thomas A.

2002-09-01

183

k-PathA: k-shortest Path Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important aspect of computational systems biology includes the identification and analysis of functional response networks within large biochemical networks. These functional response networks represent the response of a biological system under a particular experimental condition which can be used to pinpoint critical biological processes.For this purpose, we have developed a novel algorithm to calculate response networks as scored\\/weighted sub-graphs

Alexander Ullrich; Christian V. Forst

2009-01-01

184

PATH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in the 1970s as an agency to assist men and women in gaining access to a variety of birth control methods, PATH has since expanded its focus to provide "sustainable, culturally relevant [health] solutions, enabling communities worldwide to break longstanding cycles of poor health." The PATH website has more than a dozen videos and slideshows available to visitors at the "Our Multimedia" link near the bottom right hand corner of the homepage. A three-minute video entitled "Better Nutrition For Life" educates visitors about an innovative rice product that could bring greater nutrition to millions of malnourished people where rice is a staple food. The product is Ultra Rice, and is actually fortified pasta that looks, cooks, and tastes like rice, but is fortified with nutrients. The "rice" can be fortified with the needed nutrients the particular population being served is lacking. A slideshow about TB in the Ukraine, explains to visitors why there has been a resurgence of TB in Eastern Europe, and how PATH and its partners set out to help control it throughout the region.

185

Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser  

EPA Science Inventory

During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

186

Particulate Matter Measurements using Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy is an accepted technology for measuring gaseous air contaminants. OP-FTIR absorbance spectra acquired during changing aerosols conditions reveal related changes in very broad baseline features. U...

R. A. Hashmonay D. B. Harris

2001-01-01

187

Simultaneous Measurement of Vaporous and Aerosolized Threats by Active Open Path FTIR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency's open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) activities include passive and active measurements in several stack and fugitive emission monitoring applications. Extensive research has been devoted during the pas...

R. A. Hashmonay R. M. Varma M. Modrak R. H. Kagann P. D. Sullivan

2004-01-01

188

Optimal robust path planning in general environments  

SciTech Connect

The authors address robust path planning for a mobile agent in a general environment by finding minimum cost source-destination paths having prescribed widths. The main result is a new approach that optimally solves the robust path planning problem using an efficient network flow formulation. Their algorithm represents a significant departure from conventional shortest-path or graph search based methods; it not only handles environments with solid polygonal obstacles, but also generalizes to arbitrary cost maps that may arise in modeling incomplete or uncertain knowledge of the environment. Simple extensions allow them to address higher dimensional problems instances and minimum-surface computations; the latter is a result of independent interest. They use an efficient implementation to exhibit optimal path-planning solutions for a variety of test problems. The paper concludes with open issues and directions for future work.

Hu, T.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Computer Science and Engineering Dept.); Kahng, A.B. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Science Dept.); Robins, G. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

1993-12-01

189

Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy for Remote Open-Path Trace-Gas Sensing  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a prototype instrument for remote open-path detection of nitrous oxide. The sensor is based on a 4.53 ?m quantum cascade laser and uses the chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) technique for molecular concentration measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of open-path laser-based trace-gas detection using a molecular dispersion measurement. The prototype sensor achieves a detection limit down to the single-ppbv level and exhibits excellent stability and robustness. The instrument characterization, field deployment performance, and the advantages of applying dispersion sensing to sensitive trace-gas detection in a remote open-path configuration are presented.

Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

2012-01-01

190

Open-path Fourier transform infrared studies of large-scale laboratory biomass fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nine large-scale, open fires was conducted in the Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory (IFSL) controlled-environment combustion facility. The fuels were pure pine needles or sagebrush or mixed fuels simulating forest-floor, ground fires; crown fires; broadcast burns; and slash pile burns. Mid-infrared spectra of the smoke were recorded throughout each fire by open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

Robert J. Yokelson; David W. T. Griffith; Darold E. Ward

1996-01-01

191

Open-path millimeter-wave spectroscopy in the 225--315 GHz range.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the development of an open-path millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy system in the 225--315 GHz atmospheric window. The new system is primarily a monostatic swept-frequency radar consisting of a mm-wave sweeper, hot-electron-bolomet...

N. Gopalsami S. Bakhtiari A. C. Raptis

1996-01-01

192

OPEN-PATH FTIR MEASUREMENTS OF NOX AND OTHER DIESEL EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a demonstration of the feasibility of using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) monitoring technique to address the across-road characterization of diesel vehicle emissions of criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants. Four sets of ...

193

Open path trace gas measurements using a pulse quantum cascade laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the application of a pulsed distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) for a 6 km long open path spectroscopic monitoring of ozone, ammonia, water vapor and carbon dioxide. The thermal chirp during a 200 ns long excitation pulse is used for fast wavelength scanning of about 1 cm-1 in the spectral range 1043-1049 cm-1. This tuning method has the advantage of not being affected by the atmospheric turbulence, which is essential for long open path measurements. The intrinsic haze immunity of mid IR laser sources is an additional important advantage of mid-IR open path spectroscopy, compared with standard UV-visible DOAS. The third major advantage of the method reported is the possibility to measure many more organic and inorganic atmospheric species compared to the UV-visible DOAS. The obtained sensitivity for ozone and ammonia of the order of 10 ppm.m retrieved from the absorption spectra for averaging times less than 1 min are comparable with teh UV DOAS values. The open path of 6 km is covered using average laser power of less than 0.2 mW, which shows much higher efficiency of spectroscopy using narrowband laser source, compared to broadband light as Xe lamp.

Taslakov, Marian; Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert

2005-04-01

194

INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

195

PARTICULATE MATTER MEASUREMENTS USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FT1R) spectroscopy is an accepted technology for measuring gaseous air contaminants. OP-FT1R absorbance spectra acquired during changing aerosols conditions reveal related changes in very broad baseline features. Usually, this shearing of ...

196

Spreading paths in partially observed social networks  

PubMed Central

Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using a static, structurally realistic social network as a platform for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2012-01-01

197

Open-path atmospheric transmission for a diode-pumped cesium laser.  

PubMed

A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy device was developed to study atmospheric propagation for emerging high-energy laser weapons. The cesium diode-pumped alkali laser operates near 895 nm in the vicinity of several water-vapor absorption lines. Temperature, pressure, and water vapor concentration were determined for 150 m and 1 km open paths with statistical errors of ?0.2%. Comparison with meteorological instruments yields agreement for the 1 km path to within 0.6% for temperature, 3.7% for pressure, and 2.4% for concentration. PMID:23207380

Rice, Christopher A; Lott, Gordon E; Perram, Glen P

2012-12-01

198

Early detection of combustible gas leaks using open path infrared (IR) gas detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open path IR gas detectors are a mainstay in the oil and gas industry. They are used in a variety of instances to identify gas accumulations or monitor gas cloud migrations. In offshore installations, open path optical gas detectors are used to monitor drilling and production operations, crude oil separation, compression, and exhaust and ventilation systems. Because they can monitor a perimeter or fence line, they are ideally suited for detecting gas in open facilities, where point gas detectors would be difficult or expensive to deploy. Despite their widespread use, open path optical gas detectors are rarely employed to detect low level concentrations of combustible gases. Standard models are typically set to alarm at 50% LEL-m (50% LEL extended over one meter), providing sufficiently early warning when gas accumulations occur. Nevertheless, in cases in which a combustible gas is diluted quickly, such as ventilation exhaust ducting, it may be necessary to set the detector to alarm at the lowest predictable level. Further, interest in low level infrared gas detection has been growing as gases such as CH4 and CO2 are greenhouse gases. The present paper describes a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) open path system designed to detect combustible and carbon dioxide gas leaks in the parts-per-million-meter (ppm-m or mg/cm2). The detector has been installed in offshore platforms and large onshore facilities to detect a variety of flammable gases and vapors. Advantages and limitations of the system are presented. False alarm immunity and resilience to atmospheric interferences are also discussed.

Naranjo, Edward; Baliga, Shankar

2012-05-01

199

The stable paths problem and interdomain routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic routing protocols such as RIP and OSPF essentially implement distributed algorithms for solving the shortest paths problem. The border gateway protocol (BGP) is currently the only interdomain routing protocol deployed in the Internet. BGP does not solve a shortest paths problem since any interdomain protocol is required to allow policy-based metrics to override distance-based metrics and enable autonomous systems

Timothy G. Griffin; F. Bruce Shepherd; Gordon T. Wilfong

2002-01-01

200

SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF OPEN-PATH AND CONVENTIONAL POINT MONITORS FOR MEASURING AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE, OZONE, AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-stage dilution system and an associated procedure to simultaneously calibrate both open-path (long-path) and conventional point air monitors have been used successfully during a comparison test study of open-path monitoring systems in Houston during August, 1 993. wo open-p...

201

An open path, fast response infrared absorption gas analyzer for H2O and CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open path infrared absorption based instrument for fast response measurements of H2O and CO2 fluctuations is described. This instrument performed reliably in several field experiments in both terrestrial and marine environments, on both fixed (tower) and mobile (boat, plane) flux platforms. Noise levels for H2O and CO2 concentrations were less than 10 mg\\/m3 and 300 ?g\\/m3, respectively for frequencies

David L. Auble; Tilden P. Meyers

1992-01-01

202

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in open-path configuration for the analysis of distant objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of recent results on stand-off Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis and applications is presented. Stand-off LIBS was suggested for elemental analysis of materials located in environments where any physical access was not possible but optical access could be envisaged. This review only refers to the use of the open-path LIBS configuration in which the laser beam and the

B. Sallé; P. Mauchien; S. Maurice

2007-01-01

203

Open-path, quantum cascade laser-based sensor for high resolution atmospheric ammonia measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a compact, open-path, quantum cascade laser-based atmospheric ammonia sensor operating at 9.06 ?m for high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, ground-based measurements. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a gas-phase precursor to fine particulate matter, with implications for air quality and climate change. Currently, NH3 sensing challenges have led to a lack of widespread in-situ measurements. Our open-path sensor configuration avoids sampling artifacts associated with NH3 surface adsorption onto inlet tubing and reduced pressure sampling cells, as well as condensed-phase partitioning ambiguities. Multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy allows for selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric-pressure broadened absorption features. An in-line ethylene reference cell provides real-time calibration (±20% accuracy) and normalization for instrument drift under rapidly changing field conditions. The sensor has a sensitivity and minimum detection limit of 0.15 ppbv NH3 at 10 Hz, a mass of ~ 5 kg and consumes ~ 50 W of electrical power. In-situ field performance of this open-path NH3 sensor is demonstrated, with 10 Hz time resolution and a large dynamic response for in-situ NH3 measurements. This sensor provides the capabilities for improved in-situ gas phase NH3 sensing relevant for emission source characterization and flux measurements.

Miller, D. J.; Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

2013-07-01

204

Fine-wire thermometer to correct CO 2 fluxes by open-path analyzers for artificial density fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fine-wire thermometer was applied to measure high-frequency air temperature fluctuations averaged over the length of the optical path of an LI-7500 open-path gas analyzer that was used for CO2 flux measurements over a forest clear-cut in Sweden. Heat fluxes derived by the fine-wire temperature data were used to correct the CO2 fluxes for density fluctuations within the optical path.

Achim Grelle; George Burba

2007-01-01

205

MULTI-POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AROUND A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gasses around an integrated industrial swine production facility in eastern North Carolina. Several single-path measurements were made ove...

206

Open-path millimeter-wave spectroscopy in the 225--315 GHz range  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development of an open-path millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy system in the 225--315 GHz atmospheric window. The new system is primarily a monostatic swept-frequency radar consisting of a mm-wave sweeper, hot-electron-bolometer or Schottky detector, and trihedral reflector. The heart of the system is a Russian backward-wave oscillator (BWO) tube that is tunable over 225--350 GHz. A mm-wave sweeper has been built with the BWO tube to sweep the entire frequency range within 1 s. The chemical plume to be detected is situated between the transmitter/receiver and the reflector. Millimeter-wave absorption spectra of chemicals in the plume are determined by measuring swept-frequency radar signals with and without the plume in the beam path. Because of power supply noise and thermal instabilities within the BWO structure over time, the BWO frequencies fluctuate between sweeps and thus cause errors in baseline subtraction. To reduce this frequency-jitter problem, a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot cavity is used in conjunction with the radar for on-line calibration of sweep traces, allowing excellent baseline subtraction and signal averaging. Initial results of the new system are given for open-path detection of chemicals.

Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1996-10-01

207

Proton momentum distribution in water: an open path integral molecular dynamics study.  

PubMed

Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distribution in water. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via "open" path integral expressions. In this work, present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize a flexible, single point charge empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton. PMID:17600422

Morrone, Joseph A; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

2007-06-21

208

Proton momentum distribution in water: an open path integral molecular dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distribution in water. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via ``open'' path integral expressions. In this work, present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize a flexible, single point charge empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.

Morrone, Joseph A.; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

2007-06-01

209

Shortest Path Search in Multi-Representation Street Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that mobile users of location-based services (LBS) have to be able to go anywhere on earth without changing the application\\u000a brings up a major requirement: there has to be one global platform that provides a transborder and continuous access to the\\u000a information necessary for this kind of information systems — and the most important information source for location-based

Steffen Volz

2007-01-01

210

Scientific collaboration networks. II. Shortest paths, weighted networks, and centrality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computer databases of scientific papers in physics, biomedical research, and computer science, we have constructed networks of collaboration between scientists in each of these disciplines. In these networks two scientists are considered connected if they have coauthored one or more papers together. Here we study a variety of nonlocal statistics for these networks, such as typical distances between scientists

M. E. J. Newman

2001-01-01

211

Visibility-Polygon Search and Euclidean Shortest Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a collection of disjoint polygons in the plane containing a total of n edges. We show how to build, in O(n2) time and space, a data structure from which in O(n) time we can compute the visibility polygon of a given point with respect to the polygon collection. As an application of this structure, the visibility graph of the

Takao Asano; Tetsuo Asano; Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger; Hiroshi Imai

1985-01-01

212

Shortest Paths in Stochastic Networks with Correlated Link Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The objective is to minimize,expected travel time from any origin to a specific destination in a congestible network with correlated link costs. Each link is assumed,to bein,one of two,possible conditions. Conditional probability density functions for link travel times are assumed,known,for each condition. Conditions over the traversed links are taken into account for determining the optimal routing strategy for the

Y. Y. FAN; R. E. KALABA; J. E. MOORE

2004-01-01

213

Watershed Cuts: Thinnings, Shortest Path Forests, and Topological Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently introduced watershed cuts, a notion of watershed in edge-weighted graphs. In this paper, our main contribution is a thinning paradigm from which we derive three algorithmic watershed cut strategies: The first one is well suited to parallel implementations, the second one leads to a flexible linear-time sequential implementation, whereas the third one links the watershed cuts and the

Jean Cousty; Gilles Bertrand; Laurent Najman; Michel Couprie

2010-01-01

214

Membrane Boundary Extraction Using a Circular Shortest Path Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane proteins represent over 50% of known drug targets. Accordingly, several widely used assays in the High Content Analysis area rely on quantitative measures of the translocation of proteins between intracellular organelles and the cell surface. In order to increase the sensitivity of these assays, one needs to measure the signal specifically along the membrane, requiring a precise segmentation of

Changming Sun; Pascal Vallotton; Dadong Wang; Jamie Lopez; Yvonne Ng; David James

2007-01-01

215

Bounded Incremental Single-Source Shortest-Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of maintaining the distances of all vertices of a directed graph from a specific vertex, its source. We show algorithms in the bounded incremental computation (BIC) model which handle the insertion or deletion of an arc (or a batch of arcs outgoing from a shared vertex) in O(kk + |?|log |?|) amortized time on Cyclic>0 graphs

Irit Katriel; Pascal Van Hentenryck

216

Fast shortest path distance estimation in large networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study approximate landmark-based meth- ods for point-to-point distance estimation in very large net- works. These methods involve selecting a subset of nodes as landmarks and computing offline the distances from each node in the graph to those landmarks. At runtime, when the distance between a pair of nodes is needed, it can be estimated quickly by

Michalis Potamias; Francesco Bonchi; Carlos Castillo; Aristides Gionis

2009-01-01

217

TDLAS-based open-path laser hygrometer using simple reflective foils as scattering targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new, very simple to use and very easy to align, inexpensive, robust, mono-static optical hygrometer based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) that makes use of very inexpensive reflective foils as scattering targets at the distant side of the absorption path. Various alternative foils as scattering targets were examined concerning their reflective behaviour and their suitability for TDLAS applications. Using a micro prismatic reflection tape as the optimum scattering target we determined absolute water vapour concentrations employing open path TDLAS. With the reflection tape being in a distance of 75 cm to 1 m (i.e., absorption path lengths between 1.5 and 2 m) we detected ambient H2O concentrations of up to 12,300 ppmv with detectivities of 1 ppm which corresponds to length and bandwidth normalized H2O detection limits of up to 0.9 ppmv m/ sqrt {{Hz}} , which is only a factor of 2 worse than our previous bi-static TDLAS setups (Hunsmann, Appl. Phys. B 92:393-401, 1). This small sensitivity disadvantage is well compensated for by the simplicity of the spectrometer setup and particularly by its extreme tolerance towards misalignment of the scattering target.

Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Ebert, V.

2012-11-01

218

Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.  

PubMed

Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remote sensing techniques. We evaluated this method to estimate emission rates from simulated distributed methane sources. A scanning open-path tunable diode laser was used to collect path-integrated concentrations (PICs) along different optical paths on a vertical plane downwind of controlled methane releases. Each cycle consists of 3 ground-level PICs and 2 above ground PICs. Three- to 10-cycle moving averages were used to reconstruct mass equivalent concentration plum maps on the vertical plane. The VRPM algorithm estimated emission rates of methane along with meteorological and PIC data collected concomitantly under different atmospheric stability conditions. The derived emission rates compared well with actual released rates irrespective of atmospheric stability conditions. The maximum error was 22 percent when 3-cycle moving average PICs were used; however, it decreased to 11% when 10-cycle moving average PICs were used. Our validation results suggest that this new VRPM method may be used for improved estimations of greenhouse gas emission from a variety of agricultural sources. PMID:19827493

Ro, Kyoung S; Johnson, Melvin H; Varma, Ravi M; Hashmonay, Ram A; Hunt, Patrick

2009-08-01

219

Inline multi-harmonic calibration method for open-path atmospheric ammonia measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a real-time inline calibration method for an open-path ammonia sensor using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 9.06 ?m. Ethylene (C2H4) has an absorption feature partially offset from the ammonia absorption feature, and the ethylene signal serves as a reference signal for ammonia concentration in real time. Spectroscopic parameters of ammonia and ethylene are measured and compared with the HITRAN database to ensure the accuracy of the calibration. Multiple harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) signals are used to separate the ambient ammonia and reference ethylene absorption signals. The ammonia signal is detected with the second harmonic (2f), while it is calibrated simultaneously with a high-harmonic (6-12f) signal of ethylene. The interference of ambient ammonia absorption on the ethylene reference signal is shown to be negligible when using ultra high-harmonics (?6f). This in situ calibration method yields a field precision of 3 % and accuracy of 20 % for open-path atmospheric ammonia measurements.

Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Miller, David J.; Khan, M. Amir; Zondlo, Mark A.

2013-02-01

220

Improved Eddy Flux Measurements by Open-Path Gas Analyzer and Sonic Anemometer Co-Location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel instrument design combines the sensing paths of an open-path gas analyzer and a 3-D sonic anemometer and integrates the sensors in a single aerodynamic body. Common electronics provide fast-response, synchronized measurements of wind vector, sonic temperature, CO2 and H2O densities, and atmospheric pressure. An instantaneous CO2 mixing ratio, relative to dry air, is computed in real time. The synergy of combined sensors offers an alternative to the traditional density-based flux calculation method historically used for standalone open-path analyzers. A simple method is described for a direct, in-situ, mixing-ratio-based flux calculation. The method consists of: (i) correcting sonically derived air temperature for humidity effects using instantaneous water vapor density and atmospheric pressure measurements, (ii) computing water vapor pressure based on water-vapor density and humidity-corrected sonic temperature, (iii) computing fast-response CO2 mixing ratio based on CO2 density, sonic temperature, water vapor, and atmospheric pressures, and (iv) computing CO2 flux from the covariance of the vertical wind speed and the CO2 mixing ratio. Since CO2 mixing ratio is a conserved quantity, the proposed method simplifies the calculations and eliminates the need for corrections in post-processing by accounting for temperature, water-vapor, and pressure-fluctuation effects on the CO2 density. A field experiment was conducted using the integrated sensor to verify performance of the mixing-ratio method and to quantify the differences with density-derived CO2 flux corrected for sensible and latent-heat fluxes. The pressure term of the density corrections was also included in the comparison. Results suggest that the integrated sensor with co-located sonic and gas sensing paths and the mixing-ratio-based method minimize or eliminate the following uncertainties in the measured CO2 flux: (i) correcting for frequency-response losses due to spatial separation of measured quantities, (ii) correcting sonically-derived, sensible-heat flux for humidity, (iii) correcting latent-heat flux for sensible-heat flux and water-vapor self-dilution, (iv) correcting CO2 flux for sensible- and latent-heat fluxes, (v) correcting CO2 flux for pressure-induced density fluctuations.

Bogoev, Ivan

2014-05-01

221

Open-path tunable diode laser absorption for eddy correlation flux measurements of atmospheric trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biogenic emissions from and dry deposition to terrestrial surfaces are important processes determining the trace gas composition of the atmosphere. An instrument has been developed for flux measurements of gases such as CH4, N2O, and O3 based on the eddy correlation technique which combines trace gas fluctuation measurements with simultaneous windfield measurements. The instrument combines a tunable diode laser infrared light source with an open-path multipass absorption cell in order to provide the fast time response and short base pathlength required for the eddy correlation method. Initial field tests using the instrument to measure methane emissions from a local wetland demonstrate the capability for high precision eddy correlation flux measurements.

Anderson, Stuart M.; Zahniser, Mark S.

1991-01-01

222

Open path FTIR detection of threat chemicals in air and on surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote infrared spectroscopy (RIRS) detection system was assembled using a mid infrared (MIR) Fourier Transform interferometer useful in open-path (OP) mode, a reflective infrared telescope and a cryocooled wide band, MCT detector. The system was used for passive mode IR thermal emission measurements and was also coupled to another Newtonian telescope in conjunction with a globar source for active mode measurements. The operation of the system was validated by measuring RIRS spectra of gases (NH3) and condensable vapors: acetone, dichloromethane, methyl ether and acetonitrile. Solid samples were measured by smearing small amounts on aluminum plates after dissolving in appropriate solvents. Highly energetic compounds: TNT, DNT, PETN and RDX were also detected. Experiments of solids on metal surfaces were carried out in passive and active modes. The analyzed samples were placed at different standoff distances up to a maximum of 30 m in active mode and 60 m in passive mode.

Castro-Suarez, John R.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Diem, Max; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

2011-05-01

223

New method for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from livestock buildings using open-path FTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely known that methane, together with carbon dioxide, is one of the most effective greenhouse gases contributing to climate global change. According to EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook1, around 25% of global CH4 emissions originate from animal husbandry, especially from enteric fermentation. However, uncertainties in the CH4 emission factors provided by EMEP/CORINAIR are around 30%. For this reason, works addressed to calculate emissions experimentally are so important to improve the estimations of emissions due to livestock and to calculate emission factors not included in this inventory. FTIR spectroscopy has been frequently used in different methodologies to measure emission rates in many environmental problems. Some of these methods are based on dispersion modelling techniques, wind data, micrometeorological measurements or the release of a tracer gas. In this work, a new method for calculating emission rates from livestock buildings applying Open-Path FTIR spectroscopy is proposed. This method is inspired by the accumulation chamber method used for CO2 flux measurements in volcanic areas or CH4 flux in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems. The process is the following: livestock is outside the building, which is ventilated in order to reduce concentrations to ambient level. Once the livestock has been put inside, the building is completely closed and the concentrations of gases emitted by livestock begin to increase. The Open-Path system measures the concentration evolution of gases such as CO2, CH4, NH3 and H2O. The slope of the concentration evolution function, dC/dt, at initial time is directly proportional to the flux of the corresponding gas. This method has been applied in a cow shed in the surroundings of La Laguna, Tenerife Island (Spain). As expected, evolutions of gas concentrations reveal that the livestock building behaves like an accumulation chamber. Preliminary results show that the CH4 emission factor is lower than the proposed by the Emission Inventory.

Briz, Susana; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio

2009-09-01

224

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in open-path configuration for the analysis of distant objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of recent results on stand-off Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis and applications is presented. Stand-off LIBS was suggested for elemental analysis of materials located in environments where any physical access was not possible but optical access could be envisaged. This review only refers to the use of the open-path LIBS configuration in which the laser beam and the returning plasma light are transmitted through the atmosphere. It does not present the results obtained with a transportation of the laser pulses to the target through an optical fiber. Open-path stand-off LIBS has mainly been used with nanosecond laser pulses for solid sample analysis at distances of tens of meters. Liquid samples have also been analyzed at distances of a few meters. The distances achievable depend on many parameters including the laser characteristics (pulse energy and power, beam divergence, spatial profile) and the optical system used to focus the pulses at a distance. A large variety of laser focusing systems have been employed for stand-off analysis comprising refracting or reflecting telescope. Efficient collection of the plasma light is also needed to obtain analytically useful signals. For stand-off LIBS analysis, a lens or a mirror is required to increase the solid angle over which the plasma light can be collected. The light collection device can be either at an angle from the laser beam path or collinear with the optical axis of the system used to focus the laser pulses on the target surface. These different configurations have been used depending on the application such as rapid sorting of metal samples, identification of material in nuclear industry, process control and monitoring in metallurgical industry, applications in future planetary missions, detection of environmental contamination or cleaning of objects of cultural heritage. Recent stand-off analyses of metal samples have been reported using femtosecond laser pulses to extend LIBS capabilities to very long distances. The high-power densities achievable with these laser pulses can also induce self-guided filaments in the atmosphere which produce LIBS excitation of a sample. The first results obtained with remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy predict sample analysis at kilometer ranges.

Sallé, B.; Mauchien, P.; Maurice, S.

2007-08-01

225

Fast Algorithms for Solving Path Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph with a distinguished source vertex s. The single-source path expression problem is to find, for each vertex v, a regular expression P(s, v) which represents the set of all paths in G from s to v A solution to this problem can be used to solve shortest path problems, solve sparse

Robert Endre Tarjan

1981-01-01

226

Air\\/superfund national technical guidance study series: Applicability of open path monitors for superfund. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document provides guidance on the applicability of Open Path Monitors (OPMs) for ambient air monitoring at Superfund sites. The relatively limited use of these devices for ambient air monitoring has led to many questions concerning their applicability, reliability, and sensitivity for these applications. Information is provided as to the general capabilities of OPMs. The compounds that each method is

Draves

1992-01-01

227

PLANE-INTEGRATED OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY METHODOLOGY FOR ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOON EMISSION MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of ammonia and methane from an anaerobic lagoon at a swine animal feeding operation were evaluated five times over a period of two years. The plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) methodology was used to transect the plume at ...

228

Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects  

SciTech Connect

Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

Wilson, John E.

2013-09-30

229

Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an unrecognized source in the atmospheric ammonia budget. Ongoing efforts include spatial mapping of ammonia and other tracers in the New York City and Philadelphia metropolitan areas. Further comparison with TES satellite ammonia retrieval will help to put the measurements into a larger geographical and temporal context.

Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

2012-12-01

230

Improving the convergence of closed and open path integral molecular dynamics via higher order Trotter factorization schemes.  

PubMed

Higher order factorization schemes are developed for path integral molecular dynamics in order to improve the convergence of estimators for physical observables as a function of the Trotter number. The methods are based on the Takahashi-Imada and Susuki decompositions of the Boltzmann operator. The methods introduced improve the averages of the estimators by using the classical forces needed to carry out the dynamics to construct a posteriori weighting factors for standard path integral molecular dynamics. The new approaches are straightforward to implement in existing path integral codes and carry no significant overhead. The Suzuki higher order factorization was also used to improve the end-to-end distance estimator in open path integral molecular dynamics. The new schemes are tested in various model systems, including an ab initio path integral molecular dynamics calculation on the hydrogen molecule and a quantum water model. The proposed algorithms have potential utility for reducing the cost of path integral molecular dynamics calculations of bulk systems. PMID:21842923

Pérez, Alejandro; Tuckerman, Mark E

2011-08-14

231

Open-path Fourier transform infrared studies of large-scale laboratory biomass fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of nine large-scale, open fires was conducted in the Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory (IFSL) controlled-environment combustion facility. The fuels were pure pine needles or sagebrush or mixed fuels simulating forest-floor, ground fires; crown fires; broadcast burns; and slash pile burns. Mid-infrared spectra of the smoke were recorded throughout each fire by open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at 0.12 cm-1 resolution over a 3 m cross-stack pathlength and analyzed to provide pseudocontinuous, simultaneous concentrations of up to 16 compounds. Simultaneous measurements were made of fuel mass loss, stack gas temperature, and total mass flow up the stack. The products detected are classified by the type of process that dominates in producing them. Carbon dioxide is the dominant emission of (and primarily produced by) flaming combustion, from which we also measure nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and most of the water vapor from combustion and fuel moisture. Carbon monoxide is the dominant emission formed primarily by smoldering combustion from which we also measure carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and ethane. A significant fraction of the total emissions is unoxidized pyrolysis products; examples are methanol, formaldehyde, acetic and formic acid, ethene (ethylene), ethyne (acetylene), and hydrogen cyanide. Relatively few previous data exist for many of these compounds and they are likely to have an important but as yet poorly understood role in plume chemistry. Large differences in emissions occur from different fire and fuel types, and the observed temporal behavior of the emissions is found to depend strongly on the fuel bed and product type.

Yokelson, Robert J.; Griffith, David W. T.; Ward, Darold E.

1996-09-01

232

The ChemSight: an open-path, multichemical detector for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an open-path, multi-chemical detector designed for continuous, long line-of-sight monitoring is described. The detector system is comprised of an infrared source that projects a collimated broad-spectrum beam towards a detector, which can be located up to 45 m away from the source. The detector spectrally analyzes the beam with an array of room-temperature pyroelectric detectors integrated with bandpass filters. When chemicals intercept the beam, they are detected and identified by a non-linear Mahalnobis distance based detection and identification algorithm, which matches each newly recorded IR absorption spectrum against chemical signatures stored in the detector's onboard, remotely updatable database. Using this algorithm, multiple chemicals can be detected and identified under high humidity conditions and in the presence of interfering chemicals. The sensor and algorithm were tested in the laboratory and field deployments, including continuous operation trials at public transportation centers, office buildings, and chemical storage facilities. In laboratory tests, the detector was presented with various chemicals at known optical densities in a gas containment cell. Different environmental conditions were simulated by varying the relative humidity of the air in the cell and introducing interferent gases. The laboratory tests were used to establish minimum detection sensitivities under varying conditions. Field test data were used to evaluate false negative and false positive rates, and field operation characteristics. These tests demonstrated below IDLH concentration sensitivity for the chemicals tested, no false positive identifications, and no false negatives to field test challenges.

Holland, S. K.; Laufer, Gabriel

2011-05-01

233

Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 ?gm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

Walter, William T.

234

Ant colony algorithm for the shortest loop design problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new algorithm for solving the shortest loop design problem is presented. The shortest loop design problem is to find the shortest loop for an automated guided vehicle covering at least one edge of each department of a block layout. In this paper, first it is shown that this problem can be represented as a graph model.

Kourosh Eshghi; Morteza Kazemi

2006-01-01

235

Estimating Critical Path and Arc Probabilities in Stochastic Activity Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a new procedure for estimating parameters of a stochastic activity network of N arcs. The parameters include the probability that path m is the longest path, the probability that path m is the shortest path, the probability that arc i...

G. S. Fishman

1983-01-01

236

On-road ammonia emissions characterized by mobile, open-path measurements.  

PubMed

Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor species to atmospheric fine particulate matter with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. NH3 from vehicles accounts for a significant fraction of total emissions of NH3 in urban areas. A mobile platform is developed to measure NH3, CO, and CO2 from the top of a passenger car. The mobile platform conducted 87 h of on-road measurements, covering 4500 km in New Jersey and California. The average on-road emission factor (EF) in CA is 0.49 ± 0.06 g NH3 per kg fuel and agrees with previous studies in CA (0.3-0.8 g/kg). The mean on-road NH3:CO emission ratio is 0.029 ± 0.005, and there is no systematic difference between NJ and CA. On-road NH3 EFs increase with road gradient by an enhancement of 53 mg/kg fuel per percentage of gradient. On-road NH3 EFs show higher values in both stop-and-go driving conditions and freeway speeds with a minimum near 70 km/h. Consistent with prior studies, the on-road emission ratios suggest a highly skewed distribution of NH3 emitters. Comparisons with existing NJ and CA on-road emission inventories indicate that there may be an underestimation of on-road NH3 emissions in both NJ and CA. We demonstrate that mobile, open-path measurements provide a unique tool to help quantitatively understand the on-road NH3 emissions in urban and suburban settings. PMID:24517544

Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Miller, David J; Khan, M Amir; Zondlo, Mark A

2014-04-01

237

APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED DATA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric eases at a concentrated swine production facility. A total of 2200 OP/FT-IR spectra were acquired along nine different monitoring paths d...

238

Experimental validation and performance evaluation of OpenFlow-based wavelength path control in transparent optical networks.  

PubMed

OpenFlow, as an open-source protocol for network virtualization, is also widely regarded as a promising control plane technique for heterogeneous networks. But the utilization of the OpenFlow protocol to control a wavelength switched optical network has not been investigated. In this paper, for the first time, we experimentally present a proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-based wavelength path control for lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks. We propose two different approaches (sequential and delayed approaches) for lightpath setup and two different approaches (active and passive approaches) for lightpath release by using the OpenFlow protocol. The overall feasibility of these approaches is experimentally validated and the network performances are quantitatively evaluated. More importantly, all the proposed methodologies are demonstrated and evaluated on a real transparent optical network testbed with both OpenFlow-based control plane and data plane, which allows their feasibility and effectiveness to be verified, and valuable insights of the proposed solutions to be obtained for deploying into real OpenFlow controlled optical networks. PMID:22274242

Liu, Lei; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Guo, Hongxiang; Wu, Jian

2011-12-19

239

Optical soundings of cars' exhaust and urban atmosphere with laser-plasma light and open-path spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical soundings of i.c. engines' exhaust and urban atmosphere have been carried out, using an Open-Path UV Spectrophotometer, based on a Laser-Produced Plasma as the light source. The measured optical depths are numerically inverted in terms of known species, by means of the Non-negative Least-Squares (NLS) algorithm. Concentrations of major UV-absorbing species are evaluated at the tailpipe of in-use vehicles (NO, NO2, EC) and in urban atmosphere over a 200m-long optical path (O2, O3. NO2, EC, nitrates). Also, we report on the detection in both environments of an additional compound, the nanometric organic carbon (NOC), known to form in fuel-rich flames, which is not considered yet in ordinary emissions inventories. Also, the problem of dilution/dispersion of primary species is addressed, by tracking the combustion-formed CO2 at the tailpipe and in urban atmosphere.

Borghese, Antonio; Speranza, Luciano

2009-08-01

240

Spin-orbit-path hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement and open-destination teleportation with multiple degrees of freedom  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme to generate hybrid Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement where multiple photons are entangled in different degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), and path (linear momentum). The generation involves mapping the preliminary OAM entanglement of photon pairs onto their spin-orbit and spin-path degrees of freedom, respectively. Based on the hybrid GHZ entanglement, we demonstrate an open-destination teleportation with multiples degrees of freedom, via which a spin state of a single photon is teleported onto a superposition of multiple photons with the postselection technique and the original information could be read out at any photon in individual spin, OAM, or the linear-momentum state. Our scheme holds promise for asymmetric optical quantum network.

Chen Lixiang [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); She Weilong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2011-03-15

241

Openness to Experience and Night-Sky Watching Interest as Predictors of Reading for Pleasure: Path Analysis of a Mediation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between reading for pleasure, night-sky watching interest, and openness to experience were examined in a sample of 129 college students. Results of a path analysis examining a mediation model indicated that the influence of night-sky interest on reading for pleasure was not mediated by the broad personality domain openness to…

Kelly, William E.

2010-01-01

242

Intelligent Recommender System Using Shopper's Path and Purchase Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoppers having a predefined shopping list usually follow the shortest path through a supermarket or store in order to make their purchases. This paper aims to study customer behaviour of such shoppers with respect to two aspects: (1) the path followed through the store to make those purchases. (2) the average path length to make those purchases. The paper also

Anala A Pandit; Jyot Talreja; M. Agrawal; Deepak Prasad; Swati Baheti; G. Khalsa

2010-01-01

243

Wave-particle interaction in parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open field magnetic field lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu

2012-03-01

244

Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park.There was a combined

Yung-Chieh Tsao; Chang-Fu Wu; Pao-Erh Chang; Shin-Yu Chen; Yaw-Huei Hwang

2011-01-01

245

Open-path Atmospheric N2O, CO, and NH3 Measurements Using Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a compact, mid-infrared quantum cascade (QC) laser based sensor to perform high precision measurements of N2O and CO simultaneously. Since CO is a good tracer of anthropogenic emissions, simultaneous measurements of CO and N2O allow us to correlate the sources of N2O emissions. The thermoelectrically (TE) cooled, and continuous wave QC laser enables room-temperature and unattended operation. The laser is scanned over the absorption features of N2O and CO near 4.54 ?m by laser current modulation. A novel cylindrical multi-pass optical cell terminated at the (N/2)th spot is used to simplify the optical configuration by separating the laser and TE cooled detector. Our systems are open-path and non-cryogenic, which avoids vacuum pump and liquid nitrogen. This configuration enables a future design of a non-intrusive, compact (shoe box size), and low-power (10W) sensor. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to enhance measurement sensitivity. Higher-harmonic detection (4f and 6f) is performed to improve the resolution between the nearly overlapping N2O and CO lines. Relevant atmospheric N2O and CO concentration is measured, with a detection limit of 0.3 ppbv for N2O and 2 ppbv for CO for 1 s averaging in terms of noise. We also develop an open-path high sensitivity atmospheric ammonia (NH3) sensor using a very similar instrument design. A 9.06 ?m QC laser is used to probe absorption features of NH3. Open-path detection of NH3 is even more beneficial due to the surface absorption effect of NH3 and its tendency to readily partition into condensed phases. The NH3 sensor was deployed at the CALNEX 2010 field campaign. The entire system was stable throughout the campaign and acquired data with 10 s time resolution under adverse ambient temperatures and dusty conditions. The measurements were in general agreement with other NH3 and trace gases sensors. Both the N2O/CO and NH3 sensors will be deployed in a local eddy-covariance station to examine long term stability and detection limit in the field. Future sensor applications include characterizing urban and agricultural N2O and NH3 emission sources and quantifying their respective fluxes.

Sun, K.; Khan, A.; Miller, D. J.; Rafferty, K.; Schreiber, J.; Puzio, C.; Portenti, M.; Silver, J.; Zondlo, M. A.

2010-12-01

246

Nitrous Oxide Emission Flux Measurements for Ecological Systems with an Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth most abundant greenhouse gas, is rapidly increasing with emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources [1]. Soil and aquatic areas are important sources and sinks for N2O due to complicated biogenic processes. However, N2O emissions are poorly constrained in space and time, despite its importance to global climate change and ozone depletion. We report our recent N2O emission measurements with an open-path quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based sensor for ecological systems. The newly emergent QCLs have been used to build compact, sensitive trace gas sensors in the mid-IR spectral region. A compact open-path QCL based sensor was developed to detect atmospheric N2O and CO at ~ 4.5 ?m using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to achieve a sensitivity of 0.26 ppbv of N2O and 0.24 ppbv of CO in 1 s with a power consumption of ~50 W [2]. This portable sensor system has been used to perform N2O emission flux measurement both with a static flux chamber and on an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower. In the flux chamber measurements, custom chambers were used to host the laser sensor, while gas samples for gas chromatograph (GC) were collected at the same time in the same chamber for validation and comparison. Different soil treatments have been applied in different chambers to study the relationship between N2O emission and the amount of fertilizer (and water) addition. Measurements from two methods agreed with each other (95% or higher confidence interval) for emission flux results, while laser sensor gave measurements with a much high temporal resolution. We have also performed the first open-path eddy covariance N2O flux measurement at Kellogg research station, Michigan State University for a month in June, 2012. Our sensor was placed on a 4-meter tower in a corn field and powered by batteries (connected with solar panels). We have observed the diurnal cycle of N2O flux. During this deployment, an inter-comparison between our sensor and a commercial gas sensor was done to check the sensor's performance. Overall, our sensor showed a good performance with both static chamber measurement and EC flux measurement of N2O. Its open-path, compact and portable design with low power consumption provides lots of advantages for N2O emission flux measurement in the ecological systems. [1] S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, "Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change," Nature 476, 43-50 (2011). [2] L. Tao, K, Sun, D. J. Miller, M. A. Khan and M.A. Zondlo, "Optimizations for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N2O and CO with a quantum cascade laser," CLEO, 2012

Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Gelfand, I.; Zenone, T.; Cui, M.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

2012-12-01

247

Evaluating open-path FTIR spectrometer data using different quantification methods, libraries, and background spectra obtained under varying environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

Studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers using a 35 foot outdoor exposure chamber in Pittsboro, North Carolina. Results obtained with the OP-FTIR spectrometer were compared to results obtained with a reference method (a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector, GC-FID). Concentration results were evaluated in terms of the mathematical methods and spectral libraries used for quantification. In addition, the research investigated the effect on quantification of using different backgrounds obtained at various times during the day. The chemicals used in this study were toluene, cyclohexane, and methanol; and these were evaluated over the concentration range of 5-30 ppm.

Tomasko, M.S.

1995-12-31

248

Path similarity skeleton graph matching.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion. PMID:18550909

Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

2008-07-01

249

Measurement of Urban Air Quality by an Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer in Beijing During Summer 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 Olympic Games focused attention on the air quality of Beijing, China and served as an important test-bed for developing, deploying, and testing new technologies for analysis of air quality and regional climate in urban environments. Poor air quality in urban locations has a significant detrimental effect on the health of residents while also impacting both regional and global climate change. As a result, there exists a great need for highly sensitive trace gas sensors for studying the atmosphere of the urban environment. Open-path remote sensors are of particular interest as they can obtain data on spatial scales similar to those used in regional climate models. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) can be designed for operation in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) with a central wavelength anywhere between 3 to 24 ?m and made tunable over a wavelength interval of over 0.1 ?m. The Quantum Cascade Laser Open-Path System (QCLOPS) is a mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometer that uses a tunable, thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed Daylight Solutions Inc. QCL for measurement of trace gases. The system is aimed at applications with path lengths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1.0 km. The system is designed to continuously monitor multiple trace gases [water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2)] in the lower atmosphere. A field campaign from July to September 2008 in Beijing used QCLOPS to study trace gas concentrations before, during, and after the Olympic Games in an effort to capture changes induced by emissions reduction methods. QCLOPS was deployed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics - Chinese Academy of Sciences on the roof of a two-story building, at an approximate distance of 2 miles from the Olympic National Stadium ("The Bird's Nest.") QCLOPS operated with an open-path round trip distance of approximately 75 m. The system ran with minimal human interference, twenty-four hours per day for the full campaign period. In order to collect data over numerous absorption peaks belonging to the target gases of H2O, NH3, O3, and CO2, measurements were made at 317 different wavelengths within the full tuning range of the laser (1020 - 1070 cm-1). We present the design of this novel sensor which was successfully built, deployed, and operated with minimal operator intervention for the three month field campaign period. Furthermore, we present the results of the field campaign and the capabilities of the QCLOPS system to measure fluctuations of the trace gases at parts-per-billion levels. The time series data illustrate the changing levels of the trace gases over the campaign period. In addition, data from commercial sensors simultaneously deployed at the field site are presented as a validation of the capabilities of the QCLOPS system. This work was supported by MIRTHE (NSF-ERC #EEC-0540832).

Michel, A. P.; Liu, P. Q.; Yeung, J. K.; Zhang, Y.; Baeck, M. L.; Pan, X.; Dong, H.; Wang, Z.; Smith, J. A.; Gmachl, C. F.

2009-05-01

250

COMPARISON OF AN INNOVATIVE NONLINEAR ALGORITHM TO CLASSICAL LEAST SQUARES FOR ANALYZING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gases at an integrated swine production facility. The concentration-pathlength products of the target gases at this site often exceeded th...

251

Limited path percolation in complex networks.  

PubMed

We study the stability of network communication after removal of a fraction q=1-p of links under the assumption that communication is effective only if the shortest path between nodes i and j after removal is shorter than al(ij)(a> or =1) where l(ij) is the shortest path before removal. For a large class of networks, we find analytically and numerically a new percolation transition at p(c)=(kappa(0)-1)((1-a)/a), where kappa(0) [triple bond] / and k is the node degree. Above p(c), order N nodes can communicate within the limited path length al(ij), while below p(c), N(delta) (delta<1) nodes can communicate. We expect our results to influence network design, routing algorithms, and immunization strategies, where short paths are most relevant. PMID:17995444

López, Eduardo; Parshani, Roni; Cohen, Reuven; Carmi, Shai; Havlin, Shlomo

2007-11-01

252

Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomass measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass samples from a diverse range of ecosystems were burned in the Intermountain Fire Sciences Laboratory open combustion facility. Midinfrared spectra of the nascent emissions were acquired at several heights above the fires with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled to an open multipass cell. In this report, the results from smoldering combustion during 24 fires are presented including production of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethene, ethyne, propene, formaldehyde, 2-hydroxyethanal, methanol, phenol, acetic acid, formic acid, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and carbonyl sulfide. These were the dominant products observed, and many have significant influence on atmospheric chemistry at the local, regional, and global scale. Included in these results are the first optical, in situ measurements of smoke composition from fires in grasses, hardwoods, and organic soils. About one half of the detected organic emissions arose from fuel pyrolysis which produces white smoke rich in oxygenated organic compounds. These compounds deserve more attention in the assessment of fire impacts on the atmosphere. The compound 2-hydroxyethanal is a significant component of the smoke, and it is reported here for the first time as a product of fires. Most of the observed alkane and ammonia production accompanied visible glowing combustion. NH3 is normally the major nitrogen-containing emission detected from smoldering combustion of biomass, but from some smoldering organic soils, HCN was dominant. Tar condensed on cool surfaces below the fires accounting for ˜1% of the biomass burned, but it was enriched in N by a factor of 6-7 over the parent material, and its possible role in postfire nutrient cycling should be further investigated.

Yokelson, Robert J.; Susott, Ronald; Ward, Darold E.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David W. T.

1997-08-01

253

The optimal path of logistics distribution in electronic commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and fast logistics distribution system is of paramount significance for enterprises, especially for the development of e-commerce. At present, the problem that e-commerce puzzles businessmen is logistics distribution. Based on Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm, an intelligent optimal path algorithm is presented with the aid of the thoughts of state space searching and dynamic cut branch in artificial intelligence. The

Zhang Yong-mei; Ma Li

2010-01-01

254

Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under certain flight conditions we quantified for the first time stalling-induced, dynamic pressure deviations of up to 30% (at 200 hPa) between the avionic sensor and the optical and mechanical pressure sensors integrated in HAI. Such severe local pressure deviations from the usually used avionic pressure are important to take into account for other airborne sensors employed on such fast flying platforms as the HALO aircraft.

Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

2014-05-01

255

Development of an open-path incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy based instrument for simultaneous measurement of HONO and NO2 in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of an optical instrument based on incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) for simultaneous open-path measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air using a UV light emitting diode operating at ˜366 nm. Detection limits of ˜430 pptv for HONO and ˜1 ppbv for NO2 were achieved with an optimum acquisition time of 90 s, determined by an Allan variance analysis. Based on a 1.85 m long high optical finesse open-path cavity, the effective optical path length of 2.8 km was realized in aerosol-free samples or in an urban environment at modest aerosol levels. Such a kilometer long optical absorption is comparable to that achieved in the well established differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technology while keeping the instrument very compact. Open-path detection configuration allows one to avoid absorption cell wall losses and sampling induced artifacts. The demonstrated sensitivity and specificity shows high potential of this cost-effective and compact infrastructure for future field applications with high spatial resolution.

Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Fertein, E.; Cazier, F.; Dewaele, D.; Gao, X.

2012-02-01

256

Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD): a potential path to novel therapeutic chemical space.  

PubMed

The continued development of computational and synthetic methods has enabled the enumeration or preparation of a nearly endless universe of chemical structures. Nevertheless, the ability of this chemical universe to deliver small molecules that can both modulate biological targets and have drug-like physicochemical properties continues to be a topic of interest to the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers alike. The chemical space described by public, commercial, in-house and virtual compound collections has been interrogated by multiple approaches including biochemical, cellular and virtual screening, diversity analysis, and in-silico profiling. However, current drugs and known chemical probes derived from these efforts are contained within a remarkably small volume of the predicted chemical space. Access to more diverse classes of chemical scaffolds that maintain the properties relevant for drug discovery is certainly needed to meet the increasing demands for pharmaceutical innovation. The Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform (OIDD) was designed to tackle barriers to innovation through the identification of novel molecules active in relevant disease biology models. In this article we will discuss several computational approaches towards describing novel, biologically active, drug-like chemical space and illustrate how the OIDD program may facilitate access to previously untapped molecules that may aid in the search for innovative pharmaceuticals. PMID:24283973

Alvim-Gaston, Maria; Grese, Timothy; Mahoui, Abdelaziz; Palkowitz, Alan D; Pineiro-Nunez, Marta; Watson, Ian

2014-01-01

257

Mapping of methane spatial distribution around biogas plant with an open-path tunable diode absorption spectroscopy scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (OP-TDLAS) detector was applied to detect the methane emission from a biogas plant in a dairy farm. Two OP-TDLAS scanning systems were built according to maximum likelihood with expectation minimization (MLEM) and smooth basis function minimization (SBFM) algorithms to reconstruct the two-dimensional (2-D) distribution maps. Six reconstruction maps with the resolution of 30×80 were obtained by the MLEM algorithm with "grid translation method" and three reconstruction maps were obtained by the SBFM algorithm with 2-D Gaussian model. The maximum mixing ratio in the first result was between 0.85 and 1.30 ppm, while it was between 1.14 and 1.30 ppm in the second result. The average mixing ratio in the first result was between 0.54 and 0.49 ppm, and between 0.56 and 0.65 ppm in the second result. The reconstruction results validated that the two algorithms could effectively reflect the methane mixing ratio distribution within the target area. However, with the more simple optical rays and less equipment requirements, the OP-TDLAS scanning system based on SBFM algorithm provides a useful monitoring tool of methane emissions in agricultural production.

Zhang, Shirui; Wang, Jihua; Dong, Daming; Zheng, Wengang; Zhao, Xiande

2013-02-01

258

Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

2014-01-01

259

Remote open-path cavity-ringdown spectroscopic sensing of trace gases in air, based on distributed passive sensors linked by km-long optical fibers.  

PubMed

A continuous-wave, rapidly swept cavity-ringdown spectroscopic technique has been developed for localized atmospheric sensing of trace gases at remote sites. It uses one or more passive open-path optical sensor units, coupled by optical fiber over distances of >1 km to a single transmitter/receiver console incorporating a photodetector and a swept-frequency diode laser tuned to molecule-specific near-infrared wavelengths. Ways to avoid interference from stimulated Brillouin scattering in long optical fibers have been devised. This rugged open-path system, deployable in agricultural, industrial, and natural atmospheric environments, is used to monitor ammonia in air. A noise-limited minimum detectable mixing ratio of ~11 ppbv is attained for ammonia in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. PMID:24921513

He, Yabai; Jin, Chunjiang; Kan, Ruifeng; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing; Hill, Julian; Jamie, Ian M; Orr, Brian J

2014-06-01

260

Multiple Waypoint Path Planning for a Mobile Robot using Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation developed a MATLAB program, based on genetic algorithms that generated an optimal (shortest distance) path plan for a mobile robot to visit all of the specified waypoints without colliding with the known obstacles. The designed genetic algorithm path planner was shown to accomplish this task and produce superior results when compared against a full search path planner. Next,

Trevor Davies; A. Jnifene

2006-01-01

261

Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and backwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path taken by a car with a given minimum turning radius has a lower bound on its radius of curvature at each point, but the path has cusps if the car shifts into or out of reverse gear. What is the shortest such path a car can travel between two points if its starting and ending directions are specified?

J. A. Reeds; L. A. Shepp

1990-01-01

262

Odor Load Investigation for a Pharmaceutical Plant by Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR)\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a case study was conducted to correlate the odor index and possible pollutants from a pharmaceutical plant based on the odor threshold and Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) technique to model the results using American Meteorological Society\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD). Although nine different pollutants were obtained from OP-FTIR, the contribution to the detected

Wen-Shing Chang; Shiao-Shing Chen; Jung-Hua Chang; Chih-Hui Tang; Tzi-Chin Chang

2009-01-01

263

Analysing Shortest Expected Delay Routing for Erlang Servers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The queueing problem with a Poisson arrival stream and two identical, Erlang servers is analyzed for the queueing discipline based on shortest expected delay. This queueing problem may be represented as a random walk on the integer grid in the first quadr...

I. J. B. F. Adan J. Wessels

1993-01-01

264

FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes preliminary results from a field experiment designed to evaluate a new approach to quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions from area air pollution sources. The new approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical re...

265

FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FTIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives preliminary results from a field evaluation of a new approach for quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions of area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) ...

266

A sieve algorithm for the shortest lattice vector problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a randomized 2^{O(n)} time algorithm to compute a shortest non-zero vector in an n-dimensional rational lattice. The best known time upper bound for this problem was 2^{O(n\\\\log n)} first given by Kannan [7] in 1983. We obtain several consequences of this algorithm for related problems on lattices and codes, including an improvement for polynomial time approximations to the

Miklós Ajtai; Ravi Kumar; D. Sivakumar

2001-01-01

267

A Shortest Path Approach to the Multiple-Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We examine,a multiple-vehicle routing problem,that permits split pick-ups (mVRPSP). This problem,involves a fleet of trucks having identical capacity, multiple suppliers, and a single assembly plant. The fleet is responsible for moving parts from the suppliers to the assembly plant. The problem is to determine, for each truck, how many parts to pick up at each supplier to then transport

Yavuz A. Bozer

268

Energy efficient dynamic shortest path routing in wireless Ad hoc sensor networks using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are catching up as the primary mode for monitoring and collecting data in physically challenging environments. They find applications in various fields varying from environment monitoring, military applications to monitoring patients in hospitals. The constraints due to their inherent features make routing in wireless sensor networks a big challenge. This paper covers Genetic algorithm (GA) based simple

R. Nallusamy; K. Duraiswamy; D. Ayya Muthukumar; C. Sathiyakumar

2010-01-01

269

A Posture Scheduling Algorithm Using Constrained Shortest Path to Prevent Pressure Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure ulcer is a severe threat for immobilized and peripheral neuropathic patients such as bed-ridden, elderly, and diabetics. Once developed, the complication of pressure ulcer causes pain, suffering, and longer hospitalization for the patients. Additionally, pressure ulcer management imposes a serious burden on the health care providers. The optimal strategy to deal with pressure ulcers is prevention. The current standard

S. Ostadabbas; R. Yousefi; M. Nourani; M. Faezipour; L. Tamil; M. Pompeo

2011-01-01

270

D-edge shortest-path problem for a Monge graph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complete edge-weighted directed graph on vertices 1,2,...,n that assigns cost c(i,j) to the edge (i,j) is called Monge if its edge costs form a Monge array, i.e., for all i < k and j < l, c(i, j)+c(k,l)(le) < c(i,l)+c(k,j). One reason Monge graphs are i...

W. W. Bein L. L. Larmore J. K. Park

1992-01-01

271

Exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, based on spanning tree and shortest path relaxations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of routing vehicles stationed at a central facility (depot) to supply customers with known demands, in such a way as to minimize the total distance travelled. The problem is referred to as the vehicle routing problem (VRP) and is a generalization of the multiple travelling salesman problem that has many practical applications.

N. Christofides; A. Mingozzi; P. Toth

1981-01-01

272

A Landmark Algorithm for the Time-Dependent Shortest Path Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments The author is heartily grateful to Professor Hiroshi Nagamochi for his continual guidance and invaluable suggestions to accomplish the thesis. He commented,in de- tail on the whole work in the thesis, which significantly improved the accuracy of the arguments and the quality of the expression. Without his generous help, none of this work could have been completed. He is

Hiroshi Nagamochi; Tatsuya Ohshima

273

Shortest-Path Network Analysis Is a Useful Approach toward Identifying Genetic Determinants of Longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

J. R. Managbanag; Tarynn M. Witten; Danail Bonchev; Lindsay A. Fox; Mitsuhiro Tsuchiya; Brian K. Kennedy; Matt Kaeberlein; Ben Lehner

2008-01-01

274

Dynamic Maintenance Versus Swapping: An Experimental Study on Shortest Paths Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a spanning tree T of a 2-edge connected, weighted graph G, a swap edge for a failing edge e in T is an edge é of G reconnecting\\u000a the two subtrees of T created bythe removal of e. A best swap edge is a swap edge enjoying the additional property of optimizing\\u000a the swap, with respect to a given

Guido Proietti

2000-01-01

275

The shortest path from the surface to the nucleus: RBP-Jkappa\\/Su(H) transcription factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication between cell surface receptors and nuclear transcription factors is of primary importance to multicellular organisms. Since there are numerous molecules involved in this process, their mutual interaction forms complex networks of informational regulation, which is still under extensive investigation. The RBP-J transcription factor interacts directly with the Notch receptor involved in cell lineage commitment, implicating the presence of a

Tasuku Honjo

1996-01-01

276

GPS-enabled mobiles for learning shortest paths: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent GPS-enabled mobile phones provide a rich and novel platform for exploring new kinds of educational software. Moreover, powerful high-level programming languages such as Python allow rapid development of learning tools that take advantage of mobile technology. This paper reports on a recent pilot study using mobile phones as situated learning tools. The study focused on expressing Dijkstra's algorithm for

Jason J. Holdsworth; Siu Man Lui

2009-01-01

277

Transmission Scheduling for Optimizing Sensor Network Lifetime: A Stochastic Shortest Path Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present transmission scheduling algorithms for maximizing the lifetime of a sensor network. In each data collection, only one group of sensors are scheduled to transmit their measurements directly to an access point (AP) through a fading channel, causing a reduction in battery energy levels of these sensors. We formulate the problem of dynamically choosing which group of sensors should

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; Vikram Krishnamurthy; Dejan V. Djonin

2007-01-01

278

Shortest paths on 3-D simple Lie groups with nonholonomic constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the Carnot-Caratheodory metrics on SU(2) ¿ S3, SO(3) and SL(2) induced by their Cartan decomposition and by the Killing form. Besides computing explicitly geodesics and conjugate loci, we compute the cut loci (globally) and we give the expression of the Carnot-Caratheodory distance as the inverse of an elementary function. For SU(2) the cut locus is

Ugo V. Boscain; Francesco Rossi

2008-01-01

279

Approximate Bounds and Expressions for the Link Utilization of Shortest-Path Multicast Network Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicast network traffic is information with one source node, but many destination nodes. Rather than setting up individual connections between the source node and each destination node, or broadcasting the information to the entire network, multicasting efficiently exploits link capacity by allowing the source node to transmit a small number of copies of the information to mutually-exclusive groups of destination

Borislav H. Simov; Srini B. Tridandapani; Michael S. Borella

1999-01-01

280

Clustering incorporating shortest paths identifies relevant modules in functional interaction networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biological systems can be modeled as networks. Hence, network analysis is of increasing importance to systems biology. We describe an evolutionary algorithm for selecting clusters of nodes within a large network based upon network topology together with a measure of the relevance of nodes to a set of independently identified genes of interest. We apply the algorithm to a

Jennifer Hallinan; Matthew R. Pocock; Stephen G. Addinall; David A. Lydall; Anil Wipat

2009-01-01

281

Hardware\\/Software Integration for FPGA-based All-Pairs Shortest-Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are be- ing employed in high performance computing systems owing to their potential to accelerate a wide variety of long-running routines. Parallel FPGA-based de- signs often yield a very high speedup. Applications us- ing these designs on reconfigurable supercomputers in- volve software on the system managing computation on the FPGA. To extract maximum performance from an

Uday Bondhugula; Ananth Devulapalli; James Dinan; Joseph Fernando; Pete Wyckoff; Eric Stahlberg; P. Sadayappan

2006-01-01

282

Genetic regulatory networks established by shortest path algorithm and conditional probabilities for ovarian carcinoma microarray data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cancer research recently, it still doesn't have a definitive conclusion for the regulatory mechanisms of tumorigenesis and metastasis. But different genes have different biological functions, and these functions with interactions between genes play an important key in gene regulatory networks. Microarray is a tool most commonly used in the disease research, and scientists usually use that the feature

Meng-Hsiun Tsai; Hsiao-Han Ko; Sheng-Chuan Chiu

2010-01-01

283

From the Cover: Transitive functional annotation by shortest-path analysis of gene expression data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods for the functional analysis of microarray gene expression data make the implicit assumption that genes with similar expression profiles have similar functions in cells. However, among genes involved in the same biological pathway, not all gene pairs show high expression similarity. Here, we propose that transitive expression similarity among genes can be used as an important attribute to

Xianghong Zhou; Ming-Chih J. Kao; Wing Hung Wong

2002-01-01

284

Hardware\\/Software Codesign for All-Pairs Shortest-Paths on a Reconfigurable Supercomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances in VLSI technology have led to Field- Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) being employed in High Performance Computing systems. Applications using FPGAs on reconfigurable supercomputers involve software on the system managing computation on the reconfigurable hardware. To extract maximum benefits from a parallel FPGA kernel at the application level, it becomes crucial to minimize data movement costs on the

Uday Bondhugula; Ananth Devulapalli; James Dinan; Joseph Fernando; Pete Wyckoff; Eric Stahlberg; P. Sadayappan

285

Real-time endovascular guidewire position simulation using shortest path algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Treatment of vascular disease often involves endovascular interventions which use the vascular system for delivering treatment\\u000a devices via a previously inserted guidewire to the diseased site. Previous studies show relative reproducibility of guidewire\\u000a position after insertion, indicating that the guidewire position is constrained and could be represented by an energy minimization\\u000a approach. Such representation would support the surgeon’s decision process

Sebastian Schafer; Vikas Singh; Peter B. Noël; Alan M. Walczak; Jinhui Xu; Kenneth R. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

286

A Dynamic Shortest Path Algorithm Using Multi-Step Ahead Link Travel Time Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Route guidance systems provide motorists with step-by-step instructions on how to get from any origin to any destination in a network. The systems calculate the best route from a user-supplied origin to destination, based on each link travel time on the network. Most studies on the route guidance development have been carried out based on only one-step ahead prediction of

Young-Ihn Lee; Seungjae Lee; Shinhae Lee; Jeunggyu Chon

2004-01-01

287

Continuous Measurement of CO2 concentration in Arctic Soil by Small Open-path Type CO2 Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost and seasonally thawed Arctic soils in high northern latitudes hold approximately 25 percent of the world's soil organic carbon. The predicted warming of the Arctic, coupled with regional drying, could release much of the carbon now stored in the Arctic soils. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the release of soil organic carbon as CO2 is critical to predicting sensitive Arctic soils will respond to and influence global climate change. However, there are only a few reports of soil respiration, and very few that report continuous respiration rates. The results of chamber measurements give the overall efflux from the surface and emphasize biological and chemical processes and controls. However, they do not measure soil CO2 concentrations. To our knowledge, continuous measurements of soil CO2 concentration has not been previously conducted in the Arctic, and gas diffusivity of Arctic soils that thaw and freeze are poorly known. To obtain a better understanding of the patterns and controls on carbon release from Arctic soils, long-term measurements of soil respiration and an investigation of the underlying processes were undertaken. In this study, continuous measurements of soil CO2 concentration by small open path type infrared gas analyzers in a revegetated Arctic drained lake basin at Barrow Alaska was undertaken. Measurements were conducted from the beginning of soil thaw in summer through the following winter and summer. Changes in soil CO2 concentration during freezing and thawing processes proved especially interesting. Soil CO2 concentration in the organic layer of the drained lake basin was much higher than that of Typic Psamomoturbals soil from heath vegetation cover in Greenland (Elberling and Brandt 2003) throughout the thawing season. Soil CO2 increased with increasing soil temperature and thaw depth reflecting CO2 production in the soil. Soil CO2 concentration was greater in relatively wet soil than in dry soil. Soil CO2 concentration increased as a result of rain, and this phenomenon was especially pronounced in soils that had been relatively dry before the precipitation. Ground surface CO2 concentration increased when the ground was covered with snow. The level of CO2 in the snow pack at our sites was similar to results of Jones et al. (1999) which was measured in the Canadian arctic tundra. CO2 in the snow pack changed with wind speed suggesting that ventilation during wind was important for CO2 exchange between snow and the atmosphere. Soil CO2 concentration increased quickly and significantly with soil freezing. CO2 at 20cm depth exceeded 20 percent in relatively wet soil. The waterproof filter of the sensor encasement, which is reportedly resistant to 200 mbar of pressure, leaked water when the surrounding water froze suggesting that there is a pressure change (more than 200 mbar) in the soil upon freezing. Such pressure would have significant impacts on gas transport and concentration in the soil. The temperature dependency of soil CO2 concentration changed markedly at -1 degree Celsius and there was considerable hysteresis in temperature dependency of soil CO2 concentration at sub-zero temperatures as temperatures raised or fell suggesting that both biological and physical processes affect differently between the freezing and the thawing periods.

Nakamoto, K.; Oechel, W. C.; Lipson, D.

2006-12-01

288

New insights into volcanic processes at Stromboli from Cerberus, a remote-controlled open-path FTIR scanner system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ordinary, low intensity activity of Stromboli volcano is sporadically interrupted by more energetic events termed, depending on their intensity, "major explosions" and "paroxysms". These short-lived energetic episodes represent a potential risk to visitors to the highly accessible summit of Stromboli. Observations made at Stromboli over the last decade have shown that the composition of gas emitted from the summit craters may change prior to such explosions, allowing the possibility that such changes may be used to forecast these potentially dangerous events. In 2008 we installed a novel, remote-controlled, open-path FTIR scanning system called Cerberus at the summit of Stromboli, with the objective of measuring gas compositions from individual vents within the summit crater terrace of the volcano with high temporal resolution and for extended periods. In this work we report the first results from the Cerberus system, collected in August-September 2009, November 2009 and May-June 2010. We find significant, fairly consistent intra-crater variability for CO2/SO2 and H2O/CO2 ratios, and relatively homogeneous SO2/HCl ratios. In general, the southwest crater is richest in CO2, and the northeast crater poorest, while the central crater is richest in H2O. It thus appears that during the measurement period the southwest crater had somewhat more direct connection to a primary, deep degassing system while the central and northeast craters reflect a slightly more secondary degassing nature, with a supplementary, shallow H2O source for the central crater, probably related to puffing activity. Such water-rich emissions from the central crater can account for the lower crystal content of its eruption products, and emphasise the role of continual magma supply to the shallowest levels of Stromboli's plumbing system. Our observations of heterogeneous crater gas emissions and high H2O/CO2 ratios do not agree with models of CO2-flushing, and we show that simple depressurisation during magma ascent to the surface is a more likely model for H2O loss at Stromboli. We highlight that alternative explanations other than CO2 flushing are required to explain distributions of H2O and CO2 amounts dissolved in melt inclusions. We detected fairly systematic increases in CO2/SO2 ratio some weeks prior to major explosions, and some evidence of a decrease in this ratio in the days immediately preceding the explosions, with periods of low, stable CO2/SO2 ratios between explosions otherwise. Our measurements, therefore, confirm the medium term (~ weeks) precursory increases previously observed with MultiGas instruments, and, in addition, reveal new short-term precursory decreases in CO2/SO2 ratios immediately prior to the major explosions. Such patterns, if shown to be systematic, may be of great utility for hazard management at Stromboli's summit. Our results suggest that intra-crater CO2/SO2 variability may produce short-term peaks and troughs in CO2/SO2 time series measured with in-situ MultiGas instruments, due simply to variations in wind direction.

La Spina, A.; Burton, M. R.; Harig, R.; Mure, F.; Rusch, P.; Jordan, M.; Caltabiano, T.

2013-01-01

289

3D simulation of the lightning path using a mixed physical-probabilistic model – The open source lightning model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the lightning channel's propagation has been a major issue in lightning protection. Several solutions are already existing based on different assumptions revealing different properties of the lightning, including return strokes, the orientation point (and distance), and several other factors. The path of the lightning channel however is very hard to model using the physical equations and laws

A. Gulyás; N. Szedenik

2009-01-01

290

Planning Monotone Paths to Visit a Set of Obstacles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computing a shortest collision-free path connecting points s and t that visits a given set of obstacles in two dimensions is like the travelling salesman problem and is NP-hard. We consider a restricted version of the above problem called the s-t-monotone...

L. P. Gewali

1990-01-01

291

Compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric N2O and CO using a quantum cascade laser.  

PubMed

A compact and portable open-path sensor for simultaneous detection of atmospheric N(2)O and CO has been developed with a 4.5 ?m quantum cascade laser (QCL). An in-line acetylene (C(2)H(2)) gas reference cell allows for continuous monitoring of the sensor drift and calibration in rapidly changing field environments and thereby allows for open-path detection at high precision and stability. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to detect simultaneously both the second and fourth harmonic absorption spectra with an optimized dual modulation amplitude scheme. Multi-harmonic spectra containing atmospheric N(2)O, CO, and the reference C(2)H(2) signals are fit in real-time (10 Hz) by combining a software-based lock-in amplifier with a computationally fast numerical model for WMS. The sensor consumes ~50 W of power and has a mass of ~15 kg. Precision of 0.15 ppbv N(2)O and 0.36 ppbv CO at 10 Hz under laboratory conditions was demonstrated. The sensor has been deployed for extended periods in the field. Simultaneous N(2)O and CO measurements distinguished between natural and fossil fuel combustion sources of N(2)O, an important greenhouse gas with poorly quantified emissions in space and time. PMID:23263046

Tao, Lei; Sun, Kang; Khan, M Amir; Miller, David J; Zondlo, Mark A

2012-12-17

292

Curved paths in raptor flight: Deterministic models.  

PubMed

Two deterministic models for flight of Peregrine Falcons and possibly other raptors as they approach their prey are examined mathematically. Both models make two assumptions. The first, applicable to both models, is that the angle of sight between falcon and prey is constant, consistent with observations that the falcon keeps its head straight during flight and keeps on course by use of the deep foveal region in its eye which allows maximum acuity at an angle of sight of about 45 degrees . The second assumption for the first model (conical spiral), is that the initial direction of flight determines the overall path. For the second model (flight constrained to a tilted plane), a parameter that fixes the orientation of the plane is required. A variational calculation also shows that the tilted plane flight path is the shortest total path, and, consequently, the conical spiral is another shortest total path. Numerical calculations indicate that the flight paths for the two models are very similar for the experimental conditions under which observations have been made. However, the angles of flight and bank differ significantly. More observations are needed to investigate the applicability of the two models. PMID:16757000

Lorimer, John W

2006-10-21

293

Optimization of the measuring path on a coordinate measuring machine using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stamping dies, car bodies, turbine blades and other machine parts with curved surfaces are usually verified on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). This is a time-consuming process with low productivity. This paper suggests genetic algorithms to optimize the measuring path on CMMs. The measuring head of a CMM can be considered as a traveling salesperson. To find the shortest measuring path

Liangsheng Qu; Guanhua Xu; Guohua Wang

1998-01-01

294

Tornado Paths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website catalogs all the tornado paths in the United States since 1950. The tornado path data is overlaid onto a Google Maps base for easy browsing and manipulation of the map view. Clicking on individual tornados provides the user with information such as its Fujita rating, the amount of damage caused by the tornado, the size of the path that the tornado made, and the length of time the tornado was on the ground.

Samson, Perry; Michigan, University O.

295

Atmospheric controls on methane emissions from a subarctic bog in northern Quebec, Canada, using an open-path eddy covariance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Over such environments, methane fluxes are traditionally quantified with static or dynamic chambers and gas chromatography. Although inexpensive and portable, this method does not allow for continuous measurements besides not capturing the effect of atmospheric turbulence on methane emissions. An alternative is closed-path eddy covariance systems, but these usually require high power consumption and regular maintenance, both of which are difficult to supply in highly remote areas where most Canadian wetlands are found. In this study we deployed the new open-path methane analyzer (model Li-7700) from Li-Cor inc. along with surface energy budget sensors over a 60-ha subarctic bog from June to September 2012. The field site (53.7°N, 78.2°W) is located near James Bay within the La Grande Rivière watershed. This work discusses the presence of diurnal patterns in turbulent methane fluxes, and analyzes the effect of atmospheric stability, turbulence intensity and other atmospheric controls on fluxes magnitude and timing. Methane emissions are also quantified at the daily scale and compared to previously reported values over similar sites with other methods. A more technical discussion is also included in which advantages, drawbacks and optimal setup configuration of the instrument are presented.

Rousseau, A. N.; Nadeau, D. F.; Parlange, M. B.; Coursolle, C.; Margolis, H. A.

2012-12-01

296

Use of partial least squares regression for the multivariate calibration of hazardous air pollutants in open-path FT-IR spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been evaluated as a robust calibration technique for over 100 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) measured by open path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry. PLS has the advantage over the current recommended calibration method of classical least squares (CLS), in that it can look at the whole useable spectrum (700-1300 cm-1, 2000-2150 cm-1, and 2400-3000 cm-1), and detect several analytes simultaneously. Up to one hundred HAPs synthetically added to OP/FT-IR backgrounds have been simultaneously calibrated and detected using PLS. PLS also has the advantage in requiring less preprocessing of spectra than that which is required in CLS calibration schemes, allowing PLS to provide user independent real-time analysis of OP/FT-IR spectra.

Hart, Brian K.; Griffiths, Peter R.

1998-06-01

297

Open path measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor under foggy conditions - technical problems, approaches and effects on flux measurements and budget calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To estimate carbon dioxide or water vapor fluxes with the Eddy Covariance method high quality data sets are necessary. Under foggy conditions this is challenging, because open path measurements are influenced by the water droplets that cross the measurement path as well as deposit on the windows of the optical path. For the LI-7500 the deposition of droplets on the window results in an intensity reduction of the infrared beam. To keep the strength of the infrared beam under these conditions, the energy is increased. A measure for the increased energy is given by the AGC value (Automatic Gain Control). Up to a AGC threshold value of 70 % the data from the LI-7500 is assumed to be of good quality (personal communication with LICOR). Due to fog deposition on the windows, the AGC value rises above 70 % and stays there until the fog disappears and the water on the windows evaporates. To gain better data quality during foggy conditions, a blower system was developed that blows the deposited water droplets off the window. The system is triggered if the AGC value rises above 70 %. Then a pneumatic jack will lift the blower system towards the LI-7500 and the water-droplets get blown off with compressed air. After the AGC value drops below 70 %, the pneumatic jack will move back to the idle position. Using this technique showed that not only the fog droplets on the window causing significant problems to the measurement, but also the fog droplets inside the measurement path. Under conditions of very dense fog the measured values of carbon dioxide can get unrealistically high, and for water vapor, negative values can be observed even if the AGC value is below 70 %. The negative values can be explained by the scatter of the infrared beam on the fog droplets. It is assumed, that different types of fog droplet spectra are causing the various error patterns observed. For high quality flux measurements, not only the AGC threshold value of 70 % is important, but also the fluctuation of the AGC value in a flux averaging interval. Such AGC value fluctuations can cause severe jumps in the concentration measurements that can hardly be corrected for. Results of fog effects on the LI-7500 performance and its consequences for flux measurements and budget calculations will be presented.

El-Madany, T.; Griessbaum, F.; Maneke, F.; Chu, H.-S.; Wu, C.-C.; Chang, S. C.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Juang, J.-Y.; Klemm, O.

2010-07-01

298

Quantum Path Interferences in High-Order Harmonic Generation  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation in argon when the two shortest quantum paths contribute to the harmonic emission. For the first time to our knowledge, experimental conditions were found to clearly observe interference between these two quantum paths that are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This result is a first step towards the direct experimental characterization of the full single-atom dipole moment and demonstrates an unprecedented accuracy of quantum path control on an attosecond time scale.

Zaier, A.; Holler, M.; Guandalini, A.; Schapper, F.; Biegert, J.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.; Wyatt, A. S.; Monmayrant, A.; Walmsley, I. A.; Cormier, E.; Auguste, T.; Caumes, J. P.; Salieres, P. [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); CELIA, CNRS-CEA-Universite Bordeaux1, 351 cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2008-04-11

299

Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2) are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be more readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods than the widely-utilized small chamber measurements. Several micro-meteorological flux-gradient methods utilizing a non-intrusive path-averaging measurement method were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s-1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study involved quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus fluxes in the stable boundary layer.

Schäfer, K.; Grant, R. H.; Emeis, S.; Raabe, A.; von der Heide, C.; Schmid, H. P.

2012-02-01

300

Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2) are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s-1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

Schäfer, K.; Grant, R. H.; Emeis, S.; Raabe, A.; von der Heide, C.; Schmid, H. P.

2012-07-01

301

Adaptations of the A* algorithm for the computation of fastest paths in deterministic discrete-time dynamic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the A* methodology to shortest path problems in dynamic networks, in which arc travel times are time dependent. We present efficient adaptations of the A* algorithm for computing fastest (minimum travel time) paths from one origin node to one destination node, for one as well as multiple departure times at the origin node, in a class of

Ismaïl Chabini; Shan Lan

2002-01-01

302

Monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions in urban environments using ground-based open-path Fourier-transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based optical remote sensing has become an essential technology for quantifying pollutant or greenhouese gas (GHG) emissions from point or area sources and for the validation of airborne or satellite remote sensing data. Extensive studies have shown the capability of both ground and airborne surveys in meeting the necessary requirements for large-scale monitoring programs of atmospheric gas variations, e.g. in urban environments or regions with variable land use intensity. Open path instruments (such as infrared or laser spectrometer) that can rapidly scan in ambient air over significant distances are especially useful tools when it comes to detecting any GHG concentration variations (e.g. carbon dioxide CO2, nitrous oxide N2O, methane CH4) that are above normal background levels. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is proven to be a powerful and non-invasive technique that can be used for online monitoring of fugitive emissions for industrial, environmental and health applications. We applied ground-based OP-FTIR spectroscopy as part of a hierarchical monitoring concept to investigate path-averaged atmospheric composition on a large scale, in terms of identifying areas with higher emission rates that subsequently require further detailed meso-scale investigations. A mobile passive and a bistatic active OP-FTIR spectrometer system (Bruker) were installed and a survey of column abundances of CO2 and several other trace gases was performed, allowing a maximum spatial coverage area of several square km to be mapped. In this presentation, we show results of a feasibility study investigating various scenarios (such as a Central European urban region, an agricultural landscape and a natural CO2 degassing area). The data were analysed and compared with accompanying in-situ geophysical, soil gas and micro-meteorological investigation results. Here, we present the significant spatial and temporal variability of CO2 emissions related to local anomalies, temporal events, and / or any correlations with rapidly changing environmental conditions.

Schuetze, C.; Sauer, U.; Dietrich, P.

2013-12-01

303

Path Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding certain files on a computer can be an onerous chore from time to time, and Path Finder is a good solution for anyone who's been bedeviled by such a task. The application includes a dual pane browser, cut and paste support, and a website that includes an interactive tour through its other features. This version of Path Finder is compatible with systems running Mac OS X 10.5 and newer. Also, this is a 30-day free trial version, and a full paid license is required after that point.

304

Transition paths of Met-enkephalin from Markov state modeling of a molecular dynamics trajectory.  

PubMed

Conformational states and their interconversion pathways of the zwitterionic form of the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin (MetEnk) are identified. An explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory is used to construct a Markov state model (MSM) based on dihedral space clustering of the trajectory, and transition path theory (TPT) is applied to identify pathways between open and closed conformers. In the MD trajectory, only four of the eight backbone dihedrals exhibit bistable behavior. Defining a conformer as the string XXXX with X = "+" or "-" denoting, respectively, positive or negative values of a given dihedral angle and obtaining the populations of these conformers shows that only four conformers are highly populated, implying a strong correlation among these dihedrals. Clustering in dihedral space to construct the MSM finds the same four bistable dihedral angles. These state populations are very similar to those found directly from the MD trajectory. TPT is used to obtain pathways, parametrized by committor values, in dihedral state space that are followed in transitioning from closed to open states. Pathway costs are estimated by introducing a kinetics-based procedure that orders pathways from least (shortest) to greater cost paths. The least costly pathways in dihedral space are found to only involve the same XXXX set of dihedral angles, and the conformers accessed in the closed to open transition pathways are identified. For these major pathways, a correlation between reaction path progress (committors) and the end-to-end distance is identified. A dihedral space principal component analysis of the MD trajectory shows that the first three modes capture most of the overall fluctuation, and pick out the same four dihedrals having essentially all the weight in those modes. A MSM based on root-mean-square backbone clustering was also carried out, with good agreement found with dihedral clustering for the static information, but with results that differ significantly for the pathway analysis. PMID:24571787

Banerjee, Rahul; Cukier, Robert I

2014-03-20

305

Challenging of path planning algorithms for autonomous robot in known environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the mobile robot path planning is estimated to reach its predetermined aim through the shortest path and avoiding the obstacles. This paper is a survey on path planning algorithms of various current research and existing system of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV) where their challenging issues to be intelligent autonomous robot. The focuses are some short reviews on individual papers for UGV in the known environment. Methods and algorithms in path planning for the autonomous robot had been discussed. From the reviews, we obtained that the algorithms proposed are appropriate for some cases such as single or multiple obstacles, static or movement obstacle and optimal shortest path. This paper also describes some pros and cons for every reviewed paper toward algorithms improvement for further work.

Farah, R. N.; Irwan, N.; Zuraida, Raja Lailatul; Shaharum, Umairah; Hanafi@Omar, Hafiz Mohd

2014-06-01

306

Term Paths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students follow several pathways using anatomical directions on a simulated "body" produced from a copy of a school building's fire evacuation plan. The main hallways are designated as major blood vessels and the various areas of the school, the head, chest, abdomen, etc. Students complete several pathways using anatomical terms as directions. For example, one of my paths begins, "Ex- ot-, ad- superior, ecto- derm-, peri-frontal, circum- rhino-, " which loosely means, exit the ear, go to the superior region, outside the skin, around the frontal region, around the nose. At the end of each path I leave a clue that lets me know the students actually made it. The combined clues form a sentence.

Cynthia Ann Radle (McCullough High School REV)

1995-06-30

307

Path Clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In military scenarios, agents (i.e., troops of soldiers, convoys, and unmanned vehicles) may often have to traverse environments with only a limited intelligence about the locations of adversaries. We study a particular instance of this problem that we refer to as path clearance problem.This article presents a survey of our work on scalable and suitable for real-time use approaches to

Maxim Likhachev; Anthony Stentz

2009-01-01

308

Feynman path integrals in the young double-slit experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate for the value of the nonlinear interference term in the Young double-slit experiment is found using the Feynman path-integral method. In our time-dependent calculation the usual interference term becomes multiplied by 1+e withe proportional to cos(2m? L\\/ hT), where ? is the distance between the two slits (holes) andL is the length of the shortest trajectory of electrons

H. Yabuki

1986-01-01

309

Feynman Path Integrals in the Young Double-Slit Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimate for the value of the nonlinear interference term in the Young double-slit experiment is found using the Feynman path-integral method. In our time-dependent calculation the usual interference term becomes multiplied by 1+ e with e proportional to cos(2 m? L/ ? T), where ? is the distance between the two slits (holes) and L is the length of the shortest trajectory of electrons between the source and the observation point.

Yabuki, H.

1986-02-01

310

Feynman path integrals in the young double-slit experiment  

SciTech Connect

An estimate for the value of the nonlinear interference term in the Young double-slit experiment is found using the Feynman path-integral method. In our time-dependent calculation the usual interference term becomes multiplied by 1 + e with e proportional to cos(2mlambdaL//eta/T), where lambda is the distance between the two slits (holes) and L is the length of the shortest trajectory of electrons between the source and the observation point.

Yabuki, H.

1986-02-01

311

Langevin equation path integral ground state.  

PubMed

We propose a Langevin equation path integral ground state (LePIGS) approach for the calculation of ground state (zero temperature) properties of molecular systems. The approach is based on a modification of the finite temperature path integral Langevin equation (PILE) method (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 124104) to the case of open Feynman paths. Such open paths are necessary for a ground state formulation. We illustrate the applicability of the method using model systems and the weakly bound water-parahydrogen dimer. We show that the method can lead to converged zero point energies and structural properties. PMID:23738885

Constable, Steve; Schmidt, Matthew; Ing, Christopher; Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

2013-08-15

312

New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savanna fires contribute approximately 40-50% of total global annual biomass burning carbon emissions. Recent comparisons of emission factors from different savanna regions have highlighted the need for a regional approach to emission factor development, and better assessment of the drivers of the temporal and spatial variation in emission factors. This paper describes the results of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic field measurements at twenty-one fires occurring in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, within different vegetation assemblages and at different stages of the dry season. Spectra of infrared light passing through a long (22-70 m) open-path through ground-level smoke released from these fires were collected using an infrared lamp and a field-portable FTIR system. The IR spectra were used to retrieve the mole fractions of fourteen different gases present within the smoke, and these measurements used to calculate the emission ratios and emission factors of the various gases emitted by the burning. Only a handful of previous emission factor measures are available specifically for the tropical savannas of Australia and here we present the first reported emission factors for methanol, acetic acid, and formic acid for this biome. Given the relatively large sample size, it was possible to study the potential causes of the within-biome variation of the derived emission factors. We find that the emission factors vary substantially between different savanna vegetation assemblages; with a majority of this variation being mirrored by variations in the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of different vegetation classes. We conclude that a significant majority of the variation in the emission factor for trace gases can be explained by MCE, irrespective of vegetation class, as illustrated by variations in the calculated methane emission factor for different vegetation classes using data subsetted by different combustion efficiencies. Therefore, the selection of emission factors for emissions modelling purposes need not necessarily require detailed fuel type information, if data on MCE (e.g. from future spaceborne total column measurements) or a correlated variable were available. From measurements at twenty-one fires, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian tropical savanna fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned) which are our mean measured values: 1674 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 87 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 2.1 g kg-1 of methane; 0.11 g kg-1 of acetylene; 0.49 g kg-1 of ethylene; 0.08 g kg-1 of ethane; 1.57 g kg-1 of formaldehyde; 1.06 g kg-1 of methanol; 1.54 g kg-1 of acetic acid; 0.16 g kg-1 of formic acid; 0.53 g kg-1 of hydrogen cyanide; and 0.70 g kg-1 of ammonia.

Smith, T. E. L.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Maier, S. W.; Russell-Smith, J.; Wooster, M. J.; Yates, C. P.

2014-03-01

313

Path planning using a tangent graph for mobile robots among polygonal and curved obstacles  

SciTech Connect

This article proposes a tangent graph for path planning of mobile robots among obstacles with a general boundary. The tangent graph is defined on the basis of the locally shortest path. It has the same data structure as the visibility graph, but its nodes represent common tangent points on obstacle boundaries, and its edges correspond to collision-free common tangents between the boundaries and convex boundary segments between the tangent points. The tangent graph requires O(K[sup 2]) memory, where K denotes the total number of convex segments of the obstacle boundaries. The tangent graph includes all locally shortest paths and is capable of coping with path planning not only among polygonal obstacles but also among curved obstacles.

Liu, Yun-Hui; Arimoto, Suguru (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1992-08-01

314

A two-laser beam technique for improving the sensitivity of low frequency open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (OP-TDLAS) measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open path tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (OP-TDLAS) is a promising technique to detect low concentrations of possible biogenic gases on Mars. This technique finds the concentration of a gas by measuring the amount of laser light absorbed by gaseous molecules at a specific wavelength. One of the major factors limiting sensitivity in the TDLAS systems operating at low modulation frequencies is 1/f noise. 1/f noise is minimized in many spectroscopy systems by the use of high frequency modulation techniques. However, these techniques require complex instruments that include reference cells and other devices for calibration, making them relatively large and bulky. We are developing a spectroscopy system for space applications that requires small, low mass and low power instrumentation, making the high frequency techniques unsuitable. This paper explores a new technique using two-laser beam to reduce the affect of 1/f noise and increase the signal strength for measurements made at lower frequencies. The two lasers are excited at slightly different frequencies. An algorithm is used to estimate the noise in the second harmonic from the combined spectra of both lasers. This noise is subtracted from the signal to give a more accurate measurement of gas concentration. The error in estimation of 1/f noise is negligible as it corresponds to noise level made at much higher frequencies. Simulation results using ammonia gas and two lasers operating at 500 and 510 Hz respectively shows that this technique is able to decrease the error in estimation of gas concentration to 1/6 its normal value.

Mohammad, Israa L.; Anderson, Gary T.; Chen, Youhua

2013-09-01

315

Reaction path study of helix formation in tetrapeptides: Effect of side chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational protocol to calculate steepest descent paths in flexible molecules is discussed in detail. The algorithm does not use second derivatives and related matrices, and is therefore suitable for large systems. The shortest reaction coordinate from the helix to the extended chain conformation is calculated for a series of different tetrapeptides. The formation of a helical turn is investigated

Chyung Choi; Ron Elber

1991-01-01

316

TIME-OPTIMAL PATHS FOR LATERAL NAVIGATION OF AN AUTONOMOUS UNDERACTUATED AIRSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a characterization of the shortest paths for lateral navigation of an autonomous underactuated airship taking into account its dynamics and actuator limitations. The initial and terminal positions are given. We would like to specify the control forces that steer the unmanned aerial vehicle to the given terminal position requiring the minimal time for lateral navigation. The

Salim Hima; Yasmina Bestaoui

317

Going against the flow: finding the optimal path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of finding the optimum path of a boat traversing a straight in a current. The path of the shortest time is found using the calculus of variations with the constraint that the boat must land directly opposite to its starting point. We compare the optimal trajectory with that where the boat's local orientation is always directed to the arrival point. When analytical solutions cannot be found we use numerical methods. The level of the exposition is suitable for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and general physicists.

Talbot, Julian

2010-01-01

318

Path Planning Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs on path planning control are presented. Topics covered include: model based path planning; sensor based path planning; hybrid path planning; proximity sensor array; and applications for fuzzy logic.

M. Mcroberts

1990-01-01

319

Path planning control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on path planning control are presented. Topics covered include: model based path planning; sensor based path planning; hybrid path planning; proximity sensor array; and applications for fuzzy logic.

Mcroberts, Malcolm

1990-01-01

320

Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the specific structure of indoor environments (e.g. no turn restrictions, restricted usage of rooms, vertical movement) and common wayfinding strategies indoors. In a later stage, other cognitive algorithms will be implemented and tested in both an indoor and combined indoor-outdoor setting, in an effort to improve the overall user experience during navigation in indoor environments.

Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

2013-08-01

321

Route choices of transport bicyclists: a comparison of actually used and shortest routes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite evidence that environmental features are related to physical activity, the association between the built environment and bicycling for transportation remains a poorly investigated subject. The aim of the study was to improve our understanding of the environmental determinants of bicycling as a means of transportation in urban European settings by comparing the spatial differences between the routes actually used by bicyclists and the shortest possible routes. Methods In the present study we examined differences in the currently used and the shortest possible bicycling routes, with respect to distance, type of street, and environmental characteristics, in the city of Graz, Austria. The objective measurement methods of a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a Geographic Information System (GIS) were used. Results Bicycling routes actually used were significantly longer than the shortest possible routes. Furthermore, the following attributes were also significantly different between the used route compared to the shortest possible route: Bicyclists often used bicycle lanes and pathways, flat and green areas, and they rarely used main roads and crossings. Conclusion The results of the study support our hypothesis that bicyclists prefer bicycle pathways and lanes instead of the shortest possible routes. This underlines the importance of a well-developed bicycling infrastructure in urban communities.

2014-01-01

322

Spatial variability of ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the Central Valley, California with open-path mobile measurements during NASA DISCOVER-AQ 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is an important fine aerosol gas-phase precursor, with implications for regional air quality and climate change. Atmospheric methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with high uncertainties in the partitioning of various emission sources. Ammonia and methane agricultural emissions are highly variable in space and time and are highly uncertain, with a lack of widespread, in-situ measurements. We characterize the spatial variability of dairy livestock emissions by performing high resolution (5 Hz), in-situ, on-road mobile measurements of NH3, CH4, CO2, N2O, CO and H2O simultaneously with open-path sensors mounted on a passenger vehicle. This suite of multiple trace gas measurements allows for emission ratio calculations and separation of agricultural, petrochemical and combustion emission signatures. Mobile measurements were performed in the Tulare County dairy farm region (~120 dairy farms sampled downwind) in the Central Valley, California during NASA DISCOVER-AQ in winter 2013. We calculate the ?NH3/?CH4 and ?NH3/?CO2 emission ratios for each dairy farm sampled downwind. Emission plumes from individual farms are isolated based on known dairy farm locations and high resolution (1 km) surface wind field simulations. Background concentrations are subtracted to calculate the emission ratios. We find high spatial variability of ammonia and methane concentrations, with localized maximums of >1 ppmv NH3 downwind of individual dairy farms. The spatial extent of individual farm emission plumes are evaluated for NH3, CH4 and CO2, which all show well-defined enhancements localized to the dairy farms near the roadside (typical sampling proximity of ? 50 m). The NH3 concentrations are correlated with the distance from each dairy farm. The observed median concentration within 100 m downwind of the dairy farms is 63 ppbv NH3, with the 95th percentile at 417 ppbv NH3 and decreases to background conditions at ~500 m distance downwind. The diurnal variability of NH3 and CH4 background concentrations at the same locations sampled on multiple days is also evaluated; including a case study of a strong morning temperature inversion. Finally, we find the NH3/CH4 ratios at the sub-farm scale vary by at least a factor of two due to spatially heterogeneous farming practices. These results highlight the need for widespread, in-situ spatial and temporal sampling of agricultural regions to further characterize these heterogeneous emissions. Future analyses will inform emission inventories and regional air quality modeling efforts.

Miller, D. J.; Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

2013-12-01

323

A Procedure for Computing the K Best Solutions to Discrete Optimization Problems and Its Application to the Shortest Path Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure is presented for computing the best, 2nd best,..., Kth best solutions to a given discrete optimization problem. If the number of computational steps required to find an optimal solution to a problem with n(0, 1) variables is c(n), then the amount of computation required to obtain the if best solutions is O(Knc<\\/sub>(n)). The procedure specializes to published

Eugene L. Lawler

1972-01-01

324

Optimizing public transit quality and system access: the multiple-route, maximal covering\\/shortest-path problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public transit service is a promising travel mode because of its potential to address urban sustainability. However, current ridership of public transit is very low in most urban regions -- particularly those in the United States. Low transit ridership can be attributed to many factors, among which poor service quality is key. Transit service quality may potentially be improved by

Changshan Wu; Alan T Murray

2005-01-01

325

Computing paths and cycles in biological interaction graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Interaction graphs (signed directed graphs) provide an important qualitative modeling approach for Systems Biology. They enable the analysis of causal relationships in cellular networks and can even be useful for predicting qualitative aspects of systems dynamics. Fundamental issues in the analysis of interaction graphs are the enumeration of paths and cycles (feedback loops) and the calculation of shortest positive/negative paths. These computational problems have been discussed only to a minor extent in the context of Systems Biology and in particular the shortest signed paths problem requires algorithmic developments. Results We first review algorithms for the enumeration of paths and cycles and show that these algorithms are superior to a recently proposed enumeration approach based on elementary-modes computation. The main part of this work deals with the computation of shortest positive/negative paths, an NP-complete problem for which only very few algorithms are described in the literature. We propose extensions and several new algorithm variants for computing either exact results or approximations. Benchmarks with various concrete biological networks show that exact results can sometimes be obtained in networks with several hundred nodes. A class of even larger graphs can still be treated exactly by a new algorithm combining exhaustive and simple search strategies. For graphs, where the computation of exact solutions becomes time-consuming or infeasible, we devised an approximative algorithm with polynomial complexity. Strikingly, in realistic networks (where a comparison with exact results was possible) this algorithm delivered results that are very close or equal to the exact values. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the particular topology of cellular signaling and regulatory networks which contain a relatively low number of negative feedback loops. Conclusion The calculation of shortest positive/negative paths and cycles in interaction graphs is an important method for network analysis in Systems Biology. This contribution draws the attention of the community to this important computational problem and provides a number of new algorithms, partially specifically tailored for biological interaction graphs. All algorithms have been implemented in the CellNetAnalyzer framework which can be downloaded for academic use at .

Klamt, Steffen; von Kamp, Axel

2009-01-01

326

The ELM Survey: Finding the Shortest Period Binary White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new discovery space for short period binary white dwarfs has opened up with the availability of 14,600 deg^2 of SDSS Data Release 9 photometry. The Extremely Low-Mass (ELM) Survey takes advantage of this photometry and SDSS spectroscopy to identify compact systems with 1 hour or shorter orbital periods. To significantly increase the number of merging white dwarf systems known, we have proposed to obtain follow- up spectroscopic observations of all candidates with g ? 19 mag and photometric colors consistent with extremely low-mass (? 0.3 M_?) white dwarfs. Most of our 2012A Hale and 2012B KP 4m observing runs were lost to weather, yet we managed to identify at least one new short period binary. Our 2013A run on the KP 4m was successful in identifying many new ELM white dwarfs, and in our 2013B follow-up run we observed two new 3 hour binaries while also obtaining further data on a number of other merging systems. Here we propose to continue our program by observing our fall targets on the KP 4m telescope to constrain their binary orbital periods. Our two major science goals are to discover detached gravitational wave sources for fundamental tests of general relativity, and to constrain the formation rate and space density of merging white dwarfs. The latter is important for constraining the contribution of double degenerates to Type Ia and underluminous supernovae.

Canton, Paul; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren; Kenyon, Scott

2014-08-01

327

Analyzing the applicability of the least risk path algorithm in indoor space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last couple of years, applications that support navigation and wayfinding in indoor environments have become one of the booming industries. However, the algorithmic support for indoor navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. In outdoor space, several alternative algorithms have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behavior (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-story building. Several analyses compare shortest and least risk paths in indoor and in outdoor space. The results of these analyses indicate that the current outdoor least risk path algorithm does not calculate less risky paths compared to its shortest paths. In some cases, worse routes have been suggested. Adjustments to the original algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the specific structure of indoor environments. In a later stage, other cognitive algorithms will be implemented and tested in both an indoor and combined indoor-outdoor setting, in an effort to improve the overall user experience during navigation in indoor environments.

Vanclooster, A.; Viaene, P.; Van de Weghe, N.; Fack, V.; De Maeyer, Ph.

2013-11-01

328

The Length of the Shortest Telomere as the Major Determinant of the Onset of Replicative Senescence  

PubMed Central

The absence of telomerase in many eukaryotes leads to the gradual shortening of telomeres, causing replicative senescence. In humans, this proliferation barrier constitutes a tumor suppressor mechanism and may be involved in cellular aging. Yet the heterogeneity of the senescence phenotype has hindered the understanding of its onset. Here we investigated the regulation of telomere length and its control of senescence heterogeneity. Because the length of the shortest telomeres can potentially regulate cell fate, we focus on their dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We developed a stochastic model of telomere dynamics built on the protein-counting model, where an increasing number of protein-bound telomeric repeats shift telomeres into a nonextendable state by telomerase. Using numerical simulations, we found that the length of the shortest telomere is well separated from the length of the others, suggesting a prominent role in triggering senescence. We evaluated this possibility using classical genetic analyses of tetrads, combined with a quantitative and sensitive assay for senescence. In contrast to mitosis of telomerase-negative cells, which produces two cells with identical senescence onset, meiosis is able to segregate a determinant of senescence onset among the telomerase-negative spores. The frequency of such segregation is in accordance with this determinant being the length of the shortest telomere. Taken together, our results substantiate the length of the shortest telomere as being the key genetic marker determining senescence onset in S. cerevisiae.

Xu, Zhou; Duc, Khanh Dao; Holcman, David; Teixeira, Maria Teresa

2013-01-01

329

Constraint-Based Local Search for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constrained Optimum Path (COP) problems arise in many real-life applications and are ubiquitous in communication networks. They have been traditionally approached by dedicated algorithms, which are often hard to extend with side constraints and to apply widely. This paper proposes a constraint-based local search (CBLS) framework for COP applications, bringing the compositionality, reuse, and extensibility at the core of CBLS and CP systems. The modeling contribution is the ability to express compositional models for various COP applications at a high level of abstraction, while cleanly separating the model and the search procedure. The main technical contribution is a connected neighborhood based on rooted spanning trees to find high-quality solutions to COP problems. The framework, implemented in COMET, is applied to Resource Constrained Shortest Path (RCSP) problems (with and without side constraints) and to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP). Computational results show the potential significance of the approach.

Pham, Quang Dung; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

330

A strategy for solving static multiple-optimal-path transit network problems  

SciTech Connect

The trip making process using transit versus private automobile differs in the use of time schedules, walking paths, transfer stops, plus issues such as fare and safety. Due to these factors, many of the standard shortest path algorithms do not apply. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm and strategy for transit providers to find best alternatives for the user, and to demonstrate how a geographic information system can be used in the development of transit advanced traveler information system (TATIS) to meet these needs. This paper presents a short introduction to TATIS systems, some commonly used algorithms in determining the shortest and multiple paths, and a new strategy that was developed in this study which differs from standard network algorithms. The major features of this proposed algorithm are: (1) Capability of handling multiple modes of transit; (2) providing paths that include walking distances from and to the transit path as well as between transfer points; and (3) provision of multiple optimal paths to allow the user flexibility in choosing a path.

Koncz, N.; Greenfeld, J.; Mouskos, K. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-05-01

331

The shortest-graph method for calculation of the pair-correlation function in crystalline systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for approximate calculation of the pair correlation function g(r) is proposed for crystalline systems of identical particles with isotropic interactions. The main idea of the method is to account for the relative delocalization of each node in g(r) by using only the shortest lattice graph between the given points, thus neglecting smaller contributions from other (non-shortest) graphs. By employing the Lennard-Jones and Yukawa crystalline systems as representative examples, it is shown that the proposed approach yields very good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations up to the melting line. The approach can be useful in approximating the structure of simple crystals (in particular, of crystalline colloids and plasma crystals), and can also be generalized for systems with anisotropic interactions.

Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2014-04-01

332

Zr4+ doping in Li4Ti5O12 anode for lithium-ion batteries: open Li+ diffusion paths through structural imperfection.  

PubMed

One-dimensional nanomaterials have short Li(+) diffusion paths and promising structural stability, which results in a long cycle life during Li(+) insertion and extraction processes in lithium rechargeable batteries. In this study, we fabricated one-dimensional spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanofibers using an electrospinning technique and studied the Zr(4+) doping effect on the lattice, electronic structure, and resultant electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Accommodating a small fraction of Zr(4+) ions in the Ti(4+) sites of the LTO structure gave rise to enhanced LIB performance, which was due to structural distortion through an increase in the average lattice constant and thereby enlarged Li(+) diffusion paths rather than changes to the electronic structure. Insulating ZrO2 nanoparticles present between the LTO grains due to the low Zr(4+) solubility had a negative effect on the Li(+) extraction capacity, however. These results could provide key design elements for LTO anodes based on atomic level insights that can pave the way to an optimal protocol to achieve particular functionalities. PMID:24700792

Kim, Jae-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Hwang, Soo Min; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Liao, Ting; Sun, Ziqi; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

2014-05-01

333

Mobile system for open-path trace gas detection in the mid-infrared using a Raman-shifted Cr:LiSAF source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many trace atmospheric gas constituents have optical absorption bands in the 2 - 5 micrometers atmospheric transmission window. Remote sensing of these compounds is possible with an appropriate laser source. We use stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen to shift pulsed, Cr:LiSAF laser emission from the near infrared to this mid-infrared band. Injection seeding the oscillator with a spectrally narrow, low-power diode laser produces a tunable, spectroscopic grade source. We have combined this laser source with transmitting and receiving optics in order to make double- ended, long-path DIAL measurements. For example, we are able to detect ambient levels of water and methane and trace levels of ethane over a two mile, round-trip path. Spectral control is critical for making these measurements for several reasons. First, the DIAL technique requires a spectrally narrow source to tune across the narrow absorption bands of molecules with absorption features in the 2 - 5 micrometers band. Second, good spectral control allows species-specific detection when there are target species with closely spaced absorption features. Third, strong water vapor and CO2 absorption bands are common throughout the 2 - 5 micrometers band causing large fluctuations in the background transmission. Good spectral control enables species specific detection within this highly variable transmission background.

Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Applegate, Jeffrey T.; Beaton, Stuart P.; Beyer, Brian S.

1999-10-01

334

DISCUSS: Critical Path Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, by Barrie Baker and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces critical path analysis and addresses the following topics: Networks, Critical paths, Floats, Activity-on-node (AON) networks. Excel spreadsheets are used to provide examples and exercises.

Baker, Barrie; Hunt, Neville

2009-04-23

335

Path planning for UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a two step path-planning algorithm for UAVs is proposed. The algorithm generates a stealthy path through a set of enemy radar sites of known location, and provides an intuitive way to trade-off stealth versus path length. In the first step, a suboptimal rough-cut path is generated through the radar sites by constructing and searching a graph based

S. A. Bortoff; E. Hartford

2000-01-01

336

Long Path Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the interesting, counter-intuitive result that simple paths to the global optimum can be so long that climbing the path is intractable. This means that a unimodal search space, which consists of a single hill and in which each point in the space is on a simple path to the global optimum, can be difficult for a hillclimber to

Jeffrey Horn; David E. Goldberg; Kalyanmoy Deb

1994-01-01

337

Thinnest Path Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider the thinnest path problem for secure communication in wireless ad hoc networks. For a given source and a destination, the thinnest path problem asks for a path from the source to the destination that results in the minimum number of nodes hear...

A. Swami J. Gao Q. Zhao

2013-01-01

338

Information Spread of Emergency Events: Path Searching on Social Networks  

PubMed Central

Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.

Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan

2014-01-01

339

News CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CERN Celebration: CERN marks 20 years of the Web Workshops: Physics Teachers' Day aired live on Web Teacher Programme: Physics Teachers at CERN 2009 leaves attendees thirsty for more GIREP: Registration open for GIREP '09 Science and Creationism: Telegraph headline leads readers down wrong path Recruitment: Is recession proving to be good news for science teaching? Forthcoming Events

2009-05-01

340

Path Relaxation: Path Planning for a Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path Relaxation is a method of planning safe paths around obstacles for mobile robots. It works in two steps: a global grid starch that finds a rough path, followed by a local relaxation step that adjusts each node on the path to lower the overall path cost. The representation used by Path Relaxation allows an explicit tradeoff among length of

Charles E. Thorpe; L. Matthies

1984-01-01

341

How Do Paths Look From Different Perspectives?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using both literature (a book featuring a path, such as Little Red Riding Hood) and satellite images, students will identify paths, observe and analyze them from different altitudes, and distinguish natural paths from those made by humans. Students will learn how images can inform the building, use and maintenance of paths. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 2 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 4 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 4, while related, can be done independently. Please see Investigation 1 of this module for a two-page module overview and list of all standards addressed.

342

Path entanglement of continuous-variable quantum microwaves.  

PubMed

Path entanglement constitutes an essential resource in quantum information and communication protocols. Here, we demonstrate frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two spatially separated paths. We combine a squeezed and a vacuum state using a microwave beam splitter. Via correlation measurements, we detect and quantify the path entanglement contained in the beam splitter output state. Our experiments open the avenue to quantum teleportation, quantum communication, or quantum radar with continuous variables at microwave frequencies. PMID:23368439

Menzel, E P; Di Candia, R; Deppe, F; Eder, P; Zhong, L; Ihmig, M; Haeberlein, M; Baust, A; Hoffmann, E; Ballester, D; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Solano, E; Marx, A; Gross, R

2012-12-21

343

Path Following Robot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given a desired path to be followed by a Robot, a set of commands must be given to the Robot joint servos so that the Robot Tip, or Endpoint, can follow that path. These commands must be synchronized in time and scaled so as to maintain accuracy in the pr...

S. G. Goodway

1987-01-01

344

Advanced Physics: Path Integral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cursor is shown in an x-y graph. The cursor can be dragged around the graph and its path is marked as it is moved. The data are sent to a DataTable which shows x, y, and the value of the path integral, F.dl.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-19

345

Operational transfer path analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the tools used to study the NVH behaviour of a system is the transfer path analysis. It aims to identify the operational forces and the propagation paths of the vibrations and is especially interesting in the case when the system is composed of different subsystems. The classical techniques identify the transfer paths when the system is disassembled. This way one eliminates flanking transfer paths. Yet it is very time-consuming and the boundary conditions are not correct anymore. The presented method makes it possible to identify the transfer paths without disassembling the system. The advantages are that the overall testing time is reduced and that the real boundary conditions are present. In this article the theory will be reviewed and it will be validated using data generated by finite element simulations.

De Sitter, Gert; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick; Pruyt, Erik

2010-02-01

346

Fracturing the optimal paths.  

PubMed

Optimal paths play a fundamental role in numerous physical applications ranging from random polymers to brittle fracture, from the flow through porous media to information propagation. Here for the first time we explore the path that is activated once this optimal path fails and what happens when this new path also fails and so on, until the system is completely disconnected. In fact many applications can also be found for this novel fracture problem. In the limit of strong disorder, our results show that all the cracks are located on a single self-similar connected line of fractal dimension D(b) approximately = 1.22. For weak disorder, the number of cracks spreads all over the entire network before global connectivity is lost. Strikingly, the disconnecting path (backbone) is, however, completely independent on the disorder. PMID:20366106

Andrade, J S; Oliveira, E A; Moreira, A A; Herrmann, H J

2009-11-27

347

Path Relaxation: Path Planning for a Mobile Robot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Path Relaxation is a method of planning safe paths around obstacles for mobile robots. It works in two steps: a global grid search that finds a rough path, followed by a local relaxation step that adjusts each node on the path to lower the overall path co...

C. E. Thorpe

1984-01-01

348

An attempt of microwave CT system which discriminates the transmission path by means of time domain measurement.  

PubMed

A microwave-based computed tomography system was developed based on a method that uses time domain measurement to determine the shortest path of propagation components between two antennas. The method calculates shortest path of propagation components by examining mixer output DC components, delivering similar precision as chirp-pulse microwave computed tomography. Because post-mixer signal processing need only concerns DC currents, the effects of overshoot characteristics of baseband filters and the like are removed, simplifying measurement. System circuit composition is also simplified, lowering system costs. This paper provides a theoretical framework for the method, an S-parameter verification of the theory, and an experimental verification using a basic hardware construction. Results showed a restored image from the measurement data, indicating the utility of the method for microwave imaging. PMID:22255201

Tamura, Mutsumi; Ogawa, Takahiro; Miyakawa, Michio

2011-01-01

349

Toward stand-off open-path measurements of NO and NO(2) in the sub-parts per million meter range using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in the intra-pulse absorption mode.  

PubMed

Two thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers operated in pulsed mode have been used for the quasi-simultaneous determination of NO and NO2 in the sub-parts per million meter (sub-ppm-m) range. Using a beam splitter, the beams of the two lasers were combined and sent to a retro-reflector. The returned light was recorded with a thermoelectrically cooled mercury cadmium telluride detector with a rise time of 4 ns. Alternate operation of the lasers with pulse lengths of 300 ns and a repetition rate of 66 kHz allowed quasi-simultaneous measurements. During each pulse the laser temperature increased, causing a thermal chirp of the laser line of up to 1.3 cm(-1). These laser chirps were sufficient to scan rotational bands of NO centered at 1902 cm(-1) and NO2 located at 1632 cm(-1). In that way an absorption spectrum could be recorded from a single laser pulse. Currently achieved limits of detection are 600 parts per billion meter (ppb-m) for NO and 260 ppb-m for NO2 using signal averaging over 1 min. This work presents the first steps toward a portable stand-off, open-path instrument that uses thermoelectrically cooled detector and lasers. PMID:24359649

Reidl-Leuthner, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

2013-12-01

350

Low Pressure Crystallization Paths of H 2O-Saturated Basaltic-Hawaiitic Melts from Mt Etna: Implications for Open-System Degassing of Basaltic Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt inclusions indicate that the basaltic-hawaiitic magmas from Mt Etna (Sicily) contained up to 2.3 wt% H 2O dissolved in the melt, prior to eruption. The effect of H 2O degassing during magma ascent has been experimentally constrained between 1135 and 1009°C, for P H 2O = P total varying from 800 to 270 bars. The starting material was a primitive hawaiitic lava sample (MgO = 7.1 wt%) representative of the less evolved lava emitted at Mt Etna. Experiments were conducted in TZM pressure vessels, with Ag 70Pd 30 capsules in order to minimize the FeO loss. At temperatures of 1135-1090°C, P H 2O = 800 bars, with NiNiO and FMQ buffers, olivine (Fo 83-80) is the liquidus phase in equilibrium with a residual hawaiitic melt (Mg# 0.60-0.57; CaO/Al 2O 3 = 0.82). Salitic pyroxene begins to crystallize at 1075°C, plagioclase at 1025°C and at 1009°C, the magma is 33.5% crystallized with olivine, Ca-rich pyroxene, and plagioclase (16:60:24). At P H 2O = 270 bars, FMQ buffer, olivine (Fo 79.3-80) and salitic pyroxene are the main liquidus phases between 1100 and 1090°C. They are in equilibrium with hawaiitic melts (Mg# 0.51; CaO/Al 2O 3 = 0.73). At 1070°C, the experimental charges are highly crystallized (?51.5%) with olivine (Fo 70), salite, and plagioclase (An 78.4-76.3) in 14:44:42 relative proportions. Increasing the water content of hawaiitic-basaltic magmas expands the stability field of the olivine (relative to the other phases), lowers the crystallization temperatures of pyroxene and plagioclase, and results in the development of a more An-rich plagioclase. When compared to the natural samples, these results support a model of early and moderate crystallization of olivine from Etnean primitive hawaiitic magmas, containing close to 2.5 wt% H 2O, with NNO oxygen buffering conditions, at low pressure (P H 2O =P total). We propose a model of crystallization driven by decompression and water degassing during the emplacement of magma in the volcanic pile itself and possibly concomitant with the opening of fractures.

Métrich, Nicole; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

1998-04-01

351

Triaging the right patient to the right place in the shortest time.  

PubMed

Trauma systems have been successful in saving lives and preventing disability. Making sure that the right patient gets the right treatment in the shortest possible time is integral to this success. Most trauma systems have not fully developed trauma triage to optimize outcomes. For trauma triage to be effective, there must be a well-developed pre-hospital system with an efficient dispatch system and adequately resourced ambulance system. Hospitals must have clear designations of the level of service provided and agreed protocols for reception of patients. The response within the hospital must be targeted to ensure the sickest patients get an immediate response. To enable the most appropriate response to trauma patients across the system, a well-developed monitoring programme must be in place to ensure constant refinement of the clinical response. This article gives a brief overview of the current approach to triaging trauma from time of dispatch to definitive treatment. PMID:24961786

Cameron, P A; Gabbe, B J; Smith, K; Mitra, B

2014-08-01

352

A Multilevel Probabilistic Beam Search Algorithm for the Shortest Common Supersequence Problem  

PubMed Central

The shortest common supersequence problem is a classical problem with many applications in different fields such as planning, Artificial Intelligence and especially in Bioinformatics. Due to its NP-hardness, we can not expect to efficiently solve this problem using conventional exact techniques. This paper presents a heuristic to tackle this problem based on the use at different levels of a probabilistic variant of a classical heuristic known as Beam Search. The proposed algorithm is empirically analysed and compared to current approaches in the literature. Experiments show that it provides better quality solutions in a reasonable time for medium and large instances of the problem. For very large instances, our heuristic also provides better solutions, but required execution times may increase considerably.

Gallardo, Jose E.

2012-01-01

353

A multilevel probabilistic beam search algorithm for the shortest common supersequence problem.  

PubMed

The shortest common supersequence problem is a classical problem with many applications in different fields such as planning, Artificial Intelligence and especially in Bioinformatics. Due to its NP-hardness, we can not expect to efficiently solve this problem using conventional exact techniques. This paper presents a heuristic to tackle this problem based on the use at different levels of a probabilistic variant of a classical heuristic known as Beam Search. The proposed algorithm is empirically analysed and compared to current approaches in the literature. Experiments show that it provides better quality solutions in a reasonable time for medium and large instances of the problem. For very large instances, our heuristic also provides better solutions, but required execution times may increase considerably. PMID:23300667

Gallardo, José E

2012-01-01

354

Critical-Path-whitepaper  

Cancer.gov

NEGOTIATING THE CRITICAL PATH..................................................................................................7 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DIMENSIONS ALONG THE CRITICAL PATH...................................9 A BETTER PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT IS URGENTLY NEEDED ..................................11 TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SAFETY......................................................................................................16 Towards a Better Safety Toolkit................................................................................................17 Getting to the Right Safety Standards......................................................................................20 TOOLS FOR DEMONSTRATING MEDICAL UTILITY .......................................................................20 Towards a Better Effectiveness Toolkit ...................................................................................21 Getting to the Right Effectiveness Standards .........................................................................25 TOOLS FOR CHARACTERIZATION AND MANUFACTURING .........................................................25 Towards a Better Manufacturing Toolkit.................................................................................27 Getting to the Right Manufacturing Standards .......................................................................28 A PATH FORWARD .............................................................................................................................29 The Orphan Products Grant Program.

355

Breast Contour Detection with Stable Paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer conservative treatment (BCCT), due to its proven oncological safety, is considered, when feasible, the gold standard of breast cancer treatment. However, aesthetic results are heterogeneous and difficult to evaluate in a standardized way, due to the lack of reproducibility of the subjective methods usually applied. The objective assessment methods, considered in the past as being less capable of evaluating all aspects of BCCT, are nowadays being preferred to overcome the drawbacks of the subjective evaluation. A computer-aided medical system was recently developed to objectively and automatically evaluate the aesthetic result of BCCT. In this system, the detection of the breast contour on the patient's digital photograph is a necessary step to extract the features subsequently used in the evaluation process. In this paper an algorithm based on the shortest path on a graph is proposed to detect automatically the breast contour. The proposed method extends an existing semi-automatic algorithm for the same purpose. A comprehensive comparison with manually-drawn contours reveals the strength of the proposed method.

Cardoso, Jaime S.; Sousa, Ricardo; Teixeira, Luís F.; Cardoso, M. J.

356

Critical Path Method Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer system for the Critical Path Method Reports consists of three programs. The programs are CPM Calculation, CPM Calendar Dating and CPM Time-Sequence Plot. The CPM Calculations Program is used for doing the arithmetic calculations associated wi...

R. C. Tennent

1964-01-01

357

Air Vehicle Path Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation explores optimal path planning for air vehicles. An air vehicle exposed to illumination by a tracking radar is considered and the problem of determining an optimal planar trajectory connecting two prespecified points is addressed. An ana...

J. M. Hebert

2001-01-01

358

Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2010-09-21

359

A Path to Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

2004-01-01

360

Follow the Paths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will be introduced to the various orbital paths that are used for satellites. Using a globe and a satellite model or a large picture of Earth, the teacher will introduce three types of orbital paths (polar, elliptical, and geosynchronous). The students should be able to define 'satellite', define the three types of orbits, describe how satellites orbit the Earth, and understand how they are slowed down by drag from the atmosphere.

361

Path Integral Monte Carlo Calculation of the Momentum Distribution of the Homogeneous Electron Gas at Finite Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations are used to calculate the momentum distribution of the homogeneous electron gas at finite temperature. This is done by calculating the off-diagonal elements of the real-space density matrix, represented in PIMC by open paths. It is demonstrated how the restricted path integral Monte Carlo methods can be extended in order to deal with open

B. Militzer; E. L. Pollock; D. M. Ceperley

2003-01-01

362

Spatial fingerprint of quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation.  

PubMed

We have spatially and spectrally resolved the high order harmonic emission from an argon gas target. Under proper phase matching conditions we were able to observe for the first time the spatial fine structure originating from the interference of the two shortest quantum paths in the harmonic beam. The structure can be explained by the intensity-dependent harmonic phase of the contributions from the two paths. The spatially and spectrally resolved measurements are consistent with previous spatially integrated results. Our measurement method represents a new tool to clearly distinguish between different interference effects and to potentially observe higher order trajectories in the future with improved detection sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate additional experimental evidence that the observed interference pattern is only due to quantum-path interferences and cannot be explained by a phase modulation effect. Our experimental results are fully supported by simulations using the strong field approximation and including propagation. PMID:20174127

Schapper, F; Holler, M; Auguste, T; Zaïr, A; Weger, M; Salières, P; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

2010-02-01

363

Effects of land-use history, fertilization, and precipitation on short-term N2O emissions from agricultural soils using open-path eddy flux N2O and static chamber methods.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas with an atmospheric lifetime of ~ 120 years and a global warming potential ~300 times that of CO2. Atmospheric N2O concentrations have increased from ~270 ppbv during pre-industrial times to ~330 ppbv today. Anthropic emissions are a major source of atmospheric N2O and about half of global anthropic emissions are from the agricultural sector. N2Oemissions from soils exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. Estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils is particularly challenging because N2O fluxes are affected by fertilizer type and application rates, land-use history and management, as well as soil biological activity. We studied ecosystem level N2O emissions from agricultural lands using a combination of static chamber methods and continuous N2O exchange measured by a quantum cascade laser-based, open-path analyzer coupled with an eddy-covariance system. We also compared N2O emissions between different static chamber methods, using both laboratory-based gas chromatography (GC) and an in situ quantum cascade (QC) laser for N2O analyses. Finally, we compared emissions estimated by the two static chamber methods to those estimated by eddy-covariance. We examined pre- and post- fertilization N2O fluxes from soils in two no-till continuous corn fields with distinct land-use histories: one field converted from permanent grassland (CRP-C) and the other from conventional corn-soybean rotation (AGR-C). Both fields were fertilized with ~160 kg urea-N ha-1. We compared N2O emissions from these fields to those from an unmanaged grassland (REF). In addition, we examined the potential effect of post-fertilization precipitation on N2O emissions by applying 50 mm of artificial rainfall to the static chambers at all three locations. Measurements of N2O emissions using both GC and QC laser methods with static chambers were in good agreement (R2 = 0.96). Even though average soil N2O fluxes before fertilization were low, they still exhibited high temporal and spatial variability. Fluxes from the CRP-C site were higher than fluxes from the AGR-C site, and fluxes from the REF site were lowest, ranging from 2 - 22, 1 - 3, and ~1 g N2O-N ha-1 day-1, respectively. Post-fertilization fluxes were minor as well due to very dry soil conditions in 2012. However, after applying artificial rain, soil N2O fluxes were distinctly higher in all systems, increasing to 106 - 208 g N2O-N ha-1 day-1 at the CRP-C site, to 36 g N2O-N ha-1 day-1 at Ag-C, and to 5 g N2O-N ha-1 day-1 at the REF site. Fluxes decreased to pre-rain levels 1-2 days after wetting. This single rain event resulted in total emissions of 5, 43, and 251 g N2O-N ha-1 from REF, Ag-C, and CRP-C systems, respectively. A comparison between static chambers and the open-path method at CRP-C system revealed similar diurnal trends in N2O fluxes and similar cumulative N2O-N emissions. Overall, we found a strong relationship between land-use history and soil N2O emissions: soils with higher organic carbon content (CRP-C) exhibited greater fluxes. In addition, we found that N2O emissions increased significantly after a post-fertilization rain event, accounting for a significant proportion of typical total annual emission from these no-till corn fields. We also present the first measurements of ecosystem level N2O fluxes using an open-path N2O analyzer and show the potential of this novel system to study ecosystem level N2O fluxes.

Gelfand, I.; Cui, M.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Tang, J.; Zondlo, M. A.; Robertson, G. P.

2012-12-01

364

Sampling diffusive transition paths.  

PubMed

The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696

Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian

2007-04-14

365

GED Revision Opens Path to Higher Ed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Educational Development program, or GED, is undergoing the biggest revamping in its 69-year history, driven by mounting recognition that young adults' future success depends on getting more than a high-school-level education. Potent forces have converged to stoke the GED's redesign. A labor market that increasingly seeks some…

Gewertz, Catherine

2011-01-01

366

Molecular definition of the shortest region of deletion overlap in the Langer-Giedion syndrome  

PubMed Central

The Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS), which is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities, is caused by a genetic defect in 8q24.1. We have used 13 anonymous DNA markers from an 8q24.1-specific microdissection library, as well as c-myc and thyroglobulin gene probes, to map the deletion breakpoints in 16 patients with LGS. Twelve patients had a cytogenetically visible deletion, two patients had an apparently balanced translocation, and two patients had an apparently normal karyotype. In all cases except one translocation patient, loss of genetic material was detected. The DNA markers fall into 10 deletion intervals. Clone L48 (D8S51) defines the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO), which is estimated to be less than 2 Mbp. Three clones–pl7-2.3EE (D8S43), L24 (D8S45), and L40 (D8S49)–which flank the SRO recognize evolutionarily conserved sequences. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4

Ludecke, Hermann-Josef; Johnson, Carey; Wagner, Michael J.; Wells, Dan E.; Turleau, Catherine; Tommerup, Niels; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Sandig, Klaus-Rainer; Meinecke, Peter; Zabel, Bernhard; Horsthemke, Bernhard

1991-01-01

367

Mobile transporter path planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

1990-01-01

368

Following the Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Diane Stanley, an author and illustrator of children's books. Although she was studying to be a medical illustrator in graduate school, Stanley's path changed when she got married and had children. As she was raising her children, she became increasingly enamored of the colorful children's books she would check out of the…

Rodia, Becky

2004-01-01

369

Path to the Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of institutions are being more deliberate about bringing in fundraisers who fit the culture of the development department and about assessing skills and providing training that fill specific needs. Development shops are paying more attention to cultivating their staffs, staying attuned to employees' needs and creating career paths

Coleman, Toni

2012-01-01

370

Gas path seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

371

An Unplanned Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

2013-01-01

372

CareerPath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CareerPath offers a searchable index of employment ads from six major newspapers: The Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, The San Jose Mercury News, and The Washington Post. The total ads available on October 21 was 21,442. The site is attractive and easy to use.

373

NLTT 5306: the shortest period detached white dwarf+brown dwarf binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have spectroscopically confirmed a brown dwarf mass companion to the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf NLTT 5306. The white dwarf's atmospheric parameters were measured using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and X-shooter spectroscopy as Teff = 7756 ± 35 K and log(g) = 7.68 ± 0.08, giving a mass for the primary of MWD = 0.44 ± 0.04 M? at a distance of 71 ± 4 pc with a cooling age of 710 ± 50 Myr. The existence of the brown dwarf secondary was confirmed through the near-infrared arm of the X-shooter data and a spectral type of dL4-dL7 was estimated using standard spectral indices. Combined radial velocity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, X-shooter and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's High Resolution Spectrograph of the white dwarf give a minimum mass of 56 ± 3 MJup for the secondary, confirming the substellar nature. The period of the binary was measured as 101.88 ± 0.02 min using both the radial velocity data and i'-band variability detected with the Isaac Newton Telescope. This variability indicates `day' side heating of the brown dwarf companion. We also observe H? emission in our higher resolution data in phase with the white dwarf radial velocity, indicating that this system is in a low level of accretion, most likely via a stellar wind. This system represents the shortest period white dwarf+brown dwarf binary and the secondary has survived a stage of common envelope evolution, much like its longer period counterpart, WD 0137-349. Both systems likely represent bona fide progenitors of cataclysmic variables with a low-mass white dwarf and a brown dwarf donor.

Steele, P. R.; Saglia, R. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Lawrie, K.; Cappetta, M.; Girven, J.; Napiwotzki, R.

2013-03-01

374

AH Cam: A metal-rich RR Lyrae star with the shortest known Blazhko period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of 746 new V-band observations of the RR Lyrae star AH Cam obtained during 1989 - 1992 clearly show that its light curve cannot be described by a single period. In fact, at first glance, the Fourier spectrum of the photometry resembles that of a double-mode pulsator, with peaks at a fundamental period of 0.3686 d and an apparent secondary period of 0.2628 d. Nevertheless, the dual-mode solution is a poor fit to the data. Rather, we believe that AH Cam is a single-mode RR Lyrae star undergoing the Blazhko effect: periodic modulation of the amplitude and shape of its light curve. What was originally taken to be the period of the second mode is instead the 1-cycle/d alias of a modulation sidelobe in the Fourier spectrum. The data are well described by a modulation period of just under 11 d, which is the shortest Blazhko period reported to date in the literature and confirms the earlier suggestion by Goranskii. A low-resolution spectrum of AH Cam indicates that it is relatively metal rich, with delta-S less than or = 2. Its high metallicity and short modulation period may provide a critical test of at least one theory for the Blazhko effect. Moskalik's internal resonance model makes specific predictions of the growth rate of the fundamental model vs fundamental period. AH Cam falls outside the regime of other known Blazhko variables and resonance model predictions, but these are appropriate for metal-poor RR Lyrae stars. If the theory matches the behavior of AH Cam for a metal-rich stellar model, this would bolster the resonance hypothesis.

Smith, Horace A.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Lee, Kevin M.; Williams, Jeffrey; Silbermann, N. A.; Bolte, Michael

1994-01-01

375

Ad-Hoc Analysis of Synop Observations to enhance shortest-term wind power predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortest term wind power predictions with forecast horizons less than 12 hours benefit from observed data. So comparison between Synop observations and numerical weather predictions can serve as assessment of the available forecasts. This ad-hoc analysis depends very much on the observed data whose spatial distribution is very patchy in some areas. A powerful interpolation method helps to create a correct representation of the observed fields. The Kriging method finds a correlation function which describes the variation of the spatial field best. An unknown data point is estimated by weighted observation points, taking distance and clustering effects into account. We use mean sea level pressure data measured at Synop and ship stations in Europe and the Atlantic to assess the quality of the predicted mean sea level pressure from Numerical Weather Prediction models. Those models serve as base of wind power predictions and influence the prediction error considerably. If this error can be estimated, a rating of different Numerical Weather Prediction Models which are taken into consideration can follow. The choice of the area that represents the area of interest in terms of prediction errors depend on the moving direction of the low pressure systems. First calculations show that errors of the ad-hoc analysis are in good agreement with the ECMWF analysis. The evaluation of the ad-hoc analysis in an area over Great Britain/North Sea and the comparison with available ECMWF forecasts over Germany reveals phase shifts for some time intervals. This supports the assumption of moving prediction errors along low pressure systems.

Busch-Saleck, N.; von Bremen, L.

2010-09-01

376

Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives [1]. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the planets' life. We find no reason, however, to exclude the explanation that a small number of planets are continuously sent migrating inwards such that these planets indeed are in the last fraction of their lives. Following the observation that the distribution of medium planets disfavors tidal dissipation being significantly weaker than has been found from observations of binary stars [2], we now show that the numbers of planets in such a "flow" of excess planets migrating inwards is low enough that even depletion of the three-day pileup is a plausible source. Then the shortest period occurrence distribution would be shaped by planets continuously being sent into the star, which may explain the depletion of the pileup in the Kepler field relative to the solar neighborhood [3]. Because Kepler observes above the galactic plan, [3] suggested the Kepler field may include an older population of stars. The tidal dissipation strength in stars due to giant planets may be not greatly weaker than it is in binary stars.

Taylor, S. F.

2013-04-01

377

Tunable path centrality: Quantifying the importance of paths in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centrality is a fundamental measure in network analysis. Specifically, centrality of a path describes the importance of the path with respect to the remaining part of the network. In this paper, we propose a tunable path centrality (TPC) measure, which quantifies the centrality of a path by integrating the path degree (PD) (number of neighbors of the path) and the path bridge (PB) (number of bridges in the path) with a control parameter ?. Considering the complexity of large-scale and dynamical topologies of many real-world networks, both PD and PB are computed with only the local topological structure of a path. We demonstrate the distribution of the three path centralities (TPC, PD and PB) in computer-generated networks and real-world networks. Furthermore, we apply the three path centralities to the network fragility problem, and exploit the distribution of the optimal control parameter ? through simulation and analysis. Finally, the simulation results show that generally TPC is more efficient than PD and PB in the network fragility problem. These path centralities are also applicable in many other network problems including spread, control, prediction and so on.

Pu, Cun-Lai; Cui, Wei; Yang, Jian

2014-07-01

378

Lander flight path analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary functions of the Lander Flight Path Analysis Team (LFPAT) were to (1) design the Viking Lander (VL) descent trajectory and compute the descent guidance parameters for command transmission to the Viking Lander and Viking Orbiter (VO), (2) reconstruct the VL trajectory from separation to touchdown using data transmitted from the VL to Earth via the VO during descent, and (3) predict the VL/VO relay link system performance during descent and post touchdown. The preflight VL capability, the history of proposed descent trajectory designs as the site selection process evolved, and the final trajectory design and guidance parameters for each vehicle are addressed along with the trajectory reconstruction process, including the overall reconstructed VL flight path summary and a detailed discussion of the entry trajectory and atmosphere reconstruction results. The postland relay link prediction function is discussed.

Euler, E. A.; Adams, G. L.; Hopper, F. W.

1979-01-01

379

Modeling DNA Dynamics by Path Integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementary strands in DNA double helix show temporary fluctuational openings which are essential to biological functions such as transcription and replication of the genetic information. Such large amplitude fluctuations, known as the breathing of DNA, are generally localized and, microscopically, are due to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds linking the base pairs (bps). I apply imaginary time path integral techniques to a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which accounts for the helicoidal geometry of a short circular DNA molecule. The bps displacements with respect to the ground state are interpreted as time dependent paths whose amplitudes are consistent with the model potential for the hydrogen bonds. The portion of the paths configuration space contributing to the partition function is determined by selecting the ensemble of paths which fulfill the second law of thermodynamics. Computations of the thermodynamics in the denaturation range show the energetic advantage for the equilibrium helicoidal geometry peculiar of B-DNA. I discuss the interplay between twisting of the double helix and anharmonic stacking along the molecule backbone suggesting an interesting relation between intrinsic nonlinear character of the microscopic interactions and molecular topology.

Zoli, Marco

2013-02-01

380

Pick-a-Path  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mobile app (available for both iOS and Android devices) was developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics with funding from Verizon Foundation. The app is based on the Decimal Maze from the popular lesson "Too Big or Too Small". The goal is to help Okta reach the target (maximum, minimum, or a specific value) by choosing a path from the top of the maze to the bottom â adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing as the player goes. Seven levels with seven puzzles in each level test the player's skills with operation with powers of ten, negative numbers, fractions, decimals, and exponents.

2012-01-01

381

Byrds Flight Path  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio State Universitys Library web site notes As a navigational aviator, Byrd pioneered in the technology that would be the foundation for modern polar exploration and investigation. As a decorated and much celebrated hero, Byrd drew popular attention to areas of the world that became focal points of scientific investigation in numerous disciplines. More information about Admiral Richard E. Byrd can be found at (http:--www.lib.ohio-state.edu-arvweb-polar-byrd-byrd.htm). The next animation, #1001, shows Byrds plane as it follows the flight path presented in this animation.

Biddlecome, Tom; Snodgrass, Stuart; Newcombe, Marte; Jezek, Ken

1999-11-08

382

Portage and Path Dependence*  

PubMed Central

We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale.

Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

383

JAVA PathFinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

Mehhtz, Peter

2005-01-01

384

Geometry of optimal path hierarchies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the hierarchy of optimal paths in a disordered landscape, based on the best path, the second best path and so on in terms of an energy. By plotting each path at a height according to its energy above some zero level, a landscape appears. This landscape is self-affine and controlled by two Hurst exponents: the one controlling the height fluctuations is 1/3 and the one controlling the fluctuations of the equipotential lines in the landscape is 2/3. These two exponents correspond to the exponents controlling energy and shape fluctations in the directed polymer problem. We furthermore find that the density of spanning optimal paths scale as the length of the paths to -2/3 and the histogram of energy differences between consecutive paths scale as a power law in the difference size with exponent -2.5.

Talon, Laurent; Auradou, Harold; Pessel, Marc; Hansen, Alex

2013-08-01

385

Nonoptimal Component Placement, but Short Processing Paths, due to Long-Distance Projections in Neural Systems  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque) cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C

2006-01-01

386

Photodeactivation paths in norbornadiene.  

PubMed

The first high level ab initio quantum-chemical calculations of potential energy surfaces (PESs) for low-lying singlet excited states of norbornadiene in the gas phase are presented. The optimization of the stationary points (minima and conical intersections) and the recalculation of the energies were performed using the multireference configuration interaction with singles (MR-CIS) and the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation (CASPT2) methods, respectively. It was shown that the crossing between valence V2 and Rydberg R1 states close to the Franck-Condon (FC) point permits an easy population switch between these states. Also, a new deactivation path in which the doubly excited state with (?3)(2) configuration (DE) has a prominent role in photodeactivation from the R1 state due to the R1/DE and the DE/V1 conical intersections very close to the R1 and DE minima, respectively, was proposed. Subsequent deactivation from the V1 to the ground state goes through an Olivucci-Robb-type conical intersection that adopts a rhombic distorted geometry. The deactivation path has negligible barriers, thereby making ultrafast radiationless decay to the ground state possible. PMID:23553256

Antol, Ivana

2013-06-30

387

Phoenix's Path to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Phoenix's Path to Mars

This artist's animation shows the route NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took to get from Earth to Mars. The spacecraft's path is shown in yellow, and the orbits of Mars and Earth are shown in red and blue, respectively.

Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on Aug. 4, 2007, when Earth and Mars were 195 million kilometers (121 million miles) apart. It will have traveled a total of 679 million kilometers (422 million miles) when it is scheduled to reach Mars on May 25, 2008. At that time, Earth and Mars will be farther apart, at 276 million kilometers (171 million miles).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

2008-01-01

388

Path ensembles and path sampling in nonequilibrium stochastic systems.  

PubMed

Markovian models based on the stochastic master equation are often encountered in single molecule dynamics, reaction networks, and nonequilibrium problems in chemistry, physics, and biology. An efficient and convenient method to simulate these systems is the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm which generates continuous-time stochastic trajectories. We discuss an alternative simulation method based on sampling of stochastic paths. Utilizing known probabilities of stochastic paths, it is possible to apply Metropolis Monte Carlo in path space to generate a desired ensemble of stochastic paths. The method is a generalization of the path sampling idea to stochastic dynamics, and is especially suited for the analysis of rare paths which are not often produced in the standard kinetic Monte Carlo procedure. Two generic examples are presented to illustrate the methodology. PMID:17867733

Harland, Ben; Sun, Sean X

2007-09-14

389

pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing

Les

2003-01-01

390

Interactive cutting path analysis programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

1975-01-01

391

Path planning for virtual bronchoscopy.  

PubMed

We have developed an automated path planning method, which enables virtual bronchoscopic 3D multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) image analysis and follow on image-guided bronchoscopy. The method fundamentals are novel combination of distance transformation and snake-based models. The computation time of our algorithm is faster than similar works and there were no missing or false branches in the final path of airways. The planned path is suitable for quantitative airway analysis and smooth virtual navigation. PMID:17946384

Negahdar, Mohamadreza; Ahmadian, Alireza; Navab, Nassir; Firouznia, Kavous

2006-01-01

392

Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.

Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank

393

Time-Optimal Control of Robotic Manipulators Along Specified Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum-time manipulator control problem is solved for the case when the path is specified and the actuator torque limitations are known. The optimal open-loop torques are found, and a method is given for implementing these torques with a conventional linear feedback control system. The algorithm allows bounds on the torques that may be arbitrary functions of the joint angles

J. E. Bobrow; S. Dubowsky; J. S. Gibson

1985-01-01

394

Path Integral Monte Carlo Calculation of the Momentum Distribution of the Homogeneous Electron Gas at Finite Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations are used to calculate the\\u000amomentum distribution of the homogeneous electron gas at finite temperature.\\u000aThis is done by calculating the off-diagonal elements of the real-space density\\u000amatrix, represented in PIMC by open paths. It is demonstrated how the\\u000arestricted path integral Monte Carlo methods can be extended in order to deal\\u000awith open

B. Militzer; E. L. Pollock; D. M. Ceperley

2003-01-01

395

Anomalous paths in quantum mechanical path-integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate modifications of the discrete-time lattice action, for a quantum mechanical particle in one spatial dimension, that vanish in the naïve continuum limit but which, nevertheless, induce non-trivial effects due to quantum fluctuations. These effects are seen to modify the geometry of the paths contributing to the path-integral describing the time evolution of the particle, which we investigate through numerical simulations. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a modified lattice action resulting in paths with any fractal dimension, df, between one and two. We argue that df=2 is a critical value, and we exhibit a type of lattice modification where the fluctuations in the position of the particle becomes independent of the time step, in which case the paths are interpreted as superdiffusive Lévy flights. We also consider the jaggedness of the paths, and show that this gives an independent classification of lattice theories.

Grimsmo, Arne L.; Klauder, John R.; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture K.

2013-11-01

396

Path Analysis: A Brief Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Path analysis is presented as a technique that can be used to test on a priori model based on a theoretical conceptualization involving a network of selected variables. This being an introductory source, no previous knowledge of path analysis is assumed, although some understanding of the fundamentals of multiple regression analysis might be…

Carducci, Bernardo J.

397

Data Generation for Path Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two stochastic search algorithms for generating test cases that execute specified paths in a program. The two algorithms are: a simulated annealing algorithm (SA), and a genetic algorithm (GA). These algorithms are based on an optimization formulation of the path testing problem which include both integer- and real-value test cases. We empirically compare the SA and GA algorithms

Nashat Mansour; Miran Salame

2004-01-01

398

Analysis of Crossing Path Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report defines the problem of crossing path crashes in the United States. This crash type involves one moving vehicle that cuts across the path of another when their initial approach comes from either lateral or opposite directions and they typically...

W. G. Najm J. D. Smith D. L. Smith

2001-01-01

399

British Pathe Newsreels Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Pathe, one of the oldest media companies in the world, recently made available its entire 3500-hour film archive, covering "news, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970." At the Web site, users can search by keyword or try out advanced search, if details such as reel numbers or exact titles are known. Casual users may prefer the "Lucky Dip" search, which provides a random selection of films to see. After a search returns a hit list of films, choices include "Preview Film: a page of stills, with a textual description of the clip;" "Download Now: a free, low resolution clip;" or "Add to basket, to purchase higher resolutions of the film." (A rate card giving prices for low and high resolution clips is provided.) One hint for first-time users, though: if files do not seem to download properly, check your email, because you will be sent the URL to retrieve your film. After just a bit of finagling on our first visit, we watched the Beatles at a water-skiing show, Charlie Chaplin, and Sir Ernest Shackleton and his sled dogs photographed in 1916 on returning from their Antarctic expedition.

2002-01-01

400

Reconfigurable data path processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

2005-01-01

401

Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

2014-01-01

402

Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

2013-06-01

403

Triggered plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

404

Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

2011-01-01

405

Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

2011-01-01

406

The Difference of Brain Functional Connectivity between Eyes-Closed and Eyes-Open Using Graph Theoretical Analysis  

PubMed Central

To study the differences in functional brain networks between eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) at resting state, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded in 21 normal adults during EC and EO states. The synchronization likelihood (SL) was applied to measure correlations between all pairwise EEG channels, and then the SL matrices were converted to graphs by thresholding. Graphs were measured by topological parameters in theta (4–7?Hz), alpha (8–13?Hz), and beta (14–30?Hz) bands. By changing from EC to EO states, mean cluster coefficients decreased in both theta and alpha bands, but mean shortest path lengths became shorter only in the alpha band. In addition, local efficiencies decreased in both theta and alpha bands, while global efficiencies in the alpha band increased inversely. Opening the eyes decreased both nodes and connections in frontal area in the theta band, and also decreased those in bilateral posterior areas in the alpha band. These results suggested that a combination of the SL and graph theory methods may be a useful tool for distinguishing states of EC and EO. The differences in functional connectivity between EC and EO states may reflect the difference of information communication in human brain.

Tan, Bo; Kong, Xianxian; Yang, Ping; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

2013-01-01

407

Multiresolution path planning for mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automatic collision-free path planning is central to mobile robot applications. An approach to automatic path planning based on a quadtree representation is presented. Hierarchical path-searching methods are introduced, which make use of this multiresolution representation, to speed up the path planning process considerably. The applicability of this approach to mobile robot path planning is discussed.

S. Kambhampati; L. S. Davis

1986-01-01

408

Planning multiple paths with evolutionary speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a new approach to multidimensional path planning that is based on multiresolution path representation, where explicit configuration space computation is not required, and incorporates an evolutionary algorithm for solving the multimodal optimization problem, generating multiple alternative paths simultaneously. The multiresolution path representation reduces the expected search length for the path-planning problem and accordingly reduces the overall computational

Cem Hocaoglu; Arthur C. Sanderson

2001-01-01

409

Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating  

SciTech Connect

Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

2012-07-26

410

Path Characterization Algorithms for FASCODE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report has described the results of a study undertaken at AER to identify and implement a state of the art nonlinear retrieval approach to characterize line of sight variability of atmospheric thermal and constituent environments. This path character...

B. L. Linder J. L. Moncet R. G. Isaacs S. A. Clough S. D. Worsham

1990-01-01

411

Heuristically optimal path scanning for high-speed multiphoton circuit imaging.  

PubMed

Population dynamics of patterned neuronal firing are fundamental to information processing in the brain. Multiphoton microscopy in combination with calcium indicator dyes allows circuit dynamics to be imaged with single-neuron resolution. However, the temporal resolution of fluorescent measures is constrained by the imaging frequency imposed by standard raster scanning techniques. As a result, traditional raster scans limit the ability to detect the relative timing of action potentials in the imaged neuronal population. To maximize the speed of fluorescence measures from large populations of neurons using a standard multiphoton laser scanning microscope (MPLSM) setup, we have developed heuristically optimal path scanning (HOPS). HOPS optimizes the laser travel path length, and thus the temporal resolution of neuronal fluorescent measures, using standard galvanometer scan mirrors. Minimizing the scan path alone is insufficient for prolonged high-speed imaging of neuronal populations. Path stability and the signal-to-noise ratio become increasingly important factors as scan rates increase. HOPS addresses this by characterizing the scan mirror galvanometers to achieve prolonged path stability. In addition, the neuronal dwell time is optimized to sharpen the detection of action potentials while maximizing scan rate. The combination of shortest path calculation and minimization of mirror positioning time allows us to optically monitor a population of neurons in a field of view at high rates with single-spike resolution, ? 125 Hz for 50 neurons and ? 8.5 Hz for 1,000 neurons. Our approach introduces an accessible method for rapid imaging of large neuronal populations using traditional MPLSMs, facilitating new insights into neuronal circuit dynamics. PMID:21715667

Sadovsky, Alexander J; Kruskal, Peter B; Kimmel, Joseph M; Ostmeyer, Jared; Neubauer, Florian B; MacLean, Jason N

2011-09-01

412

Path integration on Darboux spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Feynman path integral technique is applied to two-dimensional spaces of nonconstant curvature: these spaces\\u000a are called Darboux spaces D\\u000a I-D\\u000a IV. We start each consideration in terms of the metric and then analyze the quantum theory in the separable coordinate systems.\\u000a The path integral in each case is formulated and then solved in the majority of

Christian Grosche; Theoretische Physik

2006-01-01

413

Backup Path Classification Based on Failure Risks for Efficient Backup Path Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We propose a new approach exploiting the failure risk (node, link or Shared Risk Link Group) structures to enhance the backup path computation. Upon failure, our approach classifies the backup paths into two categories: operative backup paths and inoperative backup,paths. An operative backup path is an active backup path which really receives traffic of some affected communications while an

Mohand Yazid Saidi; Bernard Cousin; Jean-louis Le Roux

2009-01-01

414

Robust optimization of OSPF\\/ISIS weights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we adapt the heuristic of Fortz and Thorup for optimizing the weights of Shortest Path First protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS), in order to take into account failure scenarios. More precisely, we want to find a set of weights that is robust to all single link failures. A direct

Bernard Fortz; Mikkel Thorup

2003-01-01

415

New Sufficient Conditions for Hamiltonian Paths  

PubMed Central

A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path involving all the vertices of the graph. In this paper, we revisit the famous Hamiltonian path problem and present new sufficient conditions for the existence of a Hamiltonian path in a graph.

Kaykobad, M.

2014-01-01

416

V753 MON: A UNIQUE CLOSE BINARY JUST AFTER THE EVOLUTIONARY STAGE WITH THE SHORTEST PERIOD DURING MASS TRANSFER  

SciTech Connect

We discovered that the O-C curve of V753 Mon shows an upward parabolic change while undergoing a cyclic variation with a period of 13.5 yr. The upward parabolic change reveals a long-term period increase at a rate of P-dot = +7.8 x 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}. Photometric solutions determined using the Wilson-Devinney method confirm that V753 Mon is a semi-detached binary system where the slightly less massive, hotter component star is transferring mass to the more massive one. This is in agreement with the long-term increase of the orbital period. The increase of the orbital period, the mass ratio very close to unity, and the semi-detached configuration with a less massive lobe-filling component all suggest that V753 Mon is on a key evolutionary stage just after the evolutionary stage with the shortest period during mass transfer. The results in this paper will shed light on the formation of massive contact binaries and the evolution of binary stars. The cyclic oscillation in the O-C diagram indicates that V753 Mon may be a triple system containing an extremely cool stellar companion that may play an important role for the formation and evolution in the binary system.

Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Liu, L.; Zhao, E. G.; Li, L.-J.; He, J.-J., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

2013-08-15

417

Optical Path, Phase, and Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful tool in wave optics is the concept of optical path length, a notion usually introduced with Fermat's principle.1-3 The analysis of Fermat's principle requires the application of the calculus of variations and the concept of an extremum, ideas too advanced for beginning students. However, the concept has proven its usefulness in the analysis4 of interference experiments such as those of Michelson and Fabry-Perot. In this paper we shall show how optical path length can aid in the analysis of a modified two-slit Young experiment.

Newburgh, Ronald

2005-11-01

418

Path Analysis with Composite Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six methods for fitting path models with weighted composites of variables replacing latent variables (of which five are easily implemented with conventional computer software) are introduced and related to "soft" modeling by Partial Least Squares. Criteria for comparing their performance are devised, and some evaluative remarks are offered.…

McDonald, Roderick P.

1996-01-01

419

Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…

Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart

2009-01-01

420

Moldovan employment relations: “path dependency”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to examine the theory that trade unions' functions in a transitional economy are characterised by “path dependency”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research is based on case studies of employment relations in enterprises operating in Moldova. The approach is realist (critical materialism). An ethnographic approach is taken to analysing social relations in three locally and foreign-owned companies

Claudio Morrison; Richard Croucher

2010-01-01

421

Thinking on the Write Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper underscores the importance of the cognitive orientation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in their success in writing courses. A few suggestions are made as to how EFL teachers can put their students on the right cognitive path in their writings.

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2007-01-01

422

Career Paths in Environmental Sciences  

EPA Science Inventory

Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

423

Robust Flight Path Determination for Mars Precision Landing Using Genetic Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to the problem of robust flight path determination for Mars precision landing. The robust flight path problem is defined here as the determination of the flight path which delivers a low-lift open-loop controlled vehicle to its desired final landing location while minimizing the effect of perturbations due to uncertainty in the atmospheric model and entry conditions. The genetic algorithm was capable of finding solutions which reduced the landing error from 111 km RMS radial (open-loop optimal) to 43 km RMS radial (optimized with respect to perturbations) using 200 hours of computation on an Ultra-SPARC workstation. Further reduction in the landing error is possible by going to closed-loop control which can utilize the GA optimized paths as nominal trajectories for linearization.

Bayard, David S.; Kohen, Hamid

1997-01-01

424

THE SHORTEST PERIOD sdB PLUS WHITE DWARF BINARY CD-30 11223 (GALEX J1411-3053)  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of the shortest period binary comprising a hot subdwarf star (CD-30 11223, GALEX J1411-3053) and a massive unseen companion. Photometric data from the All Sky Automated Survey show ellipsoidal variations of the hot subdwarf primary and spectroscopic series revealed an orbital period of 70.5 minutes. The large velocity amplitude suggests the presence of a massive white dwarf in the system (M{sub 2}/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 0.77) assuming a canonical mass for the hot subdwarf (0.48 M{sub Sun }), although a white dwarf mass as low as 0.75 M{sub Sun} is allowable by postulating a subdwarf mass as low as 0.44 M{sub Sun }. The amplitude of ellipsoidal variations and a high rotation velocity imposed a high-inclination to the system (i {approx}> 68 Degree-Sign ) and, possibly, observable secondary transits (i {approx}> 74 Degree-Sign ). At the lowest permissible inclination and assuming a subdwarf mass of {approx}0.48 M{sub Sun }, the total mass of the system reaches the Chandrasekhar mass limit at 1.35 M{sub Sun} and would exceed it for a subdwarf mass above 0.48 M{sub Sun }. The system should be considered, like its sibling KPD 1930+2752, a candidate progenitor for a Type Ia supernova. The system should become semi-detached and initiate mass transfer within Almost-Equal-To 30 Myr.

Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Nemeth, P. [Astronomicky ustav, Akademie ved Ceske republiky, Fricova 298, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); O'Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, 1670 North Ryde NSW (Australia); Burton, D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 (Australia)

2012-11-01

425

Polymer density functional approach to efficient evaluation of path integrals.  

PubMed

A polymer density functional theory (P-DFT) has been extended to the case of quantum statistics within the framework of Feynman path integrals. We start with the exact P-DFT formalism for an ideal open chain and adapt its efficient numerical solution to the case of a ring. We show that, similarly, the path integral problem can, in principle, be solved exactly by making use of the two-particle pair correlation function (2p-PCF) for the ends of an open polymer, half of the original. This way the exact data for one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator are reproduced in a wide range of temperatures. The exact solution is not, though, reachable in three dimensions (3D) because of a vast amount of storage required for 2p-PCF. In order to treat closed paths in 3D, we introduce a so-called "open ring" approximation which proves to be rather accurate in the limit of long chains. We also employ a simple self-consistent iteration so as to correctly account for the interparticle interactions. The algorithm is speeded up by taking convolutions with the aid of fast Fourier transforms. We apply this approximate path integral DFT (PI-DFT) method to systems within spherical symmetry: 3D harmonic oscillator, atoms of hydrogen and helium, and ions of He and Li. Our results compare rather well to the known data, while the computational effort (some seconds or minutes) is about 100 times less than that with Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the well-known "sign problem" is expected to be considerably reduced within the reported PI-DFT, since it allows for a direct estimate of the corresponding partition functions. PMID:16383563

Broukhno, Andrei; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N; Bohr, Henrik

2005-10-01

426

Spin Path Integrals and Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin of a free electron is stable but its position is not. Recent quantum information research by G. Svetlichny, J. Tolar,\\u000a and G. Chadzitaskos have shown that the Feynman position path integral can be mathematically defined as a product of incompatible states; that is, as a product of mutually unbiased\\u000a bases (MUBs). Since the more common use of MUBs

Carl Brannen

2010-01-01

427

Quasi-Randomized Path Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of quasi-random sampling techniquesfor path planning in high-dimensional congurationspaces. Following similar trends from relatednumerical computation elds, we show several advantagesoered by these techniques in comparison to randomsampling. Our ideas are evaluated in the contextof the probabilistic roadmap (PRM) framework.Two quasi-random variants of PRM-based plannersare proposed: 1) a classical PRM with quasi-randomsampling, and 2) a quasi-random Lazy-PRM....

Micliael S. Branicky; Steven M. Lavalle; Kari Olson; Libo Yang

2001-01-01

428

Deterministic technique of path summation  

SciTech Connect

A numerical method, based on the Euclidean path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, to evaluate the ground state energy and wave function of a quantum system is discussed. The method is illustrated in one-dimensional cases, and then applied to a two-body system interacting through central and tensor potentials. A detailed discussion of the deuteron problem with a realistic nuclear potential is given.

Rosa-Clot, M.; Taddei, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 2, I-50125, Firenze (Italy))

1994-08-01

429

Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure  

SciTech Connect

This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

Edwards, C.

1998-06-30

430

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

431

Multiresolution Path Planning for Mobile Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of automatic collision-free path planning is central to mobile robot applications. This report presents an approach to automatic two dimensional path planning based on a quadtree representation. (A quadtree is a recursive decomposition of a 2-...

S. Kambhampati L. S. Davis

1985-01-01

432

Path Integral Methods for Inelastic Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrections to the primitive semi-classical amplitude for multiple inelastic scattering are obtained from a path integral formulation of scattering theory. The path integrals are calculated by making an expansion about a classical orbit describing elastic...

C. V. Sukumar D. M. Brink

1983-01-01

433

Surface Waves: Source and Path Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several characteristics of oceanic surface waves can be altered by low rigidity sediments along the propagation path. Specifically spectral shape of both Love and Rayleigh waves as well as path phase velocity can be affected. The theoretical Love wave spe...

D. J. Weidner

1975-01-01

434

Critical Path-Based Thread Placement for NUMA Systems  

SciTech Connect

Multicore multiprocessors use a Non Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) to improve their scalability. However, NUMA introduces performance penalties due to remote memory accesses. Without efficiently managing data layout and thread mapping to cores, scientific applications, even if they are optimized for NUMA, may suffer performance loss. In this paper, we present algorithms and a runtime system that optimize the execution of OpenMP applications on NUMA architectures. By collecting information from hardware counters, the runtime system directs thread placement and reduces performance penalties by minimizing the critical path of OpenMP parallel regions. The runtime system uses a scalable algorithm that derives placement decisions with negligible overhead. We evaluate our algorithms and runtime system with four NPB applications implemented in OpenMP. On average the algorithms achieve between 8.13% and 25.68% performance improvement compared to the default Linux thread placement scheme. The algorithms miss the optimal thread placement in only 8.9% of the cases.

Su, C Y; Li, D; Nikolopoulos, D S; Grove, M; Cameron, K; de Supinski, B R

2011-11-01

435

Output-Sensitive Reporting of Disjoint Paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A k-path query on a graph consists of computing k vertex-disjoint paths between two givenvertices of the graph, whenever they exist. In this paper, we study the problem of performingk-path queries, with k 3, in a graph G with n vertices. We denote with ` the total length ofthe paths reported. For k 3, we present an optimal data structure

Giuseppe Di Battista; Roberto Tamassia; Luca Vismara

1999-01-01

436

Multiple paths to encephalization and technical civilizations.  

PubMed

We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels. PMID:22139517

Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

2011-12-01

437

Wavelet formulation of path integral Monte Carlo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wavelet formulation of path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) is constructed. Comparison with Fourier path integral Monte Carlo is presented using simple one-dimensional examples. Wavelet path integral Monte Carlo exhibits a few advantages over previous methods for PIMC. The efficiency of the current method is at least comparable to other techniques.

Art E. Cho; J. D. Doll; David L. Freeman

2002-01-01

438

Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

439

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kazak

1988-01-01

440

Global path planning using artificial potential fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes a path planning technique for robotic manipulators and mobile robots in the presence of stationary obstacles. The planning consists of applying potential fields around configuration-space obstacles and using these fields to select a safe path for the robot to follow. The advantage of using potential fields in path planning is that they offer a relatively fast and

Charles W. Warren

1989-01-01

441

Path diversity for enhanced media streaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media streaming over best effort packet networks such as the Internet is quite challenging because of the dynamic and unpredictable available bandwidth, loss rate, and delay. Recently, streaming over multiple paths to provide path diversity has emerged as an approach to help overcome these problems. This article provides an overview of the benefits and use of path diversity for media

John G. Apostolopoulos; Mitchell D. Trott

2004-01-01

442

SCTP Performance Issue on Path Delay Differential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of path delay on SCTP performance. It focuses on the SCTP fast retransmit algorithm and demonstrates that the performance in the current retransmission strategy will degrade acutely when the secondary path delay is less than the primary path delay at a certain level. The performance degradation is due to the disordered SACKs and constant congestion

Yuansong Qiao; Enda Fallon; Liam Murphy; John Murphy; Austin Hanley; Xiaosong Zhu; Adrian Matthews; Eoghan Conway; Gregory Hayes

2007-01-01

443

Path delay fault simulation of sequential circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze path delay faults in synchronous sequential circuits, stimuli are simulated in a dual-vector mode. The signal states represent the logic and transition conditions for two consecutive vectors. After the simulation of each vector, only the activated paths are traced and the corresponding fault effect, if propagated to a flip-flop, is added to its fault list. A path numbering

Soumitra Bose; Prathima Agrawal; Vishwani D. Agrawal

1993-01-01

444

Path Integral Analyses of the Hydrogen Atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path integral analysis of the hydrogen atom problem are presented in this dissertation. The Green's function for the hydrogen atom is calculated exactly by path integration. The scattering phase shifts are also expressed in terms of path integrals and evaluated for the Coulomb potential with or without additional modifying potentials. First, the hydrogen atom in two dimensions is treated

Roger Chung Chor Ho

1982-01-01

445

Path integral analyses of the hydrogen atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The path integral analysis of the hydrogen atom problem are presented in this dissertation. The Green's function for the hydrogen atom is calculated exactly by the path integration. The scattering phase shifts are also expressed in terms of path integrals and evaluated for the Coulomb potential with or without additional modifying potentials. First, the hydrogen atom in two dimensions is

1982-01-01

446

14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and...AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path extends from a standing start to a point...

2009-01-01

447

14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and...AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path extends from a standing start to a point...

2010-01-01

448

14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57 Aeronautics...Flight Performance § 23.57 Takeoff path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The...

2009-01-01

449

Randomized path coloring on binary trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the problem of WDM routing in all-optical networks, we study the following NP-hard problem. We are given a directed binary tree T and a set R of directed paths on T. We wish to assign colors to paths of R, in such way that no two paths that share a directed arc of T are assigned the same

Vincenzo Auletta; Ioannis Caragiannis; Christos Kaklamanis; Pino Persiano

2002-01-01

450

Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…

Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob

2011-01-01

451

Quantifying the Causes of Path Inflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have shown that the Internet exhibits path inflation - end-to-end paths can be significantly longer than necessary. We present a trace-driven study of 65 ISPs that characterizes the root causes of path inflation, namely topology and routing policy choices within an ISP, between pairs of ISPs, and across the global Inter- net. To do so, we develop and validate

Neil Spring; Ratul Mahajan; Thomas Anderson

2003-01-01

452

Linear polymers in disordered media: the shortest, the longest, and the mean self-avoiding walk on percolation clusters.  

PubMed

Long linear polymers in strongly disordered media are well described by self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on percolation clusters and a lot can be learned about the statistics of these polymers by studying the length distribution of SAWs on percolation clusters. This distribution encompasses 2 distinct averages, viz., the average over the conformations of the underlying cluster and the SAW conformations. For the latter average, there are two basic options, one being static and one being kinetic. It is well known for static averaging that if the disorder of the underlying medium is weak, this disorder is redundant in the sense the renormalization group; i.e., differences to the ordered case appear merely in nonuniversal quantities. Using dynamical field theory, we show that the same holds true for kinetic averaging. Our main focus, however, lies on strong disorder, i.e., the medium being close to the percolation point, where disorder is relevant. Employing a field theory for the nonlinear random resistor network in conjunction with a real-world interpretation of the corresponding Feynman diagrams, we calculate the scaling exponents for the shortest, the longest, and the mean or average SAW to 2-loop order. In addition, we calculate to 2-loop order the entire family of multifractal exponents that governs the moments of the the statistical weights of the elementary constituents (bonds or sites of the underlying fractal cluster) contributing to the SAWs. Our RG analysis reveals that kinetic averaging leads to renormalizability whereas static averaging does not, and hence, we argue that the latter does not lead to a well-defined scaling limit. We discuss the possible implications of this finding for experiments and numerical simulations which have produced widespread results for the exponent of the average SAW. To corroborate our results, we also study the well-known Meir-Harris model for SAWs on percolation clusters. We demonstrate that the Meir-Harris model leads back up to 2-loop order to the renormalizable real-world formulation with kinetic averaging if the replica limit is consistently performed at the first possible instant in the course of the calculation. PMID:22400528

Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

2012-01-01

453

Beyond centrality—classifying topological significance using backup efficiency and alternative paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In complex networks characterized by broad degree distribution, node significance is often associated with its degree or with centrality metrics which relate to its reachability and shortest paths passing through it. Such measures do not consider availability of efficient backup of the node and thus often fail to capture its contribution to the functionality and resilience of the network operation. In this paper, we suggest the quality of backup (QoB) and alternative path centrality (APC) measures as complementary methods which enable analysis of node significance in a manner which considers backup. We examine the theoretical significance of these measures and use them to classify nodes in social interaction networks and in the Internet AS (autonomous system) graph while applying the valley-free routing restrictions which reflect the economic relationships between the AS nodes in the Internet. We show that both node degree and node centrality are not necessarily evidence of its significance. In particular, we show that social structures do not necessarily depend on highly central nodes and that medium degree nodes with medium centrality measure prove to be crucial for efficient routing in the Internet AS graph. Partial results presented in this paper also appear in the IFIP NETWORKING 2007 Conference.

Shavitt, Yuval; Singer, Yaron

2007-08-01

454

Extracting contours of oval-shaped objects by Hough transform and minimal path algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circular and oval-like objects are very common in cell and micro biology. These objects need to be analyzed, and to that end, digitized images from the microscope are used so as to come to an automated analysis pipeline. It is essential to detect all the objects in an image as well as to extract the exact contour of each individual object. In this manner it becomes possible to perform measurements on these objects, i.e. shape and texture features. Our measurement objective is achieved by probing contour detection through dynamic programming. In this paper we describe a method that uses Hough transform and two minimal path algorithms to detect contours of (ovoid-like) objects. These algorithms are based on an existing grey-weighted distance transform and a new algorithm to extract the circular shortest path in an image. The methods are tested on an artificial dataset of a 1000 images, with an F1-score of 0.972. In a case study with yeast cells, contours from our methods were compared with another solution using Pratt's figure of merit. Results indicate that our methods were more precise based on a comparison with a ground-truth dataset. As far as yeast cells are concerned, the segmentation and measurement results enable, in future work, to retrieve information from different developmental stages of the cell using complex features.

Tleis, Mohamed; Verbeek, Fons J.

2014-04-01

455

Processor Would Find Best Paths On Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit image-data processor finds path of least cost from specified origin to any destination on map. Cost of traversal assigned to each picture element of map. Path of least cost from originating picture element to every other picture element computed as path that preserves as much as possible of signal transmitted by originating picture element. Dedicated microprocessor at each picture element stores cost of traversal and performs its share of computations of paths of least cost. Least-cost-path problem occurs in research, military maneuvers, and in planning routes of vehicles.

Eberhardt, Silvio P.

1990-01-01

456

Switching mesh with broadcast path redundancy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

One embodiment disclosed relates to a method of broadcasting packets through a network of switches. A packet is received to be broadcast through the network of switches. A broadcast path is selected from a plurality of generated broadcast paths. A broadcast path tag associated with the selected broadcast path is created and inserted into the packet. A determination is made of the port(s) by which to forward the packet, and the packet is transmitted via the port(s) to next switch(es) in accordance with the selected broadcast path.

2008-11-04

457

Evaluation of guidewire path reproducibility.  

PubMed

The number of minimally invasive vascular interventions is increasing. In these interventions, a variety of devices are directed to and placed at the site of intervention. The device used in almost all of these interventions is the guidewire, acting as a monorail for all devices which are delivered to the intervention site. However, even with the guidewire in place, clinicians still experience difficulties during the interventions. As a first step toward understanding these difficulties and facilitating guidewire and device guidance, we have investigated the reproducibility of the final paths of the guidewire in vessel phantom models on different factors: user, materials and geometry. Three vessel phantoms (vessel diameters approximately 4 mm) were constructed having tortuousity similar to the internal carotid artery from silicon tubing and encased in Sylgard elastomer. Several trained users repeatedly passed two guidewires of different flexibility through the phantoms under pulsatile flow conditions. After the guidewire had been placed, rotational c-arm image sequences were acquired (9 in. II mode, 0.185 mm pixel size), and the phantom and guidewire were reconstructed (512(3), 0.288 mm voxel size). The reconstructed volumes were aligned. The centerlines of the guidewire and the phantom vessel were then determined using region-growing techniques. Guidewire paths appear similar across users but not across materials. The average root mean square difference of the repeated placement was 0.17 +/- 0.02 mm (plastic-coated guidewire), 0.73 +/- 0.55 mm (steel guidewire) and 1.15 +/- 0.65 mm (steel versus plastic-coated). For a given guidewire, these results indicate that the guidewire path is relatively reproducible in shape and position. PMID:18561663

Schafer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Noël, Peter B; Ionita, Ciprian N; Dmochowski, Jacek

2008-05-01

458

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

459

Intellimotion: California PATH's Quarterly Newsletter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) researches methods for increasing highway safety, reducing congestion, and minimizing pollution and energy consumption. Intellimotion is one of its publications that highlights some of the current projects. Although it is labeled as a quarterly newsletter, Intellimotion is released on a very irregular basis. The 2002 issue covers several stories, including a project that makes vehicle navigation with the Global Positioning System extremely accurate. Another article looks at intelligent transportation systems and the issues regarding Bus Rapid Transit. Many past issues of Intellimotion are available on this Web site. This site is also reviewed in the October 25, 2002 Scout Report.

1998-01-01

460

Mechanics of the crack path formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented here.

Rubinstein, Asher A.

1989-01-01

461

Mechanics of the crack path formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for the numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented.

Rubinstein, Asher A.

1991-01-01

462

SSME propellant path leak detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-art technology of infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of the IR leak plume detection will be evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application. The theoretical analysis was undertaken with the objective of developing and testing simple, easy-to-use models to predict the amount of radiation coming from a radiation source, background plate (BP), which can be absorbed, emitted and scattered by the gas leaks.

Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali; Powers, W. T.

1995-01-01

463

Cumulative slant path rain attenuation associated with COMSTAR beacon at 28.56 GHz for Wallops Island, Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yearly, monthly, and time of day fade statistics are presented and characterized. A 19.04 GHz yearly fade distribution, corresponding to a second COMSTAR beacon frequency, is predicted using the concept of effective path length, disdrometer, and rain rate results. The yearly attenuation and rain rate distributions follow with good approximation log normal variations for most fade and rain rate levels. Attenuations were exceeded for the longest and shortest periods of times for all fades in August and February, respectively. The eight hour time period showing the maximum and minimum number of minutes over the year for which fades exceeded 12 db were approximately between 1600 to 2400, and 0400 to 1200 hours, respectively. In employing the predictive method for obtaining the 19.04 GHz fade distribution, it is demonstrated theoretically that the ratio of attenuations at two frequencies is minimally dependent of raindrop size distribution providing these frequencies are not widely separated.

Goldhirsh, J.

1978-01-01

464

Selection of potentially testable path delay faults for test generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method of path selection and test generation for path delay faults. The proposed method addresses the fact that logic circuits typically have very large numbers of paths, and a large percentage of these paths are typically untestable. The proposed method selects a set of potentially testable long paths by utilizing non-enumerative identification of untestable paths and removing

Atsushi Murakami; Seiji Kajihara; Tsutomu Sasao; Irith Pomeranz; Sudhakar M. Reddy

2000-01-01

465

OSL—optimal single-loop guide paths for AGVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the Automated Guided Vehicle System guide path design problem. We suggest a single closed loop guide path layout configuration as an alternative to conventional but more complex guide path designs. The benefits of using a simple guide path versus more complicated guide paths are discussed. A procedure for designing an optimal single loop guide path for

J. M. A. TANCHOCOf; DAVID SINRIECH

1992-01-01

466

Free Path Lengths in Quasicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of kinetic transport in the Lorentz gas have been limited to cases where the scatterers are distributed at random (e.g., at the points of a spatial Poisson process) or at the vertices of a Euclidean lattice. In the present paper we investigate quasicrystalline scatterer configurations, which are non-periodic, yet strongly correlated. A famous example is the vertex set of a Penrose tiling. Our main result proves the existence of a limit distribution for the free path length, which answers a question of Wennberg. The limit distribution is characterised by a certain random variable on the space of higher dimensional lattices, and is distinctly different from the exponential distribution observed for random scatterer configurations. The key ingredients in the proofs are equidistribution theorems on homogeneous spaces, which follow from Ratner's measure classification.

Marklof, Jens; Strömbergsson, Andreas

2014-03-01

467

The path to adaptive microsystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling trends in microsystems are discussed frequently in the technical community, providing a short-term perspective on the future of integrated microsystems. This paper looks beyond the leading edge of technological development, focusing on new microsystem design paradigms that move far beyond today's systems based on static components. We introduce the concept of Adaptive Microsystems and outline a path to realizing these systems-on-a-chip. The role of DARPA in advancing future components and systems research is discussed, and specific DARPA efforts enabling and producing adaptive microsystems are presented. In particular, we discuss efforts underway in the DARPA Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) including programs in novel circuit architectures (3DIC), adaptive imaging and sensing (AFPA, VISA, MONTAGE, A-to-I) and reconfigurable RF/Microwave devices (SMART, TFAST, IRFFE).

Zolper, John C.; Biercuk, Michael J.

2006-06-01

468

Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology  

PubMed Central

Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.

Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.

2013-01-01

469

Improved FTIR open-path remote sensing data reduction technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress on the developement of a nonlinear curve fitting computer algorithm for data reduction of optical remote sensing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data is presented. This new algorithm is an adaptation of an existing algorithm employed at the Arnold Engineering Development Center for the analysis of infrared plume signature and optical gas diagnostic data on rocket and turbine engine exhaust. Because it is a nonlinear model, the algorithm can be used to determine parameters not readily determined by linear methods such as classical least squares. Unlike linear methods this procedure can simultaneously determine atmospheric gas concetrations, spectral resolution, spectral shift, and the background or (Io(omega) spectrum. Additionally, species which possess spectra that are strongly masked by atmospheric absorption features such as BTX can also be incorporated into the procedure. The basic theory behind the algorithm is presented as well as test results on FTS data and synthetic data containing benzene and toluene spectral features.

Phillips, Bill; Moyers, Rick; Lay, Lori T.

1995-05-01

470

An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas  

SciTech Connect

Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

1996-12-31

471

Zooplankton Avoidance of a Profiled Open-Path Fluorometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant avoidance of acoustically detected zooplankton was observed in response to a profiling instrument package. Avoidance decreased acoustic scattering from zooplankton averaged over the entire profile by more than a factor of 2, while the maximum ...

C. M. Waluk I. C. Robbins K. J. Benoit-Bird M. A. Moline O. M. Schofield

2010-01-01

472

ANALYSIS OF CROSSING PATH CRASH COUNTERMEASURE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of an analysis of promising countermeasure systems for crossing path crashes, and thus provides a foundation for setting research priorities under the United States (U.S.) Department of Transportation's Intelligent Vehicle Initiative. Crossing path crashes involve one moving vehicle cutting across the path of another, which amounted to 1.72 million police-reported crashes in the U.S. based

Wassim G. Najm; Jonathan A. Koopmann; David L. Smith

473

Elastic Bands: Connecting Path Planning and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elastic bands are proposed as the basis for a new framework to close the gap between global path planning and real-time sensor-based robot control. An elastic band is a deformable collision-free path. The initial shape of the elastic is the free path generated by a planner. Subjected to artificial forces, the elastic band deforms in real time to a short

Sean Quinlan; Oussama Khatib

1993-01-01

474

Multiple-path execution for chip multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased dependence of clock cycle time on interconnect delay favors chip multiprocessors (CMP) for future microprocessor designs. This paper studies multiple-path execution (MPE) on a CMP to provide speedup on unmodified sequential code by exploring different paths of a conditional branch on separate processors. MPE performance due to processor complexity and count, cache and branch prediction architecture, processor-to-path allocation

Matthew C. Chidester; Alan D. George; Matthew A. Radlinski

2003-01-01

475

Ant navigation: resetting the path integrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert ants use path integration as their predominant system of long-distance navigation, but they also make use of route-defining and nest-defining visual landmarks. Such landmark-gained information might override the information provided by the path integrator, but nevertheless the path integrator keeps running. Here we show that only cues that are associated with the ant being inside the nest are able

Markus Knaden; Rüdiger Wehner

2006-01-01

476

Maximum Flux Transition Paths of Conformational Change.  

PubMed

Given two metastable states A and B of a biomolecular system, the problem is to calculate the likely paths of the transition from A to B. Such a calculation is more informative and more manageable if done for a reduced set of collective variables chosen so that paths cluster in collective variable space. The computational task becomes that of computing the "center" of such a cluster. A good way to define the center employs the concept of a committor, whose value at a point in collective variable space is the probability that a trajectory at that point will reach B before A. The committor "foliates" the transition region into a set of isocommittors. The maximum flux transition path is defined as a path that crosses each isocommittor at a point which (locally) has the highest crossing rate of distinct reactive trajectories. This path is based on the same principle as the minimum resistance path of Berkowitz et al (1983), but it has two advantages: (i) the path is invariant with respect to a change of coordinates in collective variable space and (ii) the differential equations that define the path are simpler. It is argued that such a path is nearer to an ideal path than others that have been proposed with the possible exception of the finite-temperature string method path. To make the calculation tractable, three approximations are introduced, yielding a path that is the solution of a nonsingular two-point boundary-value problem. For such a problem, one can construct a simple and robust algorithm. One such algorithm and its performance is discussed. PMID:20890401

Zhao, Ruijun; Shen, Juanfang; Skeel, Robert D

2010-08-10

477

Path integral analyses of the hydrogen atom  

SciTech Connect

The path integral analysis of the hydrogen atom problem are presented in this dissertation. The Green's function for the hydrogen atom is calculated exactly by the path integration. The scattering phase shifts are also expressed in terms of path integrals and evaluated for the Coulomb potential with or without additional modifying potentials. First, the hydrogen atom in two dimensions is treated by path integration in parabolic coordinates. Feynman's path integral for the hydrogen atom in R/sup 2/, which cannot be directly integrated, is reduced to the exactly solvable path integral for an oscillator in R/sup 2/. The reduction procedure consists of the path-dependent time rescaling and the Levi-Civita transformation from Cartesian to parabolic coordinates. A path-dependent scaling of the global time and a nonlinear transformation of global coordinated are not necessarily valid in a path integral. Therefore, the reduction procedure is applied to each well-defined short time integral. The two-dimensional problem is studied by both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian path integral. The exact results are obtained for the Green's function and the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in R/sup 2/. The reduction procedure is then generalized to solve the hydrogen atom in three dimensions. The same time scaling is adopted. Since the three-dimensional counterpart of the Levi-Cavita transformation does not exist, the Kustaanheimo-Steifel transformation, which maps Cartesian variables in R/sup 3/ into Cartesian variables in R/sup 4/, is modified to transform the Coulomb path integral into an oscillator in R/sup 4/. An extra dimension introduced for the transformation is eliminated after path integration. The Green's function and the energy spectrum are found for the hydrogen atom in R/sup 3/.

Ho, R.C.C.

1982-01-01

478

Randomized path coloring on binary trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the problem of WDM routing in all-optical networks, we study the following NP-hard problem. We are given a di- rected binary tree T and a set R of directed paths on T.W e wish to assign colors to paths in R, in such a way that no two paths that share ad irected arc ofT are assigned the

Vincenzo Auletta; Ioannis Caragiannis; Christos Kaklamanis; Pino Persiano

2000-01-01

479

Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

2006-02-01

480

Making the Stranger's Path Familiar: Environmental Communication that Turns Access into Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visitors to the FDR Memorial in Washington, D.C., enter the area through ceremonial openings: from the pathway around the reflecting pond of the Jefferson Memorial, or across a small shaded plaza reached from a roadway parallel to the Potomac River. The FDR Memorial itself cannot be seen at the start of either of these paths. It is out there…

Adelman, Clifford

2005-01-01

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