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Sample records for open underground protective

  1. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  2. 30 CFR 57.11012 - Protection for openings around travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11012 Protection for openings around travelways. Openings above, below, or near travelways through which persons or materials may...

  3. 30 CFR 57.11012 - Protection for openings around travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11012 Protection for openings around travelways. Openings above, below, or near travelways through which persons or materials may...

  4. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  5. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  6. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  7. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  8. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  9. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  10. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Michał; Blajer, Mateusz; Cyran, Katarzyna; D'obyrn, Kajetan

    2016-03-01

    Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  11. Shotcrete: Supporting element for underground openings -- past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    The use of shotcrete for the support of underground openings has developed in different ways in North America and Europe. The paper provides examples of major past and present shotcrete applications and contractual differences between the US and Europe. Finally, the paper offers suggestions as to how the major attributes of the various techniques may be combined in the future to realize the full potential of shotcrete by the mining and tunnelling industry.

  12. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  13. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  14. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  15. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  16. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  17. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  19. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  20. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  1. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  2. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  7. Cathodic protection of underground storage tanks using continuous polymeric cable anode systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, D.P.; Mussall, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated several compliance deadlines for owners of underground storage tanks. These regulations include installation of vapor recovery systems, inventory control systems, tank tightness testing, overfill and overspill protection, and installation of cathodic protection systems, et al. This paper will focus on the installation of cathodic protection systems, the installation of which the EPA has mandated be complete prior to the end of 1998 for underground storage tanks.

  8. Inverse and predictive modeling of seepage into underground openings.

    PubMed

    Finsterle, S; Ahlers, C F; Trautz, R C; Cook, P J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the development and calibration of a model for predicting seepage into underground openings. Seepage is a key factor affecting the performance of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Three-dimensional numerical models were developed to simulate field tests in which water was released from boreholes above excavated niches. Data from air-injection tests were geostatistically analyzed to infer the heterogeneous structure of the fracture permeability field. The heterogeneous continuum model was then calibrated against the measured amount of water that seeped into the opening. This approach resulted in the estimation of model-related, seepage-specific parameters on the scale of interest. The ability of the calibrated model to predict seepage was examined by comparing calculated with measured seepage rates from additional experiments conducted in different portions of the fracture network. We conclude that an effective capillary strength parameter is suitable to characterize seepage-related features and processes for use in a prediction model of average seepage into potential waste-emplacement drifts. PMID:12714286

  9. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  10. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  11. 30 CFR 817.13 - Casing and sealing of exposed underground openings: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground openings: General requirements. Each exploration hole, other drillhole or borehole, shaft, well..., fish and wildlife, and machinery in the permit area and adjacent area. Each exploration hole, drill... be permanently closed, unless approved for water monitoring or otherwise managed in a manner...

  12. The past and future of cathodic protection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Corrosion protection for underground storage tanks (USTs) has become a vital national consideration since the establishment of new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules. Compliance with these rules is required by the end of 1998. Approximately 700,000 buried steel tanks in the United States are likely candidates for cathodic protection (CP) to meet regulatory compliance. This review of CP and other corrosion control measures used on USTs will help tank owners and corrosion control professionals make plans to meet the EPA deadline before the last-minute rush begins.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  14. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota.

  15. Seismic reflection imaging of underground cavities using open-source software

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J

    2011-12-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) includes provisions for an on-site inspection (OSI), which allows the use of specific techniques to detect underground anomalies including cavities and rubble zones. One permitted technique is active seismic surveys such as seismic refraction or reflection. The purpose of this report is to conduct some simple modeling to evaluate the potential use of seismic reflection in detecting cavities and to test the use of open-source software in modeling possible scenarios. It should be noted that OSI inspections are conducted under specific constraints regarding duration and logistics. These constraints are likely to significantly impact active seismic surveying, as a seismic survey typically requires considerable equipment, effort, and expertise. For the purposes of this study, which is a first-order feasibility study, these issues will not be considered. This report provides a brief description of the seismic reflection method along with some commonly used software packages. This is followed by an outline of a simple processing stream based on a synthetic model, along with results from a set of models representing underground cavities. A set of scripts used to generate the models are presented in an appendix. We do not consider detection of underground facilities in this work and the geologic setting used in these tests is an extremely simple one.

  16. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  17. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  19. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  20. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  1. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; requirements. 75.1721 Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75... prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the mine notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety......

  2. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to underground workings, or to be used to monitor ground water conditions, shall be temporarily sealed until actual use. ... conducts the underground mining activities. (b) Each exploration hole, other drill hole or borehole,...

  3. 76 FR 21701 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Natalie Worku, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: May 11 and 12, 2011, 8...

  4. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.11012 - Protection for openings around travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11012 Protection for openings around travelways. Openings above, below, or near...

  6. 30 CFR 56.11012 - Protection for openings around travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11012 Protection for openings around travelways. Openings above, below, or near...

  7. Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A.M.; Blejwas, T.E.

    1992-07-01

    Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues.

  8. Open Thermodynamic System Concept for Fluviokarst Underground Temperature and Discharge Flow Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machetel, P.; Yuen, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we propose to use Open Thermodynamic System (OTS) frameworks to assess temperatures and discharges of underground flows in fluviokarstic systems. The theoretical formulation is built on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. However, such assumptions would require steady states in the Control Volume to cancel the heat exchanges between underground water and embedding rocks. This situation is obviously never perfectly reached in Nature where flow discharges and temperatures vary with rainfalls, recessions and seasonal or diurnal fluctuations. First, we will shortly show that the results of a pumping test campaign on the Cent-Font (Hérault, France) fluviokarst during summer 2005 are consistent with this theoretical approach. Second, we will present the theoretical formalism of the OTS framework that leads to equation systems involving the temperatures and/or the discharges of the underground and surface flows.Third, this approach will be applied to the white (2003) conceptual model of fluviokarst, and we will present the numerical model built to assess the applicability of these assumptions. The first order of the field hydrologic properties observed at the Cent-Fonts resurgence are well described by the calculations based on this OTS framework. If this agreement is necessary, it is not sufficient to validate the method. In order to test its applicability, the mixing process has been modelized as a cooling reaction in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) for which matrix and intrusive flows are introduced continuously while effluent water is recovered at the output. The enthalpy of the various flows is conserved except for the part that exchanges heat with the embedding rocks. However the numerical model shows that in the water saturated part of the CS, the matrix flow swepts heat by convective-advective processes while temporal heat fluctuations from intrusive flows cross the CV walls. The numerical model shows that the convective flow from

  9. Organizational, Design and Technology Issues in the Process of Protection of Underground Historic Monuments/ Probelmy Organizacyjne, Projektowe I Technologiczne W Procesie Zabezpieczania Zabytkowych Podziemi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, Maciej; Chmura, Janusz; Wieja, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Underground historic monuments constitute the immanent part of the cultural and natural heritage. Protecting and opening underground historic objects, as the investment aim, is a process of renewed actions taken in objects that are degraded or out of order, contributing to improvement of quality of life of residents, restoring new functions, reconstruction of social bonds. Underground historic buildings should be subjected to processes of protecting and revitalization. Determining the state of a given building and the adjustability of its spatial structure to introducing a new function or making it available to tourist purposes are the basis for these actions. Zabytkowe podziemia stanowią immanentną część dziedzictwa kulturowego i przyrodniczego. Zabezpieczenie i udostępnienie podziemnych obiektów zabytkowych, jako zamierzenia inwestycyjnego, jest procesem ponownych działań podejmowanych w zdegradowanych lub nieczynnych obiektach, przyczyniając się do poprawy jakości życia mieszkańców, przywrócenia nowych funkcji, odbudowy więzi społecznych. Podziemne obiekty zabytkowe powinny być poddane procesom zabezpieczenia i rewitalizacji. Podstawą tych działań jest określenie stanu zachowania danego obiektu oraz możliwości dostosowania jego struktury przestrzennej do wprowadzenia nowej funkcji lub udostępnienia w celach turystycznych. Zasadniczym problemem jest, na etapie organizacyjnym, brak jednolitego ustawodawstwa prawnego dotyczącego procesu zabezpieczania podziemnych obiektów. W artykule przedstawiamy zasadnicze problemy organizacyjne, projektowe i technologiczne występujące w procesie inwestycyjnym zabezpieczania podziemnych obiektów zabytkowych. Efektem tych prac jest transformacja podziemnego obiektu w strukturę przestrzenną o nowej funkcji użytkowej.

  10. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES... Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maria Pratt, Plant...

  11. 77 FR 20610 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: April...-2223, Beltsville, MD 20705. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety...

  12. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  13. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  14. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  15. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  16. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral... authorized representative may permit ungrounded high-voltage circuits to be extended underground to...

  17. Effective Protection of Open Space: Does Planning Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Toddi A.; Hess, George R.

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner’s perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local landowners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space.

  18. Effective protection of open space: does planning matter?

    PubMed

    Steelman, Toddi A; Hess, George R

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner's perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local land owners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space. PMID:19219489

  19. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  20. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  1. Open innovation or open house: how to protect your most valuable assets.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J

    2005-04-01

    Many businesses have difficulty in effectively managing their intellectual property. This article offers advice, particularly for smaller companies, on how to protect their ideas and thereby be able to benefit from an open system of product innovation. PMID:15871422

  2. Open Platform for Limit Protection with Carefree Maneuver Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeram, Geoffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This Open Platform for Limit Protection guides the open design of maneuver limit protection systems in general, and manned, rotorcraft, aerospace applications in particular. The platform uses three stages of limit protection modules: limit cue creation, limit cue arbitration, and control system interface. A common set of limit cue modules provides commands that can include constraints, alerts, transfer functions, and friction. An arbitration module selects the "best" limit protection cues and distributes them to the most appropriate control path interface. This platform adopts a holistic approach to limit protection whereby it considers all potential interface points, including the pilot's visual, aural, and tactile displays; and automatic command restraint shaping for autonomous limit protection. For each functional module, this thesis guides the control system designer through the design choices and information interfaces among the modules. Limit cue module design choices include type of prediction, prediction mechanism, method of critical control calculation, and type of limit cue. Special consideration is given to the nature of the limit, particularly the level of knowledge about it, and the ramifications for limit protection design, especially with respect to intelligent control methods such as fuzzy inference systems and neural networks.

  3. Open consent, biobanking and data protection law: can open consent be 'informed' under the forthcoming data protection regulation?

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Dara; Friedewald, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks--open consent--is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of genetic material and data. However, as biobanks process personal data, they must comply with data protection law. Data protection law is currently undergoing reform. The Proposed Data Protection Regulation is the culmination of this reform and, if voted into law, will constitute a new legal framework for biobanking. The Regulation puts strict conditions on consent--in particular relating to information which must be given to the data subject. It seems clear that open consent cannot meet these requirements. 4 categories of information cannot be provided with adequate specificity: purpose, recipient, possible third country transfers, data collected. However, whilst open consent cannot meet the formal requirements laid out by the Regulation, this is not to say that these requirements are substantially undebateable. Two arguments could be put forward suggesting the applicable consent requirements should be rethought. First, from policy documents regarding the drafting process, it seems that the informational requirements in the Regulation are so strict in order to protect the data subject from risks inherent in the use of the consent mechanism in a certain context--exemplified by the online context. There are substantial differences between this context and the biobanking context. Arguably, a consent transaction in the biobanking does not present the same type of risk to the data subject. If the risks are different, then perhaps there are also grounds for a reconsideration of consent requirements? Second, an argument can be made that the legislator drafted the Regulation based on certain assumptions as to the nature of 'data'. The authors argue that these assumptions are difficult to apply to genetic data

  4. 30 CFR 817.15 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authority in accordance with § 817.13 and consistent with 30 CFR 75.1711. Permanent closure measures shall... shaft, drift, adit, tunnel, exploratory hole, entryway or other opening to the surface from...

  5. 30 CFR 817.15 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority in accordance with § 817.13 and consistent with 30 CFR 75.1771. Permanent closure measures shall... shaft, drift, adit, tunnel, exploratory hole, entryway or other opening to the surface from...

  6. Mathematical models for cathodic protection of an underground pipeline with coating holidays. Part 1: Theoretical development

    SciTech Connect

    Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M.; Kennelley, K.J.; Degerstedt, R.M.

    1997-04-01

    Mathematical models were developed to predict cathodic protection (CP) requirements for coated pipelines protected by parallel anodes. This work was motivated by the need to estimate current and potential distribution on a pipe when anodes are placed nearby or when discrete coating holidays expose bare steel. The mathematical model solves Laplace`s equation for potential with boundary conditions appropriate for the pipe being protected, the anode, and any region through which current does not pass. The current density on bare steel was assumed to be composed of contributions from corrosion, reduction of dissolved oxygen, and evolution of hydrogen. Kinetic parameters were obtained from independent experiments. The anode was assumed to have a constant potential, and current was allowed to flow through the coating under the assumption that the coating is a high-resistance ionic conductor. A boundary element technique coupled with Newton-Raphson iteration was sued to solve the governing equations for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) configurations. Results showed good agreement with experimental values and can be used to assess viability of CP designs.

  7. Protecting sensitive systems and data in an open agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Douglas B.; Tompkins, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper focuses on the policy and definitional issues associated with providing adequate and reasonable levels of protection for sensitive systems and data in an agency whose basic charter mandates the open sharing of information and transfer of technology into the market economy. An information model based on current Federal regulatory issuances is presented. A scheme for determining sensitivity levels, based on a categorization taxonomy,is provided.

  8. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  9. A global, open-source database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Winsemius, Hessel; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate flood risk estimation is pivotal in that it enables risk-informed policies in disaster risk reduction, as emphasized in the recent Sendai framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. To improve our understanding of flood risk, models are now capable to provide actionable risk information on the (sub)global scale. Still the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on standards of protection to flood that are actually in place; and researchers thus take large assumptions on the extent of protection. With our work we propose a first global, open-source database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, covering a range of spatial scales. FLOPROS is structured in three layers of information, and merges them into one consistent database: 1) the Design layer contains empirical information about the standard of protection presently in place; 2) the Policy layer contains intended protection standards from normative documents; 3) the Model layer uses a validated numerical approach to calculate protection standards for areas not covered in the other layers. The FLOPROS database can be used for more accurate risk assessment exercises across scales. As the database should be continually updated to reflect new interventions, we invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information. Further, we look for partners within the risk community to participate in additional strategies to implement the amount and accuracy of information contained in this first version of FLOPROS.

  10. A description of aquifer units in western Oregon for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Underground Injection Control Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogeologic information for western Oregon was compiled to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating proposals for underground injection of waste fluid. Geologic formations were grouped into seven aquifer units according to hydraulic and geologic similarities. The bedrock aquifer units in the Klamath Mountains, Coast Range, and Western Cascade Range all have low permeabilities and yield only small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock uses. The Columbia River Basalt Group aquifer unit, which crops out along the Columbia River and the northern Willamette Valley, also has overall low permeability; however, the basalt supplies water for public, domestic, and stock, and some irrigation uses in western Oregon. The most important aquifer unit, and generally most permeable is the Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary deposits that occur in lowlands throughout the area and provide water for irrigation, industry, public supplies and domestic and stock uses. All aquifer units generally contain water with low concentrations of dissolved solids at shallow depths. In the Tertiary marine rocks of the Coast Range, analyses from a limited number of deep wells indicated that water with more than 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids is widespread at depths greater than about 2 ,000 feet. (USGS)

  11. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  12. An experimental scale-model study of seismic response of an underground opening in jointed rock mass

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Fox, D.J.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to (i) obtain a better understanding of the seismic response of an underground opening in a highly-fractured and jointed rock mass and (ii) generate a data set that can be used to evaluate the capabilities (analytical methods) to calculate such response. This report describes the design and implementation of simulated seismic experiments and results for a 1/15 scale model of a jointed rock mass with a circular tunnel in the middle. The discussion on the design of the scale model includes a description of the associated similitude theory, physical design rationale, model material development, preliminary analytical evaluation, instrumentation design and calibration, and model assembly and pretest procedures. The thrust of this discussion is intended to provide the information necessary to understand the experimental setup and to provide the background necessary to understand the experimental results. The discussion on the experimental procedures and results includes the seismic input test procedures, test runs, and measured excitation and response time histories. The closure of the tunnel due to various levels of seismic activity is presented. A threshold level of seismic input amplitude was required before significant rock mass motion occurred. The experiment, though designed as a two-dimensional representation of a rock mass, behaved in a somewhat three-dimensional manner, which will have an effect on subsequent analytical model comparison.

  13. A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

  14. Protective hinge in insulin opens to enable its receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Menting, John G.; Yang, Yanwu; Chan, Shu Jin; Phillips, Nelson B.; Smith, Brian J.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P.; Whittaker, Linda J.; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Wan, Zhu-li; Yadav, Satya P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Strokes, Natalie; Roberts, Charles T.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Milewski, Wieslawa; Steiner, Donald F.; Chauhan, Virander S.; Ward, Colin W.; Weiss, Michael A.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated “microreceptors” that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of PheB24 to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1–β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (IleA2, ValA3, ValB12, PheB24, and PheB25) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function. PMID:25092300

  15. Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

    A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and

  16. Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Tomlins, Gregory W.; Toms, James M.; Folser, George R.; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Hager, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

  17. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  18. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  19. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-22

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

  20. Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

    1983-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

  1. Cognitive Engagement and Cognitive Aging: Is Openness Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Emily Schoenhofen; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether openness to experience is related to longitudinal change in cognitive performance across advancing age. Participants were 857 individuals from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). Factors for 5 cognitive domains were created including: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, processing speed, and a global score, “g”. Latent growth curve models were used to assess level and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive performance. It was hypothesized that individuals who endorsed higher levels of openness would have higher cognitive test scores and lesser rates of cognitive decline. As predicted, higher openness to experience was associated with significantly higher performance across all cognitive tests for both males and females even after adjusting for education, cardiovascular disease and activities of daily living. Openness, however, was not predictive of differences in the trajectories of cognitive performance over age. PMID:20230128

  2. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    The problems associated with leaking underground storage tanks are discussed. An estimated 10-30% of the 3.5 million or more underground tanks now used to store petroleum products and other liquids may be leaking their contents to the surrounding environment. The EPA is initiating a national field survey of tanks used for the storing of engine fuels. The first phase of the survey will cover a representative sample of 1050 facilities and approximately 2800 tanks. EPA will analyze the questionnaires and then select a sub-sample of about 500 tanks to examine leakage problems in more detail. In the absence of specific groundwater protection legislation or regulation, EPA is planning to use the Toxic Substances Control Act to regulate underground tanks.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... hazards involved. (2) Before an employee enters a street opening, such as a manhole or an unvented vault... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless...

  7. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  8. Axillofemoral bypass for kidney transplant protection during open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Antoine; Rouer, Martin; Horion, Julien; Plissonnier, Didier

    2015-08-01

    The need to treat an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in kidney transplanted patient is a rare event. To date, no method to protect the kidney during the aneurysm treatment has been identified as undeniably relevant. On the other hand, the advantage of endovascular treatment of the aneurysm (EVAR) is to avoid transplanted kidney injury. Unfortunately, EVAR is not always available leading to open repair and then aortic cross clamping. We report here 3 cases of AAA open repair in kidney transplanted patients using a temporary axillofemoral bypass to protect the renal function. PMID:25958120

  9. Multipath protection for data center services in OpenFlow-based software defined elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Cheng, Lei; Yuan, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Lee, Young

    2015-06-01

    With the rapid growth of data center services, the elastic optical network is a very promising networking architecture to interconnect data centers because it can elastically allocate spectrum tailored for various bandwidth requirements. In case of a link failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In light of it, in this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate multipath protection for data center services in OpenFlow-based software defined elastic optical network testbed aiming at improving network reliability. We first propose an OpenFlow-based software defined elastic optical network architecture for data center service protection. Then, based on the proposed architecture, multipath protection scheme is figured based on the importance level of the service. To implement the proposed scheme in the architecture, OpenFlow protocol is extended to support multipath protection in elastic optical network. The performance of our proposed multipath protection scheme is evaluated by means of experiment on our OpenFlow-based testbed. The feasibility of our proposed scheme is also demonstrated in software defined elastic optical networks.

  10. Open source tools for standardized privacy protection of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chung-Yueh; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Kao, Tsair; Hein, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In addition to the primary care context, medical images are often useful for research projects and community healthcare networks, so-called "secondary use". Patient privacy becomes an issue in such scenarios since the disclosure of personal health information (PHI) has to be prevented in a sharing environment. In general, most PHIs should be completely removed from the images according to the respective privacy regulations, but some basic and alleviated data is usually required for accurate image interpretation. Our objective is to utilize and enhance these specifications in order to provide reliable software implementations for de- and re-identification of medical images suitable for online and offline delivery. DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images are de-identified by replacing PHI-specific information with values still being reasonable for imaging diagnosis and patient indexing. In this paper, this approach is evaluated based on a prototype implementation built on top of the open source framework DCMTK (DICOM Toolkit) utilizing standardized de- and re-identification mechanisms. A set of tools has been developed for DICOM de-identification that meets privacy requirements of an offline and online sharing environment and fully relies on standard-based methods.

  11. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  12. Options for Open Issues in Planetary Protection on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    Planetary Protection policies span a wide range, with several new components which currently have only high-level requirements or concerns associated with them. There are various options for more detailed requirements and/or analyses which can be used to meet the intent and specifications attendant with each new policy. Encroachment near a Special Region (SR) requires special consideration. Unless Category IVb procedures are undertaken, no hardware may land within an error ellipse of a SR. However, a buffer zone could be specified, and/or assessment of contamination by windborne organisms taking into account prevailing weather, history of regional dust devils, "cleaning event" disturbances experienced by MER rovers, dilution effects relative to the 1E-4 criterion for equivalence to Category IVb bioburden reduction by dry heat, and time of exposure to harsh UV and oxidants on Mars. Most or all designated SR's are potentially but not yet proven to be SR's. Methane plume detection from orbit or ground-based assets, with consideration of where the putative SR may exist (subsurface?) can be quantitatively compared with the potential for contamination by downward transport of bioburden from hardware surfaces. Similar considerations apply to caves and cavities providing access to sub-surface regions, including evaluation of thermal regimes and compatibility with microbial growth. Ultimately, these decisions may be affected by assessment of intrinsic lethality of the martian environment which could be evaluated via direct experimentation, such as use of bacterial endospores or other hardy organisms that have been genetically engineered to prevent growth on Mars (e.g., knockout genes), with aliquots exposed separately to the full martian environment, to atmospheric oxidants (sans UV), and to the universal soil. Upon return-to-Earth, the survival power of such organism relative to control samples would provide direct measurements that can be used to evaluate and pave the way

  13. Slack and overload rope protection system. Open file report, 28 Mar 79-15 Jan 83

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, H.L.; Fish, R.B.; Jeffcoat, R.L.; Hoadley, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the development of an electronic system that detects unsafe slack and overload conditions in underground mine hoist ropes. The slack and overload rope protection system (SORPS) includes a fail-safe load cell inserted between the rope and the conveyance, and an accelerometer mounted on the conveyance. Signals from these transducers are telemetered via a radio link to the hoist control room, where they are combined with drum speed and chair status in a microprocessor-based decision and display unit. Abnormally high external force levels are detected as discrepancies between rope tension and cage acceleration; conveyance weight is inferred continuously. Hazardous conditions are displayed to the hoist operator, along with general hoist status.

  14. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. PMID:25465948

  15. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  20. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  1. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  2. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  3. Inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.D.; Zahn, T.

    1997-07-01

    This paper, augmented by color slides and handouts, will examine the inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials. Specific items to be presented include: the successful implementation of this type of storage configuration at Argonne National Laboratory - West; facility design concepts with security as a primary consideration; physical barriers achieved by container design; detection, assessment, and monitoring capabilities; and {open_quotes}self protection{close_quotes} strategies. This is a report on the security features of such a facility. The technical operational aspects of the facility are beyond the scope of this paper.

  4. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  5. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  6. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  8. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in Acquisitions From the Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition... Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in Acquisitions From...

  9. Underground Layout Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  10. Edaravone protects osteoblastic cells from dexamethasone through inhibiting oxidative stress and mPTP opening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-xiao; Zheng, Hai-ya; Lan, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Existing evidences have emphasized an important role of oxidative stress in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblastic cell damages. Here, we investigated the possible anti-Dex activity of edaravone in osteoblastic cells, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We showed that edaravone dose-dependently attenuated Dex-induced death and apoptosis of established human or murine osteoblastic cells. Further, Dex-mediated damages to primary murine osteoblasts were also alleviated by edaravone. In osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts, Dex induced significant oxidative stresses, tested by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which were remarkably inhibited by edaravone. Meanwhile, edaravone repressed Dex-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, or mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, in osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts. Significantly, edaravone-induced osteoblast-protective activity against Dex was alleviated with mPTP inhibition through cyclosporin A or cyclophilin-D siRNA. Together, we demonstrate that edaravone protects osteoblasts from Dex-induced damages probably through inhibiting oxidative stresses and following mPTP opening. PMID:26179849

  11. Economic effects of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural land in Illinois. Open file report, 1 September 1982-30 November 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Guither, H.D.

    1984-01-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of subsidence from underground coal mining on agricultural lands in Illinois. In a survey of Illinois agricultural extension advisers, the presence of subsidence from underground coal mining was reported in 31 counties. The most frequently reported problems were the presence of depressions or potholes, standing water in depressed areas, surface drainage disruption, broken tile lines, and reduced crop yields. The most frequently reported attempts to restore productivity from subsidence damage were to dig surface drainage ditches, haul in fill dirt, fill in depressions with tractor and blade or land leveler, and replace tile lines; success was varied. Positive identification of all subsidence occurrences and measurement of the area affected is very elusive.

  12. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  13. Coenzyme Q10 protects ischemic myocardium in an open-chest swine model.

    PubMed

    Atar, D; Mortensen, S A; Flachs, H; Herzog, W R

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial stunning, defined as a reversible decrease in contractility after ischemia and reperfusion, may be a manifestation of reperfusion injury caused by free oxygen radical damage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone), believed to act as a free radical scavenger, reduces myocardial stunning in a porcine model. Twelve swine were randomized to receive either oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 or placebo for 20 days. A normothermic open-chest model was used with short occlusion (8 min) of the distal left descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. Regional contractile function was measured with epicardial Doppler crystals in ischemic and nonischemic segments by measuring thickening fraction of the left ventricular wall during systole. Stunning time was defined as the elapsed time of reduced contractility until return to baseline. Coenzyme Q10 concentrations were measured in blood and homogenized myocardial tissue by high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma levels of reduced coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) were higher in swine pretreated with the experimental medication as compared to placebo (mean 0.45 mg/l versus 0.11 mg/l, respectively). Myocardial tissue concentrations, however, did not show any changes (mean 0.79 micrograms/mg dry weight versus 0.74 micrograms/mg). Stunning time was significantly reduced in coenzyme Q10 pretreated animals (13.7 +/- 7.7 min versus 32.8 +/- 3.1 min, P < 0.01). In conclusion, chronic pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 protects ischemic myocardium in an open-chest swine model. The beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 on myocardial stunning may be due to protection from free radical mediated reperfusion injury. This protective effect seems to be generated by a humoral rather than intracellular mechanism. PMID:8241692

  14. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    a set of rock samples along the mine shaft to compare in situ results with high resolution gamma-ray analysis in the laboratory. The comparison points to a systematic overestimation (on the average, by a factor of two) of the uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations obtained with the portable apparatus. The bias between laboratory and field is slightly smaller for potassium and could be due only to deviation from standard geometric conditions. The largest differences occur in uranium concentrations, probably due also to the influence of the activity deriving from radon stagnation. The calculated radon flux depends on the radium specific activity, which, under the assumption of secular radioactive equilibrium, can be easily inferred from the uranium concentration, and the specific exhalation coefficient. Measurements of specific exhalation coefficient are difficult and only few studies have examined unaltered rocks in details. We estimated the values of this parameter by considering the degree of fracturing, width of fissures and evidence of percolating groundwater. In general, the coefficient increases from the entrance, where rocks are more massive, towards the shaft bottom, where closely spaced open fissures, often filled with percolating groundwater, might boost exhalation. As a whole, both potential radon flux and radiation dose values are relevant to radio protection rules.

  15. openPDS: protecting the privacy of metadata through SafeAnswers.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Shmueli, Erez; Wang, Samuel S; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1) we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2) we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research. PMID:25007320

  16. openPDS: Protecting the Privacy of Metadata through SafeAnswers

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Shmueli, Erez; Wang, Samuel S.; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1) we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2) we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research. PMID:25007320

  17. Population Connectivity Shifts at High Frequency within an Open-Coast Marine Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Geoffrey S.; Parnell, P. Ed; Levin, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50–84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions. PMID:25077486

  18. RESEARCH PROJECT -- TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION OF BTEX AND MTBE AT A LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITE ON LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division has been working with the State of New York Department of Environmental Conservation in analyzing data from a gasoline release that occurred at East Patchogue, Long Island, New York....

  19. Underground laboratories in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  20. Fire hazard criteria for noise control products in underground coal mines. Open file report 28 Sep 79-5 Apr 83

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, M.R.; Giuntini, R.E.; Wessels, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The development of fire hazard criteria for noise control products in underground coal mines are presented. Qualifying requisites of the criteria include maintaining miners' safety, allowing for maximum use of noise control products, and economic feasibility. The burning process is analyzed for its relationship to fire hazard criteria developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration, and the mine environment is analyzed in conjunction with the end-use applications of noise control products. Also, the interim fire hazard specification developed by the Mine Safety and Health Administration is appraised as it applies to end-use applications of noise control products. From these analyses and a literature survey, fire hazard criteria are developed that include an initial screening procedure that evaluates the level of flammability testing required.

  1. Catecholamine-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and mPTP opening: protective effect of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Izem-Meziane, Malika; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Rimbaud, Stephanie; Caffin, Fanny; Fortin, Dominique; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frederic; Ventura-Clapier, Renee

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by catecholamines and to investigate whether curcumin, a natural antioxidant, induces cardioprotective effects against catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity by preserving mitochondrial function. Because mitochondria play a central role in ischemia and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in catecholamine toxicity and in the potential protective effects of curcumin. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injection of 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) isoprenaline (ISO) for two consecutive days with or without pretreatment with 60 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) curcumin. Twenty four hours after, cardiac tissues were examined for apoptosis and oxidative stress. Expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Isolated mitochondria and permeabilized cardiac fibers were used for swelling and mitochondrial function experiments, respectively. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were assessed by fluorescence in isolated cardiomyocytes. ISO treatment induced cell damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that were prevented by curcumin. Moreover, mitochondria seem to play an important role in these effects as respiration and mitochondrial swelling were increased following ISO treatment, these effects being again prevented by curcumin. Importantly, curcumin completely prevented the ISO-induced increase in mPTP calcium susceptibility in isolated cardiomyocytes without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial network dynamic. The results unravel the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxicity as well as a new cardioprotective effect of curcumin through prevention of mitochondrial damage and mPTP opening. PMID:22101527

  2. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  3. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  4. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  5. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  6. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at... the transmission line. If this clearance cannot be attained, the transmission line must be protected... the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, each plastic transmission line or main...

  7. As-built design criteria: B-234 cathodic protection, C.P. wire to pipe connections

    SciTech Connect

    Brezler, T.A.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents the as-built conditions (cathodic protection wire connections to miscellaneous underground piping) that do not otherwise exist on the current {open_quotes}Released for Construction{close_quotes} design drawings. A note will be added to each applicable drawing, referencing this support document.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  10. 75 FR 48325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Docket Center, Underground Storage Tanks Docket, Mail Code... Agency, EPA Docket Center, Underground Storage Tanks Docket, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington...://www.epa.gov/dockets . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Hal White, Office of Underground Storage...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) EC06NO91.024 EC01AU92.048 EC01AU92.049 ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification for Underground...

  13. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated. PMID:1955255

  14. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.7 Identification...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  17. Conservation with underground power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of underground power transmission lines are discussed: their contribution to area beautification; line losses and their causes; the energy conservation potential of large-conductor underground cables; reliability and outage advantages as compared with overhead lines; the history of underground systems; problems with polyethylene insulation; and the development and performance of sodium conductors for underground cables. (LCL)

  18. Science Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart; Keogh, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Cartoons illustrating scientific concepts were used in the London Underground and informal learning sites to raise adult awareness of science and promote lifelong learning. They are also being used in formal learning situations such as adult-literacy classes. (SK)

  19. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  20. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. Methods/Design The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial (‘PROVAR’) is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. Discussion We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012). PMID:24885921

  1. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  2. Dispersal of Bacillus subtilis and its effect on strawberry phyllosphere microbiota under open field and protection conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Hu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Using biological control agents (BCAs) is an essential component of integrated pest and diseases management. Despite much research on biocontrol of plant diseases, success in field crops has been limited with most successes being achieved in greenhouse cultivation. This lack of success is often attributed to the complex ecological processes involved in biocontrol. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to study environmental fate of Bacillus subtilis, a widely used BCA, focusing on its dispersal aspect in open field and under protection. The dispersal of B. subtilis was very limited, particularly under protection. The reduction in the BCA population size was relatively small within 8 days; indeed, no overall reduction in the relative abundance was observed under the protected condition. These results suggested that limited dispersal is probably the main reason for its variable (and often low) control efficacy under field conditions. Thus to increase biocontrol efficacy, it is necessary to frequently apply this BCA with the application interval depending on the growth rate of target host tissues. Phyllosphere microbiota differed significantly between plants grown in open field and under protection but were not greatly affected by the introduced BCA. PMID:26936109

  3. Dispersal of Bacillus subtilis and its effect on strawberry phyllosphere microbiota under open field and protection conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Feng; Hu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Using biological control agents (BCAs) is an essential component of integrated pest and diseases management. Despite much research on biocontrol of plant diseases, success in field crops has been limited with most successes being achieved in greenhouse cultivation. This lack of success is often attributed to the complex ecological processes involved in biocontrol. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to study environmental fate of Bacillus subtilis, a widely used BCA, focusing on its dispersal aspect in open field and under protection. The dispersal of B. subtilis was very limited, particularly under protection. The reduction in the BCA population size was relatively small within 8 days; indeed, no overall reduction in the relative abundance was observed under the protected condition. These results suggested that limited dispersal is probably the main reason for its variable (and often low) control efficacy under field conditions. Thus to increase biocontrol efficacy, it is necessary to frequently apply this BCA with the application interval depending on the growth rate of target host tissues. Phyllosphere microbiota differed significantly between plants grown in open field and under protection but were not greatly affected by the introduced BCA. PMID:26936109

  4. Hydrothermal conditions and resaturation times in underground openings for a nuclear waste repository in the Umtanum flow at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Bodvarsson, G.

    1982-07-01

    Numerical simulation techniques have been used to study heat flow and pore fluid migration in the near field of storage tunnels and canister storage holes in a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in the Umtanum Basalt at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site at Hanford, Washington. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating boiling conditions in the host rock. Sensitivity studies were performed to determine the influence of variations in critical site-specific parameters which are not presently accurately known. The results indicate that, even when rather extreme values are assumed for key hydrothermal parameters, the volume of rock dried by boiling of pore fluids is negligible compared to the volume of excavated openings. The time required for saturation of backfilling materials is thus controlled by the volume of the mined excavations. When realistic values for the parameters of the natural and man-made systems are used resaturation is predicted to occur within less than two years after backfilling is placed. The approximations used in the analyses, and their limitations, are discussed in the body of the report. Recommendations are made for additional studies of the thermohydrological behavior of a high-level nuclear waste repository. 31 references, 76 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R.

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  6. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  7. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  8. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  9. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  10. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  11. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  12. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  13. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  14. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  15. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Ten years Underground. Rover roundup (International Conference on Mobile Planetary Robots and Rover Roundup, Santa Monica, CA (USA), 29 Jan - 4 Feb 1997). Reaching the Red. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of April 1, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  16. Collaborations in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    2011-04-01

    There are programs between underground physics labs into other studies. The Gran Sasso with large halls and dedicated tunnels in Italy and the Canfranc with newly completed space in Spain have geodynamic experiments (A. Bettini communication, 2011). The Low Noise Underground Lab (LSBB of Rustrel-pays d'Apt) converted a former French missiles launching command center to house a SQUID shielded electromagnetically above 10 Hz for global ionosphere and earthquake observations (G. Waysand et al. 2010). The China JingPing Lab has new physics room and tunnels excavated under 2.5 km overburden with rock mechanic changes evaluated (X. Feng, 2011). These are examples associated with tunnels through mountain ranges. In North America, we have Canada's SNO in an active mine with new space and the U.S. effort for reentry into the abandoned Homestake mine levels for physics and bio-geo-engineering studies. We also have underground research labs dedicated to nuclear waste research in Sweden, Switzerland, France, Germany, and candidate sites in Japan and China. All these underground labs are engaging in international collaborations to develop inter-disciplinary studies. The linkage/networking with International Physics is pursued.

  17. In vivo testing of the protective efficacy of gloves against allergen-containing products using an open chamber system.

    PubMed

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M

    1999-11-01

    In vitro degradation and permeation testing of glove materials is important in the assessment of the protective efficacy against chemicals. In vivo factors, such as skin-glove contact, skin temperature and humidity may, however, influence the protective effect of the glove. These factors must thus be considered in the overall assessment of a protective glove. An in vivo glove test should as far as possible imitate the practical use of the glove, as well as the exposure to the product/chemical against which the glove should protect. An open chamber system for human in vivo glove testing is presented. This system enables simultaneous testing of 6-8 gloves with 3 provocation times for each glove. Positive controls (no glove) can be included. As a control of the subject's present reactivity to the chemical of interest, conventional patch testing with a dilution series can be performed in parallel. The method is easy to use and convenient for the patient. It promises to be a useful clinical tool in individual preventive measures against contact allergy. The method can be used in glove testing against many hazardous chemicals, both contact allergens and toxic/irritant compounds in workplaces such as the plastics industry and the chemical industry. PMID:10554059

  18. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

  19. Mechanisms of oxidative stress and myocardial protection during open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A.; Verra, Chrysoula; Kakouris, Georgios; Chounti, Maria; Hountis, Panagiotis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Cold heart protection via cardioplegia administration, limits the amount of oxygen demand. Systemic normothermia with warm cardioplegia was introduced due to the abundance of detrimental effects of hypothermia. A temperature of 32–33°C in combination with tepid blood cardioplegia of the same temperature appears to be protective enough for both; heart and brain. Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) concentration is in part responsible for myocardial injury after the cardioplegic cardiac arrest. Restoration of NO balance with exogenous NO supplementation has been shown useful to prevent inflammation and apoptosis. In this article, we discuss the “deleterious” effects of the oxidative stress of the extracorporeal circulation and the up-to-date theories of “ideal” myocardial protection. PMID:26440242

  20. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  1. Leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McLearn, M.E.; Miller, M.J.; Kostecki, P.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Presio, L.M.; Suyama, W.; Kucharski, W.A.

    1988-04-01

    Remedial options for leaking underground storage tanks were investigated in a joint project of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Underground Storage Tank Committee of the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group. Both existing and emerging technologies were examined. Thirteen remedial techniques were identified and initially characterized as in situ or non-in situ. In situ methods include volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation or containment. Non-in situ techniques include land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification and stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, and excavation. Soil and groundwater remediation problems have many site-specific consideration which must be considered in choosing an appropriate remedial option; these include cleanup goals, site and contaminant characteristics, cost, exposures pathways, and others. Appropriate remedial techniques are chosen by assessing technical, implementational, environmental and economic consideration of each available option to achieve the desired cleanup goal at the specified site.

  2. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  3. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  4. In focus: Underground haulage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    New ideas to improve mining techniques and equipment play a vital part in achieving the productivity improvements and cost reductions necessary for the profitability, and often in hard times, for the survival of mining operations. This paper reviews the development and design of rubber-tired underground haulage equipment currently used in the US northwest. It then goes on to discuss new developments in communication and computerized control systems for these haulage units.

  5. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  6. Outlook for Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Nuclear and particle physics has a long history of carrying out experiments deep underground to search for rare processes such as proton decay and double beta decay and to observe neutrinos from a variety of astrophysical sources. This science program has recently resulted in remarkable evidence for neutrino mass as evidenced in atmospheric, solar, and terrestrial neutrino experiments. These discoveries have fueled a renewed effort in the United States to create a National Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (NUSEL) that would provide the basis for an expanded program of science underground. The research issues that would be addressed at a NUSEL include not only nuclear and particle physics, but also a broad range of topics in geology, geoengineering, and geobiology. A NUSEL would also create new resources for applications of interest to industry and national defense as well as providing a significant new opportunity for education and outreach. In this talk I will present an overview of the scientific opportunities that could be addressed at a NUSEL. I will also provide an update on the status of efforts to create a NUSEL at various possible sites in the U.S.

  7. Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, A.; Caciolli, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Laubenstein, M.; Napolitani, E.; Rigato, V.; Roca, V.; Szücs, T.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  8. An open platform for personal health record apps with platform-level privacy protection.

    PubMed

    Van Gorp, P; Comuzzi, M; Jahnen, A; Kaymak, U; Middleton, B

    2014-08-01

    One of the main barriers to the adoption of Personal Health Records (PHR) systems is their closed nature. It has been argued in the literature that this barrier can be overcome by introducing an open market of substitutable PHR apps. The requirements introduced by such an open market on the underlying platform have also been derived. In this paper, we argue that MyPHRMachines, a cloud-based PHR platform recently developed by the authors, satisfies these requirements better than its alternatives. The MyPHRMachines platform leverages Virtual Machines as flexible and secure execution sandboxes for health apps. MyPHRMachines does not prevent pushing hospital- or patient-generated data to one of its instances, nor does it prevent patients from sharing data with their trusted caregivers. External software developers have minimal barriers to contribute innovative apps to the platform, since apps are only required to avoid pushing patient data outside a MyPHRMachines cloud. We demonstrate the potential of MyPHRMachines by presenting two externally contributed apps. Both apps provide functionality going beyond the state-of-the-art in their application domain, while they did not require any specific MyPHRMachines platform extension. PMID:24859286

  9. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  10. Openings.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  11. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, P.B. ); Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  12. Evaluating Hydrogen Stress Cracking of Line Pipe Steels under Cathodic Protection Using Crack Tip Opening Displacement Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Naoto; Meyer, Michel

    Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD, δ) tests were carried out for line pipe steels in buffer solutions, sand, and clay to evaluate initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at surface defects in buried pipelines under cathodic protection. Four series of line pipe steels and two series of seam welds showed a similar tendency in cathodic current density (i) versus the critical CTOD (δc) curves, irrespective of types, pH and water content of the soils; δc showed a minimum (δHSC) when i>ith (ith=1mA/cm2) in all the testing conditions. δHSC increased with the increasing fracture toughness of the steel. Fluctuation of cathodic current density influenced δc when the maximum value of cathodic current density (imax) was larger than ith. HSC could be initiated at surface defects in pipelines only when imax>ith and δ≥δHSC.

  13. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  14. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground...

  15. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test predictions. This paper documents the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  16. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  17. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  18. ANNs pinpoint underground distribution faults

    SciTech Connect

    Glinkowski, M.T.; Wang, N.C.

    1995-10-01

    Many offline fault location techniques in power distribution circuits involve patrolling along the lines or cables. In overhead distribution lines, most of the failures can be located quickly by visual inspection without the aid of special equipment. However, locating a fault in underground cable systems is more difficult. It involves additional equipment (e.g., thumpers, radars, etc.) to transform the invisibility of the cable into other forms of signals, such as acoustic sound and electromagnetic pulses. Trained operators must carry the equipment above the ground, follow the path of the signal, and draw lines on their maps in order to locate the fault. Sometimes, even smelling the burnt cable faults is a way of detecting the problem. These techniques are time consuming, not always reliable, and, as in the case of high-voltage dc thumpers, can cause additional damage to the healthy parts of the cable circuit. Online fault location in power networks that involve interconnected lines (cables) and multiterminal sources continues receiving great attention, with limited success in techniques that would provide simple and practical solutions. This article features a new online fault location technique that: uses the pattern recognition feature of artificial neural networks (ANNs); utilizes new capabilities of modern protective relaying hardware. The output of the neural network can be graphically displayed as a simple three-dimensional (3-D) chart that can provide an operator with an instantaneous indication of the location of the fault.

  19. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  20. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  1. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  4. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  5. Trends in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This article presents some of the recent equipments developments in underground mining. Recent improvements in the transmission and braking systems of electric load-haul-dumpers are increasing cycle times and lowering maintenance costs. Torque produced by electric motors increases in response to load. This results in very high stall torque and fast cycling machines. Some of the other features becoming available include: improved switch-gear and adjustable solid-state overload relays, the new motor across the line starter device has vacuum contactors, power factor correction capacitors, a DC operating coil to eliminate contact chatter at low voltage, remote radio control of LHDs in mine areas, water-cooled and air cooled engines and hydraulic braking systems. The advantages of hydraulic drifters and roof bolters are presented.

  6. Legislation pertaining to underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Goth, W. )

    1994-04-01

    Statutory authority in California for cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater to protect water quality is the Porter Cologne Water Quality Control Act (Water Code 1967). Two state laws regulating underground hazardous material storage tanks, passed in late 1983 and effective on January 1, 1984, were AB-2013 (Cortese) and AB-1362 (Sher). Both require specific actions by the tank owners. AB-2013 requires all tank owners to register them with the state Water Resources Control Board (SWCB) and to pay a registration fee. AB-1362, Health and Safety Code Section 25280 et seq., requires tank owners to obtain a Permit to Operate, pay a fee to the local agency, and to install a leak detection system on all existing tanks. New tanks installation requires a Permit to install and provide provide secondary containment for the tank and piping. For tank closures, a permit must be obtained from the local agency to clean out the tank, remove it from the ground, and collect samples from beneath the tank for evidence of contamination. In 1988, state law AB-853 appropriated state funds to be combined with federal EPA money to allow SWRCB to initiate rapid cleanups of leaks from underground tank sites by contracting with local agencies to oversee assessment and cleanup of underground tank releases. Locally, in Ventura County, there are more than 400 leaking underground tank sites in which petroleum products have entered the groundwater. To date, no public water supplies have been contaminated; however, action in necessary to prevent any future contamination to our water supply. Over 250 leaking tank sites have completed cleanup.

  7. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  8. Soil criteria to protect terrestrial wildlife and open-range livestock from metal toxicity at mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ford, Karl L; Beyer, W Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Thousands of hard rock mines exist in the western USA and in other parts of the world as a result of historic and current gold, silver, lead, and mercury mining. Many of these sites in the USA are on public lands. Typical mine waste associated with these sites are tailings and waste rock dumps that may be used by wildlife and open-range livestock. This report provides wildlife screening criteria levels for metals in soil and mine waste to evaluate risk and to determine the need for site-specific risk assessment, remediation, or a change in management practices. The screening levels are calculated from toxicity reference values based on maximum tolerable levels of metals in feed, on soil and plant ingestion rates, and on soil to plant uptake factors for a variety of receptors. The metals chosen for this report are common toxic metals found at mining sites: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. The resulting soil screening values are well above those developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The difference in values was mainly a result of using toxicity reference values that were more specific to the receptors addressed rather than the most sensitive receptor. PMID:24310366

  9. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  10. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical protection. 75.814 Section 75.814 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.814 Electrical protection....

  11. 30 CFR 75.824 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical protection. 75.824 Section 75.824 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.824 Electrical protection....

  12. 30 CFR 75.824 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical protection. 75.824 Section 75.824 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.824 Electrical protection....

  13. 30 CFR 75.814 - Electrical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical protection. 75.814 Section 75.814 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.814 Electrical protection....

  14. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  15. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  16. Muon tracking underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Denni, U.; Iarocci, E.

    1986-04-01

    The design and performance of plastic streamer tubes for use in large underground particle-physics experiments such as the muon, astrophysics, and cosmic-ray observatory (MACRO) being developed for Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. The large (1000 sq m or more) detector area required to achieve high-angular-resolution muon tracking in MACRO is covered by modules with eight 3 x 3-cm-cross section active streamer-tube cells each, similar to those used in the Mt. Blanc Laboratory detector. The MACRO modules have a maximum length of 12 m; and the cells have 60-micron-diameter wires, two conducting graphite sides, and two insulating sides (electrodeless electric-field shaping). The results of performance tests flowing 3:1 He:n-pentane through a tube module are presented graphically. Spatial resolution 1 cm and time resolution 100 ns are obtained, and the ability of the streamer tubes to detect large ionization losses with respect to the minimum is demonstrated.

  17. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  18. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  19. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  20. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.F.

    1998-12-31

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  1. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of underground sources... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  2. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Kaladi S.

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  3. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  4. New concept in protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A new concept in protective clothing is discussed. Preliminary design work has been done to develop a garment, a protective coverall, that would provide a necessary cushion of safety to significantly reduce the occurrence of injuries to underground miners. The protective coverall incorporates an elastic undergarment to provide needed support to the lower back.

  5. Underground tank leak detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Niaki, Shahzad; Broscious, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in leaks from underground gasoline storage tanks has had a significant adverse environmental impact on the US. Current estimates from government and industry sources are that between 1.5 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks exist in the nation. Estimates of the number of leaking tanks range from 75,000 to 100,000; and 350,000 others may develop leaks within the next five years. The 1983 National Petroleum News Factbook Issue forecasts the existence of approximately 140,000 gasoline service stations in the US at the end of 1983. New York State estimates that 19% of its 83,000 active underground gasoline tanks are now leaking. Maine estimates that 25% of its 1,600 retail gasoline underground tanks are leaking approximately 11 million gallons yearly. In Michigan 39% of ground water contamination incidents are attributed to storage tanks. One of the primary causes of tank leakage is corrosion of the storage tanks. Product loss from leaking tanks may cause an adverse effect on the environment, endanger lives, reduce income, and require the expenditure of millions of dollars for cleanup. To prevent or reduce the adverse effects of gasoline leakage, an accurate method must be used to determine whether or not an underground tank is leaking.

  6. Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.

    1996-05-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``

  7. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  13. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  14. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING THE SUITABILITY OF USTS FOR UPGRADING WITH CATHODIC PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field applications of three alternate technologies for assessing the suitability of underground storage tanks for upgrading by the addition of cathodic protection were observed and documented. The technologies were applied to five existing underground storage tanks that were slat...

  15. Macroscopic changes during negative pressure wound therapy of the open abdomen using conventional negative pressure wound therapy and NPWT with a protective disc over the intestines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher closure rates of the open abdomen have been reported with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) than with other wound management techniques. However, the method has occasionally been associated with increased development of fistulae. We have previously shown that NPWT induces ischemia in the underlying small intestines close to the vacuum source, and that a protective disc placed between the intestines and the vacuum source prevents the induction of ischemia. In the present study we compare macroscopic changes after 12, 24, and 48 hours, using conventional NPWT and NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source. Methods Twelve pigs underwent midline incision. Six animals underwent conventional NPWT, while the other six pigs underwent NPWT with a protective disc inserted between the intestines and the vacuum source. Macroscopic changes were photographed and quantified after 12, 24, and 48 hours of NPWT. Results The surface of the small intestines was red and mottled as a result of petechial bleeding in the intestinal wall in all cases. After 12, 24 and 48 hours of NPWT, the area of petechial bleeding was significantly larger when using conventional NPWT than when using NPWT with the protective disc (9.7 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm2, p < 0.001, 12 hours), (14.5 ± 0.9 cm2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 cm2, 24 hours) (17.0 ± 0.7 cm2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 cm2 with the disc, p < 0.001, 48 hours) Conclusions The areas of petechial bleeding in the small intestinal wall were significantly larger following conventional NPWT after 12, 24 and 48 hours, than using NPWT with a protective disc between the intestines and the vacuum source. The protective disc protects the intestines, reducing the amount of petechial bleeding. PMID:21529362

  16. CALIFORNIA LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of California. This database was developed and is maintained by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Point locations represent tanks where leak events have occurred. Tank latitude-long...

  17. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  18. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  19. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  20. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  1. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  2. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  3. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread...

  5. Early warning indicators for challenges in underground coal storage.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Juha; Auerkari, Pertti; Holmström, Stefan; Vela, Iris

    2014-12-01

    Early warning or leading indicators are discussed for unexpected incidences in case of large-scale underground coal storage at a power plant. The experience is compared with above-ground stockpiles for which established procedures are available but where access for prevention and mitigation are much easier. It is suggested that while the explicit organization, procedures, and the general safety systems aim to provide the targeted levels of performance for the storage, representing new technology without much precedence elsewhere in the world, the extensive experience and tacit knowledge from above-ground open and closed storage systems can help to prepare for and to prevent unwanted incidents in the underground storage. This kind of experience has been also found useful for developing the leading or early warning indicators for underground storage. Examples are given on observed autoignition and freezing of coal in the storage silos, and on occupational hazards. Selection of the leading indicators needs to consider the specific features of the unique underground facility. PMID:25196594

  6. Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy Using a Protective Cutting System: Technical Advancement for the Accuracy of the Osteotomy and Avoiding Intraoperative Complications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Seo Goo; Elazab, Ashraf; Oh, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for medial unicompartmental arthritis of the knee joint is a successful treatment option but is associated with potential intraoperative complications such as tibial plateau fracture, dislocation of the osteotomy hinge, under- or over-correction of the posterior slope, and neurovascular injury. Therefore we devised a protective cutting system and describe our method for the prevention of these complications. The potential advantages of this system are protection of the posterior neurovascular structures using a curved protector, bone cutting along the natural tibial slope using a superior surface aligning with the natural tibial slope, and complete 1-plane sawing of the posterior wall before the lateral hinge. PMID:27073780

  7. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... drinking water. Burden Statement: The annual public reporting and recordkeeping burden for this collection... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... Safe Drinking Water Act established a Federal and State regulatory system to protect...

  8. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  9. Low frequency electromagnetic signals from underground explosions: On-site inspections research progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-07-21

    We are investigating the characteristics of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic pulse (EMW) phenomena from underground nuclear and chemical explosions and from surface chemical explosions as they may be applied in an On-Site Inspection (OSI) context under a Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The principal application of these phenomena is for discrimination among underground chemical explosions, underground nuclear explosions, and earthquakes. Underground chemical and nuclear explosions both generate low-frequency EMP signals (about 1 Hz) that are observable within several kilometers of ground zero. During this fiscal year we have been gathering data from explosions of opportunity to see if ELF EMP signals are observable from large ripple-fired blasts and from smaller dedicated explosions such as those occurring at the NTS. In addition, we are continuing to review data from the Henderson Mine deployment that took place during FY94 and data from previous underground nuclear tests including Hunter`s Trophy and past underground nuclear tests have been analyzed and we here make estimates of the properties of the EMP ftom underground nuclear ard chemical explosions, including detectability, dependence on yield, and dependence on distance from the source. Data from the Henderson Mine provide information about detection of EMP from typical moderate size underground chemical explosions in hard rock and problems related to detection of EMP in a mine environment located at high elevations. Data from the Carlin Mine site provide information about EMP from surface ripple-fired chemical explosions and detection in an open-pit mine environment. Data from the Kuchen experiment at NTS provide additional data about small underground chemical explosions in a setting similar to that for underground nuclear tests at the NTS.

  10. Implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm in Cape-Open Based Process Simulators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sustainable Technology Division has recently completed an implementation of the U.S. EPA's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm that can be directly accessed from a Cape-Open compliant process modeling environment. The WAR Algorithm add-in can be used in AmsterChem's COFE (Cape-Op...

  11. Polymer containment barriers for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Colombo, P.

    1994-12-31

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in several tasks to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced polymer materials for use in subsurface barriers throughout the DOE complex. Binders investigated as barrier composites include polyester styrenes, vinylester styrenes, high molecular weight acrylics, sulfur polymer cement, polyacrylic acids, bitumen and a furfuryl alcohol based furan polymer. Aggregates include: recycled glass, stone, sand, and natural soils (from Hanford). A series of performance tests were used to determine the performance characteristics of polymer composites. This paper details a substrate of this characterization pertaining to subsurface barriers for containing underground storage tanks with emphasis on the DOE`s Hanford site. Testing includes measuring permeability to water, wet-dry cycling, chemical resistivity to ground water, acid, base, and nitrate brine, resistance to irradiation, and measuring compressive strengths. Polymer grouts having a wide range of viscosities have been demonstrated to have desirable qualities for a subterranean barrier. The goal of soil mortar permeabilities of 1 x 10{sup -10} m/s and {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} aggregate composites of 1 x 10{sup -11} m/s was met. Performance values indicate polymers exist that can meet the requirements for containment barriers for USTs throughout the DOE complex. Proper choice of binder and aggregate followed by the appropriate site specific compatibility testing will result in a durable, high strength, low permeability barrier.

  12. New technique for underground homes

    SciTech Connect

    Langa, F.S.

    1983-09-01

    The world's first underground geodesic dome was built in Missoula, Montana. This innovation, which uses an insulation umbrella constructed of interleaved plastic sheeting and polystyrene insulation, holds heat, sheds water, and costs about 35% less than installed cost of a high-tech elastomeric system applied over an equivalent amount of foam insulation. By day and during summer, the earth bubble surrounding the dome is charged with free ambient warmth. By night and during winter, the stored heat returns to warm the house.

  13. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a)...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 57.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a)...

  18. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) anticipates the acquisition of supplies from the Federal Prison Industries (UNICOR) and the acquisition...

  19. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 15 - Environmental Protection Agency; Class Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office I Appendix I to Chapter 15 Federal Acquisition... Federal Prison Industries and the Government Printing Office 1. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) anticipates the acquisition of supplies from the Federal Prison Industries (UNICOR) and the acquisition...

  20. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  1. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  2. Bayesian Analysis of Underground Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogardi, Istvan; Duckstein, Lucien; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    1982-08-01

    An event-based stochastic model is used to describe the spatial phenomenon of water inrush into underground works located under a karstic aquifer, and a Bayesian analysis is performed because of high parameter uncertainty. The random variables of the model are inrush yield per event, distance between events, number of events per unit underground space, maximum yield, and total yield over mine lifetime. Physically based hypotheses on the types of distributions are made and reinforced by observations. High parameter uncertainty stems from the random characteristics of karstic limestone and the limited amount of observation data. Thus, during the design stage, only indirect data such as regional information and geological analogies are available; updating of this information should then be done as the construction progresses and inrush events are observed and recorded. A Bayes simulation algorithm is developed and applied to estimate the probability distributions of inrush event characteristics used in the design of water control facilities in underground mining. A real-life example in the Transdanubian region of Hungary is used to illustrate the methodology.

  3. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  4. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  5. Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qinru; Jia, Ning; Wang, Weixi; Jin, Hui; Xu, Jiehua; Hu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Substantial evidence has indicated that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is involved in Aβ-induced neuronal death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported as an effective anti-oxidant for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified. In this study, we investigated whether AS-IV could prevent Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells via inhibiting the mPTP opening. The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of Aβ1-42. In addition, pretreatment of AS-IV inhibited the mPTP opening, rescued mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced ATP generation, improved the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and blocked cytochrome c release from mitochondria in Aβ1-42 rich milieu. Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an Aβ1-42 rich environment. These data indicate that AS-IV prevents Aβ1-42-induced SK-N-SH cell apoptosis via inhibiting the mPTP opening and ROS generation. These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. PMID:24905226

  6. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  7. Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program{close_quotes}, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews.

  8. Overexpression of mitochondrial Hsp75 protects neural stem cells against microglia-derived soluble factor-induced neurotoxicity by regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lin, Jizong; Chen, Qing-Zhuang; Zhu, Ning; Jiang, De-Qi; Li, Ming-Xing; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Microglia (MG)-induced neurotoxicity, a major determinant of Alzheimer's disease, is closely related to the survival of neural stem cells (NSCs). Heat shock protein 75 (Hsp75) has been reported to exert protective effects against environmental stresses; however, whether or not it protects NSCs against MG-derived soluble factor-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In the present study, we constructed NSCs that overexpressed human Hsp75 protein and established a co-culture system in order to elucidate the role of Hsp75 in NSC-MG interactions. The results obtained indicated that Hsp75 expression increased after 12 h of soluble factor induction and continued to increase for up to 36 h of treatment. The overexpression of Hsp75 decreased NSC apoptosis and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. Further experiments revealed that the overexpression of Hsp75 inhibited the formation of cyclophilin D (CypD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) involvement in neurotoxicity-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressed the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, as demonstrated by the inhibition of the release of cytochrome c (Cytc) and the activation of caspase-3. The findings of this study demonstrate that Hsp75 overexpression prevents the impairment of NSCs induced by MG-derived soluble factors by regulating the opening of mPTP. Thus, Hsp75 warrants further investigation as a potential candidate for protection against neurotoxicity. PMID:26500047

  9. Inhibition of NAADP signalling on reperfusion protects the heart by preventing lethal calcium oscillations via two-pore channel 1 and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Sean M.; Foote, Kirsty; Kunuthur, Suma; Gosain, Raj; Tan, Noah; Tyser, Richard; Zhao, Yong Juan; Graeff, Richard; Ganesan, A.; Duchen, Michael R.; Patel, Sandip; Yellon, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the heart, a period of ischaemia followed by reperfusion evokes powerful cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations that can cause lethal cell injury. These signals represent attractive cardioprotective targets, but the underlying mechanisms of genesis are ill-defined. Here, we investigated the role of the second messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), which is known in several cell types to induce Ca2+ oscillations that initiate from acidic stores such as lysosomes, likely via two-pore channels (TPCs, TPC1 and 2). Methods and results An NAADP antagonist called Ned-K was developed by rational design based on a previously existing scaffold. Ned-K suppressed Ca2+ oscillations and dramatically protected cardiomyocytes from cell death in vitro after ischaemia and reoxygenation, preventing opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Ned-K profoundly decreased infarct size in mice in vivo. Transgenic mice lacking the endo-lysosomal TPC1 were also protected from injury. Conclusion NAADP signalling plays a major role in reperfusion-induced cell death and represents a potent pathway for protection against reperfusion injury. PMID:26395965

  10. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  11. Impact of the underground injection control program on energy resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.P.

    1983-10-01

    Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that underground sources of drinking water be protected from endangerment by well injection. The Act, as amended through 1980, and the resultant Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations and guidance describe minimum requirements for achieving this protection. Injection wells used in the development of energy resources, for example, those related to oil and natural gas production, and the solution mining of uranium, are regulated under the UIC program. The major features of the program requirements that affect such energy related wells are considered here from the Federal-Regional perspective.

  12. Might underground waste repositories blow up?

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von

    1996-03-01

    Some writers have presented possible scenarios in which a subcritical underground deposit of plutonium or other fissile material might be changed into a critical configuration. The underground criticalities that occurred in Gabon some 1.7 billion years ago in deposits of natural uranium is cited. Other scientists assert that it is virtually impossible that such a configuration could develop in an underground repository. The author presents the pros and cons of these views. 5 refs.

  13. VIPP1 Has a Disordered C-Terminal Tail Necessary for Protecting Photosynthetic Membranes against Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingang; Kondo, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Integrity of biomembranes is vital to living organisms. In bacteria, PspA is considered to act as repairing damaged membrane by forming large supercomplexes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Vulnerable to oxidative stress, photosynthetic organisms also contain a PspA ortholog called VIPP1, which has an additional C-terminal tail (Vc). In this study, Vc was shown to coincide with an intrinsically disordered region, and the role of VIPP1 in membrane protection against stress was investigated. We visualized VIPP1 by fusing it to GFP (VIPP1-GFP that fully complemented lethal vipp1 mutations), and investigated its behavior in vivo with live imaging. The intrinsically disordered nature of Vc enabled VIPP1 to form what appeared to be functional particles along envelopes, whereas the deletion of Vc caused excessive association of the VIPP1 particles, preventing their active movement for membrane protection. Expression of VIPP1 lacking Vc complemented vipp1 mutation, but exhibited sensitivity to heat shock stress. Conversely, transgenic plants over-expressing VIPP1 showed enhanced tolerance against heat shock, suggesting that Vc negatively regulates VIPP1 particle association and acts in maintaining membrane integrity. Our data thus indicate that VIPP1 is involved in the maintenance of photosynthetic membranes. During evolution, chloroplasts have acquired enhanced tolerance against membrane stress by incorporating a disordered C-terminal tail into VIPP1. PMID:27208228

  14. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans...

  15. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  16. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  17. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  18. Active control of underground stresses through rock pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergrift, T.L.

    1995-06-01

    To significantly increase the stability of underground excavations while exploiting the full advantages of confined rock strength, methods must be developed to actively control the distribution of stresses near the excavation. This US Bureau of Mines study examines theoretical and practical aspects of rock pressurization, an active stress control concept that induces compressive stress in the wall rock through repeated hydraulic fracturing with a settable fluid. Numerical analyses performed by incorporating the rock pressurization concept into a variety of boundary-element models indicate that rock pressurization has the potential to improve underground excavation stability in three ways: (1) by relocating stress concentrations away from the weak opening surface to stronger, confined wall rock; (2) by inducing additional stresses in a biaxial stress field to reduce the difference between the principal stress components near the surface of the opening, and (3) by counteracting the tensile stresses induced in the rock around internally loaded openings. Practical aspects of the rock pressurization concept were investigated through a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments. The use of sulfur as a settable fluid for hydraulic fracturing was demonstrated, although problems related to sulfur viscosity suggest that other molten materials, such as wax, may be better suited to practical field application of the rock pressurization concept.

  19. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  20. 46. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior view of elevator system with overhead doors in open position and hydraulic shaft in left foreground VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  1. 77 FR 32665 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Hollister Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA) and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hollister Underground Mine Project and by this notice is announcing the opening of the public comment...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground construction. 1926.800 Section 1926.800 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air §...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground construction. 1926.800 Section 1926.800 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air §...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.956 Underground lines. (a) Guarding...

  5. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  6. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  7. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  8. Engineering management of Underground Storage Tank upgrades and installations

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.B.

    1994-07-01

    Remediation of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) is estimated to cost more than $41 billion in the United States. As of May 1992, 1.5 million Underground Storage Tanks were registered in USA. By September 1992, 184,000 confirmed releases (leaks) were reported in USA. Due to such a vast impact on the environment due to leaking USTS, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published final UST regulations in the Federal Register on September 23,1988 (40CFR Part 280) which affected almost every commercial underground storage tank (UST). In a rush to comply with UST regulations, it is important that sufficient attention has been paid to engineering aspects of the work. Due to wide array of UST leak prevention and detection products available, selection of appropriate instrumentation can be time consuming. Most states have taken federal government standards on USTs and incorporated them as state regulations with their state specific modifications depending on their local geological conditions and environmental priorities. However, it is important to find out that state`s UST program has been approved by USEPA. This paper consists of discussion of issues based on the author`s UST project related experience from current and previous employment. Following are the major UST related regulatory topics discussed in this paper: Specifications;Hiring a contractor; Piping Selection and Installation; UST Selection and Installation; Leak Detection System Environmental Sampling.

  9. Underground storage tank owners face 1998 compliance deadline

    SciTech Connect

    Pruzan, T.

    1993-03-01

    Registered owners of underground storage tanks in the United States have less than five years to achieve compliance with new federal regulations. Of the 1.6 million registered tanks in the nited States, nearly all contain petroleum; only 23,500 contain hazardous materials, according to the Federal Underground Storage Tank Office of Communications. Minneapolis-based Environmental Information Ltd.'s recent report The Underground Storage Tank Market: Its current status and future challenges says only 10% of the estimated 440,000 leaking-UST sites in the United States are now clean. Only eight states have cleaned up more than half of their known leaking USTs. The Environmental Protection Agency has slated 1998 as the deadline for replacement of USTs that do not leak but fall short of the corrosion-resistance requirements, which specify that tanks be made of synthetic or cathodic materials. EPA also demands, under penalty of fines, that all unprotected, single-wall steel tanks must be replaced by 1998.

  10. Excluded USTs. RCRA Subtitle 1, Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Underground tanks that contain either petroleum or hazardous substances are subject to the Federal Underground Storage Tank (UST) regulations. These regulations, issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of Subtitle I of the Resource Conservations and Recovery Act (RCRA) [Section 9003 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA)], establish standards for installation, operation, release detection, corrective action, repair, and closure. The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 9007 of RCRA to implement these regulations at DOE facilities with USTs. Certain USTs have been excluded from the Federal UST regulations. These excluded USTs have been determined by either Congress or EPA to pose an insignificant risk to human health and the environment. By excluding these USTs from regulation, EPA is focusing resources on the USTs that pose substantially greater risk to human health and the environment. DOE prepared a guidance document, Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (DOE/EH-231/004/0191, June 1992), that describes the UST procedural requirements which regulate tanks and piping for both petroleum and hazardous substance USTs as well as USTs containing radioactive material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011). This Information Brief supplements the UST guidance by responding to critical questions concerning how the regulations apply to excluded USTs. It is part of a series of information Briefs which address issues pertinent to specific categories of USTs.

  11. Developing Underground Research at DUSEL: Lessons from Other Laboratories (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Underground and Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) should provide a significant venue for advancing our understanding of groundwater processes in fractured, basement rocks. As the planning for experimentation goes forward, it is important to recognize that underground experimentation has been going through a true golden age stimulated mainly by radioactive waste research, but also by needs in contaminant transport and oil and gas exploration. A complete discussion of the advances of fractured-rock hydrogeology is beyond the scope a short presentation. One area of investigation that has some transfer value from other test facilities is the importance of pressure and flow monitoring in the development of new areas of underground space. Each borehole and underground opening has the potential for changing the flow system. Monitoring and measuring these changes is essential for developing hydrostructural models of the significant conductors and their properties. The employment of multipoint monitoring systems has shown that fractured rock masses may be highly compartmentalized. Results of block-scale experiments at the Kamaishi Mine in Japan and the Äspö hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden have demonstrate that there can be a significant level of isolation between conducting features based on pressure, flow, and geochemical responses. Similar compartmentalization effects are well documented at the USGS’s Mirror Lake facility and the Hungarian research site at Bátaapáti (Üveghuta). The DUSEL site at the Homestake Mine is not well-characterized, other than a recognition that it is largely a dry mine. That said, there has been evidence of large inflows at deep levels that may indicate a level of isolation of the mine from conducting features. The connectivity of the mine to the large flow system will be very important to understanding how mine operations have or have not influenced the hydrogeology of the surrounding rock masses, as some of the most

  12. Auxin Resistant1 and PIN-FORMED2 Protect Lateral Root Formation in Arabidopsis under Iron Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haiyan; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    A stunted root system is a significant symptom of iron (Fe) toxicity, yet little is known about the effects of excess Fe on lateral root (LR) development. In this work, we show that excess Fe has different effects on LR development in different portions of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root system and that inhibitory effects on the LR initiation are only seen in roots newly formed during excess Fe exposure. We show that root tip contact with Fe is both necessary and sufficient for LR inhibition and that the auxin, but not abscisic acid, pathway is engaged centrally in the initial stages of excess Fe exposure. Furthermore, Fe stress significantly reduced PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in root tips, and pin2-1 mutants exhibited significantly fewer LR initiation events under excess Fe than the wild type. Exogenous application of both Fe and glutathione together increased PIN2-GFP expression and the number of LR initiation events compared with Fe treatment alone. The ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine intensified Fe-dependent inhibition of LR formation in the wild type, and this inhibition was significantly reduced in the ethylene overproduction mutant ethylene overproducer1-1. We show that Auxin Resistant1 (AUX1) is a critical component in the mediation of endogenous ethylene effects on LR formation under excess Fe stress. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between excess Fe-dependent PIN2 expression and LR formation and the potential role of AUX1 in ethylene-mediated LR tolerance and suggest that AUX1 and PIN2 protect LR formation in Arabidopsis during the early stages of Fe stress. PMID:26468517

  13. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  14. Waves from an underground explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krymskii, A. V.; Lyakhov, G. M.

    1984-05-01

    The problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave in water-saturated soil was solved in [1, 2] by using a model of a liquid porous multicomponent medium with bulk viscosity. Experiments show that soils which are not water saturated are solid porous multicomponent media having a viscosity, nonlinear bulk compression limit diagrams, and irreversible deformations. Taking account of these properties, and using the model in [2], we have solved the problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave from an underground explosion. The solution was obtained by computer, using the finite difference method [3]. The basic wave parameters were determined at various distances from the site of the explosion. The values obtained are in good agreement with experiment. Models of soils as viscous media which take account of the dependence of deformations on the rate of loading were proposed in [4 7] also. In [8] a model was proposed corresponding to a liquid multicomponent medium with a variable viscosity.

  15. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  16. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at LUNA

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, Matthias

    2008-01-24

    Nuclear cross sections play a key role in understanding stellar evolution and elemental synthesis. Also in the field of astroparticle physics precise knowledge on thermonuclear cross sections is needed to extract the particle properties from the experimental data. While it is desirable to directly measure the relevant cross sections in the energy range of interest for the specific stellar environment this proves to be difficult, if not impossible, due to the effect of the Coulomb barrier, which causes an exponential drop of the cross sections at stellar energies. Consequently direct measurements are hampered by low counting rates and background caused by cosmic rays and environmental radioactivity. In addition background induced by the beam or the target itself can disturb the measurements.In this contribution I will discuss some of the reactions studied by LUNA in the past years to illustrate important aspects underground nuclear astrophysics.

  17. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or... Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or... conducted in fireproof enclosures. Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame in other than...

  3. Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

  4. Iptakalim, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, confers neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by protecting neurovascular unit cells

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Yu-hua; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of iptakalim, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, in transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its involved mechanisms. Methods: Intraluminal occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in a rat model was used to investigate the effect of iptakalim at different time points. Infarct volume was measured by staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax. In vitro, neurovascular unit (NVU) cells, including rat primary cortical neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, were cultured and underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The protective effect of iptakalim on NVU cells was investigated by cell viability and injury assessments, which were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and release of lactate dehydrogenase. Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expressions were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Administration of iptakalim 0 or 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct volumes, improved neurological scores, and attenuated brain edema after cerebral I/R injury. Iptakalim treatment (0 h after reperfusion) also reduced caspase-3 expression and increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax by immunohistochemistry. Iptakalim inhibited OGD-induced cell death in cultured neurons and astrocytes, and lactate dehydrogenase release from cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Iptakalim reduced mRNA expression of caspase-3 and increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in NVU cells. Conclusions: Iptakalim confers neuroprotection against cerebral I/R injury by protecting NVU cells via inhibiting of apoptosis. PMID:21960347

  5. Assessing the acoustical climate of underground stations.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Designing a proper acoustical environment--indispensable to speech recognition--in long enclosures is difficult. Although there is some literature on the acoustical conditions in underground stations, there is still little information about methods that make estimation of correct reverberation conditions possible. This paper discusses the assessment of the reverberation conditions of underground stations. A comparison of the measurements of reverberation time in Warsaw's underground stations with calculated data proves there are divergences between measured and calculated early decay time values, especially for long source-receiver distances. Rapid speech transmission index values for measured stations are also presented. PMID:18082025

  6. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cable overload protection. 57.12003... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall be provided for the trailing cables of mobile equipment....

  7. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cable overload protection. 57.12003... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall be provided for the trailing cables of mobile equipment....

  8. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable overload protection. 57.12003... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall be provided for the trailing cables of mobile equipment....

  9. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cable overload protection. 57.12003... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall be provided for the trailing cables of mobile equipment....

  10. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.1720 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720 Protective... the active workings of an underground coal mine shall be required to wear the following...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 75.1720 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720 Protective... the active workings of an underground coal mine shall be required to wear the following...

  12. Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future: A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resource Management, Open Space, and Agricultural Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity conducted under NASA Grant NAG13-02059 entitled "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resources Management, Open Space and Agricultural Protection, for the period of September 26, 2003 to September 25, 2004. The RACNE continues to utilize the services of its affiliate, the Institute for the Application of Geospatial Technology at Cayuga Community College, Inc. (IAGT), for the purposes of this project under its permanent operating agreement with IAGT. IAGT is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit Corporation created by the RACNE for the purpose of carrying out its programmatic and administrative mission. The "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" project has progressed and evolved as planned, with the continuation or initiation of a number of program facets at programmatic, technical, and inter-agency levels. The project has grown, starting with the well received core concept of the Virtual Management Operations Center (VMOC), to the functional Watershed Virtual Management Operations Center (W-VMOC) prototype, to the more advanced Finger Lakes Decision Support System (FLDSS) prototype, deployed for evaluation and assessment to a wide variety of agencies and organizations in the Finger Lakes region and beyond. This suite of tools offers the advanced, compelling functionality of interactive 3D visualization interfaced with 2D mapping, all accessed via Internet or virtually any kind of distributed computer network.

  13. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  14. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development. PMID:15362708

  15. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  16. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  17. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  18. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  19. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  20. Detection of underground structures and tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H.; Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.

  1. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  2. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  3. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  4. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  5. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  6. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  7. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  8. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6304 - Primer protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Primer protection. 57.6304 Section 57.6304... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6304 Primer protection. (a) Tamping shall not be done directly on a primer. (b) Rigid cartridges of explosives or blasting agents that are 4 inches (100 millimeters)...

  10. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  11. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  12. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory.

    PubMed

    Erchinger, J L; Aalseth, C E; Bernacki, B E; Douglas, M; Fuller, E S; Keillor, M E; Morley, S M; Mullen, C A; Orrell, J L; Panisko, M E; Warren, G A; Williams, R O; Wright, M E

    2015-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of low-concentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., β and α) emitting isotopes with no (or very weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35m-water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the scintillation counter's shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements. PMID:26334781

  13. Genome-wide adaptive complexes to underground stresses in blind mole rats Spalax.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Han, Lijuan; Levanon, Erez Y; Zhao, Jing; Avivi, Aaron; Larkin, Denis; Jiang, Xuanting; Feranchuk, Sergey; Zhu, Yabing; Fishman, Alla; Feng, Yue; Sher, Noa; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hankeln, Thomas; Huang, Zhiyong; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Wildman, Derek E; Xiong, Yingqi; Gudkov, Andrei; Zheng, Qiumei; Rechavi, Gideon; Liu, Sanyang; Bazak, Lily; Chen, Jie; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Lu, Yao; Shams, Imad; Gajda, Krzysztof; Farré, Marta; Kim, Jaebum; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian; Band, Mark; Bicker, Anne; Kranz, Angela; Mattheus, Tobias; Schmidt, Hanno; Seluanov, Andrei; Azpurua, Jorge; McGowen, Michael R; Ben Jacob, Eshel; Li, Kexin; Peng, Shaoliang; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Liao, Xiangke; Li, Shuaicheng; Krogh, Anders; Zhou, Xin; Brodsky, Leonid; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The blind mole rat (BMR), Spalax galili, is an excellent model for studying mammalian adaptation to life underground and medical applications. The BMR spends its entire life underground, protecting itself from predators and climatic fluctuations while challenging it with multiple stressors such as darkness, hypoxia, hypercapnia, energetics and high pathonecity. Here we sequence and analyse the BMR genome and transcriptome, highlighting the possible genomic adaptive responses to the underground stressors. Our results show high rates of RNA/DNA editing, reduced chromosome rearrangements, an over-representation of short interspersed elements (SINEs) probably linked to hypoxia tolerance, degeneration of vision and progression of photoperiodic perception, tolerance to hypercapnia and hypoxia and resistance to cancer. The remarkable traits of the BMR, together with its genomic and transcriptomic information, enhance our understanding of adaptation to extreme environments and will enable the utilization of BMR models for biomedical research in the fight against cancer, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24892994

  14. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. The antiestrogen endoxifen protects rat liver mitochondria from permeability transition pore opening and oxidative stress at concentrations that do not affect the phosphorylation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C.; Silva, Filomena S.G.; Santos, Armanda E.; Santos, Maria S.; Custódio, José B.A.

    2013-02-15

    Endoxifen (EDX) is a key active metabolite of tamoxifen (TAM) with higher affinity and specificity to estrogen receptors that also inhibits aromatase activity. It is safe and well tolerated by healthy humans, but its use requires toxicological characterization. In this study, the effects of EDX on mitochondria, the primary targets for xenobiotic-induced toxicity, were monitored to clarify its potential side effects. EDX up to 30 nmol/mg protein did not affect the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At 50 nmol EDX/mg protein, EDX decreased the ADP phosphorylation rate and a partial collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), that parallels a state 4 stimulation, was observed. As the stimulation of state 4 was not inhibited by oligomycin and 50 nmol EDX/mg protein caused a slight decrease in the light scattering of mitochondria, these data suggest that EDX promotes membrane permeabilization to protons, whereas TAM at the same concentration induced mitochondrial membrane disruption. Moreover, EDX at 10 nmol/mg protein prevented and reversed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced depolarization of ΔΨ and the release of mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, similarly to cyclosporine A, indicating that EDX did not affect Ca{sup 2+} uptake, but directly interfered with the proteins of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) megacomplex, inhibiting MPT induction. At this concentration, EDX exhibited antioxidant activity that may account for the protective effect against MPT pore opening. In conclusion, EDX within the range of concentrations reached in tissues did not significantly damage the bioenergetic functions of mitochondria, contrarily to the prodrug TAM, and prevented the MPT pore opening and the oxidative stress in mitochondria, supporting that EDX may be a less toxic drug for women with breast carcinoma. - Highlights: ► Mitochondria are important targets of Endoxifen. ► Endoxifen prevents mitochondrial permeability transition. ► Endoxifen prevents oxidative

  16. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  17. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  18. H. R. 4681: a bill relating to the treatment of environmental protection and natural resource conservation as aspects of open and fair international trade. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 23, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A bill relating to the treatment of environmental protection and natural resource conservation as aspects of open and fair international trade was introduced and referred to the House Ways and Means Committee. Finding that fair international trade is important to the economic development of all nations, the bill addresses those countries which damage their environments and renewable natural resources in order to achieve a short-term competitive advantage. The bill reaffirms US policy of preventing the degradation of the world's environment in relation to overseas investments, United Nations programs, and the protection of endangered species. The bill establishes an interagency advisory committee to advise the President and Congress.

  19. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in had rock. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, O.C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air storage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site in Maryland were completed recently by EPRI, DOE, and the Potomac Electric Power Company. The present report deals with the geotechnical aspects of these storage systems from a generic viewpoint. Because both technologies are virtually new to the electric utility industry, information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered in the report. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design. Review of the documentary evidence in rock mechanics and related fields indicates that construction can meet reasonable time and cost schedules and that operation of the underground openings should be on a maintenance-free, near-permanent basis.

  20. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  1. Development of perfluorocarbon tracer technology for underground leak location.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, S; McBride, T; Russell, D A

    2000-10-01

    A method has been developed for the atmospheric sampling and analysis of four perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) compounds simultaneously at the parts per trillion (ppt) level. PFTs were pre-concentrated using adsorbent tube air sampling. Analysis was achieved by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). Efficient separation of the PFTs from the other sample constituents was achieved by use of a capillary porous layer open tubular (PLOT) GC column without the need to cool the GC oven to sub-ambient temperatures using liquid coolants (M. de Bortoli and E. Pecchio, J. High Resolut. Chromatogr., 1985, 8, 422) or for a catalytic destruction step to remove interferents (T. W. D'Ottavio, R. W. Goodrich and R. N. Dietz, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1986, 20, 100). Results from test field trials with two volatile PFTs that were buried to simulate an underground leaking cable were successful. The PFTs were detected above ground level to pinpoint the leak position. The highest tracer concentrations were detected within 1 m of the simulated leak positions 2 days after tracer burial. The developed technology was applied to an oil leaking high voltage electricity cable. One PFT was added to the cable oil which enabled detection of the oil leak to within 3 m. The reported method has many advantages over currently used leak detection methods and could, in the future, be applied to the detection of underground leaks in a variety of cables and pipes. PMID:11254045

  2. Muon tomography in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Nussbaum, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland) was excavated in a Mesozoic shale formation constituted by Opalinus clay. This impermeable formation presents suitable properties for hosting repository sites of radioactive waste. A muon telescope has been placed in this laboratory in October 2009 to establish the feasibility of the muon tomography and to test the sensor performance in a calm environment, where we are protected from atmospheric noisy particles. However, the presence of radon in the gallery as well as charged particles issued from the decay of gamma rays may create a background noise. This noise shift and smooths the signal inducing an under estimation of the rock density. The uncorrelated background has been measured by placing the planes of detection in anti-coincidence. This estimation is preponderant and has to be combined to the theoretical feasibility evaluation to determine the best experimental set-up to observe muon flux fluctuations due to density variations. The muon densitometry experience is here exposed with the estimation of its feasibility. The data acquired from different locations inside the underground laboratory are presented. They are compared to two models representing the layer above the laboratory corresponding to a minimum and a maximum muon flux expectation depending on the values of the rock density.

  3. Leakage potential of underground storage tanks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piskin, K.; Dharmavaram, S.; Donahue, B.A.; Mathews, A.P.

    1991-06-01

    Underground storage tanks (USTs) are used to store motor fuel and other hazardous substances throughout the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimates there are more than 1.4 million tanks in the country, of which the Army owns some 15,000. Almost 35 percent of them may be leaking. Owners of tanks with capacities greater than 1100 gallons were required to notify the USEPA by May 1986. This information was used to locate and evaluate underground tanks containing petroleum or other hazardous substances. In September 1988, the USEPA published final rules for UST management that cover the technical requirements pertaining to design, installation, testing, and monitoring, as well as clean-up following leaks. The objective of this report is to detail development of the Leak Potential Index (LPI) and present results of an LPI analysis of the Army's UST data bases. The information compiled in this report was obtained by analyzing USEPA data to profile the construction material, capacity, age, and contents of USTs on Army installations.

  4. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Germata, Daniel Thomas

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  5. GETOUT. Radionuclide Migration from Underground Source

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.; DeMier, W.V.; Liddell, P.J.; Eurkholder, H.C.

    1985-04-01

    GETOUT is a set of four FORTRAN programs and associated subroutines developed as an aid to investigate the migration of radionuclide chains from an underground source. The model to be analyzed is an underground nuclear waste disposal site and a uniform one-dimensional soil column that connects the site with a surface water body. At an arbitrary time after the waste is deposited, the radioactive material is released to an underground aquifer which flows at constant velocity directly through the soil column into the surface water body. The program takes into account the complications introduced by the radioactive decay of first-order chains to produce other species which have different absorption characteristics and, in turn, decay at different rates.

  6. Quantum Cryptography Over 24 km of Underground Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Luther, Gabriel; Morgan, George; Peterson, Charles; Simmons, Charles

    1997-04-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as ''key'' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We are performing quantum cryptography over 24-km of underground optical fiber using non-orthogonal single-photon interference states. Key material is built up by transmitting a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. Our experiment demonstrates that secure, real-time key generation over "open" multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is feasible.

  7. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  8. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall...

  10. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15006 - Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective equipment and clothing for hazards... AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15006 Protective equipment and clothing for hazards and irritants. Special protective equipment and special protective clothing shall...

  12. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be adequately protected to prevent damage by mobile equipment....

  13. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12001 - Circuit overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit overload protection. 57.12001 Section... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12001 Circuit overload protection. Circuits shall be protected against excessive overloads by fuses or circuit breakers of the correct type and capacity....

  15. 30 CFR 75.702 - Protection other than grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection other than grounding. 75.702 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.702 Protection other than grounding. Methods other than grounding which provide no less effective protection may be permitted by...

  16. 30 CFR 75.702 - Protection other than grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection other than grounding. 75.702 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.702 Protection other than grounding. Methods other than grounding which provide no less effective protection may be permitted by...

  17. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  18. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  19. Underground Coalfires as an Incentive and Challenge to THMC Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Fischer, Christian; Gusat, Dorel; Meyer, Uwe; Schmidt, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem often caused by technical operations in coal mining areas. It affects human activities locally but even more important globally through the contribution to global warming by emitting substantial amounts of greenhouse gases like carbondioxid. Investigations of underground coalfires so far mainly with the aim of their mitigation have revealed a network of complex interactions between thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes in this unique systems. Numerical modeling at the moment is only at the brink of being helpful to support the fire fighting in the field, but has already served as a tool to test the overall understanding of coal fire processes and to estimate their environmental impacts. This work aims at summarizing the status of THMC modeling of underground coalfires, mainly from the perspective of the Sino-German Coalfire Project, and gives an overview of the open questions and challenges to rise to if one is up to comprehensive and meaningful modeling work. The main topics are: The fluid transport through fractured porous media is driven by chemical processes at high temperatures causing high pressure gradients. Transport processes occur on different timescales. Thermal and mechanical stresses cause fracturing in the porous media on a huge range of scales, thus constantly changing the pathways for oxygen supply and exhaust gas removal. To investigate any extinction process one has to consider multi phase transport with phase changes (evaporation and condensation of water, transport of mud and cementation, etc.). To interpret surface signatures like temperature anomalies one has to link the underground processes to atmospheric heat transport including radiation. Coal fires are highly individual, threedimensional systems in general without any symmetry. Other problems in geoscience and geoengineering (like nuclear waste deposition, geothermal energy utilization, carbon dioxide

  20. Local seismic effects in Swedish underground mines (Zinkgruvan, Garpenberg, Kiruna)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, Savka; Mihaylov, Dimitar; Hansen-Haug, Jouni; Woldemehdin, BIruk; Marklund, Per-Ivar; Mozaffari, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Three local seismic systems from Institute of Mine Seismology (IMS) were installed by August 2015 in deep underground mines in Sweden - Zinkgruvan Mine (Lundin Mining AB), Garpenberg Mine (Boliden Mines), and Kiirunavaara Mine (LKAB). The areas of installation are chosen within the volumes where large rockbursts are expected. One of the systems is deployed at depth around 700 m and the other two around 1100 m. The horizontal extent of the instrumented volumes is between 65 and 115 m. Each system consists of 16 to 18 sensors. A combination of uni-axial and three-axial 4.5 Hz geophones is installed on the wall and roof surfaces of the drifts, in shallow (~0.5 m) and deeper (6-9 m) boreholes. Extensometers and instrumented bolts are installed in close proximity to the profiles with seismic sensors. Data acquisition systems run mostly in triggered mode, with remote access to the data. Very small to larger seismic events (local magnitudes from ~ -4.5 to 2.0) are recorded during the time of operation. The aim of the seismic systems is to provide data about the seismic waveforms recorded as they approach the underground openings. Data is used to evaluate: 1) the site effect on the amplitudes, frequency content, and duration of the seismic signals, 2) the attenuation/amplification of the seismic waves. The seismic data is correlated with the records from the extensometers and instrumented bolts in case of larger seismic events, rockbursts, and blasting in the surrounding area. The final goal is to obtain new information for improvement of the requirements for the rock support in rockburst prone areas. The results show large variations of the amplitudes and frequencies of the recorded seismic waves within small distances, as well as between the walls and the roof. Data recorded by the local systems in the near-field are used for estimation of the attenuation and for comparison with the far-field attenuation derived from mine-wide data. Results are obtained also on the

  1. 7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. 9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. Regulating the underground injection of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.W.; Giardina, J.A.; Morgan, M.G.; Wilson, E.J.

    2005-12-15

    Florida's battles during the last decade over injecting wastewater from sewage treatment plants deep underground offer a lesson for any future US regulation of the underground disposal and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  6. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  7. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  8. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  9. The Texas Railroad Commission, Oil and Gas Division underground injection control program: A peer review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The reports included herein and any reports added subsequently are the result of an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of state programs to protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW) from potential contamination resulting from the operation of injection wells related to the production of oil and gas (Class II injection wells). The programs examined in this study cover wells which are used for the injection of fluids into oil reservoirs for the purpose of stimulating or furthering their production when natural production mechanisms decline or cease (enhanced recovery wells) and for the disposal of waters produced in conjunction with the production of oil and gas (disposal wells). The programs examined are those where primary enforcement authority has been delegated to the states by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA regulations (see following UIC Development Section of this report). The study was conducted under the auspices of the Underground Injection Practices Council (UIPC).

  10. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  11. The Henderson Mine as an Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, E. D.

    2006-07-11

    The Henderson Mine, operated by the Climax Molybdenum Company, is one of two sites under consideration by NSF to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Henderson, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver, is an active molybdenum mine with large access shafts and high rock processing and removal capability.

  12. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS IN NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Points represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) for the State of Nevada. This database was developed and is maintained by the Nevada Department of Environmental Quality (NDEP), Bureau of Corrective Actions. Each point represents a tank where a leak event has occurred. ...

  13. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs.

  14. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  15. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  16. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  17. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  18. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed. PMID:8153749

  19. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  20. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up activities. (CMK)

  1. Options for dynamic analyses of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.H.; Hsiung, Suimin; Ahola, M.P.

    1993-09-01

    Continuum and discontinuum modeling techniques for conducting dynamic analysis of underground facilities of geologic repository are discussed. Compared with continuum analysis, the discontinuum analysis is relatively new and is most applicable to problems in which the deformation of the system is primarily a result of deformation or slip along the discontinuities.

  2. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and of... cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable and other.... (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of single...

  3. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  4. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: RCRA subtitle I. Underground storage tanks (40 cfr part 280). Updated as of July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This module explains the Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Program established in 1988, that includes technical requirements to prevent, protect, and clean up releases from Underground Storage Tanks (USTs), as well as financial responsibility requirements to guarantee that UST owners and operators have enough money set aside to clean up releases and compensate third parties. Describes the Universe of USTs and the technical and financial requirements that apply to them. Defines underground storage tank and provides criteria for determining which USTs are subject to regulation. Discusses deadlines for upgrading tanks and the closure and corrective action requirements.

  5. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  6. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  7. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  8. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment. This... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment....

  11. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  15. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  16. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  17. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  19. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  20. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  1. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  2. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  3. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  5. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... cables shall be adequate for the intended current and voltage. Splices made in such cables shall...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  7. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance. 75.1712-10 Section 75.1712-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-10 Underground sanitary...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  14. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  15. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment. This... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment....

  16. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment. This... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment....

  17. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  19. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  3. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4460 Storage of flammable liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4462 Storage of combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  5. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall not... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall not... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system...

  16. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  17. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  18. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  19. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  20. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, S. )

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers.

  1. Towards the South African Underground Laboratory (SAUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.

    Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.

  2. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2014-06-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  3. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  4. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993.

  5. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2014-06-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  6. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  7. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  8. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  9. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  10. Funding for NSF underground laboratory is rejected

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2011-02-15

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which proponents hope could provide a niche for the US particle-physics community, faces a shutdown as early as 1 April; the National Science Board (NSB) has rejected $19 million in funding needed to keep the project going through the fall of this year. The lab is housed in a disused gold mine in South Dakota's Black Hills.

  11. 30 CFR 77.403 - Mobile equipment; falling object protective structures (FOPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; falling object protective... object protective structures (FOPS). (a) When necessary to protect the operator of the equipment, all... underground coal mines shall be provided with substantial falling object protective structures (FOPS)....

  12. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  13. Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

  14. Remedial technologies for leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry owns and operates many underground and aboveground storage tanks as well as other facilities for using, storing, or transferring petroleum products, primarily motor and heating fuels. The prevention, detection, and correction of leakage of these products from underground storage tanks (UST) has gained high priority in the utility industry and within the regulatory agencies. The 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA) require the US EPA to develop new Federal regulations for reducing and controlling environmental damage from underground storage tank leakage. This report presents a summary description and evaluation of 13 remedial methods for soil and groundwater cleanup: in situ technologies - volatilization, biodegradation, leaching and chemical reaction, vitrification, passive remediation, and isolation/containment; and non-in situ technologies - land treatment, thermal treatment, asphalt incorporation, solidification/stabilization, groundwater extraction and treatment, chemical extraction, excavation. The information in this report is organized in terms of four major considerations in evaluating the relative feasibility of each method: technical feasibility, implementation feasibility, environmental feasibility, and economic feasibility.

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-05-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  16. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  17. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-17

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  18. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment) is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine. PMID:26098934

  19. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification. [STEALTH Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R.T.; Trent, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent, implicit finite-element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

  20. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, B.C.; Langland, R.T.

    1981-08-01

    Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent, implicit finite-element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

  1. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  2. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  3. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  4. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  5. Numerical analysis of instability processes in underground cavities and of the related effects at the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic caves may represent a potential hazard for the built-up environment, due to the occurrence of underground instability processes, that may propagate upward and eventually reach the ground surface, thus inducing the occurrence of sinkholes. Especially when the caves are at shallow depth, the effects at the ground surface may result extremely severe. In the Apulia region of southern Italy, there are many sites where underground quarrying developed in the past, due to presence at a certain depth of rock of good quality for building purposes. Development of underground quarries, rather than open pit mines, was also favoured by the preservation of the terrains on the ground surface for agricultural practices. The Pliocene-Pleistocene calcarenite (a typical soft rock) was therefore quarried underground, by digging extensive networks of galleries in those levels within the local geological succession most suitable for the quarrying activity. With time, these underground activities have progressively been abandoned, and later on many quarries were used for other purposes, including illegal discharge of solid and liquid wastes. Many Apulian towns are nowadays located just above these caves, due to urban expansion in the last decades and loss of memory of the presence of the underground quarries. Thus, a serious risk exists for civil society, which should not be left uninvestigated. The present contribution deals with the analysis of the main factors at the origin of the instability processes described, also including those causing weathering of the soft rock wihich induces gradual decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the rock mass. Aimed at exploring the evolution with time of the stability conditions within the cavities, numerical analysis have been implemented by using finite element methods with respect to ideal situations which are representative of typical case studies in Apulia. Both the effects of local instability processes

  6. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  7. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall be— (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall be— (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall be— (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  10. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  11. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section 75.606 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection...

  14. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section 75.606 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection...

  15. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section 75.606 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection...

  16. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section 75.606 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection...

  17. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  18. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  19. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  20. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  1. 30 CFR 817.41 - Hydrologic-balance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic-balance protection. 817.41 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.41 Hydrologic-balance protection. (a) General. All underground mining and reclamation activities shall be conducted to minimize disturbance of the hydrologic balance within the permit...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  6. Development of a tank test method for a national survey of underground storage tanks (revised draft). Final report, June 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, H.K.; Flora, J.D.; Haile, C.L.; Gabriel, M.J.; Maresca, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks have become a matter of national concern. Materials leaking from underground tanks can pose a risk of groundwater contamination and in the case of flammable materials, a risk of fire or explosion. The United States Congress, in recognition of this problem, mandated the Environmental Protection Agency to develop regulations for underground storage tanks containing motor fuels. As a part of the regulatory process, EPA was mandated to conduct a national survey of underground-fuels-storage tanks. The objectives of the project were to evaluate and select a suitable method for testing the tanks, quantify the performance of the recommended method, and develop a standard operating procedure for tank testing for the national survey. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary evaluation of existing tank-test methods by literature review and field observation.

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  8. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control doors...-establish normal ventilation to working places....

  9. 30 CFR 57.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 57.6904 Section 57.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 57.6904 Section 57.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 57.6904 Section 57.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 57.6904 Section 57.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6904 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 57.6904 Section 57.6904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6904 Smoking and open flames. Smoking and use of...

  14. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards. 77.204 Section 77.204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  15. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards. 77.204 Section 77.204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  16. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  19. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  1. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  3. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1711-3 - Openings of active mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Openings of active mines. 75.1711-3 Section 75.1711-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1711-3 Openings...

  5. 30 CFR 75.385 - Opening new mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening new mines. 75.385 Section 75.385 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.385 Opening new mines. When new mines...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  8. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  9. 30 CFR 57.8532 - Opening and closing ventilation doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Opening and closing ventilation doors. 57.8532 Section 57.8532 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8532 Opening and closing ventilation doors. When ventilation control...

  10. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  11. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, K. T.

    2012-09-01

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake is presented. The Davis campus is described in detail including the two laboratory modules at the 4850ft level (4200 mwe). These modules currently house the LUX dark-matter experiment and MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. The facility is managed for the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The South Dakota Science and Technology Authority owns and operates the facility. The facility is being considered for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments as well as for nuclear astrophysics physics. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  12. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, S.; Gilchriese, M. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Underground Research Facility, Sanford

    2013-10-01

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) at Homestake is presented. The Davis campus is described in detail including the two laboratory modules at the 4850-foot level (>4200 mwe). These modules house the LUX dark matter and MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment plans to place their far detector at SURF. The facility is managed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) owns and operates the facility. SURF is a dedicated science facility with significant expansion capability.

  13. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1984 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-06-01

    Underground Energy Storage (UES) Program activities during the period from April 1984 through March 1985 are briefly described. Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (>100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, laboratory studies of geochemical issues associated with high-temperatures ATES, monitoring of chill ATES facilities in Tuscaloosa, and STES linked with solar energy collection. The scope of international activities in STES is briefly discussed.

  14. Legal briefs: leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    This is an appeal from the final determination of the New Jersey Spill Compensation Fund denying the Township of South Orange Village's claims for damages arising from the contamination of its water supply as a result of the discharge of gasoline caused by leaking underground storage tanks. The Fund decided that the Township's claims were facially ineligible because they were not timely filed under N.J.S.A. 58:10-23.11k and because the damages were caused by discharges which occurred prior to April 1, 1977, the effective date of the Spill Compensation and Control Act, (N.J.S.A. 58:10-23.11 et seq.).

  15. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  16. The homestake surface-underground scintillations: Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters, a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters, sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters, spanning an area of approximately square kilometers. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described.

  17. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  18. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. F.; Cohen, J. J.; McKone, T. E.

    1980-06-01

    Work in the area of hazard indices was reviewed. A geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground is presented. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking water levels; a persistence factor to chracterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  19. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOEpatents

    Laage, Linneas; Pomroy, William

    1992-01-01

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  20. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.; Fynbo, H.; Inzhechik, L.; Joutsenvaara, J.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Loo, K.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Monto, T.; Petkov, V.; Räihä, T.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Virkajärvi, A.

    2013-02-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed over all of the tracking detector area and even extending over to the satellite station are identified as EAS. The recorded multiplicity spectrum of the events is in general agreement with CORSIKA EAS simulation and demonstrates the array's capability of EAS detection.