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Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form...

  2. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans regarding benefits. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Operation Enduring...

  3. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  4. Optimizing wartime en route nursing care in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Throughout combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Army nurses have served in a new role--providing en route care in military helicopters for patients being transported to a higher level of care. From aid stations on the battlefield where forward surgical teams save lives, limbs, and eyesight, to the next higher level of care at combat support hospitals, these missions require specialized nursing skills to safely care for the high acuity patients. Little information exists about patient outcomes associated with the nursing assessment and care provided during helicopter medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) of such unstable patients and the consequent impact on the patient's condition after transport. In addition, there are no valid and reliable tools to capture care delivery, patient outcomes, and associated nursing workload and staffing requirements. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, a new process was implemented over a 2-year period to measure nursing related patient outcomes during MEDEVAC, and to capture the nursing workload. The use of standard metrics to establish patient priorities and improve nursing care during MEDEVAC allowed the level II forward surgical teams or their equivalents and level III combat support hospitals to make structural, process, and outcome improvements in the en route care programs throughout the Iraq theater of operations. Implications of this program were broad, including establishment of a process to support decision making based on data driven metrics, improvement of quality of nursing care, and defining nurse staffing requirements. PMID:22124873

  5. Intercontinental aeromedical evacuation of patients with traumatic brain injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Fang, Raymond; Dorlac, Gina R; Allan, Patrick F; Dorlac, Warren C

    2010-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury contributes significantly to military combat morbidity and mortality. No longer maintaining comprehensive medical care facilities throughout the world, the US military developed a worldwide trauma care system making the patient the moving part of the system. Life-saving interventions are performed early, and essential care is delivered at forward locations. Patients then proceed successively through increasingly capable levels of care culminating with arrival in the US. Proper patient selection and thorough mission preparation are crucial to the safe and successful intercontinental aeromedical evacuation of critical brain-injured patients during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. PMID:20568927

  6. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning. PMID:27215878

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury and pain in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Romesser, Jennifer; Booth, Jane; Benge, Jared; Pastorek, Nicholas; Helmer, Drew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pain experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who present to polytrauma clinics for evaluation and management. We sought to evaluate the relationship between a veteran's history of mTBI and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on axial pain, head/headache pain, and pain interference. We performed retrospective chart reviews of 529 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans referred for evaluation at two Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Problems with head/headache, low back, and neck pain were frequently endorsed. Subjective pain interference was reported in 21% of patients without a history of mTBI, 31.9% of patients with a history of mTBI with disorientation only, and 36.1% of patients with a history of mTBI with loss of consciousness. Statistically significant differences existed between the mTBI groups on PTS symptom endorsement, and PTS was predictive of pain experience and interference. A history of mTBI with loss of consciousness predicted head/headache pain, but otherwise did not predict pain or pain interference. PTS was strongly related to the pain experience. Pain is common in polytrauma patients. PTS severity is strongly associated with both pain report and pain interference, with head/headache pain showing a unique association with a history of mTBI. Implications for evaluation and management of pain in this complex population are discussed. PMID:23341284

  8. Ocular Surface Symptoms in Veterans Returning From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Yasha S.; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J.; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To correlate situational exposures and psychiatric disease with self-reported ocular surface symptoms in a younger veteran population involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Methods. Cross-sectional study of all veterans evaluated in the OIF/OEF clinic between December 2012 and April 2013 who completed the dry eye questionnaire and screening evaluations for environmental exposures, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The main outcome measures were the influence of environmental exposure and psychiatric disease on ocular surface symptoms. Results. Of 115 participants, the average age was 33 years. While overseas, exposure to incinerated waste (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23–5.81, P = 0.02) and PTSD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.23–5.85, P = 0.02) were associated with self-reported ocular surface symptoms. On return to the United States, older age (OR per decade 2.66, 95% CI 1.65–4.31, P = 0.04) was associated with persistent symptoms and incinerated waste was associated with resolution of symptoms (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07–0.90, P = 0.04). When evaluating symptom severity, 26% of the responders complained of severe ocular surface symptoms, with PTSD (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.22–7.88, P = 0.02) and depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.71–10.68, P = 0.002) being significant risk factors for their presence. Conclusions. PTSD was significantly associated with ocular surface symptoms both abroad and on return to the United States, whereas air pollution in the form of incinerated waste, was correlated with reversible symptoms. PMID:24408975

  9. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health. PMID:27215867

  10. Operation restoration: couples reunification retreats for veterans of operations enduring and iraqi freedom.

    PubMed

    Davis, Louanne W; Paul, Robin; Tarr, David; Eicher, Amanda C; Allinger, Jessica; Knock, Heidi

    2012-11-01

    Couples interventions are promising approaches to help veterans successfully reintegrate into civilian life and recover from combat-related trauma. However, few programs are available to address these needs. This article describes a weekend retreat program we developed called Operation Restoration, which focuses on strengthening the relationships of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans and their partners. We also report results from program evaluations completed by participants of the initial two retreats, aimed at further developing and refining Operation Restoration. The program evaluations explored participants' perceptions of the retreat, including benefits gained, suggestions for improvement, and mental health treatment interests. Information gathered from 43 couples suggests that such retreats may be a useful approach for strengthening the intimate relationships of OEF/OIF veterans and gives direction for future programs. PMID:23066828

  11. A review of driving simulator parameters relevant to the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran population.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Malissa; Amick, Melissa M; Barth, Jeffrey T; French, Louis M; Lew, Henry L

    2010-04-01

    There is currently a pressing need for safe, reliable, cost-effective methods of evaluating driving ability. With recent improvements in virtual reality technology, driving simulators seem to offer a promising alternative to on-road methods of driving assessment. One population at risk for driving difficulties may be veterans returning from combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. The use of driving simulators to evaluate and remediate veterans' abilities to operate a motor vehicle is a rehabilitative goal. However, there are no consistent standardized procedures for determining safe from unsafe driving using driving simulators, which limit the clinical utility of this important tool. The purposes of this article are (1) to give the reader a better understanding of the parameters that are most commonly measured in the driving simulation literature and (2) to review parameters that are most relevant for the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran population. PMID:20299851

  12. Physical activity in postdeployment Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs services.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Kotagal, Lindsey V; Porcari, Carole E; Rauch, Sheila A M; Krein, Sarah L; Richardson, Caroline R

    2011-01-01

    Veteran activity levels may decrease between Active Duty and postdeployment. We examined attitudes and changes in self-reported activities between the two in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey (June-August 2008) of postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans registered with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic data and attitudes, while regression analyses compared physical activities during Active Duty with physical activities postdeployment. Participants (n = 319, 15.6% response rate) reported that they believe staying physically fit is important, they worry about gaining weight, and they believe exercise will keep them healthy (77%, 72%, and 90% agree or strongly agree, respectively). Running (30.0%), Exercise with Gym Equipment (21.5%), Occupational Activities (14.9%), and Walking (13.0%) were the most frequently reported Active Duty physical activities. The most frequently reported postdeployment physical activities included Walking (21.1%), Running (18.5%), and Exercise with Gym Equipment (17.9%). Health problems (39%) and chronic pain (52%) were common barriers to physical activity. Postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans using the VA believe physical activity is beneficial, yet many report health problems and/or chronic pain that makes exercise difficult. Physical activity promotes health, and strategies are needed to facilitate physical activity in this population. PMID:22068369

  13. Spouse abuse among United States Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Foster, Rachel E; Copeland, Carol W

    2013-10-01

    The authors examined spouse abuse perpetration among all married U.S. Air Force personnel who deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Using Poisson and conditional Poisson regression, they compared rates of spouse abuse perpetration predeployment and postdeployment in the population of married U.S. Air Force personnel who had a combat-related deployment between October 1, 2001 and October 31, 2008 (N = 156,296). Just over 2% (n = 3,524) of deployers perpetrated at least one substantiated incident of spouse physical or emotional abuse within the 308,197,653 days at risk for abuse during the study period. Male deployers perpetrated spouse abuse at approximately twice the rate of female deployers. Regarding changes in rates of spouse abuse perpetration postdeployment versus predeployment among all deployers, the authors found no differences overall; however, several deployer and incident-related characteristics moderated this effect. Rates of emotional abuse, mild abuse, and abuse not involving alcohol were significantly lower postdeployment, whereas rates of moderate/severe abuse and abuse involving alcohol were significantly higher postdeployment. Although the majority of U.S. Air Force deployers did not perpetrate any substantiated incidents of spouse abuse, there was variability in the impact of deployment on spouse abuse rates before versus after deployment. The finding that rates of moderate/severe spouse abuse incidents involving alcohol were higher postdeployment suggests a need for focused prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:24015706

  14. Renal replacement therapy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom: a tri-service perspective.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Robert; Simon, James; Jayakumar, Arun; Neff, Robert; Cohen, Irving; Bohen, Erin; Oliver, James; Kumke, Kevin; Older, Steven; Perkins, Jeremy; Grathwohl, Kurt; Yuan, Christina; Abbott, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    Experience with delivery of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in support of combat operations by the U.S. military has not been reported since the 1970s. We describe the tri-service military medical experience with RRT in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Through December 31, 2006, RRT was provided to 12 individuals inside the theater of operations. Navy medical personnel provided RRT to three patients (two U.S. active duty service members and one host nation individual) aboard the USNS Comfort, a mobile level 4 hospital. Dialysis was performed using conventional single-pass hemodialysis machines equipped with portable reverse osmosis systems. Army and Air Force medical personnel provided RRT to nine patients in theater (eight host nation patients and one U.S. active duty service member), using peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), not requiring trained renal nurses or technicians. Originally, U.S. military personnel with acute kidney injury (AKI) who were evacuated from theater to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC), or those who developed AKI at LRMC were transferred to the German civilian medical system, if RRT was required. After creation of a rapid-response dialysis team and, later, positioning of a full-time active duty reserve nephrologist at LRMC, 16 patients received RRT at LRMC. None had required RRT in theater. Renal failure requiring RRT during combat operations remains an unusual but serious event, calling for flexibility in the provision of care. Notably, the Operation Iraqi Freedom experience has highlighted the needs of injured host nation patients with AKI and future military medical planning will need to account for their intratheater renal care. PMID:19055188

  15. Prolonged Exposure for Guilt and Shame in a Veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lisa A.; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Worsham, Glenna; Foa, Edna B.; Acierno, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Morally injurious events appear capable of producing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), even though they may not involve actual or perceived life-threat or a response of fear, horror, or helplessness. Researchers have questioned whether exposure therapies can address these events. The current report presents evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment approach for addressing posttraumatic symptoms related to a morally injurious event through an illustrative case of an Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran with PTSD characterized by symptoms of guilt and shame. The veteran was successfully treated with nine sessions of prolonged exposure therapy, reporting minimal PTSD symptoms one week post-treatment and at a six-month follow-up assessment. Implications for the treatment of veterans with significant guilt and shame using exposure-based therapies, and with respect to the recent changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, are discussed. PMID:25505798

  16. AH-64 monocular HMD visual assessment during urban combat in operation Iraqi freedom (OIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, J. Kevin; Hiatt, Keith L.

    2007-04-01

    In the first two decades of the fielding of the monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) flown in the U.S. Army's AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, a number of studies reported a significant incidence of physical visual symptoms and illusions. In 2004, a similar study looked at the presence of these complaints during the first combat phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The study found a general trend of a reduced frequency of complaints associated with the AH-64's HMD. A follow-up study has been conducted to validate this downward trend and to investigate the impact the shift in mission role of the AH-64 from one of open-field tank hunter to one of close-quarter urban combat. Thirty-eight AH-64D pilots were asked to complete a survey questionnaire that solicited data about the presence and frequency of the visual complaints reported in previous studies. Data for physical visual symptoms and static and dynamic illusions were found not to be significantly different from frequencies reported in the previous OIF study. Both OIF studies reported headache as the prominent physical complaint with height judgment and slope estimation as the most frequently reported static illusions and with undetected drift and faulty closure judgment as the two most frequently reported dynamic illusions.

  17. Select Public Health and Communicable Disease Lessons Learned During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Garges, Eric C; Taylor, Kevin M; Pacha, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    History has taught us that the threat of communicable diseases to operational readiness should not be underestimated. The unique operational challenges of a decade at war in Southwest Asia have left us with many new lessons about prevention and mitigation of disease. The successes of military immunization programs demonstrated the successful application of military science to modern combat. Historic maladies such as tuberculosis and malaria continue to challenge our Army health leadership while new challenges with diseases like Q fever and rabies led to questions about our preparedness. These conflicts also brought awareness of issues about the broader deployed community, and the often unique risks that arise when US service members interact more frequently with foreign militaries, local nationals, and third country nationals. Application of these lessons to predeployment training and integration into leadership decision-making will improve our ability to maintain force readiness in future conflicts and adapt Army policy to current evidence and intelligence. PMID:27215886

  18. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. PMID:27195939

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Vanessa D.; Rozelle, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI. PMID:26771647

  20. Combat Experiences, Pre-Deployment Training, and Outcome of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness. PMID:22253233

  1. Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: application to operation enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Monson, Candice M; Fredman, Steffany J; Adair, Kathryn C

    2008-08-01

    As the newest generation of veterans returns home from their duties abroad, many face the individual and interpersonal aftereffects of duty-related traumatic experiences. Despite the established association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and relationship problems, there is a lack of evidence-based conjoint treatments that target both PTSD and relationship distress. Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD was developed to address this need. The authors summarize knowledge on the association between PTSD and relationship functioning, as well as recent research on veterans and their partners. Following an overview of CBCT for PTSD, the authors present a case study to illustrate the application of CBCT to an Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom couple. PMID:18613094

  2. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Jessica J; Calhoun, Patrick S; Wagner, H Ryan; Schry, Amie R; Hair, Lauren P; Feeling, Nicole; Elbogen, Eric; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-04-01

    Literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence among Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans report estimates ranging from 1.4% to 60%. A more precise estimate is necessary for projecting healthcare needs and informing public policy. This meta-analysis examined 33 studies published between 2007 and 2013 involving 4,945,897 OEF/OIF veterans, and PTSD prevalence was estimated at 23%. Publication year and percentage of Caucasian participants and formerly active duty participants explained significant variability in prevalence across studies. PTSD remains a concern for a substantial percentage of OEF/OIF veterans. To date, most studies have estimated prevalence among OEF/OIF veterans using VA medical chart review. Thus, results generalize primarily to the prevalence of PTSD in medical records of OEF/OIF veterans who use VA services. Additional research is needed with randomly selected, representative samples administered diagnostic interviews. Significant financial and mental health resources are needed to promote recovery from PTSD. PMID:25768399

  3. Over-reporting bias and the modified Stroop effect in Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with and without PTSD.

    PubMed

    Constans, Joseph I; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Nanney, John T; Marx, Brian P; Jegley, Susan; Pyne, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated in a sample of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans how a symptom overreporting response style might influence the association between PTSD diagnostic status and color-naming response latency for trauma-related stimuli during the Modified Stroop Task (i.e., the Modified Stroop Task effect, MST effect). It was hypothesized that, if an overreporting response style reflected feigning or exaggerating PTSD symptoms, an attenuated MST effect would be expected in overreporters with PTSD as compared with PTSD-diagnosed veterans without an overreporting style. If, however, overreporting stemmed from high levels of distress, the MST effect might be greater in overreporters compared with those with a neutral response style. The results showed that veterans with PTSD and an overreporting response style demonstrated an augmented MST effect in comparison with those with a more neutral style of response. Overreporters also reported greater levels of psychopathology, including markedly elevated reports of dissociative experiences. We suggest that dissociation-prone overreporters may misattribute emotional distress to combat experiences leading to the enhanced MST effect. Other possible explanations for these results are also discussed. PMID:24274375

  4. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S.; Bhatia, Subhash C.; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Design: A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Setting: An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Participants: Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Measurements: Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Results: We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health. PMID:26155373

  5. Expanding a professional dental care system: experiences of Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Frank L; Smith, Gregory M; Cobb, James W; Patterson, Craig G; Smith, Mark A; Pollard, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    During Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion managed an extensive dental care system stretching throughout the Iraq theater of operations. We illustrate several of the unique challenges faced by Task Force 261's headquarters and its dental and area support companies, and describe the remedies emplaced by the Task Force. Personnel structure, the evacuation chain, supply and facility management, dental civil-military operations, detainee care, information technology applications, and public health initiatives are discussed in detail. PMID:20084764

  6. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone. PMID:26029852

  7. Access to the US Department of Veterans Affairs health system: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Polytrauma System of Care to meet the health care needs of military and veterans with multiple injuries returning from combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Studies are needed to systematically assess barriers to use of comprehensive and exclusive VA healthcare services from the perspective of veterans with polytrauma and with other complex health outcomes following their service in Afghanistan and Iraq. These perspectives can inform policy with regard to the optimal delivery of care to returning veterans. Methods We studied combat veterans (n = 359) from two polytrauma rehabilitation centers using structured clinical interviews and qualitative open-ended questions, augmented with data collected from electronic health records. Our outcomes included several measures of exclusive utilization of VA care with our primary exposure as reported access barriers to care. Results Nearly two thirds of the veterans reported one or more barriers to their exclusive use of VA healthcare services. These barriers predicted differences in exclusive use of VA healthcare services. Experiencing any barriers doubled the returnees’ odds of not using VA exclusively, the geographic distance to VA barrier resulted in a 7 fold increase in the returnees odds of not using VA, and reporting a wait time barrier doubled the returnee’s odds of not using VA. There were no striking differences in access barriers for veterans with polytrauma compared to other returning veterans, suggesting the barriers may be uniform barriers that predict differences in using the VA exclusively for health care. Conclusions This study provides an initial description of utilization of VA polytrauma rehabilitation and other medical care for veteran returnees from all military services who were involved in combat operations in Afghanistan or Iraq. Our findings indicate that these veterans reported important stigmatization and barriers to

  8. Optical and physical characterization of "Iraqi freedom" dust storm, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Thuraya M.; Al-Dashti, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Kuwait was exposed to a severe dust storm on 19 March 2003, the eve of operation "Iraqi Freedom". Three days of dust events (19, 26, 27 March) were analyzed for their aerosol optical and physical properties using ground-based and satellite-retrieved measurements. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (or thickness; AOD or AOT) at 675 nm, τ 657, Ångstrom coefficient α 936/657, particulate matter of diameter 10 μm or less, PM10 (μg/m3), and meteorological parameters were analyzed for March 2003. AOT exceeded 3 for the 3 days of interest and PM10 concentrations reached as high value as 2,457 μg/m3 on 19 March dust storm day. Retrieved aerosol characteristics from space using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellite were examined against ground-based measurements. A strong correlation was found between ground-based measurements of τ 675 and the Terra-MODIS retrieved AOD550. The synoptic of the dust storm were analyzed and source regions were identified using back trajectory analysis and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index.

  9. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... from returning war zone veterans to identify their needs, concerns and health care preferences. The... Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration, Department... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Health Administration,...

  10. Outcomes of lower extremity injuries sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Lower extremity war injuries are complex because of changes in weaponry and ballistics. Outcomes of a functional lower extremity depend on early transport, early debridement and washout, and advanced surgical techniques such as microvascular procedures. The purpose of this article is to present evidence on the outcomes of lower extremity complex injuries and provide evidence-based factors that contribute to these outcomes. PMID:19752681

  11. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of Veterans Affairs, 810... direction of the Secretary. Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE...

  12. The four free-operant freedoms

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews early free-operant conditioning laboratory research and applications. The seldom-mentioned four free-operant freedoms are described for the first time in detail. Most current behavior analysts do not realize that the freedom to form responses and the freedom to speed responses were crucial steps in designing free-operant operanda in the 1950s. These four freedoms were known by the laboratory researchers of the 1950s to the point that, along with operanda design, Sidman (1960) did not feel the need to detail them in his classic, Tactics of Scientific Research. The dimensions of freedom in the operant were so well understood and accepted in the 1950s that most thought it redundant to use the term free operant. These issues are reviewed in some detail for younger behavior analysts who did not have the opportunity of learning them firsthand. PMID:22478258

  13. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem. PMID:25424846

  14. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  15. Space Station Freedom payload operations from the user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robey, J. L.; Leech, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) operations concept for using the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program ground data systems and services, and the plans for and capabilities of the MSAD remote User Operations Facilities (UOF) from which the MSAD SSF payloads will be operated. Attention is given to the MSAD operational phases, the MSAD UOF concept, and UOF operations teams. MSAD is planning remote payload operations for a number of Spacelab missions which will supply MSAD valuable information for application to the development of UOFs in the SSF era.

  16. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  17. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  18. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD. PMID:25005502

  19. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  20. 75 FR 1120 - Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected......

  1. Cardiovascular Complaints Among Military Members During Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Watts, James A; Russo, Frank D; Villines, Todd C; Jones, Samuel O; Patino, Gilberto; Nasir, Javed M; Eckart, Robert E; Steel, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    During Operation Enduring Freedom, the US military began deploying a dedicated theater cardiology consultant to Afghanistan in an effort to increase rates of return to duty in service members with cardiovascular complaints. This study was designed to categorize these complaints and determine the effect on both aeromedical evacuation and return to duty rates during a 2.5 year observation period. A total of 1,495 service members were evaluated, with 43% presenting due to chest pain followed by arrhythmias/palpitations (24.5%) and syncope (13.5%). Eighty-five percent of individuals returned to duty, most commonly with complaints of noncardiac chest pain, palpitations, or abnormal electrocardiograms. Fifteen percent were evacuated out of theater, most often with acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolus, or ventricular tachycardia. The forward-deployed theater cardiology consultant is vital in the disposition of military members by effectively parsing out life threatening cardiovascular conditions versus low risk diagnoses that can safely return to duty. PMID:27215883

  2. The Freedom of Information Act: Its Evolution and Operational Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    Finds that the amended Freedom of Information Act is being efficiently and effectively administered by most Federal Executive Branch agencies and outlines measures that might further improve the effectiveness of the law. (GW)

  3. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  4. FROST - FREEDOM OPERATIONS SIMULATION TEST VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Information System processes and transmits data between the space station and the station controllers and payload operators on the ground. Components of the system include flight hardware, communications satellites, software and ground facilities. FROST simulates operation of the SSF Information System, tracking every data packet from generation to destination for both uplinks and downlinks. This program collects various statistics concerning the SSF Information System operation and provides reports of these at user-specified intervals. Additionally, FROST has graphical display capability to enhance interpretation of these statistics. FROST models each of the components of the SSF Information System as an object, to which packets are generated, received, processed, transmitted, and/or dumped. The user must provide the information system design with specified parameters and inter-connections among objects. To aid this process, FROST supplies an example SSF Information System for simulation, but this example must be copied before it is changed and used for further simulation. Once specified, system architecture and parameters are put into the input file, named the Test Configuration Definition (TCD) file. Alternative system designs can then be simulated simply by editing the TCD file. Within this file the user can define new objects, alter object parameters, redefine paths, redefine generation rates and windows, and redefine object interconnections. At present, FROST does not model every feature of the SSF Information System, but it is capable of simulating many of the system's important functions. To generate data messages, which can come from any object, FROST defines "windows" to specify when, what kind, and how much of that data is generated. All messages are classified by priority as either (1)emergency (2)quick look (3)telemetry or (4)payload data. These messages are processed by all objects according to priority. That is, all priority

  5. The Administration and Operation of the Freedom of Information Act: A Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses aspects of the administration of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), including operational and cost considerations. The idea of applying the FOIA to the legislative branch of the federal government is discussed. (Contains 64 references.) (KRN)

  6. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  7. The expanded role of computers in Space Station Freedom real-time operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R. Paul; Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1990-01-01

    The challenges that NASA and its international partners face in their real-time operation of the Space Station Freedom necessitate an increased role on the part of computers. In building the operational concepts concerning the role of the computer, the Space Station program is using lessons learned experience from past programs, knowledge of the needs of future space programs, and technical advances in the computer industry. The computer is expected to contribute most significantly in real-time operations by forming a versatile operating architecture, a responsive operations tool set, and an environment that promotes effective and efficient utilization of Space Station Freedom resources.

  8. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  9. Space Station Freedom technology payload user operations facility concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Gary N.; Avery, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a concept for a User Operations Facility (UOF) for payloads sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The UOF can be located at any OAST sponsored center; however, for planning purposes, it is assumed that the center will be located at Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  10. EVA operational guidelines and considerations for use during the Space Station Freedom design review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The EVA hardware interfaces, standards, and considerations are examined, as are guidelines that EVA operations engineer will use when reviewing the design packages from the EVA operational point of view. By utilizing both the EVA and robotics interfaces standards, design requirements, and the EVA operational guidelines and considerations, the Space Station Freedom program design can be more cost effective in the long term and also more compatible and friendly for on-orbit assembly and on-orbit maintenance and repair.

  11. Impacting Space Station Freedom design with operations and safety requirements - An availability process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry J.; Schondorf, Steven Y.

    1990-01-01

    The unusually long mission duration of Space Station Freedom leads to operations costs that have significant impacts on life-cycle cost relative to previous manned space programs. Maintaining an affordable program requires that operations costs be considered throughout the design process. An appropriate means of impacting the design with operations concerns is to specify requirements that ensure operational effectiveness when implemented. The Space Station Freedom Program has developed a process defining such requirements. It focuses on specifying functional profiles and allocating resources such that designers gain a better understanding of the operational envelope in which their systems must perform. This paper examines the details of the process, where it came from, and why it is effective.

  12. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  13. 31 CFR 575.309 - Iraq; Iraqi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraq; Iraqi. 575.309 Section 575.309... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.309 Iraq; Iraqi. The term Iraq means the country of Iraq and any territory under the jurisdiction or...

  14. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., grown, or processed within Iraq; (b) Goods which have entered into Iraqi commerce; (c) Services performed in Iraq or by a Iraqi national who is acting as an agent, employee, or contractor of the Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported...

  15. On-orbit operations of the Space Station Freedom attached payloads accommodations equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Jean Folse; Stivaletti, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom which will serve as a base of operations for instruments performing space science is discussed. The Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE) will be a set of equipment designed to provide standard structural, power, data and thermal interfaces between payloads and the space station. The APAE is designed to minimize and simplify the on-orbit operations required for payload installation, replacement, and servicing. In addition, the APAE supplies launch support for small payloads and attitude control for payloads that required it.

  16. Considerations for a design and operations knowledge support system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Crouse, Kenneth H.; Wechsler, Donald B.; Flaherty, Douglas R.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering and operations of modern engineered systems depend critically upon detailed design and operations knowledge that is accurate and authoritative. A design and operations knowledge support system (DOKSS) is a modern computer-based information system providing knowledge about the creation, evolution, and growth of an engineered system. The purpose of a DOKSS is to provide convenient and effective access to this multifaceted information. The complexity of Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) systems, elements, interfaces, and organizations makes convenient access to design knowledge especially important, when compared to simpler systems. The life cycle length, being 30 or more years, adds a new dimension to space operations, maintenance, and evolution. Provided here is a review and discussion of design knowledge support systems to be delivered and operated as a critical part of the engineered system. A concept of a DOKSS for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of a DOKSS for the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Work Package-2 portions of SSF.

  17. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport,…

  18. Design, operation, and critical issues of the U.S. Space Station Freedom propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Henderson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) propulsion system is a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen-based system for primary reboost, attitude control, and station contingencies using electrolyzed water as a propellant. A secondary propulsion reboost system employs multipropellant resistojets which utilize the various waste gases generated during normal station operations. The hydrogen/oxygen propulsion system is comprised of several modules which contain thrusters, propellant storage tanks, regulation subsystems, water electrolysis units, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The resistojet system is comprised of one module containing the resistojets, regulators, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The waste gas propellant storage takes place in the Fluid Management System.

  19. U.S. Space Station Freedom Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) design and operational impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Brian A.; Winters, Donna M.

    1992-07-01

    Current designs of the U.S. Space Station Freedom Propulsion System require the capability to perform reboost, attitude control, and other orbit adjustment maneuvers as part of normal operations. In order to reduce the quantity of hydrazine consumed by the Primary Propulsion System, the propulsion system includes the capability to propulsively dispose waste gases that are generated by various station systems and experiments. The impulses generated by the Supplemental Reboost System (SRS) are used to offset orbital decay due to atmospheric drag and reduce propellant requirements. This paper presents the designs of the SRS including schematics of the waste gas collection architecture, various system and component characteristics, and methods of system operation. Estimates of waste gas quantities, propellant savings, and operational altitude impacts are provided.

  20. STS-49 - A demonstration of EMU operational capabilities for Space Station Freedom assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleisath, Scott A.; Johnson, Kieth G.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary objectives for Space Shuttle mission STS-49 is to perform three EVAs on consecutive days in a manner similar to those planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly missions. The preparation and completion of this mission will serve as a pathfinder for future EVA intensive SSF assembly flights. Several operational issues pertaining to the EMU have been addressed in preparation for this mission. Provisioning and orbiter stowage of the EMU and associated hardware have been optimized for four EVA crewmembers. EMU preparatory and maintenance activities have been streamlined to help minimize crew overhead and have been carefully integrated into a very demanding mission timeline. The constraints and limitations have been assessed in providing a backup EMU capability for each EVA crewmember. Several EMU concerns have also been addressed in supporting new EVA task requirements, such as large mass handling and performing SSF assembly operations over the crew cabin and nose of the Shuttle orbiter.

  1. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  2. An optical approach to proximity-operations communications for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshalek, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    An optical communications system is described that supports bi-directional interconnections between Space Station Freedom (SSF) and a host of attached and co-orbiting platforms. These proximity-operations (Prox-Ops) platforms are categorized by their maximum distance from SSF, with several remaining inside 1-km range and several extending out to 37-km and 2000-km ranges in the initial and growth phases, respectively. Two distinct Prox-Ops optical terminals are described. A 1-cm-aperture system is used on the short-range platforms to reduce payload mass, and a 10-cm-aperture system is used on the long-range platforms and on SSF to support the optical link budgets. The system supports up to four simultaneous user links, by assigning wavelengths to the various platforms and by using separate SSF terminals for each link.

  3. Freedom-to-operate analysis of a transgenic multivitamin corn variety.

    PubMed

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Thangaraj, Harry

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we explore the intellectual property (IP) landscape relevant to the production and commercialization of Carolight(™) , a transgenic multivitamin corn variety created on humanitarian grounds to address micronutrient deficiencies in low-and-middle-income countries. The successful production of this variety requires IP rights risk management because there is a strong protection on inventions and processes via patent portfolios in both developing and industrialized countries. The IP framework is complex, and specialist patent lawyers are usually employed to perform such analysis, but the costs cannot always be met by small, publicly funded projects. We report an alternative strategy, a do-it-yourself patent analysis, to produce a review with limited legal value that can nevertheless lay the foundations for a subsequent more in-depth professional freedom-to-operate opinion. PMID:26471770

  4. A radiological assessment of nuclear power and propulsion operations near Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. Lee; Nelson, Paul; Marshall, David T.; Busche, Donna M.

    1990-01-01

    Scenarios were identified which involve the use of nuclear power systems in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and their radiological impact on the SSF crew was quantified. Several of the developed scenarios relate to the use of SSF as an evolutionary transportation node for lunar and Mars missions. In particular, radiation doses delivered to SSF crew were calculated for both the launch and subsequent return of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) cargo vehicle and a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) personnel vehicle to low earth orbit. The use of nuclear power on co-orbiting platforms and the storage and handling issues associated with radioisotope power systems were also explored as they relate to SSF. A central philosophy in these analyses was the utilization of a radiation dose budget, defined as the difference between recommended dose limits from all radiation sources and estimated doses received by crew members from natural space radiations. Consequently, for each scenario examined, the dose budget concept was used to identify and quantify constraints on operational parameters such as launch separation distances, returned vehicle parking distances, and reactor shutdown times prior to vehicle approach. The results indicate that realistic scenarios do not exist which would preclude the use of nuclear power sources in the vicinity of SSF. The radiation dose to the SSF crew can be maintained at safe levels solely by implementing proper and reasonable operating procedures.

  5. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  6. Design for an integrated discipline operations control center for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents selected features of a human factors oriented plan for a Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground Discipline Operations Center (DOC) that is integrated with other work areas used by multidisciplinary life scientists. This combined facility is referred to as an integrated DOC or IDOC. This plan is based upon the assumption that there will be a constantly changing array of specialized equipment and procedures used by life sciences principal investigators (PI) on the ground which must be linked to SSF through various DOC systems. Other sites will also be able to communicate with SSF (Anon., 1992). It is also assumed that cost reduction will be a major design consideration and that one integrated structure will be less expensive to build and operate than two separate ones. Since both the DOC personnel and PIs will need to communicate with the flight crew aboard SSF, the general interconnect architecture of the PIs' communication linkage is considered here. Key human factor design elements of this plan include: a candidate facility layout which accommodates three (3), multipurpose, rapidly reconfigurable work areas (suites) and consequent user traffic flow considerations, a multimedia telecommunications support capability, functional (human) traffic flow, optimized internal illumination and acoustics requirements, selected volumetric and safety requirements, and other architectural design parameters.

  7. Aviator's night vision system (ANVIS) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): user acceptability survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Trollman, Christopher J.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    In 1973, the U.S. Army adopted night vision devices for use in the aviation environment. These devices are based on the principle of image intensification (I2) and have become the mainstay for the aviator's capability to operate during periods of low illumination, i.e., at night. In the nearly four decades that have followed, a number of engineering advancements have significantly improved the performance of these devices. The current version, using 3rd generation I2 technology is known as the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). While considerable experience with performance has been gained during training and peacetime operations, no previous studies have looked at user acceptability and performance issues in a combat environment. This study was designed to compare Army Aircrew experiences in a combat environment to currently available information in the published literature (all peacetime laboratory and field training studies) and to determine if the latter is valid. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess aircrew satisfaction with the ANVIS and any visual performance issues or problems relating to its use in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The study consisted of an anonymous survey (based on previous validated surveys used in the laboratory and training environments) of 86 Aircrew members (64% Rated and 36% Non-rated) of an Aviation Task Force approximately 6 months into their OEF deployment. This group represents an aggregate of >94,000 flight hours of which ~22,000 are ANVIS and ~16,000 during this deployment. Overall user acceptability of ANVIS in a combat environment will be discussed.

  8. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  9. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  10. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  11. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  12. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  13. Visa Process Keeps Iraqi Students out of U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that American visa procedures have prevented graduate students from taking advantage of the Iraqi government's program to study in the United States. Iraqi students seeking to come to American colleges on full scholarships from the Iraqi government face so many hurdles in obtaining a visa that few are able to enter the…

  14. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  15. Design and operation of the U.S. Space Station Freedom Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    1991-01-01

    The propulsion functions for the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF) are accomplished by two separate systems, the Primary Propulsion System and the Supplemental Reboost System (SRS). The Primary Propulsion System includes self-contained hydrazine modules for station reboost, attitude control and contingency maneuvers. These Propulsion Modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, propellant storage, thermal conditioning and electronic controls. The modules are serviced on the ground and launched on the Space Shuttle as replacements for the on-orbit modules which have expended their propellant. The expended modules are returned to the ground for reservicing and subsequent reuse. The Supplemental Reboost System includes a Waste Gas Assembly and Resistojet Modules which are used for reboost maneuvers only. The Waste Gas Assembly contains waste gas storage, compressors and dryers and the Resistojet Modules contain multipropellant resistojet thrusters, electronic pressure regulators and power conditioning equipment.

  16. Design and operation of the US Space Station Freedom propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion functions for the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF) are accomplished by two separate systems, the Primary Propulsion System and the Supplemental Reboost System (SRS). The Primary Propulsion System includes self-contained hydrazine modules for station reboost, attitude control, and contingency maneuvers. These Propulsion Modules contain reboost and attitude control thrusters, propellant storage, thermal conditioning, and electronic controls. The modules are serviced on the ground and launched on the Space Shuttle as replacements for the on-orbit modules which have expended their propellant. The expended modules are returned to the ground for reservicing and subsequent reuse. The Supplemental Reboost System includes a Waste Gas Assembly and Resistojet Modules which are used for reboost maneuvers only. The Waste Gas Assembly contains waste gas storage, compressors, and dryers, and the Resistojet Modules contain multipropellant resistojet thrusters, electronic pressure regulators and power conditioning equipment.

  17. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is provided of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Program, with emphasis on plans for evolution to the Space Station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division program consists of two major parts including the ground-based research program and the flight program. Transition to flight experiment status may occur only after the ground-based research and testing demonstrates sufficient technical maturity to assure that scientific objectives can be met in space with a high degree of success. Program strategy calls for a transition to the Space Station Freedom before the end of the century. In this connection, six multi-user facilities are planned to be phased into operation aboard the Space Station over an extended time frame. It is projected that the design of these facilities will evolve based on experience with precursor experiment hardware designed and operated on Skylab and other carriers.

  18. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  19. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    PubMed

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children <18 years in the household, no financial challenges upon arrival, and borrowing money in Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented. PMID:22325027

  20. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  1. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies. PMID:26761388

  2. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    PubMed

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan. PMID:27150657

  3. Health system reconstruction: Perspectives of Iraqi physicians

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.; Sindi, A.; Fennie, K.

    2010-01-01

    In conflict or post-conflict situations, health system reconstruction becomes a critical component of ensuring stability. The purpose of this study was to determine the priorities for health system reconstruction among Iraqi physicians residing in the northern region of the country. A convenience sample of practicing male and female physicians residing in the Kurdish region completed a 13-item survey about health system reconstruction. A total of 1001 practitioners completed the survey with gender breakdown of 29% female and 71% male, all working in different specialty areas. Significant differences between the providers based on gender (p = 0.001), specialty (p = 0.001) and geographic location (p = 0.004) were found to affect the responses of the participants. This study demonstrates that input from healthcare professionals is important for health system reconstruction, but that gender, geography and medical specialty make the process complex. PMID:20155543

  4. A definition study of the on-orbit assembly operations for the outboard photovoltaic power modules for Space Station Freedom. M.S. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sours, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is described for the assembly of the outboard PV modules for Space Station Freedom. Analysis of the on-orbit assembly operations was performed using CADAM design graphics software. A scenario for assembly using the various assembly equipment, as currently defined, is described in words, tables and illustrations. This work is part of ongoing studies in the area of space station assembly. The outboard PV module and the assembly equipment programs are all in definition and preliminary design phases. An input is provided to the design process of assembly equipment programs. It is established that the outboard PV module assembly operations can be performed using the assembly equipment currently planned in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  5. Freedom Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Freedom crater, located in Acidalia Planitia, exhibits a concentric ring pattern in its interior, suggesting that there has been some movement of these materials towards the center of the crater. Slumping towards the center may have been caused by the presence of ground ice mixed in with the sediments. The origin for the scarps on the western edge of the interior deposit is unknown.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.3, Longitude 351.3 East (8.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  6. 31 CFR 575.410 - Imports of Iraqi goods from third countries; transshipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., substantial transformation of Iraqi-origin goods in a third country does not exempt the third-country products... raw materials or components of Iraqi origin is prohibited. In light of the universal prohibition...

  7. Intellectual Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  8. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  9. Military nursing care of Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Petra; Edge, Bethany; Agazio, Janice; Prue-Owens, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand military nurses' experiences of care for Iraqi patients. Analysis yielded three themes-expanding practice, ethical dilemmas, and the cultural divide. "Expanding practice" is the nurses' descriptions of their personal initiative to seek opportunities for learning additional knowledge and skills so that they would be competent to provide care for all ages of patients from newborns to the elderly with a wide variety of complex diagnoses. "Ethical dilemmas" represented the mental distress the nurses experienced when confronted with moral imperatives related to the safe care of the patient. Nurses were faced with feelings of animosity toward provision of care of host nation patients, lack of trust in interpreters, and distressed because of their inability to ensure continuity of care. The "cultural divide" showed the challenges that the nurses confronted when caring for a population with a different language, value system, customs, and traditions. The themes support existing research and extend information about care of host nation patients adding depth and breadth to specific content areas. These nurses developed situated knowledge needed for particular challenges and experienced personal and professional growth. PMID:24005551

  10. Frictional hair loss in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Sharquie, Khalifa E; Al-Rawi, Jamal R; Al-Janabi, Hassan A

    2002-07-01

    A total of 50 Iraqi male patients with frictional hair loss were studied. Their ages ranged from 27-55 years with a mean +/- SD of 40.60 +/- 7.82 years. The age of onset ranged from 26-50 years with a mean +/- SD of 38 +/- 7.3 years. The duration of disease was 1-5 years, mean +/- SD 2.2 +/- 1.3. Middle age was the most common age group affected. Patterns of hair loss were as follows; bilateral thighs & legs 13 (26%), bilateral thighs alone in 9 patients (18%), bilateral shins & calves (legs) in 4 patients (8%), abdomen alone in 8 patients (16%), thigh and abdomen 4 (8%) patients, legs & abdomen 4 (8%) patients, and all sites in 12 patients (24%). The pattern of patchy hair loss showed some etiological preference. It was found to be due to continuous pressure from socks, trousers and bed. Skin biopsies from five patients showed apparently normal histology. Twenty-six (52%) of the cases were healthy. There were no important medical or dermatological associations, such as alopecia areata or peripheral neuropathy in any patient although unrelated medical conditions were seen in 24 (48%). To the best of our knowledge, this type of patchy hair loss has attracted very little attention in the past, and the literature appeared to be deficient in references to this problem. PMID:12184639

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section 252.225-7022 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product,...

  13. University Freedom in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolasir, Semiyha

    2006-01-01

    Freedom means the right of the universities to do their scientific activities and to regulate and do the higher education through their organs. The three feet that make up the university freedom are scientific freedom, administrative freedom and financial freedom. Scientific freedom is realized by the freedom of the faculty and teaching staff and…

  14. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  15. Never Say Never: The Case for Iraqi Judeo-Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia

    2006-01-01

    In light of a growing body of research on language death, this paper examines the situation of Judeo-Arabic, an ethnolect of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries with various written and spoken forms. More specifically, the fate of the Iraqi variety of Judeo-Arabic is discussed, particularly in the context of Montreal, Canada. Educational…

  16. Iraqi Universities Struggle to Rebuild the "House of Knowledge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The sign, "Hawler International Airport," greeted the author and her fellow passengers as their six-seater plane landed in July 2003 on a strip of concrete in the middle of an Iraqi field. Fortunately, the approach to this improvised airfield was direct, not like the spiraling in and out of Baghdad and Basra required to avoid possible hostile…

  17. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  18. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival and daily…

  19. 31 CFR 576.305 - Former Iraqi regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Former Iraqi regime. 576.305 Section 576.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.305 Former...

  20. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as “Micron,” which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  1. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as "Micron," which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing. PMID:25419103

  2. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  3. An algebraic function operator expectation value based eigenstate determinations for quantum systems with one degree of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2015-12-31

    This proceedings paper aims to show the efficiency of an expectation value identity for a given algebraic function operator which is assumed to be depending pn only position operator. We show that this expectation value formula becomes enabled to determine the eigenstates of the quantum system Hamiltonian as long as it is autonomous and an appropriate basis set in position operator is used. This approach produces a denumerable infinite recursion which may be considered as revisited but at the same time generalized form of the recursions over the natural number powers of the position operator. The content of this short paper is devoted not only to the formulation of the new method but also to show that this novel approach is capable of catching the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for Hydrogen-like systems, beyond that, it can give a hand to us to reveal the wavefunction structure. So it has also somehow a confirmative nature.

  4. Change and Continuity in Arab Iraqi Education: Sunni and Shi'i Discourse in Iraqi Textbooks before and after 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates Iraqi schooling during the 1990s under Ba'thist rule and after the regime's fall in 2003 and compares the treatment of Islam in the curriculum. I focus on the degree to which Iraqi textbooks under Saddam Hussein contained a Sunni bias and the changes introduced immediately after the 2003 US invasion of Iraq in…

  5. Chern-Simons gravity with (curvature){sup 2} and (torsion){sup 2} terms and a basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators

    SciTech Connect

    Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Hernaski, C. A.; Pereira-Dias, B.; Vargas-Paredes, A. A.; Vasquez-Otoya, V. J.

    2010-09-15

    The effects of (curvature){sup 2}- and (torsion){sup 2}-terms in the Einstein-Hilbert-Chern-Simons Lagrangian are investigated. The purposes are two-fold: (i) to show the efficacy of an orthogonal basis of degree-of-freedom projection operators recently proposed and to ascertain its adequacy for obtaining propagators of general parity-breaking gravity models in three dimensions; (ii) to analyze the role of the topological Chern-Simons term for the unitarity and the particle spectrum of the model squared-curvature terms in connection with dynamical torsion. Our conclusion is that the Chern-Simons term does not influence the unitarity conditions imposed on the parameters of the Lagrangian but significantly modifies the particle spectrum.

  6. Space Station Freedom status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, John

    1991-01-01

    Several graphs are presented which illustrate the restructuring activities of the Space Station Freedom. The restructed SSF program meets the objectives including cost guidelines. The solution adopted best features from alternative concepts. The SSF program allows significantly greater utilization opportunities than other programs. It was decided that pre-integration simplifies on-orbit assembly planning and operations. The SSF permanently manned configuration is shown.

  7. Employment Satisfaction and Health Outcomes among Professional Iraqi refugees as compared to Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Aldhalimi, Abir; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the U.S. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic Regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment per se. PMID:24683383

  8. Iraqi parents' views of barriers to childhood immunization.

    PubMed

    Al-Lela, O Q B; Bahari, M B; Al-Abbassi, M G; Salih, M R M; Basher, A Y

    2013-03-01

    Deficiencies in knowledge about immunization among parents often leads to poor utake or errors in immunization dosage and timing. The aims of this study were to determine Iraqi parents' views of barriers to immunization and beliefs about ways to promote immunization. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 528 Iraqi parents with children who had incomplete immunization status. The main barriers to immunization agreed by the parents were lack of vaccine availability (51.5% of parents) and parents' lack of education (42.4%), while 88.4% of parents thought that lack of funding was not an important barrier. More than 60% of the parents suggested promoting childhood immunization via the media, and 77.5% thought that an increase in funding would not remove barriers to childhood immunization. Better vaccine availability in public health clinics and improving parents' literacy might enhance immunization uptake in Iraq. PMID:23879083

  9. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouchi, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Argues that school systems are so centralized that they waste money on bureaucratic operations and lack the capacity to respond rapidly to changing circumstances. A study of nine school systems that vary dramatically in their degree of decentralization demonstrates that true decentralization yields benefits in both efficiency and performance. (MLF)

  10. Geographic Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's need to conduct real-time monitoring of Space Shuttle operations led to the development of Netlander Inc.'s JTouch system. The technology behind JTouch allows engineers to view Space Shuttle and ground support data from any desktop computer using a web browser. Companies can make use of JTouch to better monitor locations scattered around the world, increasing decision-making speed and reducing travel costs for site visits.

  11. Iraqi Expatriates' Experience of North American Media Coverage of the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostam, Hajera; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive North American (NA) media coverage of the recent conflict in Iraq invites the question of how adult Iraqi immigrants have experienced such coverage. This qualitative investigation, involving Iraqi immigrants in Vancouver, Canada, used an interpretive description method (Thorne et al., Int J Qual Methods 3(1):1-21, 2004) to analyze…

  12. 31 CFR 575.304 - Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity of the Government of Iraq... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.304 Entity of the Government of Iraq; Iraqi Government entity. The term entity of the Government of Iraq or Iraqi Government entity includes: (a)...

  13. 31 CFR 575.414 - Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq. 575.414 Section 575.414 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.414 Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq....

  14. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  15. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or ethnological material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act...

  16. U.S. Colleges Can Help Rebuild Iraqi Higher Education, Academics Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    A number of Iraqi-American academics, meeting this month for a conference on how to rebuild Iraq's battered higher-education system, said the Iraqi government's plan to send thousands of students abroad annually would lead to a "brain drain" of a new generation of the nation's top talent. Prime Minister Nuri al-Malaki has proposed spending a…

  17. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  18. The Freedom School Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton-Robinson, Lisa; Sally, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on Freedom School Training Materials and the Freedom School Curriculum. Describes a day in the Freedom Schools. Discusses the Freedom School curriculum noting that it is centered around books with enriching images of Black culture and history. Reproduces the week 1 and week 3 overviews and book lists. (SG)

  19. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom." PMID:23985124

  20. Iraqi Nurses’ Perspectives on Safety Issues in Maternity Services

    PubMed Central

    Jamil Piro, Tiran; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Salsali, Mahvash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies introduce maternal and neonatal safety phenomena as important challenges to the public health, particularly in low-income countries. However, few researches are conducted on the identification of safety issues in maternity hospitals in Iraq. It was the first study on nurses’ perspectives on safety issues in Kurdistan, Iraq. Objectives: The current study aimed to describe nurses’ perspectives on what constitutes a safe maternity service in Kurdistan, Iraq. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design, based on a content analysis approach, was used. Ten Kurdish nurses who worked in the delivery room of Kurdistan, Iraq maternity hospital were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were performed to collect data. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Sampling continued to the level of data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on the steps suggested by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: Thematic analysis led to the identification of six main categories including stressful job, lack of schedule and job description, providing care with limited resources, professional unaccountability, regional sociopolitical factors, and inadequate training. Conclusions: Iraqi nurses identified factors such as limited health resources, lack of job description, and professional unaccountability as major safety issues in maternity services. These findings alarm the need to ensure the provision of females and neonates with appropriate care. This, however, would require coordination between Iraqi Kurdistan health authorities to provide midwifery care facilities, high-quality and relevant staff training, and an effective healthcare system in the maternity units. PMID:26576445

  1. Teaching Freedom of Information Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toran, Janice

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that a course on the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 is shaped largely by one question: how does the rhetoric behind the law match the reality of its operation? Issues such a course can address are identified, and possible course formats and teaching materials are discussed. (MSE)

  2. What's on Freedom for users?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard J.; Dorian, Robert A.; Holt, Alan C.

    1989-01-01

    The design and use of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. The contributions to the Station from EAS, Japan, Canada, and the US are described. Consideration is given to the capability of the Station, the internal accommodations for crew and payloads, various applications for the modules, and the planning and operation of the payloads.

  3. Iraqi nuclear weapons development program. Final report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq.

  4. HIV/AIDS awareness among Iraqi medical and dental students

    PubMed Central

    Hamid Albujeer, Ammar N.; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Taher, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the awareness of HIV/AIDS among medical and dental students in four provinces of Iraq, a country with low HIV/AIDS frequency. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the target population was all Iraqi medical and dental students who were in 3rd and 4th year of their education. Out of 15 medicine and 10 dentistry faculties in Iraq, 4 medical and dental faculties were randomly selected. All the students under them were invited to participate in the study (600 students) and 526 responses were received from them. We distributed the questionnaires to students during their obligatory lectures in the academic year 2012–2013. Data collection was done with a self-administered questionnaire containing knowledge and attitude questions (11 questions for each part) in addition to some demographic questions. Results: A total of 526 questionnaires were received (from 319 medical students and 207 dental students). Knowledge of about half of the medical students (54%) was at an intermediate level and of 27.1% students was at a good level; more than half of the dental students (68.2%) had an intermediate level and 10.5% had a good level of knowledge. The level of attitude of medical students was 14.7% at an intermediate level and of dentistry students was 21.4% at an intermediate level. Attitude of none of the students was at good level. Knowledge and attitude scores were not significantly associated with age, gender, or marital status. However, medical students had better knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS, compared to dental students. Conclusions: Some coefficients exist in knowledge and attitude of Iraqi medical and dental students toward HIV/AIDS. Results indicate that more emphasis should be placed on educating dental and medical students about HIV and other blood-borne infections. PMID:26539388

  5. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  6. The prevalence of torture and associated symptoms in United States Iraqi refugees.

    PubMed

    Willard, Cynthia L; Rabin, Mara; Lawless, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Iraqi refugees face difficulties resettling in the US, which may be partially due to high rates of torture. This study determines the rates of torture experience, primary and secondary, among Iraqi refugees in the US; and the association to physical and mental health symptoms on arrival. A retrospective review was conducted in 2011 on the post-arrival health screens of Iraqi refugees resettled in Utah in 2008 and 2009. Measures included reports of torture experience as defined by the United Nations; reports of physical and mental health symptoms at the time of screening; and association of torture to the presence of symptoms on arrival. The study included the health screens of 497 (97%) of eligible Iraqi refugees. Most experienced torture (56%) before arrival in the US Logistic regression revealed that torture was the most significant predictor of mental illness symptoms. Iraqi refugees in the US have a high prevalence of torture, and torture is associated with the presence of both mental and physical symptoms on the post-arrival health screen. This information is critical to the development of successful resettlement strategies for Iraqi refugees. PMID:23564397

  7. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references.

  8. Space Station Freedom natural environment design models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program has established a series of natural environment models and databases for utilization in design and operations planning activities. The suite of models and databases that have either been selected from among internationally recognized standards or developed specifically for spacecraft design applications are presented. The models have been integrated with an orbit propagator and employed to compute environmental conditions for planned operations altitudes of Space Station Freedom.

  9. 29 CFR 1912.34 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act. 1912.34 Section 1912.34 Labor... (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.34 Freedom of Information Act. Subject to the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and part 70 of this title and...

  10. 29 CFR 1912.34 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act. 1912.34 Section 1912.34 Labor... (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.34 Freedom of Information Act. Subject to the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and part 70 of this title and...

  11. 29 CFR 1912.34 - Freedom of Information Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act. 1912.34 Section 1912.34 Labor... (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.34 Freedom of Information Act. Subject to the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) and part 70 of this title and...

  12. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  13. Intellectual Freedom: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert; And Others

    The items listed and annotated in this bibliography on intellectual freedom are limited to materials published between 1966 and 1971 in both books and periodicals. As used in this bibliography, intellectual freedom refers to the free access to and acquisition of all materials in whatever subject area and form, and the distribution of those…

  14. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  15. The University and Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Benno

    1992-01-01

    The president of Yale University examines the tension between the values of community and harmony and of intellectual freedom on college campuses. He notes incidents at various campuses opposing expressions deemed offensive to some groups. He opposes suppression of unpopular voices (even if seemingly bigoted) and supports freedom of thought and…

  16. Beyond Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George W.

    In B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity," he states that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being if we destroy our pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains that man must now take total control of his evolution by consciously designing his entire culture so that it will shape the behavior needed…

  17. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  18. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. PMID:24866253

  19. The impact of posttraumatic sress on Iraqi police.

    PubMed

    McNally, Vincent J

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the psychological impact of posttraumatic stress on a sample of the Iraqi Police Service (IPS). Four separate surveys of lPS members were administered utilizing a 17-item National Center for PTSD checklist. In total, 231 of the 520 IPS (44%) achieved scores indicating that they had met the criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD. As a result, a two-hour lecture dealing with critical incidents, stress, cumulative stress, vicarious traumatization, posttraumatic stress disorder reactions to terrorism, compassion fatigue, burnout, and acute traumatic stress management (ATSM--which helps manage individual responses during traumatic events) was developed. This intervention was translated and conducted in Arabic for the IPS. It was noted that the majority of IPS surveyed never had been given information regarding traumatic stress symptoms or reactions, nor were they aware that they themselves might have traumatic stress. In addition, there is very little access to appropriate psychological assistance, either on the job or in the community. PMID:17131773

  20. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent cycle 3. Appendix D: GRTLS six degree of freedom Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montez, M. N.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) nonlinear Monte Carlo dispersion analysis for the latest glide return to landing site (GRTLS) abort trajectory for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight are presented. For this GRTLS, the number two main engine fails at 262.5 seconds ground elapsed time. Fifty randomly selected simulations, initialized at external tank separation, are analyzed. The initial covariance matrix is a 20 x 20 matrix and includes navigation errors and dispersions in position and velocity, time, accelerometer bias, and inertial platform misalinements. In all 50 samples, speedbrake, rudder, elevon, and body flap hinge moments are acceptable. Transitions to autoland begin before 9,000 feet and there are no tailscrapes. Navigation derived dynamic pressure accuracies exceed the flight control system constraints above Mach 2.5. Three out of 50 landings exceeded tire specification limit speed of 222 knots. Pilot manual landings are expected to reduce landing speed by landing farther downrange.

  1. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  2. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  3. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  4. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  5. Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on Space Station Freedom. Topics covered include future evolution, man-tended capability, permanently manned capability, standard payload rack dimensions, the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), commercial space projects interfaces, and pricing policy.

  6. Human freedom and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement. PMID:23519909

  7. Medical education and health care in Iraqi Kurdistan in the last four decades.

    PubMed

    Husni, Mariwan; Taylor, Fiona; Koye, Narmen

    2006-01-01

    Medical education and health care in Iraqi Kurdistan were oppressed by the regime of Saddam Hussein for four decades. There have been efforts to revive them by Kurdish and non-Kurdish professionals in and outside Kurdistan with the assistance of various governmental and non-governmental organisations. However, the health care and medical education systems in Iraqi Kurdistan require ongoing international support. Recent global awareness of the war on terror and attempts to rebuild the health care system should not concentrate only on the immediate effects of the war, but they should also focus on the wide-ranging implications of the previous dictatorship regime. PMID:17191625

  8. [Drug addiction and freedom].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M A

    1982-03-01

    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  9. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  10. Freedom and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Cavell, Marcia

    2003-06-01

    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency. PMID:12873358

  11. Thoughts on freedom.

    PubMed

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  12. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  13. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  14. Role of Iraqi Higher Education Institutes in Handling National/International Environmental and Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Maliky, Salam J. Bash

    2012-01-01

    Huge environmental and health crises such as the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions during the military activities against Iraq and the required responses are amongst the fields that Iraqi higher education institutions (HEIs) may have a crucial role. Similar international cases, such as Agent Orange (Vietnam), Three Mile Island (USA) and…

  15. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  16. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  17. Teaching English Literature to Iraqi Students of Translation: A Study in Cultural Overlap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azzawi, A. S.

    An approach to teaching English literature to first-year students of translation, emphasizing literature as a vehicle of culture, of literary experience, and for development of communication skills in English as a Second Language, is recommended based on one teacher's experience at an Iraqi university. Literature is seen as a means of helping…

  18. Breastfeeding Education, Support, and Barriers among Iraqi Refugee Women in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Farrell, Heather; Merrill, Ray; Cox, Erin

    2007-01-01

    UNICEF data indicates that Iraqi women have lower rates of breastfeeding than other Middle East countries and that breastfeeding rates are usually even lower among refugee women. This low rate of breastfeeding may be a result of refugee women's lack of public and social support and access to health professionals. This study identifies Iraqi…

  19. Iraqi Adolescents: Self-Regard, Self-Derogation, and Perceived Threat in War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G.; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-01-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related…

  20. Synergy across the Curriculum: Simulating the Institution of Postwar Iraqi Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Chadwick; McDowell, Todd; Sacko, David H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate simulation that formulates Iraqi regimes following the removal of Saddam Hussein's Baathist regime. This exercise reinforces student comprehension and awareness for a range of legal and political topics--including group decision making, international law, diplomacy, and human rights--by actively engaging the…

  1. Brief Narrative Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Iraqi Refugees: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Lumley, Mark A.; Ziadni, Maisa S.; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J.; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2014-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally-sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the U.S. reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N=63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-ups. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that brief NET led to greater posttraumatic growth (Effect size; ES=0.83) and well-being (ES=0.54) through 4 months than the control. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (ES=-0.48) and depression (ES=-0.46) compared to control, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Middle Eastern refugees. PMID:24866253

  2. 31 CFR 575.412 - Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... warehouse or foreign trade zone. 575.412 Section 575.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.412 Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 575.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or a foreign...

  3. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. 12.104j Section 12.104j Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j...

  4. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard

    1992-01-01

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  5. Freedom of Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)

  6. Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaffey, Ruth

    1983-01-01

    The speech communication department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, provides a rigorous and legally oriented course in freedom of speech. The objectives of the course are to help students gain insight into the historical and philosophical foundations of the First Amendment, the legal/judicial processes concerning the First Amendment, and…

  7. Freedom in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hájíček, P.

    2009-09-01

    The paper starts with the proposal that the cause of the apparent insolubility of the free-will problem are several popular but strongly metaphysical notions and hypotheses. To reduce the metaphysics, some ideas are borrowed from physics. A concept of event causality is discussed. The importance of Hume’s Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The key concept of the paper, the so-called relative freedom, is also suggested by physics. It is a kind of freedom that can be observed everywhere in nature. Turning to biology, incomplete knowledge is defined for all organisms. They cope with the problem by Popper’s trial and error processes. One source of their success is the relative freedom of choice from the basic option ranges: mutations, motions and neural connections. Finally, the conjecture is adopted that communicability can be used as a criterion of consciousness and free will is defined as a conscious version of relative freedom. The resulting notion is logically self-consistent and it describes an observable phenomenon that agrees with our experience.

  8. Freedom and Funding First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2001-01-01

    Previews the agenda for the American Library Association's 2002 Midwinter Meeting. Topics include the incompatibility of Bush administration national security initiatives with traditional rights of intellectual freedom; budget cuts; government funding; new roles for libraries in times of crisis; Internet access and control; and librarians'…

  9. Religious Freedom in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on religious freedom in the United States. It contains 11 articles: (1) "Government-Religion Relations in Historical Perspective" (C. Cookson) discusses how…

  10. FREEDOM TO MOVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARPENTER, ETHELOUISE; SHIPLEY, FERNE

    PLAY WHICH INVOLVES NATURAL MOVEMENT HELPS THE CHILD TO LEARN ABOUT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND ABOUT HIMSELF. AN EXPANSIVE AND VERSATILE USE OF SPACE FOR LIVING INCREASES WITH EXPLORATION. FREEDOM TO MOVE IS INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL, AS WELL AS PHYSICAL. NEW EXPERIENCES ARISING OUT OF CURIOSITY AND INTERACTION WITH HIS OWN FAMILY AND OTHER…

  11. Nursing and human freedom.

    PubMed

    Risjord, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. PMID:24320980

  12. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  13. Operative treatment of new onset radiculopathy secondary to combat injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A

    2015-02-01

    We set out to describe combat-related spine trauma over a 10-year period, and thereby determine the frequency of new onset radiculopathy secondary to injuries sustained in support of combat operations. We performed a retrospective analysis of a surgical database at three military institutions. Patients undergoing spine surgery following a combat-related injury in Afghanistan or Iraq between July 2003 and July 2013 were evaluated. We identified 105 patients with combat-related (Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom) spine trauma requiring operative intervention. Of these, 15 (14.3%) patients had radiculopathy as their primary complaint after injury. All patients were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus. The average age was 39 years, with 80% injured in Iraq and 20% in Afghanistan. The most common mechanism of injury was mounted improvised explosive device (33%). The cervical spine was most commonly involved (53%), followed by lumbar spine (40%). Average time from injury to surgery was 23.4 months; 53% of patients had continued symptoms following surgery, and two patients had at least one revision surgery. Two patients were medically retired because of their symptoms. This study is the only of its kind evaluating the operative treatment of traumatic radiculopathy following combat-related trauma. We identified a relatively high rate of radiculopathy in these patients. PMID:25643379

  14. Initial accomplishments of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization (AR) predevelopment operational system test (POST) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Bulgajewski, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results of the integrated AR POST conducted by Boeing at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1992 are presented. The three baselined ECLSS Man Tended Capability AR assemblies were integrated and operated in a closed door chamber in which the internal atmosphere was monitored. The test provides a prerequisite checkout of the AR subsystem in preparation for longer duration tests in which the AR subsystem will be integrated with the Water Recovery Management subsystem. The integrated AR POST will serve as an early test bed to evaluate the integration of the space station ECLSS AR subsystem during design maturation.

  15. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  16. Freedom of Information Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C.§ 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  17. Medical civil-military operations: the deployed medical brigade's role in counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey; Miyamoto, Danelle; Holman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Medical civil-military operations are a critical combat multiplier directly supporting the counterinsurgency fight. Army Medical Department Soldiers support medical civil affairs activities at all levels from platoon to the United States Mission-Iraq (Department of State) initiatives enhancing the legitimacy of medical services in the Iraq Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of the Interior, and Ministry of Justice. The civil-military operations mission of the deployed Task Force 62 Medical Brigade has also evolved into a broad mission encompassing over 120 contractors including Iraqi-American, Bilingual Bicultural Advisors-Subject Matter Experts serving as case management liaison officers and medical trainers, as well as Iraqi Advisor Task Force members providing medical atmospherics, assessments, training, and the overall management of Iraqi linguists supporting all level III medical facilities. PMID:20088052

  18. Intellectual Workers and Essential Freedoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edley, Christopher Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…

  19. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  20. An Intellectual Freedom Theme Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolner, Myrtle Smith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by an intellectual freedom committee, this issue is intended to aid librarians in thinking about intellectual freedom when confronted with the current creationism controversy. A manual containing documents and resources on intellectual freedom, a bibliography of pro- and anti-creationism materials, and results of a censorship survey are…

  1. Children's Rights and Intellectual Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronars, Joanne R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are three intellectual rights of children which need protecting: (1) freedom from exploitation via propaganda; (2) freedom to encounter alternative points of view regarding religion and ideologies; and (3) freedom to participate in the creation and justification of human values and social groups that directly affect their lives.…

  2. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  3. Knowledge and practice of colorectal screening in a suburban group of Iraqi American women.

    PubMed

    Jillson, Irene; Faeq, Zainab; Kabbara, Khaled W; Cousin, Carolyn; Mumford, William; Blancato, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second most common cancer among women in 2008, accounting for 571,000 cases, and 9.4% of all cancer cases afflicting women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Iraqi National Cancer Registry (INCR), Iraq has seen a steady rise in CRC rates among its general population over the past several decades. Despite Iraq's increasing national incidence of CRC and the growth of the US' Iraqi immigrant population over the last 10 years, little remains known about the prevalence of CRC among the latter population, their knowledge of CRC and associated risk factors, or their behavioral intent and practices regarding CRC screening. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the knowledge of and adherence to National Cancer Institute screening recommendations for CRC among a population of Iraqi women living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area and (2) test the efficacy of a one-time educational intervention conducted using linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to raise awareness of, and promote future adherence to, CRC screening methods. This descriptive study used a pre/post design with a 12-month follow-up. Following extensive dissemination of information regarding the study in the Iraqi American community in the study location, 50 women were initially recruited, of whom 32 participated in the study. The study's findings revealed that the participants generally had low baseline levels of CRC screening adherence and preventive knowledge that significantly improved after the intervention as demonstrated by pre- and post-assessments of knowledge and behavior. These findings could be used to raise awareness (1) among clinicians regarding the need for early detection and screening of and referral for CRC treatment among Iraqi American women and (2) among Iraqi American women about risk factors for this disease and the importance of early detection and screening. The study also highlights the need for a

  4. Microbial identification system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harlan D.; Scarlett, Janie B.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Fortune, Russell L.; Staples, John L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS) and Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station Freedom will require a comprehensive microbiology capability. This requirement entails the development of an automated system to perform microbial identifications on isolates from a variety of environmental and clinical sources and, when required, to perform antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The unit currently undergoing development and testing is the Automated Microbiology System II (AMS II) built by Vitek Systems, Inc. The AMS II has successfully completed 12 months of laboratory testing and evaluation for compatibility with microgravity operation. The AMS II is a promising technology for use on Space Station Freedom.

  5. A failure recovery planning prototype for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Kelly, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of advanced automation to enhance crew productivity for Space Station Freedom in numerous areas, including failure management. A prototype is described that uses various advanced automation techniques to generate courses of action whose intents are to recover from a diagnosed failure, and to do so within the constraints levied by the failure and by Freedom's configuration and operating conditions.

  6. Academic Freedom in the Public Schools. ERIC Digest No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    This synthesis of current attitudes on academic freedom as defined by lower court and Supreme Court cases describes the (1) framework in which academic freedom operates, (2) powers and limitations of state legislatures and school officials in defining the curriculum and setting policy, (3) rights and limitations of teachers in making curricular…

  7. Space Station Freedom Gateway to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first inhabited outpost on the frontier of space will be a place to live, work, and discover. Experiments conducted on Freedom will advance scientific knowledge about our world, our environment, and ourselves. We will learn how to adapt to the space environment and to build and operate new spacecraft with destinations far beyond Earth, continuing the tradition of exploration that began with a journey to the Moon. What we learn from living and working on Freedom will strengthen our expertise in science and engineering, promote national research and development initiatives and inspire another generation of Americans to push forward and onward. On the eve of the 21st century, Space Station Freedom will be our gateway to the future. This material covers gateways to space, research, discovery, utilization, benefits, and NASA.

  8. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved. PMID:8132232

  9. Space Station Freedom avionics technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) encompasses the design, development, test, evaluation, verification, launch, assembly, and operation and utilization of a set of spacecraft in low earth orbit (LEO) and their supporting facilities. The spacecraft set includes: the Space Station Manned Base (SSMB), a European Space Agency (ESA) provided Man-Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) at an inclination of 28.5 degrees and nominal attitude of 410 km, a USA provided Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and an ESA provided POP in sun-synchronous, near polar orbits at a nominal altitude of 822 km. The SSMB will be assembled using the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). The POPs and the MTFF will be launched by Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs): a Titan 4 for the US POP and an Ariane for the ESA POP and MTFF. The US POP will for the most part use derivatives of systems flown on unmanned LEO spacecraft. The SSMB portion of the overall program is presented.

  10. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. PMID:21168249

  11. Effects of witnessing or exposure to community violence on mental health of Iraqi men

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Maha A.; Hamad, Ruaa A.; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iraq is consistently exposed to large-scale traumatic events such as successive wars since 1980 to the present day, economic sanctions, sustained organized violence, and terrorism. These unsafe circumstances have negatively impacted the psychosocial status of the Iraqi community. Objective: To study the prevalence of witnessing or exposure to various types of violence, and its association with mental health problems in a sample of Iraqi men. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted from April to September 2014. The target population were men from different age groups that were collected through a convenience sampling technique from two large cities; Baghdad (the capital city) and Mosul (the second largest city in Iraq). The source of data was from different institutions, colleges and lay people. The data collection process was done using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 which is recommended by the World Health Organization for screening psychiatric disturbances. Results: A total of 480 Iraqi males agreed to participate in the study. The main type of violence reported was witnessing violence (55.4%), followed by exposure of friends or relatives to violence (51.4%), and witnessing or exposure to sexual assault was least reported (3.8%). The most frequent feeling recorded was of worry (72.9%), getting easily upset (65.4%), suffering from headaches (62.7%) and lethargy (59.4%). Severe psychological changes were evident in 68.5% of men, while moderate changes were present in 31.5%. Analysis of the feelings and behavioral changes in relation to the participants' history of exposure to violence revealed a significant association with witnessing shooting or stabbings, displacement, friends or relatives' exposure to violence, and viewing corpses. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence among Iraqi men of exposure to, or witnessing violence that showed an association with their mental condition, which, if proved causally, may be a leading

  12. INSR gene variation is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in Iraqi women with PCOs

    PubMed Central

    T. Mutib, Manal; B. Hamdan, Farqad; R. Al-Salihi, Anam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder of uncertain etiology with strong genetic background. Insulin resistance is present in the majority of PCOS cases with linkage and association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of insulin receptor (INSR) gene and PCOS. Objective: To examine whether the exon 17 of INSR gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to PCOS in Iraqi women and its effects on glucose tolerance test and lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five healthy Iraqi women and eighty-four infertile women with PCOS, divided into two subgroups depending on the BMI were studied. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis was performed to determine the genotypes for the His 1058 C/T polymorphism at the tyrosine kinase domain in the INSR gene. Clinical, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were also estimated. Results: The C/T polymorphism at His 1058 in exon 17 of INSR was associated with PCOS (obese and non-obese). CC genotype frequency was higher in PCOS patients whereas TT genotype was higher in control women. Those with CC genotype had higher BMI, GTT and lipid profile than those with TT genotype. Conclusion: An association of C/T polymorphism at His1058 of INSR with PCOS in Iraqi women was observed. Its association with indices of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia were also noticed. PMID:25114673

  13. Physical and Mental Health Status of Iraqi Refugees Resettled in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eboni; Yanni, Emad; Guterbock, Michael; Pezzi, Clelia; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial eight month, post-arrival period. Methods We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8 to 36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. Results We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43% reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37% reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50% of participants; 31% were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community. PMID:23959695

  14. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    PubMed Central

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  15. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mohammed A.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M.; Odisho, Shoni M.; Yaseen, Nahi Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  16. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  17. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  18. Human freedom and the brain.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Hans Helmut

    2009-06-01

    Freedom of will does exist, it is self-leadership of man based on reason and ethos. Evidence comes from truth. Determinism cannot be proved since if you try, you mean to prove a truth; but there is no truth without freedom. By contrast for freedom there are many pieces of evidence e.g. science, arts, technology. Freedom utilizes creative abstract thinking with phantasy. Freedom is graded, limited, based on nature, but not developed without good will. We perceive reliably freedom by self-consciousness and in other persons as long as we are sober. Freedom needs intelligence, but is more, it is a creative and moral virtue. The basis for freedom is phylogenesis and culture, in the individual learning and experimenting. Factors in the becoming of freedom are not only genes and environment but also self-discipline. But the creativity of free will is dangerous. Man therefore needs morale. Drives and feelings become humanized, cultural interests are developed. There is a humane nobility from long good will. PMID:25384854

  19. International initiative to engage Iraq's science and technology community : report on the priorities of the Iraqi science and technology community.

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M.; Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.

  20. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  1. The Future of Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis, Ed.

    These nine essays address controversial issues of academic freedom and values at the university level. The book, which was derived from two years of debate and lectures presented to national meetings of the American Association of University Professors, is organized in three sections which address such issues as: the purpose of academic freedom,…

  2. Parentage Analysis of Freedom Rootstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rootstock Freedom has been widely deployed for nematode resistance in California vineyards. As the offspring of two open-pollinated parents, its risk of V. vinifera-derived phylloxera susceptibility is unknown. In order to determine the progenitors of Freedom, genetic profiles of candidate paren...

  3. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  4. Education for Faith and Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Patrick

    The culture of Catholic education is based on profoundly human qualities animated by freedom and by faith. Because all aspects of Catholic education are intrinsically religious acts, teachers are free to teach all subjects for their own sake. Educators have the freedom to insist that everything in Catholic education be first rate, including…

  5. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  6. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social networks; (2) An…

  7. A Freedom of Information Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    This booklet was published in observance of the twentieth year of the Freedom of Information Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia. It includes seven speeches about the right to know or freedom of information movement that seeks to end government secrecy. The authors of the speeches are: Paul Fisher, who discusses the history of the…

  8. Academic Freedom: Crisis and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie A.; Kemerer, Frank R.

    This document was prepared to inform teachers about their academic freedom rights and to assist teachers who are confronted with a potential academic freedom issue. It provides (1) an essay which outlines the issues, (2) a list of significant decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals and their implications, (3) steps to follow when academic freedom…

  9. Life sciences utilization of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lawrence P.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will provide the United States' first permanently manned laboratory in space. It will allow, for the first time, long term systematic life sciences investigations in microgravity. This presentation provides a top-level overview of the planned utilization of Space Station Freedom by NASA's Life Sciences Division. The historical drivers for conducting life sciences research on a permanently manned laboratory in space as well as the advantages that a space station platform provides for life sciences research are discussed. This background information leads into a description of NASA's strategy for having a fully operational International Life Sciences Research Facility by the year 2000. Achieving this capability requires the development of the five discipline focused 'common core' facilities. Once developed, these facilities will be brought to the space station during the Man-Tended Capability phase, checked out and brought into operation. Their delivery must be integrated with the Space Station Freedom manifest. At the beginning of Permanent Manned Capability, the infrastructure is expected to be completed and the Life Sciences Division's SSF Program will become fully operational. A brief facility description, anticipated launch date and a focused objective is provided for each of the life sciences facilities, including the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) Facility, Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), Gas Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility. In addition, hardware developed by other NASA organizations and the SSF International Partners for an International Life Sciences Research Facility is also discussed.

  10. Pharmacy and freedom.

    PubMed

    Cowen, D L

    1984-03-01

    The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists. PMID:6702848

  11. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    PubMed

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by

  12. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  13. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  14. Using MODIS and GRACE to assess water storage in regional Wetlands: Iraqi and Sudd Marsh systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Both The Iraqi (Mesopotamian) Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, and the Sudd Marshlands, located in Sudan have been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. The Sudd wetlands are highly variable in size, averaging roughly 30,000 km2, but extending to as large as ~130,000 km2 during the wet seasons, while the Iraqi marshes are smaller, at ~15,000 km2, without the same extent of intra-annual variability. A combination of MODIS and GRACE images from 2003-2015 for the study areas were used to determine the time dependent change in surface water area (SWA) in the marshes, marshland extent and variability in total water storage. Combined open water area and vegetation abundance and cover, as determined by MODIS (NDVI and MNDWI), is highly correlated with total mass variability observed by GRACE (RL05 Tellus land grid). Annual variability in the Iraqi marshes correlates well with combined SWA and vegetation extent. Variability of vegetation in the Sudd marshes is seen to correlate well on an annual basis with water storage variation, and with a 2 month lag (water mass increases and decreases lead vegetation increases and decreases) when examined on a monthly basis. As a result, in both systems, the overall wetlands extent and health is observed to be water limited. Predictions for precipitation variability and human diversions of water through either dam storage or navigation modifications are predicted to lower water availability and lower variability in these systems. These two regional wetlands systems will shrink, with resulting loss in habitat and other ecosystem services.

  15. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    PubMed Central

    Mikhael, Ehab Mudher

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold) except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market. PMID:27335982

  16. Reanalysis of dose-response data from the Iraqi methylmercury poisoning episode

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, K.; Clewell, H.; Gearhart, J.

    1995-08-01

    Applying a hockey stick parametric dose-response model to data on late or retarded development in Iraqi children exposed in utero to methylmercury, with mercury (Hg) exposure characterized by the peak Hg concentration in mothers` hair during pregnancy, Cox et al. calculated the {open_quotes}best statistical estimate{close_quotes} of the threshold for health effects as 10 ppm Hg in hair with a 95% range of uncertainty of between 0 and 13.6 ppm. A new application of the hockey stick model to the Iraqi data shows, however, that the statistical upper limit of the threshold based on the hockey stick model could be as high as 255 ppm. Futhermore, the maximum likelihood estimate of the threshold using a different parametric model is virtually zero. These and other analyses demonstrate that threshold estimates based on parametric models exhibit high statistical variability and model dependency, and are highly sensitive to the precise definition of an abnormal response. Consequently, they are not a reliable basis for setting a reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury. Benchmark analyses and statistical analyses useful for deriving NOAELs are also presented. We believe these latter analyses-particularly the benchmark analyses-generally form a sounder basis for determining RfDs than the type of hockey stick analysis presented by Cox et al. However, the acute nature of the exposures, as well as other limitations in the Iraqi data suggest that other data may be more appropriate for determining acceptable human exposures to methylmercury. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Three Degree of Freedom Parallel Mechanical Linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A three degree of freedom parallel mechanism or linkage that couples three degree of freedom translational displacements at an endpoint, such as a handle, a hand grip, or a robot tool, to link rotations about three axes that are fixed with respect to a common base or ground link. The mechanism includes a three degree of freedom spherical linkage formed of two closed loops, and a planar linkage connected to the endpoint. The closed loops are rotatably interconnected, and made of eight rigid links connected by a plurality of single degree of freedom revolute joints. Three of these revolute joints are base joints and are connected to a common ground. such that the axis lines passing through the revolute joints intersect at a common fixed center point K forming the center of a spherical work volume in which the endpoint is capable of moving. 'Me three degrees of freedom correspond to the spatial displacement of the endpoint, for instance. The mechanism provides a new overall spatial kinematic linkage composed of a minimal number of rigid links and rotary joints. The mechanism has improved mechanical stiffness, and conveys mechanical power bidirectionally between the human operator and the electromechanical actuators. It does not require gears, belts. cable, screw or other types of transmission elements, and is useful in applications requiring full backdrivability. Thus, this invention can serve as the mechanical linkage for actively powered devices such as compliant robotic manipulators and force-reflecting hand controllers, and passive devices such as manual input devices for computers and other systems.

  18. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  19. Opportunities for research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    NASA has allocated research accommodations on Freedom (equipment, utilities, etc.) to the program offices that sponsor space-based research and development as follows: Space Science and Applications (OSSA)--52 percent, Commercial Programs (OCP)--28 percent, Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)--12 percent, and Space Flight (OSF)--8 percent. Most of OSSA's allocation will be used for microgravity and life science experiments; although OSSA's space physics, astrophysics, earth science and applications, and solar system exploration divisions also will use some of this allocation. Other Federal agencies have expressed an interest in using Space Station Freedom. They include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy. Payload interfaces with space station lab support equipment must be simple, and experiment packages must be highly contained. Freedom's research facilities will feature International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR's), experiment racks that are about twice the size of a Spacelab rack. ESA's Columbus lab will feature 20 racks, the U.S. lab will have 12 racks, and the Japanese lab will have 10. Thus, Freedom will have a total of 42 racks versus 8 for Space lab. NASA is considering outfitting some rack space to accommodate small, self-contained payloads similar to the Get-Away-Special canisters and middeck-locker experiment packages flown on Space Shuttle missions. Crew time allotted to experiments on Freedom at permanently occupied capability will average 25 minutes per rack per day, compared to six hours per rack per day on Spacelab missions. Hence, telescience--the remote operation of space-based experiments by researchers on the ground--will play a very important role in space station research. Plans for supporting life sciences research on Freedom focus on the two basic goals of NASA 's space life sciences

  20. Relationship of posttraumatic growth to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: A pilot study of Iraqi students.

    PubMed

    Magruder, Kathryn M; Kılıç, Cengiz; Koryürek, Mehmet M

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) and psychopathology are common outcomes following exposure to adversity and trauma. We examined the relationship of PTG to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in a group of young Iraqi students with war trauma exposure. These young Iraqis had experienced an average of 13 different war-related adversities. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 17.2% and probable depression 23.1%. PTSD was associated with higher and depression with lower PTG. In addition, the relationship between PTG and PTSD was stronger among males than females. Although PTSD and depression were relatively common, they were related to PTG in opposite directions. PMID:25691475

  1. Health related quality of life among Iraqi immigrants settled in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Migrants everywhere face several demands for health and maintaining good health and quality of life could be challenging. Iraqis are the second largest refugee group that has sought refuge in the recent years, yet little is known about their health related quality of life (HRQOL). The study aims at assessing the HRQOL among Iraqis living in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered Arabic version of Sf-36 questionnaire was distributed among 300 Iraqi migrants in Malaysia. The questionnaire taps eight concepts of physical and mental health to assess the HRQOL. Univariate analysis was performed for group analysis (t test, ANOVA) and Multiple Linear Regression was used to control for confounding effects. Results Two hundred and fifty three participants ranging in age from 18 to 67 years (Mean = 33.6) returned the completed questionnaire. The majority was males (60.1%) and more than half of the respondents (59.5%) were married. Less than half (45.4%) and about a quarter (25.9%) reported bachelor degree and secondary school education respectively and the remaining 28.7% had either a master or a PhD degree. Univariate analysis showed that the HRQOL scores among male immigrants were found to be higher than those of females in physical function (80.0 vs. 73.5), general health (72.5 vs. 60.7) and bodily pain (87.9 vs. 72.5) subscales. The youngest age group had significantly higher physical function (79.32) and lower mental health scores (57.62). The mean score of physical component summary was higher than the mental component summary mean score (70.22 vs. 63.34). Stepwise multiple linear regression, revealed that gender was significantly associated with physical component summary (β = - 6.06, p = 0.007) and marital status was associated with mental component summary (β = 7.08, p = 0.003). Conclusions From the data it appears that Iraqi immigrants living in Malaysia have HRQOL scores that might be considered to indicate a relatively moderate HRQOL. The HRQOL is

  2. Elevated titanium levels in Iraqi children with neurodevelopmental disorders echo findings in occupation soldiers.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, M; Alaani, S; Tafash, M; Dastgiri, S; Al-Sabbak, M

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic release of pollutants into the environment is especially harmful to growing fetuses and young children. These populations are at an increased risk of damage because exposure to pollutants during critical periods of development can cause many impairments. Children's exposure to mixtures of metals could be responsible for the rising numbers of neurological disorders surfacing in Iraqi children. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) are heavily used in war industries. Exposure to Ti and Mg has been linked to the dust in occupation soldiers' lungs. Hair samples of children in Hawija, Iraq (n = 13) contained significantly higher levels of Ti compared to Iranian children (n = 13) living near the Iraqi border (2080 ± 940 vs 707 ± 421 μg/kg, p < 0.0001). Magnesium was 1.7 times higher in Hawija children compared to Iranian children (115,763 ± 118,155 vs 67,650 ± 46,729 μg/kg). In samples from Hawija, Ti was 1.3 times higher in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (2198 ± 1108 vs 1942 ± 779 μg/kg), and Mg was 1.9 times higher in children without neurodevelopmental disorders (155,618 ± 140,791 vs 81,602 ± 91,940 μg/kg). Lead, arsenic, and cadmium in Hawija children with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 6) were 2.5, 2.2, and 1.37 times higher compared to non-disabled children (n = 7). To get a clear understanding of the current status of neurodevelopmental disorders in Iraqi children and to determine the magnitude of this suspected global health issue, registries should be set up to compile and aggregate data from hospitals, clinics, and health centers across the country. Functional registries can develop collaborations with researchers toward finding causes of these disorders in Iraqi children and toward preventing them. PMID:25446717

  3. Rochdale: The Ultimate Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie

    1969-01-01

    Rochdale College, Toronto, Canada, the most ambitious, student-operated "free university in North America, is the antithesis of the conventional college. Its graffiti, drugs, sounds, smells and style shatter the usual academic yardsticks. But one summer of 1969 has brought some law and order to the college, now in its second year of operation.…

  4. Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

  5. Space Station Freedom user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform prospective users of the accommodations and resources provided by the Space Station Freedom program. Using this information, they can determine if Space Station Freedom is an appropriate laboratory or facility for their research objectives. The steps that users must follow to fly a payload on Freedom are described. This guide covers the accommodations and resources available on the Space Station during the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) period, scheduled to begin the end of 1996, and a Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) beginning in late 1999.

  6. Statement of Carol E. Dinkins, Deputy Attorney General, before the Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture, House of Representatives Concerning Freedom of Information Act Amendments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkins, Carol E.

    In considering the purposes of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), it is essential to keep in mind that the Act is not, and never could be, a statute with the singleminded purpose of disclosing government information. Many kinds of information that the government has in its possession must be kept confidential to protect important public…

  7. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  8. 50th Anniversary: Freedom 7

    NASA Video Gallery

    On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard was propelled into space aboard the Mercury capsule Freedom 7. His 15-minute suborbital flight was part of Project Mercury, the United States' first man-in-space progra...

  9. Natural Iraqi palygorskite clay as low cost adsorbent for the treatment of dye containing industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nassir Taha, Dakhil; Sadi Samaka, Isra'a

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural Iraqi low- cost locally available clay (palygorskite) was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal Congo red from aqueous solutions. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the effect of contact time, initial pH of the dye solution, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent on adsorption capacity of Congo red. The adsorption occurred very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min. When the effect of pH of solution dye on the yield adsorption has been carried in a range of 2-10, the adsorption obtained was nearly the same with very slightly effect of pH and it was reported that above 49.07 mg/g of Cong red by palygorskite clay occurred in the pH range 2 to 10. It was observed that the removal of Congo red increase with increasing initial dye concentration and adsorbent dose, but, adsorption capacity decrease with increasing adsorbent dose. The adsorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size of adsorbent. The equilibrium adsorption data were interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium data closely followed both models, but the Langmuir isotherm fitted the data better. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 99 mg/g at ambient temperature. Results indicate that Iraqi palygorskite clay could be employed as a low cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of colour and dyes. PMID:23196874

  10. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab Al-Sarraj, Ziyad; Roumie, Mohamad; Damboos, Hassan I.

    2012-07-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  11. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample. PMID:23811162

  12. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder four and one-half years after the Iraqi invasion.

    PubMed

    al-Naser, F; al-Khulaifi, I M; Martino, C

    2000-01-01

    In the earliest formulations of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and even posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it was clear that war could engender PTSD within both primary and secondary victims. The clinical course of PTS and PTSD is not always clear, but the disorder may persist months and even years after the precipitating traumatic event. The current study was undertaken in an effort to assess the prevalence of PTSD in a sample of 404 Kuwaiti citizens 4.5 years after the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by the Iraqi Army. Results indicate a psychometrically assessed prevalence of PTSD of 28.4%. A subsample of 195 students revealed a prevalence of 45.6%. If correct, these data are worrisome indeed and point to 1) a significant public health challenge facing the government of Kuwait, as well as, 2) the increased sensitivity of the young to traumatic stress, both personally and vicariously. Based upon the current data, there may exist a virtual epidemic of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population 4.5 years after the end of the Iraqi occupation. These data argue the need for a comprehensive confirmatory epidemiological investigation in the current prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder within the Kuwaiti population so that appropriate resources may be further directed to address what may be a significant public health problem. PMID:11232095

  13. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  14. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  15. A novel mutation in the HEXA gene specific to Tay-Sachs disease carriers of Jewish Iraqi origin.

    PubMed

    Karpati, M; Peleg, L; Gazit, E; Akstein, E; Goldman, B

    2000-05-01

    An increased frequency of carriers of 1:140, as defined by reduced hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity, was observed among Iraqi Jews participating in the Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier detection program. Prior to this finding, TSD among Jews had been restricted to those of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) and Moroccan descent with carrier frequencies of 1:29 and 1:110 for Jews of Ashkenazi and Moroccan extraction, respectively. A general, pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been observed among other Jewish Israeli populations. Analysis of 48 DNA samples from Iraqi Jews suspected, by enzymatic assay, to be carriers revealed a total of five mutations, one of which was novel. In nine carriers (19%), a known mutation typical to either Ashkenazi or Moroccan Jews was identified. DeltaF304/ 305 was detected in four individuals, and + 1278TATC in three. G269S and R170Q each appeared in a single person. The new mutation, G749T, resulting in a substitution of glycine to valine at position 250 has been found in 19 of the DNA samples (40%). This mutation was not detected among 100 non-carrier, Iraqi Jews and 65 Ashkenazi enzymatically determined carriers. Aside from Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews, a specific mutation in the HEXA gene has now also been identified in Jews of Iraqi descent. PMID:10852376

  16. The Use of Projective Drawings to Determine Visual Themes in Young Kuwaiti Women Impacted by the Iraqi Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study is part of a larger qualitative research project which examines visual imagery created through projective art tasks undertaken by young Kuwaiti women who were resident in Kuwait during the 1990 Saddam-Hussein-led Iraqi invasion of their country. The purpose of this article is to present evidence from the study as it is evolving. This…

  17. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  18. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  19. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  20. [On freedom of scientific research].

    PubMed

    Folkers, G

    2013-07-01

    Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods. PMID:23923630

  1. Space Station Freedom media handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This handbook explains in lay terms, the work that is going on at the NASA Centers and contractors' plants in designing and developing the Space Station Freedom. It discusses the roles, responsibilities, and tasks required to build the Space Station Freedom's elements, systems, and components. New, required ground facilities are described, organized by NASA Center in order to provide a local angle for the media. Included are information on the historical perspective, international aspects, the utilization of the Space Station Freedom, a look at future possibilities, a description of the program, its management, program phases and milestones, and considerable information on the role of various NASA Centers, contractors and international partners. A list of abbreviations, a four-page glossary, and a list of NASA contacts are contained in the appendices.

  2. Space Station Freedom food management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  3. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  4. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. PMID:26509925

  5. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  6. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  7. MORAL ENHANCEMENT AND FREEDOM

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and animal use for millennia, namely socialization, education and parental supervision or those high tech methods that are general in their application. By that is meant those forms of cognitive enhancement that operate across a wide range of cognitive abilities and do not target specifically ‘ethical’ capacities. The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. PMID:21133978

  8. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  9. Solar dynamic power for space station freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on Earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  10. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…