Science.gov

Sample records for operational approach combining

  1. Combined operative technique with anterior surgical approach and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy for anterior superior sulcus tumours.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours. PMID:25028075

  2. A new approach to combine climate change projections by ordered weighting averaging operator; applications to northwestern provinces of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir Rahmani, Mohammad; Zarghami, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    The projections of the climate change by using General Climate Models (GCMs) are uncertain. Hence, combining the results of GCMs is now an effective solution to tackle this uncertainty. To evaluate the performance of GCMs, a new measure based on the similarity of the projections is defined. In defining this measure the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) approach is used. The relative weights of the GCMs projections in different stations, to be aggregated by the OWA operator, are obtained by regular increasing monotone fuzzy quantifiers, which model the risk preferences of the decision maker. To show the effectiveness of the approach, climate change in the northwestern provinces of Iran is studied by using the data of 15 synoptic stations. The weather generator of LARS-WG is used to downscale the GCMs under three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) for the period 2011 to 2030. The combined results, by using the similarity values, indicate a - 0.1 °C to + 4.5 °C change in temperature in the region. Precipitation is expected to increase in summer and fall. Changes in wintry precipitation depend on the location; however the precipitation in spring would have a medium change. The results of this study show the usefulness of OWA operator, which considers the risk attitudes of the decision maker. This approach could help water and environmental managers to tackle the climate uncertainties.

  3. Combined approach brings success.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome. PMID:25004555

  4. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2nd opinion. PMID:26955509

  5. Towards an operational IDS combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J.; Soudarin, L.; Willis, P.; Govind, R.; Stepanek, P.; Lemoine, F.; Altamimi, Z.; Le Bail, K.

    2007-12-01

    The International DORIS Service is in operation since 2003. Over the last four years, five instruments on the SPOT 2-4-5, ENVISAT and the JASON-1 satellites have provided DORIS Doppler data collected from a global network of about 50 stations. The number of Analysis Centers (AC) who have processed the data and have high level experience has progressively risen. Among them, two ACs : IGN/JPL using GYPSY/OASIS software and LEGOS/CLS using GINS/DYNAMO software now provide solutions of station coordinates and EOPs on a routine basis to the IGN and NASA CDDIS data centers. INASAN also processes DORIS data using GYPSY/OASIS software and submitted SINEX files to the ITRF2005 solution. The two newest DORIS analysis centers, include Geoscience Australia (GA) using the NASA GEODYN software and the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP) using the BERNESE software. The GOP has adapted software not originally designed to process DORIS data. The performance reached by the new analysis centers in orbit and station positions determination is very encouraging. The availability of geodetic solutions from different algorithms and software packages allows us to efficiently contribute to cross-comparison of the solutions and to the improvement of the DORIS technique. The operational combinations of SINEX solutions contributed by the DORIS analysis centers will have to perform at least two functions. The first one is an internal validation of each individual AC time series. The second is a combination of all the AC weekly solutions in order to generate IDS combined products for station coordinates and EOPs. The paper presents the status of each AC processing (strategy, results, organization and future plan) and the combinations of solutions for the period of several years (2002-2006 as an objective). The combinations are realized with the IGN/LAREG CATREF software. Essential to the analysts, the station network event file (discontinuities, poor data span) will be updated and listed. The

  6. A combined experimental and numerical approach for the control and monitoring of the SPES target during operation at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballan, Michele; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, Giovanni; Andrighetto, Alberto; Monetti, Alberto; Bisoffi, Giovanni; Prete, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL aims at the production of neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) technique. A 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam will directly impinge a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The target system is installed under vacuum inside a water-cooled chamber, and have to maintain high working temperatures, close to 2000 °C. During operation the proton beam provides the heating power required to keep the target at the desired temperature level. As a consequence, its characteristics have to be strictly controlled in order to avoid undesired overheating. According to the original design of the control system, the proton beam can be suddenly interrupted in case of out of range vacuum or cooling water flow levels. With the aim to improve the reliability of the control system a set of temperature sensors has been installed close to the target. Their types and installation positions were defined taking into consideration the detailed information coming from a dedicated thermal-electric model that allowed to investigate the most critical and inaccessible target hot-spots. This work is focused on the definition and experimental validation of the aforementioned numerical model. Its results were used to appropriately install two type C thermocouples, a PT100 thermo-resistance and a residual primary beam current detector. In addition the numerical model will be used for the definition of appropriate thresholds for each installed temperature sensor, since it allows to define a relationship between the locally measured values with the overall calculated temperature field. In case of over temperatures the monitoring system will send warning signals or in case interrupt the proton beam.

  7. Combined state-adding and state-deleting approaches to type III multi-step rationally extended potentials: Applications to ladder operators and superintegrability

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian; Quesne, Christiane

    2014-11-15

    Type III multi-step rationally extended harmonic oscillator and radial harmonic oscillator potentials, characterized by a set of k integers m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, ⋯, m{sub k}, such that m{sub 1} < m{sub 2} < ⋯ < m{sub k} with m{sub i} even (resp. odd) for i odd (resp. even), are considered. The state-adding and state-deleting approaches to these potentials in a supersymmetric quantum mechanical framework are combined to construct new ladder operators. The eigenstates of the Hamiltonians are shown to separate into m{sub k} + 1 infinite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of the corresponding polynomial Heisenberg algebras. These ladder operators are then used to build a higher-order integral of motion for seven new infinite families of superintegrable two-dimensional systems separable in cartesian coordinates. The finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of the polynomial algebras of such systems are directly determined from the ladder operator action on the constituent one-dimensional Hamiltonian eigenstates and provide an algebraic derivation of the superintegrable systems whole spectrum including the level total degeneracies.

  8. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  9. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206. The... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation under a combined license. 52.103 Section 52.103... POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.103 Operation under a combined license. (a) The licensee...

  10. Model Combination and Weighting Methods in Operational Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Konrad; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2013-04-01

    In order to get maximum benefits from operational forecast systems based on different model approaches, it is necessary to find an optimal way to combine the forecasts in real-time and to derive the predictive probability distribution by assigning different weights to the different actual forecasts according to the forecast performance of the previous days. In the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) a Bayesian Forecast System has been implemented in order to derive the overall predictive probability distribution. The EFAS is driven by different numerical weather prediction systems like the deterministic forecasts from the German Weather Service and from the ECMWF, as well as Ensemble Prediction Systems from the ECMWS and COSMO-LEPS. In this study the effect of combining these different forecast systems in respect of the total predictive uncertainty are investigated by applying different weighting methods like the Non-homogenous Gaussian Regression (NGR) model, the Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and an empirical method. Besides that different methods of bias removal are applied, namely additive and regression based ones, and the applicability in operational forecast is tested. One of the problems identified is the difficulty in optimizing the weight parameters for each lead-time separately resulting in highly inconsistent forecasts, especially for regression based bias removal methods. Therefore in operational use methods with only sub-optimal skill score results, could be preferable showing more realistic shapes of uncertainty bands for the predicted future stream-flow values. Another possible approach could be the optimization of the weighting parameters not for each lead-time separately, but to look at different levels of aggregations over expanding windows of time ranges. First results indicate the importance of the proper choice of the model combination method in view of reliability and sharpness of the forecast system.

  11. Improving the Resilience of Major Ports and Critical Supply Chains to Extreme Coastal Flooding: a Combined Artificial Neural Network and Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach to Predicting Tidal Surge Inundation of Port Infrastructure and Impact on Operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ports are vital to the global economy, but assessments of global exposure to flood risk have generally focused on major concentrations of population or asset values. Few studies have examined the impact of extreme inundation events on port operation and critical supply chains. Extreme water levels and recurrence intervals have conventionally been estimated via analysis of historic water level maxima, and these vary widely depending on the statistical assumptions made. This information is supplemented by near-term forecasts from operational surge-tide models, which give continuous water levels but at considerable computational cost. As part of a NERC Infrastructure and Risk project, we have investigated the impact of North Sea tidal surges on the Port of Immingham, eastern, UK. This handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK and flows of coal and biomass that are critically important for national energy security. The port was partly flooded during a major tidal surge in 2013. This event highlighted the need for improved local forecasts of surge timing in relation to high water, with a better indication of flood depth and duration. We address this problem using a combination of data-driven and numerical hydrodynamic models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is first used to predict the surge component of water level from meteorological data. The input vector comprises time-series of local wind (easterly and northerly wind stress) and pressure, as well as regional pressure and pressure gradients from stations between the Shetland Islands and the Humber estuary. The ANN achieves rms errors of around 0.1 m and can generate short-range (~ 3 to 12 hour) forecasts given real-time input data feeds. It can also synthesize water level events for a wider range of tidal and meteorological forcing combinations than contained in the observational records. These are used to force Telemac2D numerical floodplain simulations using a LiDAR digital elevation model of the port

  12. XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Approach Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Decker, William A.; Cline, John H.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Nicks, Colby O.; Klein, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft performing approach operations for a variety of different approach profile configurations. This flight test program was conducted jointly by NASA, the U.S. Army, and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) in June 1997. The XV-15 was flown over a large area microphone array, which was deployed to directly measure the noise footprint produced during actual approach operations. The XV-15 flew realistic approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad. Aircraft tracking and pilot guidance was provided by a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and a flight director system developed at BHTI. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. A discussion of the approach profile design philosophy is provided. Five different approach profiles are discussed in detail -- 3 deg., 6 deg., and 9 deg. approaches, and two very different 3 deg. to 9 deg. segmented approaches. The approach profile characteristics are discussed in detail, followed by the noise footprints and handling qualities. Sound exposure levels are also presented on an averaged basis and as a function of the sideline distance for a number of up-range distances from the landing point. A comparison of the noise contour areas is also provided. The results document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, and indicate the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

  13. XV-15 Tiltrotor Low Noise Approach Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David; Marcolini, Michael A.; Decker, William A.; Cline, John H.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Nicks, Colby O.; Klein, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic data have been acquired for the XV- 15 tiltrotor aircraft performing approach operations for a variety of different approach profile configurations. This flight test program was conducted jointly by NASA, the U.S. Army, and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) in June 1997. The XV-15 was flown over a large area microphone array, which was deployed to directly measure the noise footprint produced during actual approach operations, The XV- 15 flew realistic approach profiles that culminated in IGE hover over a landing pad. Aircraft tracking and pilot guidance was provided by a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and a flight director system developed at BHTT. Approach profile designs emphasized noise reduction while maintaining handling qualities sufficient for tiltrotor commercial passenger ride comfort and flight safety under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) conditions. A discussion of the approach profile design philosophy is provided. Five different approach profiles are discussed in detail -- 3deg., 6 deg., and 9 deg. approaches, and two very different 3 deg. to 9 deg. segmented approaches. The approach profile characteristics are discussed in details, followed by the noise footprints and handling qualities. Sound exposure levels are also presented on an averaged basis and as a function of the sideline distance for a number of up-range distances from the landing point. A comparison of the noise contour areas is also provided. The results document the variation in tiltrotor noise due to changes in operating condition, and indicate the potential for significant noise reduction using the unique tiltrotor capability of nacelle tilt.

  14. A correlational approach to predicting operator status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shingledecker, Clark A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a research approach for identifying and validating candidate physiological and behavioral parameters which can be used to predict the performance capabilities of aircrew and other system operators. In this methodology, concurrent and advance correlations are computed between predictor values and criterion performance measures. Continuous performance and sleep loss are used as stressors to promote performance variation. Preliminary data are presented which suggest dependence of prediction capability on the resource allocation policy of the operator.

  15. Extraperitoneal approach for vascular operations: retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Shumacker, H B

    1982-12-01

    Various extraperitoneal approaches for vascular operations have been developed since the external iliac artery was first exposed and ligated in this manner in 1796. By now a considerable number, each capable of modification and extension, have been devised. It is now possible to operate extraperitoneally upon any portion of the abdominal aorta, the iliac arteries, and most of the important aortic visceral branches. PMID:6755736

  16. A New Combinational Selection Operator in Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Eskandari, Sadegh

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a new Random Combinational Selection Operator (RCSO) is presented. Three existing selection operators and our proposed selection method are applied to traveling salesman problems using MATLAB. The tours obtained using our selection method, are shorter than those that were obtained with existing selection operators for large numbers of cities.

  17. Novel approach for phacoemulsification during combined phacovitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, Wael Ahmed; Nossair, Ashraf Abdel Maqsoud; Ali, Lamia Samy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgeon’s superior sitting position during temporal clear corneal incision (TCCI) phacoemulsification, with a 90° working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy. Methods Prospective interventional case series were performed on 65 eyes of 63 patients. TCCI phacoemulsification was done in all cases (whether right or left eyes), while the surgeon was sitting superiorly to the operating table. Outcome measures included Shift in sitting position, keratometric astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, posterior capsule integrity, and intraocular lens centration. Results Phacoemulsification was performed completely in all cases (100%). Shift in position to temporal sitting position happened in two cases (3%). The keratometric astigmatism showed mean changes of 1.09 D (0.25–3.75 D) to 0.84 D (0.00–3.25 D) at 1 month, which remained stable at 6 months; 0.84 D (0.16–3.21 D). The surgically induced astigmatism was 0.25 DC (−0.50 to 1.0 DC) at 1 month, which stayed stable at 6 months; 0.25 D (−0.63 D to 0.98 D). Posterior capsular rupture occurred in one case (the second case) (1.5%). The intraocular lens was centered in all cases (100%). Conclusion Superior sitting TCCI phacoemulsification, with a wide working angle, during combined phacovitrectomy proved safe and easy, without the burden of changing and disrupting the operative setting. The anatomical and optical outcomes were acceptable. PMID:26719666

  18. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  19. Combined fundamental and experimental approach to milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Derek

    Air jet mills are important tools in the size reduction processing of pharmaceutical powders. The benefits of the air jet mill to the pharmaceutical industry are its sanitary design (no moving parts or media) and ability to produce narrow particle size distributions. Due to the high-value nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients, a trial-and-error approach to obtain optimal milling conditions for size reduction would lead to a needless expenditure of time and valuable resources. This work uses population balances for modeling the continuous milling of a spiral jet mill with inexpensive, readily available excipient powders, and predicts milling model parameters for high value powders with only small quantities being consumed. We have developed a multilevel model that describes the effect of material characteristics and mill operating variables on particle breakage in a specific air jet mill. This model allows us to predict product size distributions of brittle crystalline materials. The method used to develop this model can be utilized for many self-classifying mills. For a new mill, extensive initial milling with inexpensive excipient powders is required to determine mill-dependent model parameters. Subsequently, quick material characterization experiments can be made with limited powder consumption of expensive powders to determine powder-dependent milling parameters.

  20. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  1. EDOS operations concept and development approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoble, G.; Garman, C.; Alcott, G.; Ramchandani, C.; Silvers, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS) is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the capture, level zero processing, distribution, and backup archiving of high speed telemetry data received from EOS spacecraft. All data received will conform to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommendations. The major EDOS goals are to: (1) minimize EOS program costs to implement and operate EDOS; (2) respond effectively to EOS growth requirements; and (3) maintain compatibility with existing and enhanced versions of NASA institutional systems required to support EOS spacecraft. In order to meet these goals, the following objectives have been defined for EDOS: (1) standardize EDOS interfaces to maximize utility for future requirements; (2) emphasize life-cycle cost (LCC) considerations (rather than procurement costs) in making design decisions and meeting reliability, maintainability, availability (RMA) and upgradability requirements; (3) implement data-driven operations to the maximum extent possible to minimize staffing requirements and to maximize system responsiveness; (4) provide a system capable of simultaneously supporting multiple spacecraft, each in different phases of their life-cycles; (5) provide for technology insertion features to accommodate growth and future LCC reductions during the operations phase; and (6) provide a system that is sufficiently robust to accommodate incremental performance upgrades while supporting operations. Operations concept working group meetings were facilitated to help develop the EDOS operations concept. This provided a cohesive concept that met with approval of responsible personnel from the start. This approach not only speeded up the development process by reducing review cycles, it also provided a medium for generating good ideas that were immediately molded into feasible concepts. The operations concept

  2. Modelling approaches for bio-manufacturing operations.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Fast and cost-effective methods are needed to reduce the time and money needed for drug commercialisation and to determine the risks involved in adopting specific manufacturing strategies. Simulations offer one such approach for exploring design spaces before significant process development is carried out and can be used from the very earliest development stages through to scale-up and optimisation of operating conditions and resource deployment patterns both before and after plant start-up. The advantages this brings in terms of financial savings can be considerable, but to achieve these requires a full appreciation of the complexities of processes and how best to represent them mathematically within the context of in silico software. This chapter provides a summary of some of the work that has been carried out in the areas of mathematical modelling and discrete event simulations for production, recovery and purification operations when designing bio-pharmaceutical processes, looking at both financial and technical modelling. PMID:23183689

  3. A combination approach to treating fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Fosso, Marina Y.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Azoles are antifungal drugs used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis in humans. Their extensive use has led to the emergence of drug resistance, complicating antifungal therapy for yeast infections in critically ill patients. Combination therapy has become popular in clinical practice as a potential strategy to fight resistant fungal isolates. Recently, amphiphilic tobramycin analogues, C12 and C14, were shown to display antifungal activities. Herein, the antifungal synergy of C12 and C14 with four azoles, fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS), and voriconazole (VOR), was examined against seven Candida albicans strains. All tested strains were synergistically inhibited by C12 when combined with azoles, with the exception of C. albicans 64124 and MYA-2876 by FLC and VOR. Likewise, when combined with POS and ITC, C14 exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of all C. albicans strains, except C. albicans MYA-2876 by ITC. The combinations of FLC-C14 and VOR-C14 showed synergistic antifungal effect against three C. albicans and four C. albicans strains, respectively. Finally, synergism between C12/C14 and POS were confirmed by time-kill and disk diffusion assays. These results suggest the possibility of combining C12 or C14 with azoles to treat invasive fungal infections at lower administration doses or with a higher efficiency. PMID:26594050

  4. A combination approach to treating fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sanjib K; Fosso, Marina Y; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Azoles are antifungal drugs used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis in humans. Their extensive use has led to the emergence of drug resistance, complicating antifungal therapy for yeast infections in critically ill patients. Combination therapy has become popular in clinical practice as a potential strategy to fight resistant fungal isolates. Recently, amphiphilic tobramycin analogues, C12 and C14, were shown to display antifungal activities. Herein, the antifungal synergy of C12 and C14 with four azoles, fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS), and voriconazole (VOR), was examined against seven Candida albicans strains. All tested strains were synergistically inhibited by C12 when combined with azoles, with the exception of C. albicans 64124 and MYA-2876 by FLC and VOR. Likewise, when combined with POS and ITC, C14 exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of all C. albicans strains, except C. albicans MYA-2876 by ITC. The combinations of FLC-C14 and VOR-C14 showed synergistic antifungal effect against three C. albicans and four C. albicans strains, respectively. Finally, synergism between C12/C14 and POS were confirmed by time-kill and disk diffusion assays. These results suggest the possibility of combining C12 or C14 with azoles to treat invasive fungal infections at lower administration doses or with a higher efficiency. PMID:26594050

  5. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  6. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  7. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  8. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  9. 14 CFR 121.661 - Initial approach altitude: Flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Flag operations... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.661 Initial approach altitude: Flag operations. When making an initial approach to a...

  10. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  11. Operational approach for oil spill monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, Gutemberg B.; Landau, Luiz; Tores, Audalio R., Jr.; Drumond, Jose A. L.; Fragoso, Mauricio R.; De Almeida, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Gerson G.; Pedroso, Enrico C.; Beisl, Carlos H.

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the methodological approach of the oil spill monitoring system that is being put into operation by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) in Brazil. The methodology is based on integrated analysis of multi-sensor data which includes satellites products, such as, GOES and AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), SeaWiFs chlorophyll concentration, QuikScat near sea surface wind field, GOES and AVHRR convective rain areas, and Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 satellite. The methodology is implemented by means of a system composed by four subsystems called, data reception (SAR, GOES, NOAA and QuikScat), Integrator, hydrodynamic model and database. The methodology was applied to the accidental oil spill caused by PETROBRAS oil rig P-36. A RADARSAT-1 image was acquired during accident period at 21:07 (GMT) on 22nd of March 2001 and used. The results are presented and discussed.

  12. Ovarian cystectomy in endometriomas: Combined approach

    PubMed Central

    Ünlü, Cihat; Yıldırım, Gazi

    2014-01-01

    Endometrioma is one of the most frequent adnexal masses in the premenopausal population, but the recommended treatment is still a subject of debate. Medical therapy is inefficient and can not be recommended in the management of ovarian endometriomas. The general consensus is that ovarian endometriomas larger than 4 cm should be removed, both to reduce pain and to improve spontaneous conception rates. The removal of ovarian endometriomas can be difficult, as the capsule is often densely adherent. While the surgical treatment of choice is surgical laparoscopy, for conservative treatment, the preferred method is modified combined cystectomy. Cystectomy can be destructive for the ovary, whereas ablation may be incomplete, with a greater risk of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the modified combined technique seems to be more efficient in the treatment of endometriomas. PMID:25317047

  13. [Combining clinical pathway and patient education approaches].

    PubMed

    Bonnabel, Laurence; Huteau, Marie-Ève; Filhol, Nathalie; Clottes, Edwige; Massin, Julie; Quenet, François; Stoebner-Delbarre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of the therapeutic education of the patient into a clinical pathway approach helps to optimise nursing practice. Despite some limits, this method allows the position of the caregiver to evolve, going beyond the required methodological framework. It results in the emergence of several new educational facets which are essential for the patient and enable them to become a player in their own care. PMID:26743372

  14. Local anesthesia for abdominoplasty, liposuction, and combined operations.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1993-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to perform abdominoplasty, liposuction, and combined operations under local anesthesia. With an anesthetic solution composed of 25 cc of 2% lidocaine, 25 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine, 1 cc of epinephrine or ornipresine, and 350 cc of saline solution, a satisfactory dilution with low concentration and lasting effects was obtained. After infiltration a large amount was lost in the incision, the dissection, and the resected dermofatty tissue. A small amount of anesthetic remained in the operated area to be metabolized by the liver. Low lidocaine levels were found in venous blood samples during surgery. This type of anesthesia is advised in minor, limited, and normal abdominoplasties in normal-sized patients, or major abdominoplasties in small patients. In liposuction procedures, it is possible to anesthetize the patient using the same procedure and operate in an equivalent area. As a high proportion of the infiltrated anesthesia was lost during the operation, a similar amount could be used to infiltrate and operate other areas so that an abdominoplasty might be combined with liposuction or mastoplasty. We have experience with 25 abdominoplasties and 21 liposuctions performed under local anesthesia. There were no complications related to local anesthesia and no one had unpleasant memories of intraoperative events. PMID:8517218

  15. Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

  16. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  17. Laryngocele resection by combined external and endoscopic laser approach.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Sandra L; Carothers, Daniel G; Hoffman, Henry T

    2003-04-01

    Options in the management of laryngoceles include observation, endoscopic resection, and resection via an external approach. We introduce a combined endoscopic and external approach that we have employed on several occasions to ensure complete removal of the laryngocele and the saccule from which it originated. A case is presented to help define the technique. PMID:12731632

  18. Operational quantities and new approach by ICRU.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    The protection quantities, equivalent dose in a tissue or organ and effective dose, were developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionising radiation. These quantities are used for the implementation of limitation and optimisation principles. Body-related protection quantities are not measurable in practice. Therefore, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a set of operational dose quantities for use in radiation measurements for external exposure that can assess the protection quantities. The current ICRU operational quantities were defined more than 30 years ago. ICRU Report Committee 26 examined the rationale for the operational quantities, taking account of changes in the definitions of the protection quantities in ICRP's 2007 Recommendations. The considerations included the range of types and energies of particles contributing to exposure of workers and members of the public. ICRU Report Committee 26 investigated a set of alternative definitions for the operational quantities. The major change to the currently favoured set of quantities is redefinition of the operational quantities, from being based on doses at specific points in the ICRU sphere and soft tissue, to being based on particle fluence and conversion coefficients for effective dose and absorbed dose to the lens of the eye and local skin. PMID:26980797

  19. An approach to operating system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sum, R. N., Jr.; Campbell, R. H.; Kubitz, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    To ensure the reliability and performance of a new system, it must be verified or validated in some manner. Currently, testing is the only resonable technique available for doing this. Part of this testing process is the high level system test. System testing is considered with respect to operating systems and in particular UNIX. This consideration results in the development and presentation of a good method for performing the system test. The method includes derivations from the system specifications and ideas for management of the system testing project. Results of applying the method to the IBM System/9000 XENIX operating system test and the development of a UNIX test suite are presented.

  20. A Combined Approach for Estimating Health Staff Requirements

    PubMed Central

    FAKHRI, Ali; SEYEDIN, Hesam; DAVIAUD, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies have been carried out and many methods have been used for estimating health staff re-quirements in health facilities or system, each have different advantages and disadvantages. Differences in the extent to which utilization matches needs in different conditions intensify the limitations of each approach when used in iso-lation. Is the utilization-based approach efficient in a situation of over servicing? Is it sufficient in a situation of under-utilization? These questions can be similarly asked about the needs-based approach. This study is looking for a flexible approach to estimate the health staff requirements efficiently in these different conditions. Method This study was carried out in 2011 in some stages: It was conducted in order to identify the formula used in the different approaches. The basic formulas used in the utilization-based approach and the needs-based approach were identified and then combined using simple mathematical principles to develop a new formula. Finally, the new formula was piloted by assessing family health staff requirements in the health posts in Kashan City, Iran. Results Comparison of the two formulas showed that the basic formulas used in the two approaches can be com-bined by including the variable ‘Coverage’. The pilot study confirmed the role of coverage in the suggested combined approach. Conclusions The variables in the developed formula allow combining needs-based, target-based and utilization-based approaches. A limitation of this approach is applicability to a given service package. PMID:26060687

  1. A Simplified Approach to Product Operator Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiese, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of the simple and traditional vector model-based product operator formalism is highlighted. It is seen as a critical device in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry for a comprehensive analysis of spin coupling and quantum coherences.

  2. A combined forecasting approach based on fuzzy soft sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi; Gong, Ke; Zou, Yan

    2009-06-01

    Forecasting the export and import volume in international trade is the prerequisite of a government's policy-making and guidance for a healthier international trade development. However, an individual forecast may not always perform satisfactorily, while combination of forecasts may result in a better forecast than component forecasts. We believe the component forecasts employed in combined forecasts are a description of the actual time series, which is fuzzy. This paper attempts to use forecasting accuracy as the criterion of fuzzy membership function, and proposes a combined forecasting approach based on fuzzy soft sets. This paper also examines the method with data of international trade from 1993 to 2006 in the Chongqing Municipality of China and compares it with a combined forecasting approach based on rough sets and each individual forecast. The experimental results show that the combined approach provided in this paper improves the forecasting performance of each individual forecast and is free from a rough sets approach's restrictions as well. It is a promising forecasting approach and a new application of soft sets theory.

  3. Protein Engineering by Combined Computational and In Vitro Evolution Approaches.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lior; Heyne, Michael; Shifman, Julia M; Papo, Niv

    2016-05-01

    Two alternative strategies are commonly used to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and to engineer protein-based inhibitors. In one approach, binders are selected experimentally from combinatorial libraries of protein mutants that are displayed on a cell surface. In the other approach, computational modeling is used to explore an astronomically large number of protein sequences to select a small number of sequences for experimental testing. While both approaches have some limitations, their combination produces superior results in various protein engineering applications. Such applications include the design of novel binders and inhibitors, the enhancement of affinity and specificity, and the mapping of binding epitopes. The combination of these approaches also aids in the understanding of the specificity profiles of various PPIs. PMID:27061494

  4. Promoting a Combination Approach to Paediatric HIV Psychosocial Support

    PubMed Central

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J.; Phelps, B. Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    , there is still limited evidence demonstrating which interventions have positive effects on the well being of HIV-infected children. Interventions that improve the psychosocial well being of children living with HIV must be replicable in resource-limited settings, avoiding dependence on specialized staff for implementation. This paper advocates for combination approaches that strengthen the capacity of service providers, expand the availability of age appropriate and family-centred support and equip schools to be more protective and supportive of children living with HIV. The coordination of care with other community-based interventions is also needed to foster more supportive and less stigmatizing environments. To ensure effective, feasible, and scalable interventions, improving the evidence base to document improved outcomes and longer term impact as well as implementation of operational studies to document delivery approaches are needed. PMID:24361624

  5. Promoting a combination approach to paediatric HIV psychosocial support.

    PubMed

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    is still limited evidence demonstrating which interventions have positive effects on the well being of HIV-infected children. Interventions that improve the psychosocial well being of children living with HIV must be replicable in resource-limited settings, avoiding dependence on specialized staff for implementation.This paper advocates for combination approaches that strengthen the capacity of service providers, expand the availability of age appropriate and family-centred support and equip schools to be more protective and supportive of children living with HIV. The coordination of care with other community-based interventions is also needed to foster more supportive and less stigmatizing environments. To ensure effective, feasible, and scalable interventions, improving the evidence base to document improved outcomes and longer term impact as well as implementation of operational studies to document delivery approaches are needed. PMID:24361624

  6. A data mining approach to intelligence operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David L.; Harkiolakis, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we examine the latest thinking, approaches and methodologies in use for finding the nuggets of information and subliminal (and perhaps intentionally hidden) patterns and associations that are critical to identify criminal activity and suspects to private and government security agencies. An emphasis in the paper is placed on Social Network Analysis and Investigative Data Mining, and the use of these technologies in the counterterrorism domain. Tools and techniques from both areas are described, along with the important tasks for which they can be used to assist with the investigation and analysis of terrorist organizations. The process of collecting data about these organizations is also considered along with the inherent difficulties that are involved.

  7. Combined monitoring, decision and control model for the human operator in a command and control desk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muralidharan, R.; Baron, S.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on the ongoing efforts to mode the human operator in the context of the task during the enroute/return phases in the ground based control of multiple flights of remotely piloted vehicles (RPV). The approach employed here uses models that have their analytical bases in control theory and in statistical estimation and decision theory. In particular, it draws heavily on the modes and the concepts of the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator. The OCM is being extended into a combined monitoring, decision, and control model (DEMON) of the human operator by infusing decision theoretic notions that make it suitable for application to problems in which human control actions are infrequent and in which monitoring and decision-making are the operator's main activities. Some results obtained with a specialized version of DEMON for the RPV control problem are included.

  8. A Bayesian Networks approach to Operational Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquaro, V.; Bardoscia, M.; Bellotti, R.; Consiglio, A.; De Carlo, F.; Ferri, G.

    2010-04-01

    A system for Operational Risk management based on the computational paradigm of Bayesian Networks is presented. The algorithm allows the construction of a Bayesian Network targeted for each bank and takes into account in a simple and realistic way the correlations among different processes of the bank. The internal losses are averaged over a variable time horizon, so that the correlations at different times are removed, while the correlations at the same time are kept: the averaged losses are thus suitable to perform the learning of the network topology and parameters; since the main aim is to understand the role of the correlations among the losses, the assessments of domain experts are not used. The algorithm has been validated on synthetic time series. It should be stressed that the proposed algorithm has been thought for the practical implementation in a mid or small sized bank, since it has a small impact on the organizational structure of a bank and requires an investment in human resources which is limited to the computational area.

  9. Combination and Boundary Detection Approaches on Chinese Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Christopher C.; Luk, Johnny W. K.; Yung, Stanley K.; Yen, Jerome

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval and automatic indexing in digital libraries focuses on Chinese indexing and cross-lingual information retrieval. Investigates the combination and boundary detection approaches based on mutual information for word segmentation, using lexical and statistical information. Reports results of experiments that…

  10. Combining approaches to on-line handwriting information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Morin, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we propose to combine two quite different approaches for retrieving handwritten documents. Our hypothesis is that different retrieval algorithms should retrieve different sets of documents for the same query. Therefore, significant improvements in retrieval performances can be expected. The first approach is based on information retrieval techniques carried out on the noisy texts obtained through handwriting recognition, while the second approach is recognition-free using a word spotting algorithm. Results shows that for texts having a word error rate (WER) lower than 23%, the performances obtained with the combined system are close to the performances obtained on clean digital texts. In addition, for poorly recognized texts (WER > 52%), an improvement of nearly 17% can be observed with respect to the best available baseline method.

  11. 15. LOOKING DUE EAST FROM OPERATOR'S HOUSE, WITH TRAIN APPROACHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING DUE EAST FROM OPERATOR'S HOUSE, WITH TRAIN APPROACHING BRIDGE. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 11. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE APPROACH AND OPERATOR'S HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE APPROACH AND OPERATOR'S HOUSE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River between Groton & Stonington, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. Combining water budgets and IFIM results for analyzing operation alternatives at peaking projects

    SciTech Connect

    Conners, M.E.; Homa, J. Jr.; Carrington, G.

    1995-12-31

    Licensing of hydropower projects often involves evaluating and comparing several different alternatives for project operation. Projects with peaking capabilities, in particular, are frequently required to compare peaking operation with substantially different alternatives, such as continuous run-of-the-river flows. Instream flow studies are used to assess the environmental impacts of hydropower operation by modeling the amount of aquatic habitat available at various flows. It can be difficult, however, to apply instream flow models downstream of peaking operations, or to present habitat model results in a way that clearly compares operation alternatives. This paper presents a two-stage analysis that was used in the successful negotiation of a licensing settlement for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation`s Salmon River Project in upstate New York. A water budget model based on project configuration was used to compile flow-duration curves for the project under several alternative operating rules. A spreadsheet model was developed that combines the results of instream flow habitat models with flow-duration statistics. This approach provides a clear, quantitative comparison of the effect of alternative project operations on downstream aquatic habitat.

  14. Development of a Combination Approach for Seismic Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huai-zhong; Zhou, Fa-ren; Zhu, Qing-yong; Zhang, Xiao-tao; Zhang, Yong-xian

    2016-01-01

    We developed a synth esis approach to augment current techniques for seismic hazard evaluation by combining four previously unrelated subjects: the pattern informatics (PI), load/unload response ratio (LURR), state vector (SV), and accelerating moment release (AMR) methods. Since the PI is proposed in the premise that the change in the seismicity rate is a proxy for the change in the tectonic stress, this method is used to quantify localized changes surrounding the epicenters of large earthquakes to objectively quantify the anomalous areas (hot spots) of the upcoming events. On the short-to-intermediate-term estimation, we apply the LURR, SV, and AMR methods to examine the hazard regions derived from the PI hot spots. A predictive study of the 2014 earthquake tendency in Chinese mainland, using the seismic data from 1970-01-01 to 2014-10-01, shows that, during Jan 01 to Oct 31, 2014, most of the M > 5.0 earthquakes, especially the Feb 12 M7.3 Yutian, May 30 M6.1 Yingjiang, Aug. 03 M6.5 Ludian, and Oct 07 M6.6 earthquakes, occurred in the seismic hazard regions predicted. Comparing the predictions produced by the PI and combination approaches, it is clear that, by using the combination approach, we can screen out the false-alarm regions from the PI estimation, without reducing the hit rate, and therefore effectively augment the predictive power of current techniques. This provided evidence that the multi-method combination approach may be a useful tool to detect precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  15. Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben A. Abagyan

    2000-06-01

    The main scientific contribution of the project ''Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem'' submitted in 1996 and funded by the Department of Energy in 1997 is the formulation and development of the idea of the multilink recognition method for identification of functional and structural homologues of newly discovered genes. This idea became very popular after they first announced it and used it in prediction of the threading targets for the CASP2 competition (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction).

  16. Long-term results of combined approach in parotid sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, I; Chatziavramidis, A; Iakovou, I; Constantinidis, J

    2015-11-01

    Combined sialendoscopic and transcutaneous approach in parotid sialolithiasis is a surgical option for large and impacted stones. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term results regarding postoperative stenosis, recurrent swellings and gland function. Prospective study in a tertiary referral center of patients with parotid sialolithiasis requiring combined approach. A total of 12 patients have been treated within a period of 3 years. Intraductal stents were placed in 9 of 12 cases. Scintigraphic evaluation of salivary glands and follow-up sialendoscopy performed 1 year postoperatively. In total, fourteen stones (two stones in two cases) were successfully removed along with two coexisted inflammatory polyps. Postoperative endoscopic evaluation revealed mild stenosis in 7 out of 12 cases without clinical significance as no recurrent swellings were reported. Scintigraphy showed normal gland function in 11 cases and mild hypofunction in 1 case with long-standing history of sialolithiasis. All patients were free of symptoms within the follow-up period of time (median follow-up 15.5 months). Combined approach is a safe, gland preserving and efficacious procedure in long term. The stenosis in the area of ductal surgical opening when present does not seem to be of clinical value. PMID:25388993

  17. Autonomous onboard crew operations: A review and developmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature generated by an intercenter mission approach and consolidation team and their contractors was performed to obtain background information on the development of autonomous operations concepts for future space shuttle and space platform missions. The Boeing 757/767 flight management system was examined to determine the relevance for transfer of the developmental approach and technology to the performance of the crew operations function. In specific, the engine indications and crew alerting system was studied to determine the relevance of this display for the performance of crew operations onboard the vehicle. It was concluded that the developmental approach and technology utilized in the aeronautics industry would be appropriate for development of an autonomous operations concept for the space platform.

  18. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    and analysis tool development for advanced space transportation systems, followed by end-to-end system concept definitions and trade analyses, specific system concept definition and analysis, specific key technology and topic analysis, system, operational and economics model development, analysis, and integrated assessments. The HRST Integration Task Force (HITF) was formed to synthesize study results in several specific topic areas and support the development of conclusions from the study: Systems Concepts Definitions, Technology Assessment, Operations Assessment, and Cost Assessment. This paper summarizes the work of the Operations Assessment Team: the six approaches used, the analytical tools and methodologies developed and employed, the issues and concerns, and the results of the assessment. The approaches were deliberately varied in measures of merit and procedure to compensate for the uncertainty inherent in operations data in this early phase of concept exploration. In general, rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts appear to have significantly greater potential than all-rocket concepts for reducing operations costs.

  19. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Interval Management Program. The arrivals and approach operations are explored in detail including the primary operation and variations. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area in the highly automated terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic and Pilots and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the operations are explored.

  20. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  1. Automatic Combination of Operators in a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are powerful search methods inspired by Darwinian evolution. To date, they have been applied to the solution of many optimization problems because of the easy use of their properties and their robustness in finding good solutions to difficult problems. The good operation of genetic algorithms is due in part to its two main variation operators, namely, crossover and mutation operators. Typically, in the literature, we find the use of a single crossover and mutation operator. However, there are studies that have shown that using multi-operators produces synergy and that the operators are mutually complementary. Using multi-operators is not a simple task because which operators to use and how to combine them must be determined, which in itself is an optimization problem. In this paper, it is proposed that the task of exploring the different combinations of the crossover and mutation operators can be carried out by evolutionary computing. The crossover and mutation operators used are those typically used for solving the traveling salesman problem. The process of searching for good combinations was effective, yielding appropriate and synergic combinations of the crossover and mutation operators. The numerical results show that the use of the combination of operators obtained by evolutionary computing is better than the use of a single operator and the use of multi-operators combined in the standard way. The results were also better than those of the last operators reported in the literature. PMID:26367182

  2. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR... request for hearing in accordance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR 2.309. If the Commission... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206....

  3. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR... request for hearing in accordance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR 2.309. If the Commission... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206....

  4. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR... request for hearing in accordance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR 2.309. If the Commission... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206....

  5. 10 CFR 52.103 - Operation under a combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR... request for hearing in accordance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR 2.309. If the Commission... the combined license will be processed as a request for action in accordance with 10 CFR 2.206....

  6. Combined Approaches to Site-Specific Modification of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Christine S.; Mahto, Santosh K.; Lamichhane, Tek N.

    2008-01-01

    Both natural and unnatural modifications in RNA are of interest to biologists and chemists. More than 100 different analogs of the four standard RNA nucleosides have been identified in nature. Unnatural modifications are useful for structure and mechanistic studies of RNA. This Review highlights chemical, enzymatic, and combined (semisynthesis) approaches to generate site-specifically modified RNAs. The availability of these methods for site-specific modifications of RNAs of all sizes is important in order to study the relationships between RNA chemical composition, structure, and function. PMID:18177002

  7. Shaping Bessel beams with a generalized differential operator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.

    2016-09-01

    We apply a differential creation operator to an integer order Bessel beam in order to generate novel nondiffracting structures. The resulting phase structure and orbital angular momentum are discussed in detail. We find the parameters that preserve the orbital angular momentum of the seed beam and show how to produce and control shape preserving vortex arrays. In analogy to the Poincaré sphere, our approach is used to develop an operator sphere connecting higher-order Bessel beams.

  8. A Bayesian approach for combining thermal and hydraulic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    Incorporating temperatures into a modeling effort can take many forms, and both temperatures and hydrologic data can be combined qualitatively and quantitatively. In the latter category, the least formal would be in calibration, followed by parameter estimation and finally by full-inversion. This paper discusses information-based (specifically Bayesian) approaches of incorporating hydraulic parameters and potentials like temperature and hydraulic head together in a formal procedure. This paper reviews the generalized inverse problem for groundwater and heat; discusses Bayesian solutions to inverse problems; empirical and hierarchical Bayes, upscaling and cokriging and Bayesian interpolation. Along these lines, a list of suggested references is provided, along with suitable mentioning of benchmark papers, monographs and textbooks on the subject. The technique described in this paper revolves around shallow, low-temperature groundwater flow systems; and that entails steady 2-D fluid and heat flow. The methodology utilizes a perturbation technique to linearize and then couple the governing equations. For the perturbation approach to work, fluid properties must be decoupled from the temperature field. Once this is done, and through the finite element method, a block-linear system of data, kernel, and model parameters is developed. Two end-members and one set of joint inverse examples are presented. The two end-members are pure heat conduction (an application of Bayesian inversion to Paleoclimate reconstructions), and a pure-groundwater problem which is an example application to the Edwards Aquifer in Texas. Lastly, generic examples of combinations of transmissivity, hydraulic head and temperatures are presented.

  9. Dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach: technical note.

    PubMed

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Detailed descriptions of stepwise dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach are presented. Following maximum bone work, the first dural incision was made along the undersurface of the temporal lobe parallel to the superior petrosal sinus. Posterior extension of the dural incision was made in a curved fashion, keeping away from the transverse-sigmoid junction and taking care to preserve the vein of Labbé. A second incision was made perpendicular to the first incision. After sectioning the superior petrosal sinus around the porus trigeminus, the incision was extended toward the posterior fossa dura in the middle fossa region. The tentorium was incised toward the incisura at a point just posterior to the entrance of the trochlear nerve. A third incision was made longitudinally between the superior petrosal sinus and the jugular bulb. A final incision was initiated perpendicular to the third incision in the presigmoid region and extended parallel to the superior petrosal sinus connecting the second incision. The dural complex consisting of the temporal lobe dura, the posterior fossa dura, and the freed tentorium could then be removed. In addition to extensive bone resection, our strategic cranial base dural opening/removal can yield true advantages for the combined petrosal approach. PMID:22451813

  10. Dural Opening/Removal for Combined Petrosal Approach: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of stepwise dural opening/removal for combined petrosal approach are presented. Following maximum bone work, the first dural incision was made along the undersurface of the temporal lobe parallel to the superior petrosal sinus. Posterior extension of the dural incision was made in a curved fashion, keeping away from the transverse-sigmoid junction and taking care to preserve the vein of Labbé. A second incision was made perpendicular to the first incision. After sectioning the superior petrosal sinus around the porus trigeminus, the incision was extended toward the posterior fossa dura in the middle fossa region. The tentorium was incised toward the incisura at a point just posterior to the entrance of the trochlear nerve. A third incision was made longitudinally between the superior petrosal sinus and the jugular bulb. A final incision was initiated perpendicular to the third incision in the presigmoid region and extended parallel to the superior petrosal sinus connecting the second incision. The dural complex consisting of the temporal lobe dura, the posterior fossa dura, and the freed tentorium could then be removed. In addition to extensive bone resection, our strategic cranial base dural opening/removal can yield true advantages for the combined petrosal approach. PMID:22451813

  11. An approach to the design of operations systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, Roy L.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    The MultiMission Control Team (MMCT) consists of mission controllers which provides Real-Time operations support for the Mars Observer project. The Real-Time Operations task is to insure the integrity of the ground data system, to insure that the configuration is correct to support the mission, and to monitor the spacecraft for the Spacecraft Team. Operations systems are typically developed by adapting operations systems from previous projects. Problems tend to be solved empirically when they are either anticipated or observed in testing. This development method has worked in the past when time was available for extensive Ops testing. In the present NASA budget environment, a more cost conscious design approach has become necessary. Cost is a concern because operations is an ongoing, continuous activity. Reducing costs entails reducing staff. Reducing staffing levels potentially increases the risk of mission failure. Therefore, keeping track of the risk level is necessary.

  12. A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munisamy, Susila

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to apply the various quantitative models in a spreadsheet. Indeed,…

  13. An agent-oriented approach to automated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide

    1994-01-01

    As we plan for the next generation of Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC) systems, there are many opportunities for the increased utilization of innovative knowledge-based technologies. The innovative technology discussed is an advanced use of agent-oriented approaches to the automation of mission operations. The paper presents an overview of this technology and discusses applied operational scenarios currently being investigated and prototyped. A major focus of the current work is the development of a simple user mechanism that would empower operations staff members to create, in real time, software agents to assist them in common, labor intensive operations tasks. These operational tasks would include: handling routine data and information management functions; amplifying the capabilities of a spacecraft analyst/operator to rapidly identify, analyze, and correct spacecraft anomalies by correlating complex data/information sets and filtering error messages; improving routine monitoring and trend analysis by detecting common failure signatures; and serving as a sentinel for spacecraft changes during critical maneuvers enhancing the system's capabilities to support nonroutine operational conditions with minimum additional staff. An agent-based testbed is under development. This testbed will allow us to: (1) more clearly understand the intricacies of applying agent-based technology in support of the advanced automation of mission operations and (2) access the full set of benefits that can be realized by the proper application of agent-oriented technology in a mission operations environment. The testbed under development addresses some of the data management and report generation functions for the Explorer Platform (EP)/Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) Flight Operations Team (FOT). We present an overview of agent-oriented technology and a detailed report on the operation's concept for the testbed.

  14. Operative Treatment of Combined Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadric, Nedzad; Kabil, Emir; Mujanovic, Emir; Hadziselimovic, Mehdin; Jahic, Mirza; Rajkovic, Stojan; Osmanovic, Enes; Avdic, Sevleta; Keranovic, Suad; Behrem, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aortic valve replacement is a standard operating procedure in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Structure of patients undergoing surgery ranges from young population with isolated mitral valvular disease to the elderly population, which is in addition to the underlying disease additionally burdened with comorbidity. One of the most commonly present factors that further complicate the surgery is coronary heart disease that occurs in, almost, one third of patients with aortic stenosis. The aim is to compare the results of surgery for aortic valve replacement with or without coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Patients and Methods: From August 2008 to January 2013 in our center operated on 120 patients for aortic stenosis. Of this number, 75 were men and 45 women. The average age was 63.37 years (16-78). Isolated aortic valve replacement was performed in 89 patients and in 31 patients underwent aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery. Implanted 89 biological and 31 mechanical valves. Results: Patients with associated aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease were more expressed symptomatic symptoms preoperatively to patients with isolated aortic stenosis who were on average younger age. Intra-hospital morbidity and mortality was more pronounced in the group of patients with concomitant aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery. Morbidity was recorded in 17 patients (14.3%) in both groups, while the mortality rate in both groups was 12 patients (10.1%). Conclusion: Evaluation of preoperative risk factors and comorbidity in patients with aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease contributes to a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Also, early diagnosis of associated coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis contributes to timely decision for surgery thus avoiding subsequent ischaemic changes and myocardial damage. PMID:25870480

  15. A combined geochemical and hydrological approach for understanding macronutrient sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapworth, Dan J.; Gooddy, Daren C.; Kent, Flo; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Cole, Steven J.; Allen, Debbie

    2013-09-01

    This study employed complementary geochemical techniques and distributed hydrological modelling to investigate multiple sources of catchment macronutrients and characterise their changes in contrasting storm and baseflow conditions. This approach was demonstrated for the Beult catchment in the county of Kent (England), a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) indentified as failing to meet water quality standards for key nutrients under the Water Framework Directive. Significant changes in nutrient stoichiometry and bioavailability are observed for surface waters under contrasting flow regimes. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations are approximately twice as high during baseflow compared to high flow, while the inverse is true for particulate, colloidal and dissolved hydrolysable phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. Nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) ratios are lower during baseflow for most surface waters impacted by diffuse sources of pollution. Fluorescence indices of dissolved organic matter (DOM) show that waste water inputs may be locally important sources of more complex low molecular weight DOM, particularly during baseflow. Nitrate N and O isotope signatures, combined with other dissolved chemical tracers, confirm the dominance of wastewater N inputs at sites downsteam of sewerage treatment works during baseflow, with a shift towards the soil N pool in surface waters across the catchment during high flow. Distributed hydrological modelling using the Grid-to-Grid model reveal areas with the greatest runoff also export higher N and P concentrations, and hence deliver a greater flux of macronutrients, while forested areas with low nutrient concentrations reduce runoff and nutrient fluxes. During periods of high runoff, nested sampling indicates that nutrient fluxes scale with catchment area. This combined approach enables a more thorough assessment of the macronutrient sources and dynamics, better informing management options

  16. Antiviral Combination Approach as a Perspective to Combat Enterovirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Galabov, Angel S; Nikolova, Ivanka; Vassileva-Pencheva, Ralitsa; Stoyanova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections. At present, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral infection do not exist, in spite of the large amount of work carried out in this field. The main reason for this is the development of drug resistance. We studied the process of development of resistance to the strongest inhibitors of enteroviruses, WIN compounds (VP1 protein hydrophobic pocket blockers), especially in the models in vivo, Coxsackievirus B (CV-B) infections in mice. We introduced the tracing of a panel of phenotypic markers (MIC50 value, plaque shape and size, stability at 50℃, pathogenicity in mice) for characterization of the drug-mutants (resistant and dependent) as a very important stage in the study of enterovirus inhibitors. Moreover, as a result of VP1 RNA sequence analysis performed on the model of disoxaril mutants of CVB1, we determined the molecular basis of the drug-resistance. The monotherapy courses were the only approach used till now. For the first time in the research for anti-enterovirus antivirals our team introduced the testing of combination effect of the selective inhibitors of enterovirus replication with different mode of action. This study resulted in the selection of a number of very effective in vitro double combinations with synergistic effect and a broad spectrum of sensitive

  17. Spermatozoa quality assessment: a combined holographic and Raman microscopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Annalisa; Ferrara, Maria A.; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Managò, Stefano; Sirleto, Luigi; Coppola, Giuseppe; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-05-01

    Semen analysis is widely used as diagnostic tool for assessing male fertility, controlling and managing the animal reproduction. The most important parameters measured in a semen analysis are the morphology and biochemical alterations. For obtaining such information, non-invasive, label-free and non-destructive techniques have to be used. Digital Holography (DH) combined with Raman Spectroscopy (RS) could represent the perfect candidate for a rapid, non-destructive and high-sensitive morphological and biochemical sperm cell analysis. In this study, DH-RS combined approach is used for a complete analysis of single bovine spermatozoa. High-resolution images of bovine sperm have been obtained by DH microscopy from the reconstruction of a single acquired hologram, highlighting in some cases morphological alterations. Quantitative 3D reconstructions of sperm head, both normal and anomalous, have been studied and an unexpected structure of the post-acrosomal region of the head has been detected. Such anomalies have been also confirmed by Raman imaging analysis, suggesting the protein vibrations as associated Raman marker of the defect.

  18. Innovative approaches of clinical photodynamic therapy combined with immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved new treatment modality. It has been used for treatment of non-malignant and malignant diseases. Over the last decade its clinical application has gained increasing acceptance around the world after regulatory approvals. PDT offers various treatment options in cancer management and has been used primarily for localized superficial or endoluminal malignant and premalignant conditions. Recently, its application has also been expanded to solid tumors. However, its efficacy for the treatment of malignant tumors remains debatable and its acceptance still variable. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that, in addition to the direct local cytotoxicity, PDT can induce host immune responses, which may further enhance the therapeutic effects on primary tumor as well as metastasis. Therefore, PDT-induced antitumor immune response might play an important role in successful control of malignant diseases. Furthermore, the antitumor efficacy of PDT might also be enhanced through an effective immunoadjuvant to further expand its usefulness for a possible control of distant metastases. Recent clinical data also indicate that improved clinical outcomes are seen in the combination of PDT and immunomodulation therapy for non-malignant disease. This review will summarize recent progress in developing innovative approaches of PDT combined with immunotherapy for non-malignant and malignant diseases.

  19. Using Vision System Technologies to Enable Operational Improvements for Low Visibility Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Severance, Kurt; Le Vie, Lisa R.; Comstock, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System (SEVS) technologies, have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. To achieve this potential, research is required for effective technology development and implementation based upon human factors design and regulatory guidance. This research supports the introduction and use of Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (SVS/EFVS) as advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and two color head-down primary flight display (PFD) concepts (conventional PFD, SVS PFD) were evaluated in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare terminal environment. Additionally, the instrument approach type (no offset, 3 degree offset, 15 degree offset) was experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The data showed that touchdown landing performance were excellent regardless of SEVS concept or type of offset instrument approach being flown. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness indicated that making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD may be feasible.

  20. How to select combination operators for fuzzy expert systems using CRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Tian, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method to select combination operators for fuzzy expert systems using the Compositional Rule of Inference (CRI) is proposed. First, fuzzy inference processes based on CRI are classified into three categories in terms of their inference results: the Expansion Type Inference, the Reduction Type Inference, and Other Type Inferences. Further, implication operators under Sup-T composition are classified as the Expansion Type Operator, the Reduction Type Operator, and the Other Type Operators. Finally, the combination of rules or their consequences is investigated for inference processes based on CRI.

  1. Operator assistant systems - An experimental approach using a telerobotics application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a knowledge-based system methodology for developing operator assistant (OA) systems in dynamic and interactive environments. This is a problem both of training and design, which is the subject of this article. Design includes both design of the system to be controlled and design of procedures for operating this system. A specific knowledge representation is proposed for representing the corresponding system and operational knowledge. This representation is based on the situation recognition and analytical reasoning paradigm. It tries to make explicit common factors involved in both human and machine intelligence, including perception and reasoning. An OA system based on this representation has been developed for space telerobotics. Simulations have been carried out with astronauts and the resulting protocols have been analyzed. Results show the relevance of the approach and have been used for improving the knowledge representation and the OA architecture.

  2. Nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy: A quality-oriented approach

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R. ); Geiger, J.E. ); Heibel, R.E. ); Cotton, J.B. ); Sabol, A.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Quality assurance programs have been part of the nuclear utility management process since the publication of the draft of 10CFR50 Appendix B in the late 1960s. The unwritten operational philosophy of nuclear quality assurance organizations focused on compliance with federal regulations. Adverse experiences, including operational events and extended shutdowns, prompted the gradual adoption of isolated practices extending beyond compliance orientation. These practices have an orientation that accommodates a definition of quality, a perspective of the role of nuclear quality assurance organizations in the overall concept of defense-in-depth, a definition of the segments of the nuclear quality assurance mission, and recent advances in the understanding of self-assessment. Observation of these practices at various nuclear utilities resulted in a syntheses of practices and approaches into a coherent quality-oriented nuclear quality assurance operating philosophy that is not totally adopted at any one utility.

  3. Image coding approach based on multiscale matching pursuits operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wolff, Ingo

    1998-12-01

    A new image coding technique based on the Multiscale Matching Pursuits (MMP) approach is presented. Using a pre-defined dictionary set, which consists of a limited amount of elements, the MMP approach can decompose/encode images on different image scales and reconstruct/decode the image by the same dictionary. The MMP approach can be used to represent different scale image texture as well as the whole image. Instead of the pixel-based image representation, the MMP method represents the image texture as an index of a dictionary and thereby can encode the image with low data volume. Based on the MMP operation, the image content can be coded in an order from global to local and detail.

  4. A combined PLC and CPU approach to multiprocessor control

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.J.; Broesch, J.D.; Coon, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    A sophisticated multiprocessor control system has been developed for use in the E-Power Supply System Integrated Control (EPSSIC) on the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC provides control and interlocks for the ohmic heating coil power supply and its associated systems. Of particular interest is the architecture of this system: both a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and a Central Processor Unit (CPU) have been combined on a standard VME bus. The PLC and CPU input and output signals are routed through signal conditioning modules, which provide the necessary voltage and ground isolation. Additionally these modules adapt the signal levels to that of the VME I/O boards. One set of I/O signals is shared between the two processors. The resulting multiprocessor system provides a number of advantages: redundant operation for mission critical situations, flexible communications using conventional TCP/IP protocols, the simplicity of ladder logic programming for the majority of the control code, and an easily maintained and expandable non-proprietary system.

  5. Analysing clinical reasoning characteristics using a combined methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    individuals. The modest reliability of SCTs and CRPs in this study suggests the need for an increased number of items for testing. Further work is needed to determine the suitability of a combined approach for assessment purposes. PMID:24165290

  6. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Melon, Monica

    2012-04-15

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  7. A new technique for surgical treatment of vaginal agenesis using combined abdominal-perineal approach.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Mehmet Sinan; Salman, Mehmet Coskun; Dogan, Nasuh Utku

    2011-01-01

    Optimum therapeutic approach in vaginal agenesis has always been an area of extensive controversies. Although surgical management gained priority due to the evolution of techniques, there is currently no consensus in the literature regarding the best type of surgical approach. The most commonly preferred surgical procedure among gynecologists is McIndoe operation which involves the creation of a space between bladder and rectum, insertion of a mold covered with split-thickness skin graft into that neovaginal space, and use of postoperative vaginal dilation to avoid stenosis. However, many modifications have been introduced in time in an attempt to increase the success rates. In this paper, we describe two cases with vaginal agenesis with functioning uterus who were subjected to surgery by combined abdominal-perineal approach. The surgical technique also included the use of a specially designed vaginal mold made up of polymethyl methacrylate and use of Hyalobarrier gel which is an adhesion-preventing agent. PMID:21577259

  8. Operational calculus approach to explicit solving of initial and boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimovski, I.; Spiridonova, M.

    2015-05-01

    Short review of an approach to explicit solving of initial and boundary value problems (BVPs) for some partial differential equations (PDEs) is presented. A combination of two classical methods—the Fourier method and the Duhamel principle—are used in the frames of a two-dimensional operational calculus suggested in [1]. It gives explicit solutions of some local and non-local BVPs for the classical equations of Mathematical Physics in rectangular domains.

  9. Simultaneously Combined Anterior-Posterior Approaches for Subaxial Cervical Circumferential Reconstruction in a Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Xia, Qun; Hu, Yong-cheng; Zhang, Ji-dong; Lan, Jie; Ma, Xin-long

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and analyze the feasibility of simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approaches for subaxial cervical circumferential reconstruction in sitting position. A retrospective case review was performed for above surgery procedure. A 79-year-old man was confirmed subaxial cervical fracture and dislocation with facet locked by radiological examination, and the involved levels were C5-6. According to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification, the impairment scale was grade B. And the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury and Severity Score (SLIC) were 9. The patient was restricted in sitting position with traction on a halo in extension to immobilize the head during the operation. A posterior laminectomy and pedicle screws insertion to the involved cervical spine was performed firstly. And then the anterior discectomy and strut graft were accomplished through an anterior cervical approach. The final fixation was finished by clamping the strut graft with pedicle screw system. Total blood loss was 600 ml and the total operating time was 150 min. The patient was followed up for 6 months. The symptom of neck pain improved distinctly and no evidence about implant failure was noted. Neurological status improvement was confirmed and the ASIA scale was improved to grade C. We believed that the simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approach in sitting position was safe and more advantageous for appropriate cases. PMID:26790982

  10. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  11. Conflicting approaches: Operant psychology arrives at a primate laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Dewsbury, Donald A.

    2003-01-01

    During a brief period, from 1955 to 1957, behavior analysts, primarily Charles Ferster, Roger Kelleher, and John Falk, conducted research on chimpanzees at the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology in Orange Park, Florida. This was a time of conflict between operant conditioners and more traditional experimental psychologists at the national level, and there was a similar conflict at the local level in Orange Park. The principal overt issues concerned the use of deprivation procedures, the apparatus utilized, and the naming of animals, although more fundamental differences probably set the occasion for the disputes. The conflicts in Orange Park can be seen as a microcosm of the broader conflicts that occurred during a period when the operant approach was being extended and applied more broadly than before. PMID:22478406

  12. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Low, Steven; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-07-21

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. These methods work well given a good initial “guess” for the solution, which is always available in normal system operations. However, with the increase in levels of intermittent generation, the assumption of a good initial guess always being available is no longer valid. In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that it is possible to compute (using an offline optimization) a “monotonicity domain” in the space of voltage phasors. Given this domain, there is a simple efficient algorithm that will either find a solution in the domain, or provably certify that no solutions exist in it. We validate the approach on several IEEE test cases and demonstrate that the offline optimization can be performed tractably and the computed “monotonicity domain” includes all practically relevant power flow solutions.

  13. A systematic technical approach to the Ross operation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, F; Tingleff, J; Pettersson, G

    1996-07-01

    The Ross operation is a technically demanding procedure. The pressure on the surgeon to produce consistently good results from the very first operation is great, since he is not afforded the luxury of a very soft "learning curve", as is the case with many technically difficult operations, due to the availability of acceptable and safe alternatives for most Ross candidates. We have felt this pressure from the outset and this has motivated a commitment to the development of a systematic surgical technique in an attempt to achieve consistently excellent results. Maintenance of normal autograft spatial geometry after translocation to the aortic position is necessary to ensure proper leaflet coaptation and to avoid autograft insufficiency, and this is the underlying principle upon which this technique is based. Most Ross operations are now performed as total aortic root replacements with a free-standing autograft, However, the autograft is soft and compliant, and will adapt to the dimensions of the more solid tissue into which it is inserted, the aortic annulus proximally and ascending aorta distally, and root replacement will not guarantee that normal autograft geometry will be maintained unless there is a correct size match between the autograft and the aortic annulus and sino-tubular junction, and the autograft is not distorted in other ways. A systematic technical approach to the Ross operation so that size mismatch is avoided and autograft geometry is maintained has been developed and is described in step-by-step detail. In the first third of this series of 85 patients, two patients had moderate (2+) and three patients had mild (1+) immediate postoperative autograft insufficiency. As our understanding of the important sizing and orientation issues has increased and the systematic technique has evolved, the incidence of early autograft insufficiency has essentially been eliminated. In the latter 2/3 of the series, all patients had less than mild autograft

  14. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2015-07-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable shoreline risk levels from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - Portuguese Continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time. Shoreline risks can be computed in real-time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns, "hot spots" or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real time risk levels can be used in the prioritization of individual ships, geographical areas, strategic tug positioning and

  15. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  17. A three-phase approach for operating theatre schedules.

    PubMed

    Testi, Angela; Tanfani, Elena; Torre, Giancarlo

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we develop a three-phase, hierarchical approach for the weekly scheduling of operating rooms. This approach has been implemented in one of the surgical departments of a public hospital located in Genova (Genoa), Italy. Our aim is to suggest an integrated way of facing surgical activity planning in order to improve overall operating theatre efficiency in terms of overtime and throughput as well as waiting list reduction, while improving department organization. In the first phase we solve a bin packing-like problem in order to select the number of sessions to be weekly scheduled for each ward; the proposed and original selection criterion is based upon an updated priority score taking into proper account both the waiting list of each ward and the reduction of residual ward demand. Then we use a blocked booking method for determining optimal time tables, denoted Master Surgical Schedule (MSS), by defining the assignment between wards and surgery rooms. Lastly, once the MSS has been determined we use the simulation software environment Witness 2004 in order to analyze different sequencings of surgical activities that arise when priority is given on the basis of a) the longest waiting time (LWT), b) the longest processing time (LPT) and c) the shortest processing time (SPT). The resulting simulation models also allow us to outline possible organizational improvements in surgical activity. The results of an extensive computational experimentation pertaining to the studied surgical department are here given and analyzed. PMID:17608057

  18. A combined frontal and maxillary sinus approach for repulsion of the third maxillary molar in a horse.

    PubMed

    Boutros, C P; Koenig, J B

    2001-04-01

    The 3rd maxillary molar is a difficult tooth to remove by extraction or repulsion. A combined frontal and maxillary approach provides good exposure for repulsion of this tooth, debridement of the sinuses, and placement of an alveolar seal. The improved exposure should minimize operative difficulties and postoperative complications. PMID:11326631

  19. 76 FR 11822 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  20. 76 FR 13241 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  1. Combining Operations Management and Information Systems Curricula: Assessing Alumni Preparations for the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David; McFadden, Kathleen L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how well a curriculum that combines operations management and information systems uniquely prepares students for the workforce. To address our research questions, a Web-based survey was developed. We sent our survey to 203 alumni that graduated from the Department of Operations Management and Information…

  2. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  3. A Simulation-Based Approach to Training Operational Cultural Competence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Cultural knowledge and skills are critically important for military operations, emergency response, or any job that involves interaction with a culturally diverse population. However, it is not obvious what cultural knowledge and skills need to be trained, and how to integrate that training with the other training that trainees must undergo. Cultural training needs to be broad enough to encompass both regional (culture-specific) and cross-cultural (culture-general) competencies, yet be focused enough to result in targeted improvements in on-the-job performance. This paper describes a comprehensive instructional development methodology and training technology framework that focuses cultural training on operational needs. It supports knowledge acquisition, skill acquisition, and skill transfer. It supports both training and assessment, and integrates with other aspects of operational skills training. Two training systems will be used to illustrate this approach: the Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT) and the Tactical Dari language and culture training system. The paper also discusses new and emerging capabilities that are integrating cultural competence training more strongly with other aspects of training and mission rehearsal.

  4. A Final Approach Trajectory Model for Current Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chester; Sadovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Predicting accurate trajectories with limited intent information is a challenge faced by air traffic management decision support tools in operation today. One such tool is the FAA's Terminal Proximity Alert system which is intended to assist controllers in maintaining safe separation of arrival aircraft during final approach. In an effort to improve the performance of such tools, two final approach trajectory models are proposed; one based on polynomial interpolation, the other on the Fourier transform. These models were tested against actual traffic data and used to study effects of the key final approach trajectory modeling parameters of wind, aircraft type, and weight class, on trajectory prediction accuracy. Using only the limited intent data available to today's ATM system, both the polynomial interpolation and Fourier transform models showed improved trajectory prediction accuracy over a baseline dead reckoning model. Analysis of actual arrival traffic showed that this improved trajectory prediction accuracy leads to improved inter-arrival separation prediction accuracy for longer look ahead times. The difference in mean inter-arrival separation prediction error between the Fourier transform and dead reckoning models was 0.2 nmi for a look ahead time of 120 sec, a 33 percent improvement, with a corresponding 32 percent improvement in standard deviation.

  5. An approach for formalising the supply chain operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravković, Milan; Panetto, Hervé; Trajanović, Miroslav; Aubry, Alexis

    2011-11-01

    Reference models play an important role in the knowledge management of the various complex collaboration domains (such as supply chain networks). However, they often show a lack of semantic precision and, they are sometimes incomplete. In this article, we present an approach to overcome semantic inconsistencies and incompleteness of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model and hence improve its usefulness and expand the application domain. First, we describe a literal web ontology language (OWL) specification of SCOR concepts (and related tools) built with the intention to preserve the original approach in the classification of process reference model entities, and hence enable the effectiveness of usage in original contexts. Next, we demonstrate the system for its exploitation, in specific - tools for SCOR framework browsing and rapid supply chain process configuration. Then, we describe the SCOR-Full ontology, its relations with relevant domain ontology and show how it can be exploited for improvement of SCOR ontological framework competence. Finally, we elaborate the potential impact of the presented approach, to interoperability of systems in supply chain networks.

  6. A Combined Geometric Approach for Computational Fluid Dynamics on Dynamic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    1995-01-01

    A combined geometric approach for computational fluid dynamics is presented for the analysis of unsteady flow about mechanisms in which its components are in moderate relative motion. For a CFD analysis, the total dynamics problem involves the dynamics of the aspects of geometry modeling, grid generation, and flow modeling. The interrelationships between these three aspects allow for a more natural formulation of the problem and the sharing of information which can be advantageous to the computation of the dynamics. The approach is applied to planar geometries with the use of an efficient multi-block, structured grid generation method to compute unsteady, two-dimensional and axisymmetric flow. The applications presented include the computation of the unsteady, inviscid flow about a hinged-flap with flap deflections and a high-speed inlet with centerbody motion as part of the unstart / restart operation.

  7. A new systems engineering approach to streamlined science and mission operations for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Sonneborn, George; Perkins, Dorothy C.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD, Code 500), the Space Sciences Directorate (Code 600), and the Flight Projects Directorate (Code 400) have developed a new approach to combine the science and mission operations for the FUSE mission. FUSE, the last of the Delta-class Explorer missions, will obtain high resolution far ultraviolet spectra (910 - 1220 A) of stellar and extragalactic sources to study the evolution of galaxies and conditions in the early universe. FUSE will be launched in 2000 into a 24-hour highly eccentric orbit. Science operations will be conducted in real time for 16-18 hours per day, in a manner similar to the operations performed today for the International Ultraviolet Explorer. In a radical departure from previous missions, the operations concept combines spacecraft and science operations and data processing functions in a single facility to be housed in the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics (Code 680). A small missions operations team will provide the spacecraft control, telescope operations and data handling functions in a facility designated as the Science and Mission Operations Center (SMOC). This approach will utilize the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture for both spacecraft and instrument commanding. Other concepts of integrated operations being developed by the Code 500 Renaissance Project will also be employed for the FUSE SMOC. The primary objective of this approach is to reduce development and mission operations costs. The operations concept, integration of mission and science operations, and extensive use of existing hardware and software tools will decrease both development and operations costs extensively. This paper describes the FUSE operations concept, discusses the systems engineering approach used for its development, and the software, hardware and management tools that will make its implementation feasible.

  8. Combining Formal and Functional Approaches to Topic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellers, Margaret; Post, Brechtje

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation between formal and functional approaches to prosodic variation is an ongoing problem in linguistic research. In particular, the frameworks of the Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction (PTI) and Empirical Phonology (EP) take very different theoretical and methodological approaches to this kind of variation. We argue that it is fruitful to…

  9. Extrarenal Transplant Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Combined Therapeutic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poels, Jonathan A. D. Riley, Peter L.

    2008-03-15

    Extrarenal transplant pseudoaneurysms are rare, and treatment usually involves sacrificing of the transplant kidney. We report a case where combined use of a thrombotic agent and covered stents successfully excluded a pseudoaneurysm while preserving renal function.

  10. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun H.; Nan, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms. PMID:22619725

  11. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  12. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  13. Tools and Techniques for a Systematic Approach to Safe Rendezvous and Proximity Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Rob; Rishikof, Brian

    2010-09-01

    Among the most demanding operations facing manned spaceflight is the ability to successfully and safely complete Rendezvous Proximity Operations & Capture(RPOC) operations with a target vehicle. While perhaps made to look routine from a safety perspective for some vehicles and developers regularly docking to the International Space Station(namely the Space Shuttle, and Russian Progress and Soyuz vehicles), international partners and commercial vehicle developers are finding it among the most difficult engineering challenges. Whether docking with the International Space Station in low earth orbit, or rendezvousing with a returning spacecraft in low lunar orbit, successfully and systematically accounting for all the combinations of risks and failures which lead to failed rendezvous or collisions can be daunting. Systems such as propulsion, avionics, software, and command and data handling(C&DH) must all work as a single integrated system; and the guidance, navigation, and control(GN&C) systems arguably forms the heart of that unit. In response to this challenge, Odyssey Space Research(Odyssey) utilizes their core GN&C engineering competencies, systems engineering capabilities and associated simulation tools to address the safety of RPOC. These simulations provide for high-level mission scenario analysis, systems design, mission planning, monitoring, and implementation, covering all flight phases of rendezvous from orbit insertion, phasing and transfer orbits, far-range rendezvous operations, proximity operations, and capture. Combined with a systems engineering approach, it allows our team to analyze functional system capabilities, propose design modifications and then perform the safety engineering aspect of evaluating that vehicle’s safety compliance. The simulation, modeling and analysis tools(such as domain specific RPOC models, and visualization and virtual reality) allow for detailed design and development and/or help provide the independent assessment

  14. Integrated operation and management system for a 700MW combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroumaru, I. ); Iwamiya, T. ); Fukai, M. )

    1992-03-01

    Yanai Power Plant of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. (Yamaguchi Pref., Japan) is in the process of constructing a 1400MW state-of-the-art combined cycle power plant. The first phase, a 350MW power plant, started operation on a commercial basis in November, 1990. This power plant has achieved high efficiency and high operability, major features of a combined cycle power plant. The integrated operation and management system of the power plant takes care of operation, maintenance, control of general business, etc., and was built using the latest computer and digital control and communication technologies. This paper reports that it is expected that this system will enhance efficient operation and management for the power plant.

  15. Matrix operator approach to the quantum evolution operator and the geometric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Jewan; Soh, Kwang Sup

    2013-11-01

    The Moody-Shapere-Wilczek's adiabatic effective Hamiltonian and Lagrangian method is developed further into the matrix effective Hamiltonian (MEH) and Lagrangian (MEL) approach to a parameter-dependent quantum system. The matrix-operator approach formulated in the product integral (PI) provides not only a method to find the wave function efficiently in the MEH approach but also higher order corrections to the effective action systematically in the MEL approach, a la the Magnus expansion and the Kubo cumulant expansion. A coupled quantum system of a light particle of a harmonic oscillator is worked out, and as a by-product, a new kind of gauge potential (Berry's connection) is found even for nondegenerate cases (real eigenfunctions). Moreover, in the PI formulation the holonomy of the induced gauge potential is related to Schlesinger's exact formula for the gauge field tensor. A superadiabatic expansion is also constructed, and a generalized Dykhne formula, depending on the contour integrals of the homotopy class of complex degenerate points, is rephrased in the PI formulation.

  16. Kistler reusable vehicle facility design and operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, D.; McInerney, F.; Johnston, C.; Tolson, B.

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is designing and developing the K-1, the world's first fully reusable aerospace vehicle to deliver satellites into orbit. The K-1 vehicle test program will be conducted in Woomera, Australia, with commercial operations scheduled to begin shortly afterwards. Both stages of the K-1 will return to the launch site utilizing parachutes and airbags for a soft landing within 24 h after launch. The turnaround flow of the two stages will cycle from landing site to a maintenance/refurbishment facility and through the next launch in only 9 days. Payload processing will occur in a separate facility in parallel with recovery and refurbishment operations. The vehicle design and on-board checkout capability of the avionics system eliminates the need for an abundance of ground checkout equipment. Payload integration, vehicle assembly, and K-1 transport to the launch pad will be performed horizontally, simplifying processing and reducing infrastructure requirements. This simple, innovative, and cost-effective approach will allow Kistler to offer its customers flexible, low-cost, and on-demand launch services.

  17. The jugular foramen: microsurgical anatomy and operative approaches.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, T; Rhoton, A L; Matsushima, T

    1997-07-01

    The jugular foramen, based on these studies of microsurgical anatomy, is divided into three compartments: two venous and a neural or intrajugular compartment. The venous compartments consist of a larger posterolateral venous channel, the sigmoid part, which receives the flow of the sigmoid sinus, and a smaller anteromedial venous channel, the petrosal part, which receives the drainage of the inferior petrosal sinus. The petrosal part forms a characteristic venous confluens by also receiving tributaries from the hypoglossal canal, petroclival fissure, and vertebral venous plexus. The petrosal part empties into the sigmoid part through an opening in the medial wall of the jugular bulb between the glossopharyngeal nerve anteriorly and the vagus and accessory nerves posteriorly. The intrajugular or neural part, through which the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves course, is located between the sigmoid and petrosal parts at the site of the intrajugular processes of the temporal and occipital bones, which are joined by a fibrous or osseous bridge. The glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves penetrate the dura on the medial margin of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone to reach the medial wall of the internal jugular vein. The operative approaches, which access the foramen and adjacent areas and are demonstrated in a stepwise manner, are the postauricular transtemporal, retrosigmoid, extreme lateral transcondylar, and preauricular subtemporal-infratemporal approaches. PMID:9218307

  18. Enabling CSPA Operations Through Pilot Involvement in Longitudinal Approach Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol (Technical Monitor); Pritchett, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Several major airports around the United States have, or plan to have, closely-spaced parallel runways. This project complemented current and previous research by examining the pilots ability to control their position longitudinally within their approach stream.This project s results considered spacing for separation from potential positions of wake vortices from the parallel approach. This preventive function could enable CSPA operations to very closely spaced runways. This work also considered how pilot involvement in longitudinal spacing could allow for more efficient traffic flow, by allowing pilots to keep their aircraft within tighter arrival slots then air traffic control (ATC) might be able to establish, and by maintaining space within the arrival stream for corresponding departure slots. To this end, this project conducted several research studies providing an analytic and computational basis for calculating appropriate aircraft spacings, experimental results from a piloted flight simulator test, and an experimental testbed for future simulator tests. The following sections summarize the results of these three efforts.

  19. Writing with Basals: A Sentence Combining Approach to Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Merrill, Jimmie D.

    Sentence combining techniques can be used with basal readers to help students develop writing skills. The first technique is addition, characterized by using the connecting word "and" to join two or more base sentences together. The second technique is called "embedding," and is characterized by putting parts of two or more base sentences together…

  20. Soluble collagen approach to a combination tannage mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although complex salts of Cr(III) sulfate are currently the most effective tanning agents, salts of other metals, including aluminum, have been used either alone or in combination with vegetable tannins or other organic chemicals. In the present study, the interactions of aluminum sulfate, and quebr...

  1. Soluble collagen approach to a combination tannage mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although complex salts of Cr(III) sulfate are currently the most effective tanning agents, salts of other metals, including aluminum, have been used either alone or in combination with vegetable tannins or other organic chemicals. In the present study, the interactions of metallic sulfates, and cond...

  2. [Hybrid revascularization: a combined approach to multivessel coronary artery lesions].

    PubMed

    Repossini, A; Roĭtberg, G E; Kotelnikov, I; Sokolov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of effectiveness and feasibility of hybrid approach to multivessel coronary artery disease and problems of interaction between cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists in deciding on the choice of revascularization method is performed in the article. Hybrid approach to multivessel disease defined as sternal sparing, off-pump, minimally invasive, hand sewn left internal mammary - left anterior descending (LAD) arteries by-pass graft with percutaneous coronary revascularization of non-LAD lesions to achieve functionally complete revascularization is described in detail. Data of multicenter studies and clinical recommendations for myocardial revascularization is discussed. PMID:24090389

  3. Combined spatial filtering and Boolean operators applied to the processing of real images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltmate, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Several new and seemingly successful scene analysis techniques for application to real image processing are presented. These techniques consist of particular combinations of spatial low pass filtering, global thresholding and Boolean operators, specifically the AND, OR and NOT operators. These combinatorial operators, hereafter referred to as the Boolpass operators, perform the task of picture energy/information reduction, while retaining the fundamental picture primitives such as edges which characterize the images. Over 150 figures are included which illustrate the results obtained from application of the Boolpass techniques to eight different natural scenes. These results indicate that the Boolpass operators do display great potential as important components of a larger more comprehensive pattern recognition machine. Such a machine would encompass further processing (for target classification/recognition) of the resulting Boolpass operator information.

  4. Combining Cognitive and Interactive Approaches to Lingua Receptiva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahtina, Daria; ten Thije, Jan D.; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study takes an experimental approach to "lingua receptiva" (LaRa), a communication mode in which interlocutors each use their own--different--native language. In contrast to previous work on LaRa, this study investigates the phenomenon in genetically unrelated languages. Native speakers of Estonian and Russian were engaged in a…

  5. Combination Approaches to Combat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is a global health problem that is exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. These efforts include antibiotic-antibiotic combinations, and the development of adjuvants that either directly target resistance mechanisms such as the inhibition of β-lactamase enzymes, or indirectly target resistance by interfering with bacterial signaling pathways such as two-component systems. We also discuss screening of libraries of previously approved drugs to identify non-obvious antimicrobial adjuvants. PMID:23333434

  6. Noise exposed of the operators of combine harvesters with and without a cab.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Sarp Korkut; Say, Sait M; Ege, Fikri; Sabanci, Alaettin

    2006-11-01

    A considerable number of the combine harvesters in Turkey are rather old and used without cabs resulting in unhealthy working conditions for their operators. Noise is one of the detrimental factors. This study deals with determining and comparing the noise exposed on the operators of the combines with and without a cab used for wheat harvesting in Turkey. The sound pressure levels (dB) at octave band center frequencies (31.5-8000Hz) and the sound levels (dBA) at the ear level of the operators were measured on 37 different combine harvesters with four different makes and different years from 1976 to 2001. Fifteen of the combines were without a cab, another 15 had original cabs while remaining seven combines had cabs mounted on them after manufacturing. The sound pressure levels were in a decreasing trend from the lower frequencies to higher frequencies. This trend was more noticeable for the combines with original cab and with the cab mounted after manufacturing compared to the ones without cab. The use of a cab was more effective in the insulation of the noise at the medium and higher frequencies, which have more bothersome effect compared to the lower frequencies. The sound pressure levels were 75-102dB and 46-89dB at low (31.5-500Hz) and high (500-8000Hz) frequencies for all combines, respectively. The sound pressure levels at the frequency of 4000Hz at which the human ear is most sensitive were 6-17dB lower for the combines with the cabs mounted after manufacturing and 9-28dB lower for the ones with the original cabs compared to the combines without cab. The sound levels were 85-90, 81-83, and 76-81dBA for the combines without cab, with cab mounted after manufacturing, and with original cab, respectively. The study showed that the use of a cab was useful in the insulation of the noise, particularly at higher frequencies. In addition, it protects the operator from the factors having detrimental effects on the working efficiency such as high temperature and dusty

  7. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

  8. Chaotic Attractor Crisis and Climate Sensitivity: a Transfer Operator Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, A.; Lucarini, V.; Lunkeit, F.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rough response to a smooth parameter change of some non-chaotic climate models, such as the warm to snowball-Earth transition in energy balance models due to the ice-albedo feedback, can be studied in the framework of bifurcation theory, in particular by analysing the Lyapunov spectrum of fixed points or periodic orbits. However, bifurcation theory is of little help to study the destruction of a chaotic attractor which can occur in high-dimensional General Circulation Models (GCM). Yet, one would expect critical slowing down to occur before the crisis, since, as the system becomes susceptible to the physical instability mechanism responsible for the crisis, it turns out to be less and less resilient to exogenous perturbations and to spontaneous fluctuations due to other types of instabilities on the attractor. The statistical physics framework, extended to nonequilibrium systems, is particularly well suited for the study of global properties of chaotic and stochastic systems. In particular, the semigroup of transfer operators governs the evolution of distributions in phase space and its spectrum characterises both the relaxation rate of distributions to a statistical steady-state and the stability of this steady-state to perturbations. If critical slowing down indeed occurs in the approach to an attractor crisis, the gap in the spectrum of the semigroup of transfer operators is expected to shrink. We show that the chaotic attractor crisis due to the ice-albedo feedback and resulting in a transition from a warm to a snowball-Earth in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), a GCM of intermediate complexity, is associated with critical slowing down, as observed by the slower decay of correlations before the crisis (cf. left panel). In addition, we demonstrate that this critical slowing down can be traced back to the shrinkage of the gap between the leading eigenvalues of coarse-grained approximations of the transfer operators and that these eigenvalues capture the

  9. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  10. The SCOP-formalism: an Operational Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    D'Hooghe, Bart

    2010-05-04

    We present the SCOP-formalism, an operational approach to quantum mechanics. If a State-COntext-Property-System (SCOP) satisfies a specific set of 'quantum axioms,] it fits in a quantum mechanical representation in Hilbert space. We present a model in which the maximal change of state of the system due to interaction with the measurement context is controlled by a parameter N. In the case N = 2 the system reduces to a model for the spin measurements on a quantum spin-1/2 particle. In the limit N->infinity the system is classical. For the intermediate cases it is impossible to define an orthocomplementation on the set of properties. Another interesting feature is that the probability of a state transition also depends on the context which induces it. This contrasts sharply with standard quantum mechanics for which Gleason's theorem states the uniqueness of the state transition probability and independent of measurement context. We show that if a SCOP satisfies a Gleason-like condition, namely that all state transition probabilities are independent of which measurement context induces the change of state, then the lattice of properties is orthocomplemented.

  11. Engineering a Multimission Approach to Navigation Ground Data System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimatos, Dimitrios V.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mission Design and Navigation (MDNAV) Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports many deep space and earth orbiting missions from formulation to end of mission operations. The requirements of these missions are met with a multimission approach to MDNAV ground data system (GDS) infrastructure capable of being shared and allocated in a seamless and consistent manner across missions. The MDNAV computing infrastructure consists of compute clusters, network attached storage, mission support area facilities, and desktop hardware. The multimission architecture allows these assets, and even personnel, to be leveraged effectively across the project lifecycle and across multiple missions simultaneously. It provides a more robust and capable infrastructure to each mission than might be possible if each constructed its own. It also enables a consistent interface and environment within which teams can conduct all mission analysis and navigation functions including: trajectory design; ephemeris generation; orbit determination; maneuver design; and entry, descent, and landing analysis. The savings of these efficiencies more than offset the costs of increased complexity and other challenges that had to be addressed: configuration management, scheduling conflicts, and competition for resources. This paper examines the benefits of the multimission MDNAV ground data system infrastructure, focusing on the hardware and software architecture. The result is an efficient, robust, scalable MDNAV ground data system capable of supporting more than a dozen active missions at once.

  12. The SCOP-formalism: an Operational Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hooghe, Bart

    2010-05-01

    We present the SCOP-formalism, an operational approach to quantum mechanics. If a State—COntext—Property—System (SCOP) satisfies a specific set of `quantum axioms,] it fits in a quantum mechanical representation in Hilbert space. We present a model in which the maximal change of state of the system due to interaction with the measurement context is controlled by a parameter N. In the case N = 2 the system reduces to a model for the spin measurements on a quantum spin-1/2 particle. In the limit N→∞ the system is classical. For the intermediate cases it is impossible to define an orthocomplementation on the set of properties. Another interesting feature is that the probability of a state transition also depends on the context which induces it. This contrasts sharply with standard quantum mechanics for which Gleason's theorem states the uniqueness of the state transition probability and independent of measurement context. We show that if a SCOP satisfies a Gleason-like condition, namely that all state transition probabilities are independent of which measurement context induces the change of state, then the lattice of properties is orthocomplemented.

  13. Formalized Conflicts Detection Based on the Analysis of Multiple Emails: An Approach Combining Statistics and Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Chahnez; Curé, Olivier; Salzano, Gabriella; Smaïli, Kamel

    In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), it is crucial for project leaders to detect conflicting situations as early as possible. Generally, this task is performed manually by studying a set of documents exchanged between team members. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged automatic solution that identifies documents, subjects and actors involved in relational conflicts. Our approach detects conflicts in emails, probably the most popular type of documents in CSCW, but the methods used can handle other text-based documents. These methods rely on the combination of statistical and ontological operations. The proposed solution is decomposed in several steps: (i) we enrich a simple negative emotion ontology with terms occuring in the corpus of emails, (ii) we categorize each conflicting email according to the concepts of this ontology and (iii) we identify emails, subjects and team members involved in conflicting emails using possibilistic description logic and a set of proposed measures. Each of these steps are evaluated and validated on concrete examples. Moreover, this approach's framework is generic and can be easily adapted to domains other than conflicts, e.g. security issues, and extended with operations making use of our proposed set of measures.

  14. Dynamic modeling and evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell - combined heat and power system operating strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanaeda, Kimihiro; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott

    Operating strategies of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are developed and evaluated from a utility, and end-user perspective using a fully integrated SOFC-CHP system dynamic model that resolves the physical states, thermal integration and overall efficiency of the system. The model can be modified for any SOFC-CHP system, but the present analysis is applied to a hotel in southern California based on measured electric and heating loads. Analysis indicates that combined heat and power systems can be operated to benefit both the end-users and the utility, providing more efficient electric generation as well as grid ancillary services, namely dispatchable urban power. Design and operating strategies considered in the paper include optimal sizing of the fuel cell, thermal energy storage to dispatch heat, and operating the fuel cell to provide flexible grid power. Analysis results indicate that with a 13.1% average increase in price-of-electricity (POE), the system can provide the grid with a 50% operating range of dispatchable urban power at an overall thermal efficiency of 80%. This grid-support operating mode increases the operational flexibility of the SOFC-CHP system, which may make the technology an important utility asset for accommodating the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power.

  15. 78 FR 60321 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  16. 78 FR 35066 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards Considerations and Containing Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards Information and Order Imposing Procedures for Access...

  17. 78 FR 11688 - Biweekly Notice, Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice, Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  18. 78 FR 19746 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  19. 77 FR 66486 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards Considerations and Containing Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards Information and Order Imposing Procedures for Access...

  20. 78 FR 47785 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  1. 78 FR 25310 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  2. Approach to combined-function magnets via symplectic slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this article we describe how to obtain symplectic "slice" maps for combined-function magnets, by using a method of generating functions. A feature of this method is that one can use an unexpanded and unsplit Hamiltonian. From such a slice map we obtain a first-order map which is symplectic at the closed orbit. We also obtain a symplectic kick map. Both results were implemented into the widely used program MAD-X to regain, in particular, the twiss parameters for the sliced model of the Proton Synchrotron at CERN. In addition, we obtain recursion equations for symplectic maps of general time-dependent Hamiltonians, which might be useful even beyond the scope of accelerator physics.

  3. An Estimation of Erinaceidae Phylogeny: A Combined Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Ai, Huai-Sen; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background Erinaceidae is a family of small mammals that include the spiny hedgehogs (Erinaceinae) and the silky-furred moonrats and gymnures (Galericinae). These animals are widely distributed across Eurasia and Africa, from the tundra to the tropics and the deserts to damp forests. The importance of these animals lies in the fact that they are the oldest known living placental mammals, which are well represented in the fossil record, a rarity fact given their size and vulnerability to destruction during fossilization. Although the Family has been well studied, their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial. To test previous phylogenetic hypotheses, we combined molecular and morphological data sets, including representatives of all the genera. Methodology and Principal Findings We included in the analyses 3,218 bp mitochondrial genes, one hundred and thirty-five morphological characters, twenty-two extant erinaceid taxa, and five outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using both partitioned and combined data sets. As in previous analyses, our results strongly support the monophyly of both subfamilies (Galericinae and Erinaceinae), the Hylomys group (to include Neotetracus and Neohylomys), and a sister-relationship of Atelerix and Erinaceus. As well, we verified that the extremely long branch lengths within the Galericinae are consistent with their fossil records. Not surprisingly, we found significant incongruence between the phylogenetic signals of the genes and the morphological characters, specifically in the case of Hylomys parvus, Mesechinus, and relationships between Hemiechinus and Paraechinus. Conclusions Although we discovered new clues to understanding the evolutionary relationships within the Erinaceidae, our results nonetheless, strongly suggest that more robust analyses employing more complete taxon sampling (to include fossils) and multiple unlinked genes would greatly enhance our understanding of the Erinaceidae. Until

  4. Combination Radioimmunotherapy Approaches and Quantification of Immuno-PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Su

    2016-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which play a prominent role in cancer therapy, can interact with specific antigens on cancer cells, thereby enhancing the patient's immune response via various mechanisms, or mAbs can act against cell growth factors and, thereby, arrest the proliferation of tumor cells. Radionuclide-labeled mAbs, which are used in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), are effective for cancer treatment because tumor associated-mAbs linked to cytotoxic radionuclides can selectively bind to tumor antigens and release targeted cytotoxic radiation. Immunological positron emission tomography (immuno-PET), which is the combination of PET with mAb, is an attractive option for improving tumor detection and mAb quantification. However, RIT remains a challenge because of the limited delivery of mAb into tumors. The transport and uptake of mAb into tumors is slow and heterogeneous. The tumor microenvironment contributed to the limited delivery of the mAb. During the delivery process of mAb to tumor, mechanical drug resistance such as collagen distribution or physiological drug resistance such as high intestinal pressure or absence of lymphatic vessel would be the limited factor of mAb delivery to the tumor at a potentially lethal mAb concentration. When α-emitter-labeled mAbs were used, deeper penetration of α-emitter-labeled mAb inside tumors was more important because of the short range of the α emitter. Therefore, combination therapy strategies aimed at improving mAb tumor penetration and accumulation would be beneficial for maximizing their therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors. PMID:27275358

  5. Combining Particle Filters and Consistency-Based Approaches for Monitoring and Diagnosis of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Dearden, Richard; Benazera, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are critical tasks to ensure correct operation of systems. When we consider stochastic hybrid systems, diagnosis algorithms need to track both the discrete mode and the continuous state of the system in the presence of noise. Deterministic techniques like Livingstone cannot deal with the stochasticity in the system and models. Conversely Bayesian belief update techniques such as particle filters may require many computational resources to get a good approximation of the true belief state. In this paper we propose a fault detection and isolation architecture for stochastic hybrid systems that combines look-ahead Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters (RBPF) with the Livingstone 3 (L3) diagnosis engine. In this approach RBPF is used to track the nominal behavior, a novel n-step prediction scheme is used for fault detection and L3 is used to generate a set of candidates that are consistent with the discrepant observations which then continue to be tracked by the RBPF scheme.

  6. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  7. Behavioral profiling in CCTV cameras by combining multiple subtle suspicious observations of different surveillance operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Vogels, Jack; Aarts, Olav; Kruszynski, Chris; Wijn, Remco; Burghouts, Gertjan

    2013-05-01

    Camera surveillance and recognition of deviant behavior is important for the prevention of criminal incidents. A single observation of subtle deviant behavior of an individual may sometimes be insufficient to merit a follow-up action. Therefore, we propose a method that can combine multiple weak observations to make a strong indication that an intervention is required. We analyze the effectiveness of combining multiple observations/tags of different operators, the effects of the tagging instruction these operators received (many tags for weak signals or few tags for strong signals), and the performance of using a semi-automatic system for combining the different observations. The results show that the method can be used to increase hits (detecting criminals) whilst reducing false alarms (bothering innocent passers-by).

  8. Linking and Combining Distributed Operations Facilities using NASA's "GMSEC" Systems Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford; Grubb, Thomas; Esper, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) ground system architecture has been in development since late 2001, has successfully supported eight orbiting satellites and is being applied to many of NASA's future missions. GMSEC can be considered an event-driven service-oriented architecture built around a publish/subscribe message bus middleware. This paper briefly discusses the GMSEC technical approaches which have led to significant cost savings and risk reduction for NASA missions operated at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The paper then focuses on the development and operational impacts of extending the architecture across multiple mission operations facilities.

  9. A supramolecular approach to combining enzymatic and transition metal catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane; Clary, Kristen N.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Toste, F. Dean

    2013-02-01

    The ability of supramolecular host-guest complexes to catalyse organic reactions collaboratively with an enzyme is an important goal in the research and discovery of synthetic enzyme mimics. Herein we present a variety of catalytic tandem reactions that employ esterases, lipases or alcohol dehydrogenases and gold(I) or ruthenium(II) complexes encapsulated in a Ga4L6 tetrahedral supramolecular cluster. The host-guest complexes are tolerated well by the enzymes and, in the case of the gold(I) host-guest complex, show improved reactivity relative to the free cationic guest. We propose that supramolecular encapsulation of organometallic complexes prevents their diffusion into the bulk solution, where they can bind amino-acid residues on the proteins and potentially compromise their activity. Our observations underline the advantages of the supramolecular approach and suggest that encapsulation of reactive complexes may provide a general strategy for carrying out classic organic reactions in the presence of biocatalysts.

  10. [OPTIMAL APPROACH TO COMBINED TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH UROGENITAL PAPILLOMATOSIS].

    PubMed

    Breusov, A A; Kulchavenya, E V; Brizhatyukl, E V; Filimonov, P N

    2015-01-01

    The review analyzed 59 sources of domestic and foreign literature on the use of immunomodulator izoprinozin in treating patients infected with human papilloma virus, and the results of their own experience. The high prevalence of HPV and its role in the development of cervical cancer are shown, the mechanisms of HPV development and the host protection from this infection are described. The authors present approaches to the treatment of HPV-infected patients with particular attention to izoprinozin. Isoprinosine belongs to immunomodulators with antiviral activity. It inhibits the replication of viral DNA and RNA by binding to cell ribosomes and changing their stereochemical structure. HPV infection, especially in the early stages, may be successfully cured till the complete elimination of the virus. Inosine Pranobex (izoprinozin) having dual action and the most abundant evidence base, may be recognized as the optimal treatment option. PMID:26859953

  11. Rational stabilization of complex proteins: a divide and combine approach

    PubMed Central

    Lamazares, Emilio; Clemente, Isabel; Bueno, Marta; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the thermostability of proteins is often crucial for their successful use as analytic, synthetic or therapeutic tools. Most rational thermostabilization strategies were developed on small two-state proteins and, unsurprisingly, they tend to fail when applied to the much more abundant, larger, non-fully cooperative proteins. We show that the key to stabilize the latter is to know the regions of lower stability. To prove it, we have engineered apoflavodoxin, a non-fully cooperative protein on which previous thermostabilizing attempts had failed. We use a step-wise combination of structure-based, rationally-designed, stabilizing mutations confined to the less stable structural region, and obtain variants that, according to their van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratios, exhibit fully-cooperative thermal unfolding with a melting temperature of 75°C, 32 degrees above the lower melting temperature of the non-cooperative wild type protein. The ideas introduced here may also be useful for the thermostabilization of complex proteins through formulation or using specific stabilizing ligands (e.g. pharmacological chaperones). PMID:25774740

  12. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater. PMID:26846248

  13. Pre-operative combined 5-FU, low dose leucovorin, and sequential radiation therapy for unresectable rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Minsky, B.D.; Cohen, A.M.; Kemeny, N.; Enker, W.E.; Kelsen, D.P.; Schwartz, G.; Saltz, L.; Dougherty, J.; Frankel, J.; Wiseberg, J. )

    1993-04-02

    The authors performed a Phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose of combined pre-operative radiation (5040 cGy) and 2 cycles (bolus daily [times] 5) of 5-FU and low dose LV (20 mg/m2), followed by surgery and 10 cycles of post-operative LV/5-FU in patients with unresectable primary or recurrent rectal cancer. Twelve patients were entered. The initial dose of 5-FU was 325 mg/m2. 5-FU was to be escalated while the LV remained constant at 20 mg/m2. Chemotherapy began on day 1 and radiation on day 8. The post-operative chemotherapy was not dose escalated; 5-FU: 425 mg/m2 and LV: 20 mg/m2. The median follow-up was 14 months (7--16 months). Following pre-operative therapy, the resectability rate with negative margins was 91% and the pathologic complete response rate was 9%. For the combined modality segment (preoperative) the incidence of any grade 3+ toxicity was diarrhea: 17%, dysuria: 8%, mucositis: 8%, and erythema: 8%. The median nadir counts were WBC: 3.1, HGB: 8.8, and PLT: 153000. The maximum tolerated dose of 5-FU for pre-operative combined LV/5-FU/RT was 325 mg/m2 with no escalation possible. Therefore, the recommended dose was less than 325 mg/m2. Since adequate doses of 5-FU to treat systemic disease could not be delivered until at least 3 months (cycle 3) following the start of therapy, the authors do not recommend that this 5-FU, low dose LV, and sequential radiation therapy regimen be used as presently designed. However, given the 91% resectability rate they remain encouraged with this approach. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Improved genetic algorithm for the protein folding problem by use of a Cartesian combination operator.

    PubMed Central

    Rabow, A. A.; Scheraga, H. A.

    1996-01-01

    We have devised a Cartesian combination operator and coding scheme for improving the performance of genetic algorithms applied to the protein folding problem. The genetic coding consists of the C alpha Cartesian coordinates of the protein chain. The recombination of the genes of the parents is accomplished by: (1) a rigid superposition of one parent chain on the other, to make the relation of Cartesian coordinates meaningful, then, (2) the chains of the children are formed through a linear combination of the coordinates of their parents. The children produced with this Cartesian combination operator scheme have similar topology and retain the long-range contacts of their parents. The new scheme is significantly more efficient than the standard genetic algorithm methods for locating low-energy conformations of proteins. The considerable superiority of genetic algorithms over Monte Carlo optimization methods is also demonstrated. We have also devised a new dynamic programming lattice fitting procedure for use with the Cartesian combination operator method. The procedure finds excellent fits of real-space chains to the lattice while satisfying bond-length, bond-angle, and overlap constraints. PMID:8880904

  15. Narrow linewidth operation of a spectral beam combined diode laser bar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanda; Jiang, Menghua; Cheng, Siqi; Hui, Yongling; Lei, Hong; Li, Qiang

    2016-04-20

    Our experiment is expected to provide an approach for realizing ultranarrow linewidth for a spectral beam combined diode laser bar. The beams of a diode laser bar are combined in a fast axis after a beam transformation system. With the help of relay optics and a transform lens with a long focal length of 1.5 m, the whole wavelength of a spectral combined laser bar can be narrowed down to 0.48 nm from more than 10 nm. We have achieved 56.7 W cw from a 19-element single bar with an M2 of 1.4  (in horizontal direction)×11.6  (in vertical direction). These parameters are good evidence that all the beams from the diode laser bar are combined together to increase the brightness. PMID:27140101

  16. A Combined Approach to Cartographic Displacement for Buildings Based on Skeleton and Improved Elastic Beam Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  17. A combined approach to cartographic displacement for buildings based on skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  18. Nonlinear regularization operators as derived from the micromorphic approach to gradient elasticity, viscoplasticity and damage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The construction of regularization operators presented in this work is based on the introduction of strain or damage micromorphic degrees of freedom in addition to the displacement vector and of their gradients into the Helmholtz free energy function of the constitutive material model. The combination of a new balance equation for generalized stresses and of the micromorphic constitutive equations generates the regularization operator. Within the small strain framework, the choice of a quadratic potential w.r.t. the gradient term provides the widely used Helmholtz operator whose regularization properties are well known: smoothing of discontinuities at interfaces and boundary layers in hardening materials, and finite width localization bands in softening materials. The objective is to review and propose nonlinear extensions of micromorphic and strain/damage gradient models along two lines: the first one introducing nonlinear relations between generalized stresses and strains; the second one envisaging several classes of finite deformation model formulations. The generic approach is applicable to a large class of elastoviscoplastic and damage models including anisothermal and multiphysics coupling. Two standard procedures of extension of classical constitutive laws to large strains are combined with the micromorphic approach: additive split of some Lagrangian strain measure or choice of a local objective rotating frame. Three distinct operators are finally derived using the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A new feature is that a free energy function depending solely on variables defined in the intermediate isoclinic configuration leads to the existence of additional kinematic hardening induced by the gradient of a scalar micromorphic variable. PMID:27274684

  19. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of

  20. Engineering nanomaterials with a combined electrochemical and molecular biomimetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Haixia

    Biocomposite materials, such as bones, teeth, and shells, are created using mild aqueous solution-based processes near room temperature. Proteins add flexibility to these processes by facilitating the nucleation, growth, and ordering of specific inorganic materials into hierarchical structures. We aim to develop a biomimetic strategy for engineering technologically relevant inorganic materials with controlled compositions and structures, as Nature does, using proteins to orchestrate material formation and assembly. This approach involves three basic steps: (i) preparation of inorganic substrates compatible with combinatorial polypeptide screening; (ii) identification of inorganic-binding polypeptides and their engineering into inorganic-binding proteins; and (iii) protein-mediated inorganic nucleation and organization. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a p-type semiconductor, has been used to demonstrate all three steps. Zinc oxide (ZnO), an n-type semiconductor, has been used to show the generality of selected steps. Step (i), preparation of high quality inorganic substrates to select inorganic-binding polypeptides, was accomplished using electrochemical microfabrication to grow and pattern Cu2O and ZnO. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to verify phase purity and compositional stability of these surfaces during polypeptide screening. Step (ii), accomplished in collaboration with personnel in Prof Baneyx' lab at the University of Washington, involved incubating the inorganic substrates with the FliTrx(TM) random peptide library to identify cysteine-constrained dodecapeptides that bind the targeted inorganic. Insertion of a Cu2O-binding dodecapeptide into the DNA-binding protein TraI endowed the engineered TraI with strong affinity for Cu2O (Kd ≈ 10 -8 M). Finally, step (iii) involved nonequilibrium synthesis and organization of Cu2O nanoparticles, taking advantage of the inorganic and DNA recognition properties of the engineered TraI. The

  1. Concept of Operations for Interval Management Arrivals and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the arrival terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other arrival management tools such as arrival metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.

  2. Adaptive fuzzy approach to modeling of operational space for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musilek, Petr; Gupta, Madan M.

    1998-10-01

    Robots operating in an unstructured environment need high level of modeling of their operational space in order to plan a suitable path from an initial position to a desired goal. From this perspective, operational space modeling seems to be crucial to ensure a sufficient level of autonomy. In order to compile the information from various sources, we propose a fuzzy approach to evaluate each unit region on a grid map by a certain value of transition cost. This value expresses the cost of movement over the unit region: the higher the value, the more expensive the movement through the region in terms of energy, time, danger, etc. The approach for modeling, proposed in this paper, employs fuzzy granulation of information on various terrain features and their combination based on a fuzzy neural network. In order to adapt to the changing environmental conditions, and to improve the validity of constructed cost maps on-line, the system can be endowed with learning abilities. The learning subsystem would change parameters of the fuzzy neural network based decision system by reinforcements derived from comparisons of the actual cost of transition with the cost obtained from the model.

  3. STATISTICS-BASED APPROACH TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes work toward development of a convenient decision support system to improve everyday operation and control of the wastewater treatment process. The goal is to help the operator detect problems in the process and select appropriate control actions. The system...

  4. Nonunitary and unitary approach to Eigenvalue problem of Boson operators and squeezed coherent states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsche, A.

    1993-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem of the operator a + zeta(boson creation operator) is solved for arbitrarily complex zeta by applying a nonunitary operator to the vacuum state. This nonunitary approach is compared with the unitary approach leading for the absolute value of zeta less than 1 to squeezed coherent states.

  5. Automation of the CCTV-mediated detection of individuals illegally carrying firearms: combining psychological and technological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Kuo, Paul; Yang, Ming Yuan; Blechko, Anastassia; Grecos, Christos; Makris, Dimitrios; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Gale, Alastair G.

    2009-05-01

    Findings from the current UK national research programme, MEDUSA (Multi Environment Deployable Universal Software Application), are presented. MEDUSA brings together two approaches to facilitate the design of an automatic, CCTV-based firearm detection system: psychological-to elicit strategies used by CCTV operators; and machine vision-to identify key cues derived from camera imagery. Potentially effective human- and machine-based strategies have been identified; these will form elements of the final system. The efficacies of these algorithms have been tested on staged CCTV footage in discriminating between firearms and matched distractor objects. Early results indicate the potential for this combined approach.

  6. Wheat growth modelling by a combination of a biophysical model approach and hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppelt, Natascha M.

    2009-09-01

    The study presented here investigates the potential of improvement for a physically based model approach, when the static input data is enhanced by dynamic remote sensing information. The land surface model PROMET (Processes of Radiation, Mass and Energy Transfer) was generally applied, while the remote sensing input data was derived from hyperspectral data of the CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor, which is operated by ESA (European Space Agency). The PROMET model, whose vegetation routine basically applies the Farquhar et al. photosynthesis approach, was set up to a field scale model run (10 x 10m) for a test acre tilled with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mapping the crop development of the season 2005. During the model run, information on the absorptive capacity of the leaves for two canopy layers (top, sunlit layer and bottom, shaded layer) was updated from remote sensing measurements, where angular CHRIS images were available. Control data were acquired through an intensive field campaign, which monitored the development of the stand throughout the vegetation period of the year 2005, also accompanying the satellite overflights. While the model without additional dynamic input data was able to reasonably reproduce the average development of the crop and yield, the spatial heterogeneity was severely underestimated. The combination of remote sensing information with the vegetation model led to a significant improvement of both the spatial heterogeneity of the crop development in the model and yield, which again entailed an overall improvement of the model results in comparison to measured reference data.

  7. Satellite Ground Operations Automation: Lessons Learned and Future Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catena, John; Frank, Lou; Saylor, Rick; Weikel, Craig; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Reducing spacecraft ground system operations costs is a major goal in all missions. The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) flight operations team at the NASA/Goddard Spacecraft Flight Center developed in-house scripts and procedures to automate monitoring of critical spacecraft functions. The initial staffing profile of 16x7 was reduced first to 8x5 and then to 'lights out'. Operations functions became an offline review of system performance and the generation of future science plans for subsequent upload to the spacecraft. Lessons learned will be applied to the challenging Triana mission, where 24x7 contact with the spacecraft will be necessary at all times.

  8. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  9. Primary stentriever versus combined stentriever plus aspiration thrombectomy approaches: in vitro stroke model comparison

    PubMed Central

    Mokin, Maxim; Ionita, Ciprian N; Nagesh, Swetadri Vasan Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Artificial stroke models can be used for testing various thrombectomy devices. Objective To determine the value of combined stentriever–aspiration thrombectomy compared with the stentriever-alone approach. Methods We designed an in vitro model of the intracranial circulation with a focus on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that closely resembles the human intracranial circulation. After introducing fresh clot in the MCA, we used conventional biplane angiography and microangiographic fluoroscopy to compare recanalization rates and occurrence of emboli in new, unaffected territory for thrombectomy approaches in which a stentriever (Solitaire flow restoration stentriever, Covidien) was used alone or in combination with continuous manual aspiration through a Navien catheter (Covidien). Results In a total of 22 experiments (11 for each approach), successful clot delivery to the MCA was achieved in all cases. Successful angiographic recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2b–3) was achieved more frequently with the combined stentriever–aspiration approach than with the stentriever-alone approach (in 10 vs 4 experiments, p=0.023). Emboli in new territory occurred in three experiments with the stentriever-alone approach, and none were seen with the combined approach (p=0.21). Conclusions The combined stentriever–aspiration approach to thrombectomy leads to better angiographic recanalization rates than use of the stentriever alone. Further experiments are needed to test the value of balloon-guide catheters and aspiration performed using other types of catheters and modes of aspiration. PMID:24789594

  10. An Approach to Bilateral Control System for Improvement of Operationality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Many types of bilateral control architectures to transmit force sensation have been proposed. Some control methods obtain good performance. Operationality is not satisfactory, however, when these methods are implemented in bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. In this paper, a novel bilateral control method is proposed to improve operationality of bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. The proposed method is compared with a conventional method, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by coordinate transformation and experiments.

  11. Velocity operator approach to quantum fluid dynamics in a three-dimensional neutron-proton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; da Providência, João

    2016-07-01

    In the preceeding paper, introducing isospin-dependent density operators and defining exact momenta (collective variables), we could get an exact canonically momenta approach to a one-dimensional (1D) neutron-proton (NP) system. In this paper, we attempt at a velocity operator approach to a 3D NP system. Following Sunakawa, after introducing momentum density operators, we define velocity operators, denoting classical fluid velocities. We derive a collective Hamiltonian in terms of the collective variables.

  12. Techniques for setting modes of thermal and deformation effect at combined hardening and finishing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Rakhimyanov, K. Kh; Rakhimyanov, A. Kh; Kutyshkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the issues of setting the modes of thermal and deformation effects in the basic schemes at combined hardening and finishing operations. On the basis of solving the thermal physical problem of material high rate heating, the parameters of a thermohardened layer were determined within the range of the investigated modes. An algorithm for setting the mode parameters of high rate heating responsible for the hardening effect at the combined processing was proposed. The analysis of the mathematical model for forming a surface microrelief at ultrasonic deformation showed that the sizes, the form of fragments and the density of a microrelief were determined by the processing kinematic parameters. An algorithm for setting the rotation speed and feeding at ultrasonic deformation according to microrelief characteristics was developed. The conditions to form a completely regular microrelief on the processed surface that represent the ratio between a single imprint diameter at the ultrasonic deformation and the processing kinematic parameters were determined. The complex of the algorithms suggested for setting the mode parameters of high rate heating and ultrasonic deformation constitutes the techniques for setting the modes of combined hardening and finishing operations.

  13. Agile Science Operations: A New Approach for Primitive Exploration Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Thompson, David R.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Mclaren, David

    2012-01-01

    Primitive body exploration missions such as potential Comet Surface Sample Return or Trojan Tour and Rendezvous would challenge traditional operations practices. Earth-based observations would provide only basic understanding before arrival and many science goals would be defined during the initial rendezvous. It could be necessary to revise trajectories and observation plans to quickly characterize the target for safe, effective observations. Detection of outgassing activity and monitoring of comet surface activity are even more time constrained, with events occurring faster than round-trip light time. "Agile science operations" address these challenges with contingency plans that recognize the intrinsic uncertainty in the operating environment and science objectives. Planning for multiple alternatives can significantly improve the time required to repair and validate spacecraft command sequences. When appropriate, time-critical decisions can be automated and shifted to the spacecraft for immediate access to instrument data. Mirrored planning systems on both sides of the light-time gap permit transfer of authority back and forth as needed. We survey relevant science objectives, identifying time bottlenecks and the techniques that could be used to speed missions' reaction to new science data. Finally, we discuss the results of a trade study simulating agile observations during flyby and comet rendezvous scenarios. These experiments quantify instrument coverage of key surface features as a function of planning turnaround time. Careful application of agile operations techniques can play a significant role in realizing the Decadal Survey plan for primitive body exploration

  14. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  15. Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research…

  16. Developing novel approaches to characterize emissions from agricultural operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) are sources of both gaseous and particulate pollutants to the atmosphere. Current efforts to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions from AFOs do not provide information on the emission sources. Raman microscopy was employed to characterize the d...

  17. Applying successful near mission operations approaches and refining for contour mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    On February 17, 1996, the first NASA Discovery Class Mission to launch, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft, began its journey to the asteroid Eros. NEAR is the first planetary spacecraft to be designed and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). In July 2002, the comet nucleus tour (CONTOUR) spacecraft, the second planetary spacecraft to be built and operated at JHUAPL and the 6th in the series of NASA Discovery Class Missions, will be launched. Both NEAR and CONTOUR share ambitious "Faster, Better, Cheaper" goals. Furthermore, with both missions being developed and operated at the same institution, a unique opportunity exists to refine CONTOUR designs and operational practices based on 5 years of NEAR operational experience. This paper provides an overview of designs and operational practices implemented by JHU/APL to safely and effectively conduct the NEAR mission. This paper discusses how these will be applied to the CONTOUR mission and what improvements are planned. It also discusses the unique challenges CONTOUR possesses for operating a 4 year mission with widely varying operations activity levels at low cost.

  18. Empowering Sustained Patient Safety: The Benefits of Combining Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Manges, Kirstin A; Ward, Marcia M

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of TeamSTEPPS for improving patient safety is examined via descriptive qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 informants at 12 hospitals. Implementation approaches fit 3 strategies: top-down, bottom-up, and combination. The top-down approach failed to develop enough commitment to spread implementation. The bottom-up approach was unable to marshal the resources necessary to spread implementation. Combining top-down and bottom-up processes best facilitated the implementation and spread of the TeamSTEPPS safety initiative. PMID:25479238

  19. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... as described in Federal Register Notice (FRN) 76 FR 32994 (June 7, 2011). The NRC is currently... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined...

  20. Designing pediatric vaccine formularies and pricing pediatric combination vaccines using operations research models and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C; Allwine, Daniel A; Medina, Enrique A; Weniger, Bruce G

    2003-02-01

    The National Immunization Program, housed within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA, has identified several challenges that must be faced in childhood immunization programs to deliver and procure vaccines that immunize children from the plethora of childhood diseases. The biomedical issues cited include how drug manufacturers can combine and formulate vaccines, how such vaccines are scheduled and administered and how economically sound vaccine procurement can be achieved. This review discusses how operations research models can be used to address the economics of pediatric vaccine formulary design and pricing, as well as how such models can be used to address a new set of pediatric formulary problems that will surface with the introduction of pediatric combination vaccines into the US pediatric immunization market. PMID:12901593

  1. Evaluation of effectiveness of combined sewer overflow control measures by operational data.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Riechel, M; Matzinger, A; Rouault, P; Sonnenberg, H; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Gnirss, R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of combined sewer overflow (CSO) control measures should be validated during operation based on monitoring of CSO activity and subsequent comparison with (legal) requirements. However, most CSO monitoring programs have been started only recently and therefore no long-term data is available for reliable efficiency control. A method is proposed that focuses on rainfall data for evaluating the effectiveness of CSO control measures. It is applicable if a sufficient time-series of rainfall data and a limited set of data on CSO discharges are available. The method is demonstrated for four catchments of the Berlin combined sewer system. The analysis of the 2000-2007 data shows the effect of CSO control measures, such as activation of in-pipe storage capacities within the Berlin system. The catchment, where measures are fully implemented shows less than 40% of the CSO activity of those catchments, where measures have not yet or not yet completely been realised. PMID:21252438

  2. Application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital development.

    PubMed

    Tao, Z-Q; Shi, A-M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the application of Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis on operational development and evaluations of hospital departments. We selected 73 clinical and medical technology departments of our hospital from 2011 to 2013, and evaluated our hospital by Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis according to the volume of services, medical quality, work efficiency, patients' evaluations, development capacity, operational capability, economic benefits, comprehensive evaluation of hospital achievement, innovation ability of hospital, influence of hospital, human resources of hospital, health insurance costs, etc. It was found that among clinical departments, there were 11 in Stars (22.4%), 17 in cash cow (34.7%), 15 in question marks (31.2%), 6 Dogs (12.2%), 16 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (27.6%), 14 in the prime stage (24.1%), 12 in the stationary stage (20.7%), 9 in the aristocracy stage (15.5%) and 7 in the recession stage (12.1%). Among medical technology departments, there were 5 in Stars (20.8%), 1 in Cash cow (4.2%), 10 in question marks (41.6%), 8 Dogs (29.1%), 9 in the youth stage of life cycle assessment (37.5%), 4 in the prime stage (16.7%), 4 in the stable stage (16.7%), 1 in the aristocracy stage (4.2%) and 6 in the recession stage (25%). In conclusion, Boston matrix combined with SWOT analysis is suitable for operational development and comprehensive evaluations of hospital development, and it plays an important role in providing hospitals with development strategies. PMID:27249614

  3. Non Operative Approach to Isolated Traumatic Pancreatic Duct Disruption.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sheshang U; Dharap, Satish B

    2016-03-01

    Management of isolated traumatic pancreatic duct disruption remains challenging due to associated morbidity and mortality. Two children with isolated pancreatic ductal disruption were treated conservatively. Both developed a pseudocyst which resolved spontaneously due to the atrophy of the distal pancreas in a five-year-old girl while remained persistent and was treated by endoscopic cystogastrostomy in an eight-year-old boy. Non-operative management may be pursued in patients with pancreatic ductal injury in the hope of a pseudocyst formation which may spontaneously resolve or may be treated later with a minimally invasive procedure. However, the literature review precludes its practice as a standard due to high incidence of associated complications of non-operative management. PMID:27134933

  4. A flexible approach to an Operational Land Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for an Operational Land Observing System (OLOS) formulated to satisfy a broad spectrum of perceived user needs for a diverse discipline community. The concept formulated will allow continuous orthographic imaging across multiple spectral bands, near-global stereoscopic imaging, and next-day oblique imaging of any desired spot on earth. Imaging parameters will be adaptable to known phenomena characteristics to facilitate information extraction including optional onboard theme selection. The conceptual system will provide 6- to 12-hour quick-look capability, 48-hour turnaround on all standard imaging products, and a guaranteed data flow schedule reliability for 10 to 20 years. A fleet of successive operational satellites will be used.

  5. Aspect-Oriented Approach to Operating System Development Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri

    This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.

  6. Non Operative Approach to Isolated Traumatic Pancreatic Duct Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Dharap, Satish B

    2016-01-01

    Management of isolated traumatic pancreatic duct disruption remains challenging due to associated morbidity and mortality. Two children with isolated pancreatic ductal disruption were treated conservatively. Both developed a pseudocyst which resolved spontaneously due to the atrophy of the distal pancreas in a five-year-old girl while remained persistent and was treated by endoscopic cystogastrostomy in an eight-year-old boy. Non-operative management may be pursued in patients with pancreatic ductal injury in the hope of a pseudocyst formation which may spontaneously resolve or may be treated later with a minimally invasive procedure. However, the literature review precludes its practice as a standard due to high incidence of associated complications of non-operative management. PMID:27134933

  7. Operational test approach for Navstar GPS Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, G.

    1983-11-01

    The performance features and tests of each of the three Navstar GPS segments are outlined. The GPS consists of a constellation of 18 satellites equipped to furnish signals to passive stations (UE - user equipment) to determine position, velocity, and time. The Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC) is assigned to validate the operations of the UE, space, and control segments of the GPS, which featured only 6 prototype spacecraft for the test. Accuracy was found to vary with the time and location of the user, although overall performance exceed expectations. The tests verified that the GPS spacecraft were ready for production. Trials are yet to be run with UE installed on host aircraft, tanks, an aircraft carrier, a submarine, and backpacks. The control segment will be tested after the UE evaluations.

  8. A simulation approach to a virtual base defense operating center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmer, Keith; Gaughan, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The TRADOC Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) is the Army proponent for protection and in turn, has the mission to support fixed site protection issues. To this end, the Maneuver Support Battle Lab (MSBL) developed a Virtual Base Defense Operating Center (VBDOC) capability that was initiated in support of the Force Protection Joint Experiment (FPJE) to examine data fusion enhancements and improvements to the Common Operating Picture (COP) display. Furthermore BDOC Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) capabilities were examined in order to optimize manpower, reduce exposure of friendly personnel, and improve force protection. The Modeling and Simulation (M&S) architecture was especially important due to the cost of providing realistic environments, such as Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) hazards, and the availability of soldiers for experimentation. The VBDOC simulation architecture contains a force-on-force simulation, a CBRN simulation, a desktop UGV Advanced Concepts Research Tool (ACRT) and a sensor controller using the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) protocol. This simulation architecture stimulated actual Command and Control (C2) systems including the Joint Battlespace Command and Control System (JBC2S) and the Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN). These C2 systems, along with video feeds from various sensors and unmanned vehicles, were used by Battle Captains and staffs for situational awareness of the battlefield while conducting the experiment. The VBDOC capability offers a controlled environment to study fixed site protection issues, such as future Concept of Operation (CONOP)/TTP/SOP development and refinement, examining emerging concepts, and assessing specific technology capabilities.

  9. Cooling towers for combined cycles: Design philosophy, performance testing, and operating problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauthier, J.

    The characteristics and parameters affecting the choice of a type of cooling tower and its installation in the circuit of a combined cycle are discussed. The different possibilities of water circuits that are encountered are defined. Two modes of exchange and two types of fill are discussed. The various types of wet towers are described and their advantages and disadvantages considered. Factors affecting the selection of a cooling tower include: cost of energy versus cost of tower; performances; water availability and quality; emissions (water, noise, air, and vapor); site locations; and operating conditions.

  10. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  11. Why Do Fearful Facial Expressions Elicit Behavioral Approach? Evidence From a Combined Approach-Avoidance Implicit Association Test

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Jennifer L.; Marsh, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite communicating a “negative” emotion, fearful facial expressions predominantly elicit behavioral approach from perceivers. It has been hypothesized that this seemingly paradoxical effect may occur due to fearful expressions’ resemblance to vulnerable, infantile faces. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We used a combined approach-avoidance/implicit association test (IAT) to test this hypothesis. Participants completed an approach-avoidance lever task during which they responded to fearful and angry facial expressions as well as neutral infant and adult faces presented in an IAT format. Results demonstrated an implicit association between fearful facial expressions and infant faces and showed that both fearful expressions and infant faces primarily elicit behavioral approach. The dominance of approach responses to both fearful expressions and infant faces decreased as a function of psychopathic personality traits. Results suggest that the prosocial responses to fearful expressions observed in most individuals may stem from their associations with infantile faces. PMID:25603135

  12. [Anesthetic Management of Peritonectomy and Extended Operation for Peritoneal Pseudomyxoma Combined with Massive Ascites].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomoki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We report successful anesthetic management of extended operation for peritoneal pseudomyxoma combined with massive ascites (16.5 l). A 66-year-old man (weight 76 kg) who could not keep a supine position due to massive ascites associated with peritoneal pseudomyxoma was scheduled for elective peritonectomy and extended surgery. With the patient in the semisitting position, we administered 3% sevoflurane to induce loss of consciousness while preserving spontaneous ventilation. We then performed crush induction with propofol and rocuronium after topical anesthesia to the tongue base. Tracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope was successful. During the operation, we aspirated about 16.5 l of ascites over 20 l normal saline irrigation. To maintain the body temperature, we performed both active and passive extracorporeal warming. The operation included not only total peritonectomy but also distal gastrectomy, right colon resection, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy. To perform effective postoperative analgesia, we placed two epidural catheters from the upper and lower thoracic epidural spaces. The patient was extubated 3 days after operation, and discharged uneventfully on the 18th postoperative day. PMID:27483656

  13. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  14. Using the PPML approach for constructing a low-dissipation, operator-splitting scheme for numerical simulations of hydrodynamic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Vorobyov, Eduard

    2016-07-01

    An approach for constructing a low-dissipation numerical method is described. The method is based on a combination of the operator-splitting method, Godunov method, and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. Numerical method was tested on a standard suite of hydrodynamic test problems. In addition, the performance of the method is demonstrated on a global test problem showing the development of a spiral structure in a gravitationally unstable gaseous galactic disk.

  15. Spatial operator approach to flexible multibody system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for flexible multibody systems were solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. These algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. These identities are easily derived using the spatial operator algebra developed by the author. Current work is aimed at computational experiments with the described algorithms and at modelling for control design of limber manipulator systems. It is also aimed at handling and manipulation of flexible objects.

  16. Computational approach to Thornley's problem by bivariate operational calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhlekova, E.; Dimovski, I.

    2012-10-01

    Thornley's problem is an initial-boundary value problem with a nonlocal boundary condition for linear onedimensional reaction-diffusion equation, used as a mathematical model of spiral phyllotaxis in botany. Applying a bivariate operational calculus we find explicit representation of the solution, containing two convolution products of special solutions and the arbitrary initial and boundary functions. We use a non-classical convolution with respect to the space variable, extending in this way the classical Duhamel principle. The special solutions involved are represented in the form of fast convergent series. Numerical examples are considered to show the application of the present technique and to analyze the character of the solution.

  17. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  18. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention. PMID:26652099

  19. Cleared for the visual approach: Human factor problems in air carrier operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The study described herein, a set of 353 ASRS reports of unique aviation occurrences significantly involving visual approaches was examined to identify hazards and pitfalls embedded in the visual approach procedure and to consider operational practices that might help avoid future mishaps. Analysis of the report set identified nine aspects of the visual approach procedure that appeared to be predisposing conditions for inducing or exacerbating the effects of operational errors by flight crew members or controllers. Predisposing conditions, errors, and operational consequences of the errors are discussed. In a summary, operational policies that might mitigate the problems are examined.

  20. Operational decision support system for large combined sewage systems: Lisbon/Tagus estuary case study.

    PubMed

    Póvoa, P; Nobre, A; Leitão, P; Galvão, P; Santos, H; Frazão, A; Neves, R; Matos, J S

    2015-01-01

    Managing combined sewage systems in large cities discharging to coastal waters, often bearing recreational activities, remains a challenge. Studying the impacts of such discharges requires the development of specific models. Hydrodynamic and water quality modelling of coastal waters employs numerical methods and algorithms, leading to the design of complex models which require expert use. The use of such models as decision support tools to simulate discharge impacts and define adequate corrective measures could represent a key part in meeting this challenge. In this paper, the authors describe the work undertaken to develop an operational decision support system (ODSS) methodology aiming to enable wastewater utilities' non-expert staff to carry out user-friendly scenario analysis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations. This article depicts the application and validation of the ODSS to the combined sewage system and the Tagus estuary of the city of Lisbon in Portugal. The ODSS was used for simulating the effects in the receiving coastal waters of a discharge caused by a scheduled maintenance operation in the sewage infrastructure. Results show that the use of such ODSS by non-expert staff increases their decision capabilities and knowledge of the wastewater utility's contribution to reducing negative impacts of sewage discharges on the receiving water bodies. PMID:26465314

  1. Physical fitness: An operator's approach to coping with shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between a shift worker's ability to remain alert and the physical fitness of the individual. Alertness is a key element of a nuclear plant operator's ability to effectively monitor and control plant status. The constant changes in one's metabolism caused by the rotation of work (and sleep) hours can be devastating to his or her health. Many workers with longevity in the field, however, have found it beneficial to maintain some sort of workout or sport activity, feeling that this activity offsets the physical burden of backshift. The author's experience working shifts for 10 years and his reported increase in alertness through exercise and diet manipulation are described in this paper.

  2. A graph theoretical approach to states and unitary operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Supriyo; Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-05-01

    Building upon our previous work, on graphical representation of a quantum state by signless Laplacian matrix, we pose the following question. If a local unitary operation is applied to a quantum state, represented by a signless Laplacian matrix, what would be the corresponding graph and how does one implement local unitary transformations graphically? We answer this question by developing the notion of local unitary equivalent graphs. We illustrate our method by a few, well known, local unitary transformations implemented by single-qubit Pauli and Hadamard gates. We also show how graph switching can be used to implement the action of the C_NOT gate, resulting in a graphical description of Bell state generation.

  3. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handren, R. T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest was the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility was built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a greater than 90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities (approximately 3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory's safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  4. Computational Analysis for Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Systems During Rocket-Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Smith, T. D.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations were employed to study the performance of rocket-based combined-cycle systems operating in an all-rocket mode. This parametric series of calculations were executed within a statistical framework, commonly known as design of experiments. The parametric design space included four geometric and two flowfield variables set at three levels each, for a total of 729 possible combinations. A D-optimal design strategy was selected. It required that only 36 separate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions be performed to develop a full response surface model, which quantified the linear, bilinear, and curvilinear effects of the six experimental variables. The axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were executed with the NPARC v3.0 code. The response used in the statistical analysis was created from Isp efficiency data integrated from the 36 CFD simulations. The influence of turbulence modeling was analyzed by using both one- and two-equation models. Careful attention was also given to quantify the influence of mesh dependence, iterative convergence, and artificial viscosity upon the resulting statistical model. Thirteen statistically significant effects were observed to have an influence on rocket-based combined-cycle nozzle performance. It was apparent that the free-expansion process, directly downstream of the rocket nozzle, can influence the Isp efficiency. Numerical schlieren images and particle traces have been used to further understand the physical phenomena behind several of the statistically significant results.

  5. Real-time combined heat and power operational strategy using a hierarchical optimization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, K.; Cho, H.; Luck, R.; Mago, P. J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This article considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short-term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm (i.e. a hierarchical controller that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step). In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying (i.e. measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ‘measured’ values as initial conditions). The simulation environment presented in this article features non-linear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. Finally, the results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions has the potential to yield significant savings when compared with conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  6. Signature extension: An approach to operational multispectral surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two data processing techniques were suggested as applicable to the large area survey problem. One approach was to use unsupervised classification (clustering) techniques. Investigation of this method showed that since the method did nothing to reduce the signal variability, the use of this method would be very time consuming and possibly inaccurate as well. The conclusion is that unsupervised classification techniques of themselves are not a solution to the large area survey problem. The other method investigated was the use of signature extension techniques. Such techniques function by normalizing the data to some reference condition. Thus signatures from an isolated area could be used to process large quantities of data. In this manner, ground information requirements and computer training are minimized. Several signature extension techniques were tested. The best of these allowed signatures to be extended between data sets collected four days and 80 miles apart with an average accuracy of better than 90%.

  7. Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, S

    2008-06-26

    First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small

  8. Performance and operational economics estimates for a coal gasification combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.; Easley, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance and operational economics analysis is presented for an integrated-gasifier, combined-cycle (IGCC) system to meet the steam and baseload electrical requirements. The effect of time variations in steam and electrial requirements is included. The amount and timing of electricity purchases from sales to the electric utility are determined. The resulting expenses for purchased electricity and revenues from electricity sales are estimated by using an assumed utility rate structure model. Cogeneration results for a range of potential IGCC cogeneration system sizes are compared with the fuel consumption and costs of natural gas and electricity to meet requirements without cogeneration. The results indicate that an IGCC cogeneration system could save about 10 percent of the total fuel energy presently required to supply steam and electrical requirements without cogeneration. Also for the assumed future fuel and electricity prices, an annual operating cost savings of 21 percent to 26 percent could be achieved with such a cogeneration system. An analysis of the effects of electricity price, fuel price, and system availability indicates that the IGCC cogeneration system has a good potential for economical operation over a wide range in these assumptions.

  9. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  10. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liong, Choong-Yeun Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-22

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  11. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-01

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  12. Toward an operative diagnosis in sepsis: a latent class approach

    PubMed Central

    De La Rosa, Gisela D; Valencia, Marta L; Arango, Clara M; Gomez, Carlos I; Garcia, Alex; Ospina, Sigifredo; Osorno, Susana; Henao, Adriana; Jaimes, Fabián A

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent data have suggested that 18 million of new sepsis cases occur each year worldwide, with a mortality rate of almost 30%. There is not consensus on the clinical definition of sepsis and, because of lack of training or simply unawareness, clinicians often miss or delay this diagnosis. This is especially worrying; since there is strong evidence supporting that early treatment is associated with greater clinical success. There are some difficulties for sepsis diagnosis such as the lack of an appropriate gold standard to identify this clinical condition. This situation has hampered the assessment of the accuracy of clinical signs and biomarkers to diagnose sepsis. Methods/design Cross-sectional study to determine the operative characteristics of three biological markers of inflammation and coagulation (D-dimer, C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin) as diagnostic tests for sepsis, in patients admitted to hospital care with a presumptive infection as main diagnosis. Discussion There are alternative techniques that have been used to assess the accuracy of tests without gold standards, and they have been widely used in clinical disciplines such as psychiatry, even though they have not been tested in sepsis diagnosis. Considering the main importance of diagnosis as early as possible, we propose a latent class analysis to evaluate the accuracy of three biomarkers to diagnose sepsis. PMID:18284667

  13. Optimal operating rules definition in complex water resource systems combining fuzzy logic, expert criteria and stochastic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to

  14. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  15. A New Approach to Managing Health in Swine Operations

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Thomas; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Morris, Roger; Charette, Robert

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that just as the stethoscope and thermometer are fundamental tools for individual medicine, production and health recording systems are fundamental tools for effective population medicine. Treatment and control of clinical diseases as the primary objective is no longer considered appropriate for livestock population. Disease in populations now describes a deviation between what is happening and what is expected to happen. This redefinition of disease implies that it is of multifactorial origin and thus a different problem solving approach must be implemented. Therefore, a swine enterprise must be considered as a system, a set of interdependent components continuously interacting to produce pork. As a system, it is characterized by certain properties: change, environment, counterintuitive behavior, drift to low performance, interdependency, and organization. A redefinition of diseases implies also that they are not only “treated” but managed. Management consists of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and analysis. For this process to be implemented successfully, a goal-directed recording system providing a farm-based infrastructure for problem solving is essential. Clinical problem solving (diagnosis) is thus based on epidemiological and demographic methods. PMID:17422806

  16. An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

  17. Operational modal analysis approach based on multivariable transmissibility with different transferring outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Araújo, Iván; Laier, Jose Elias

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, transmissibility functions have been used as alternatives to identify the modal parameters of structures under operating conditions. The scalar power spectrum density transmissibility (PSDT), which relates only two responses, was proposed to extract modal parameters by combining different PSDTs with different transferring outputs. In this sense, this paper proposes extending the scalar PSDT concept to multivariable PSDT by relating multiple responses instead of only two. This extension implies the definition of a transmissibility matrix, relating the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and U with the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and K. The coordinates in Z are known as the transferring outputs. By defining the same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs Z, we prove that the multivariable PSDT converges to the same matrix when it approaches the system poles. This property is used to define only one matrix with different multivariable PSDTs with same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs. The resulting matrix is singular at the system poles, meaning that by applying the inverse of the matrix, the modal parameters can be identified. Here, a numeric example of a beam model subjected to excitations and data from an operational vibration bridge test shows that the proposed method is capable of identifying modal parameters. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the possibility of estimating the same modal parameters by changing only the coordinates K and U, providing greater reliability during modal parameter identification.

  18. Combined Transoral and Endoscopic Approach for Total Maxillectomy: A Pioneering Report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuofu; Yu, Huapeng; Wang, Dehui; Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Xicai; Liu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Total maxillectomy is sometimes necessary especially for malignant tumors originating from the maxillary sinus. Here we describe a combined transoral and endoscopic approach for total maxillectomy for the treatment of malignant maxillary sinus tumors and evaluate its short-term outcome. This approach was evaluated in terms of the physiological function, aesthetic outcome, and complications. Six patients underwent the above-mentioned approach for resection of malignant maxillary sinus tumors from May 2010 to June 2011. This combined transoral and endoscopic approach includes five basic steps: total sphenoethmoidectomy, sublabial incision, incision of the frontal process of the maxilla, incision of the zygomaticomaxillary fissure, and hard palate osteotomy. All patients with malignant maxillary sinus tumors successfully underwent the planned total endoscopic maxillectomy without the need for facial incision or transfixion of the nasal septum; there were no significant complications. Five patients received preoperative radiation therapy. All patients were well and had no recurrence at follow-up from 13 to 27 months. The combined approach is feasible and can be performed in carefully selected patients. The benefit of the absence of facial incisions or transfixion of the nasal septum, potential improvement in hemostasis, and visual magnification may help to decrease the morbidity of traditional open approaches. PMID:24436907

  19. [Diclofenac/orphenadrine as a combined analgetic in post-operative relief of pain].

    PubMed

    Borsodi, Marianna; Nagy, Edina; Darvas, Katalin

    2008-09-28

    The authors compared the potency, safety and tolerability of combined infusion containing non-steroid anti-inflammation diclofenac and central muscle relaxant orphenadrine, and those of tramadol HCl, during postoperative pain relief after low and middle category operations. The test was an open, group- and self-controlled, prospective, randomised, IV. phase clinical test. The involved 60 patients were given analgesics for 74 days. The patients were divided into three groups: those in group A ( n = 19) were given diclofenac-orphenadrine, those in group B ( n = 30) tramadol, while those in group C ( n = 11) both diclofenac-orphenadrine and tramadol. The received data were statistically analysed. For the assessment of the analgesics' potency, the visual analogue scale (VAS) was used. As a result of the treatment, VAS values in all three groups decreased significantly ( p < 0.001) both in inactive (-2.5, -3.7, -3.0) and active (-3.0, -3.8, -3.4) state, so pain relief was successful. This was also supported by the analysis of cardiovascular parameters. At the end of the treatment, both the patients and the physicians considered potency significantly ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) better in group A which received only diclofenac-orphenadrine infusion. Analysing the quantity of used analgesics, the quantity of tramadol administered as a complement in group C was significantly smaller than in group B receiving only tramadol ( B: 87.5 mg, C: 61.5 mg, p < 0.01), which means that diclofenac-orphenadrine infusion increased the analgesic effect of tramadol. Laboratory parameters measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment were inside physiological limits, as side effects nausea and vomiting were observed in 3 cases. Based on all this, diclofenac-orphenadrine infusion is considered an effective and safe analgesic which is easy to administer and to combine in pain relief after small and middle category operations. PMID:18805773

  20. Management of posttraumatic kyphosis: surgical technique to facilitate a combined approach.

    PubMed

    Marré, Bartolomé

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a variation of the "posterior-anterior-posterior" surgical techniques to correct posttraumatic kyphosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine with the USS internal fixator. This modification is based on the use of "temporary screws" to mark the entrance of the pedicles in the first stage of the operation (posterior approach, with the patient in prone position). Approaching both columns of the spine simultaneously facilitates correction of the kyphotic defect and permits 360 reconstruction of the spine. PMID:15993120

  1. On the preventive management of sediment-related sewer blockages: a combined maintenance and routing optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, John E; Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Duque, Daniel; Medaglia, Andrés L; Torres, María N; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we tackle the problem of planning and scheduling preventive maintenance (PM) of sediment-related sewer blockages in a set of geographically distributed sites that are subject to non-deterministic failures. To solve the problem, we extend a combined maintenance and routing (CMR) optimization approach which is a procedure based on two components: (a) first a maintenance model is used to determine the optimal time to perform PM operations for each site and second (b) a mixed integer program-based split procedure is proposed to route a set of crews (e.g., sewer cleaners, vehicles equipped with winches or rods and dump trucks) in order to perform PM operations at a near-optimal minimum expected cost. We applied the proposed CMR optimization approach to two (out of five) operative zones in the city of Bogotá (Colombia), where more than 100 maintenance operations per zone must be scheduled on a weekly basis. Comparing the CMR against the current maintenance plan, we obtained more than 50% of cost savings in 90% of the sites. PMID:27438233

  2. Nonparametric estimation receiver operating characteristic analysis for performance evaluation on combined detection and estimation tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Adam; Goossens, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In an effort to generalize task-based assessment beyond traditional signal detection, there is a growing interest in performance evaluation for combined detection and estimation tasks, in which signal parameters, such as size, orientation, and contrast are unknown and must be estimated. One motivation for studying such tasks is their rich complexity, which offers potential advantages for imaging system optimization. To evaluate observer performance on combined detection and estimation tasks, Clarkson introduced the estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curve and the area under the EROC curve as a summary figure of merit. This work provides practical tools for EROC analysis of experimental data. In particular, we propose nonparametric estimators for the EROC curve, the area under the EROC curve, and for the variance/covariance matrix of a vector of correlated EROC area estimates. In addition, we show that reliable confidence intervals can be obtained for EROC area, and we validate these intervals with Monte Carlo simulation. Application of our methodology is illustrated with an example comparing magnetic resonance imaging k-space sampling trajectories. MATLAB® software implementing the EROC analysis estimators described in this work is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/iqmodelo/. PMID:26158044

  3. Nonparametric estimation receiver operating characteristic analysis for performance evaluation on combined detection and estimation tasks.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Adam; Goossens, Bart

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to generalize task-based assessment beyond traditional signal detection, there is a growing interest in performance evaluation for combined detection and estimation tasks, in which signal parameters, such as size, orientation, and contrast are unknown and must be estimated. One motivation for studying such tasks is their rich complexity, which offers potential advantages for imaging system optimization. To evaluate observer performance on combined detection and estimation tasks, Clarkson introduced the estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curve and the area under the EROC curve as a summary figure of merit. This work provides practical tools for EROC analysis of experimental data. In particular, we propose nonparametric estimators for the EROC curve, the area under the EROC curve, and for the variance/covariance matrix of a vector of correlated EROC area estimates. In addition, we show that reliable confidence intervals can be obtained for EROC area, and we validate these intervals with Monte Carlo simulation. Application of our methodology is illustrated with an example comparing magnetic resonance imaging [Formula: see text]-space sampling trajectories. MATLAB® software implementing the EROC analysis estimators described in this work is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/iqmodelo/. PMID:26158044

  4. A strategic planning approach for operational-environmental tradeoff assessments in terminal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Hernando

    of fuel burn, emissions, and noise. The implementation of the proposed approach for the assessment of terminal area solutions incorporates the use of discrete response surface equations, and eliminates the use of quadratic terms that have no practical significance in this context. Rather, attention is entire placed on the main effects of different terminal area solutions, namely additional airport infrastructure, operational improvements, and advanced aircraft concepts, modeled as discrete independent variables for the regression model. Results reveal that an additional runway and a new international terminal, as well as reduced aircraft separation, have a major effect on all operational metrics of interest. In particular, the additional runway has a dominant effect for departure delay metrics and gate hold periods, with moderate interactions with respect to separation reduction. On the other hand, operational metrics for arrivals are co-dependent on additional infrastructure and separation reduction, featuring marginal improvements whenever these two solutions are implemented in isolation, but featuring a dramatic compounding effect when implemented in combination. The magnitude of these main effects for departures and of the interaction between these solutions for arrivals is confirmed through appropriate statistical significance testing. Finally, the inclusion o advanced aircraft concepts is shown to be most beneficial for airborne arrival operations and to a lesser extent for arrival ground movements. More specifically, advanced aircraft concepts were found to be primarily responsible for reductions in volatile organic compounds, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter in this flight regime, but featured relevant interactions with separation reduction and additional airport infrastructure. To address the selection of scenarios for strategic airport planning, a technique for risk-based scenario construction, evaluation, and selection is proposed

  5. A combined approach to the estimation of statistical error of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, M. Yu.; Shkarupa, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    Presently, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is widely used for solving rarefied gas dynamics problems. As applied to steady-state problems, a feature of this method is the use of dependent sample values of random variables for the calculation of macroparameters of gas flows. A new combined approach to estimating the statistical error of the method is proposed that does not practically require additional computations, and it is applicable for any degree of probabilistic dependence of sample values. Features of the proposed approach are analyzed theoretically and numerically. The approach is tested using the classical Fourier problem and the problem of supersonic flow of rarefied gas through permeable obstacle.

  6. Combined phosphorescence-holographic approach for singlet oxygen detection in biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Beltukova, D. M.; Petrov, N. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a novel combined approach aimed to detect and monitor singlet oxygen molecules in biological specimens by means of the simultaneous recording and monitoring of their deactivation dynamics in the two complementary channels: radiative and nonradiative. The approach involves both the direct registration of phosphorescence at the wavelength of about 1270 nm caused by radiative relaxation of excited singlet oxygen molecules and holographic recording of thermal disturbances in the medium produced by their nonradiative relaxation. The data provides a complete set of information on singlet oxygen location and dynamics in the medium. The approach was validated in the case study of photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen in onion cell structures.

  7. Analysis of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine during Rocket Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. D.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. However, outside of performing experiments or a full three dimensional analysis, there are no first order parametric models to estimate performance. As a result, an axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to analytically determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and statistical regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, percent of injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inject diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Statistical regression analysis was performed based on both full flow and gas generator engine cycles. Results were also found to be dependent upon the entire cycle assumptions. The statistical regression analysis determined that there were five significant linear effects, six interactions, and one second-order effect. Two parametric models were created to provide performance assessments of an RBCC engine in the all rocket mode of operation.

  8. [The role of extensive Denkers operation in combined therapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Mori, N; Miyaguchi, M; Itoh, M

    1991-02-01

    We had a total of 372 patients with maxillary carcinoma in the period from 1972 to 1983. 108 patients were treated with 50Gy irradiation, intraarterial infusion of 2000 mg 5-FU and extensive Denker's operation in combination. 222 patients were treated with 50 Gy. irradiation and intraarterial infusion of 2000 mg 5-FU. The remaining 42 patients were treated with radio-therapy alone. The 5-year survival in these three groups was 48%, 43%, and 17%, respectively. The cumulative local control of the two former groups was 51%, and 33%, respectively. Total maxillectomy was performed as a second treatment only in 24 of 108 patients (22%) of the first group. Nine of them survived for 5 years and 15 died. On the other hand, 84 of 108 patients not treated with total maxillectomy consisted of 41 five year survivors and 43 deads. From the above, we believe that extensive Denker's operation plays a role to increase success rate of initial treatment, decrease in the necessity of total maxillectomy and improve survival rate, but its indication is limited. PMID:2037950

  9. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  10. Quantum Hall conductance of graphene combined with charge-trap memory operation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haeyong; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Jeongmin; Kim, Joonggyu; Truong, Thuy Kieu; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Park, Nahee; Yun, Hoyeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-08-28

    The combination of quantum Hall conductance and charge-trap memory operation was qualitatively examined using a graphene field-effect transistor. The characteristics of two terminal quantum Hall conductance appeared clearly on the background of a huge conductance hysteresis during a gate-voltage sweep for a device using monolayer graphene as a channel,hexagonal boron-nitride flakes as a tunneling dielectric and defective silicon oxide as the charge storage node. Even though there was a giant shift of the charge neutrality point, the deviation of quantized resistance value at the state of filling factor 2 was less than 1.6% from half of the von Klitzing constant. At high Landau level indices, the behaviors of quantum conductance oscillation between the increasing and the decreasing electron densities were identical in spite ofa huge memory window exceeding 100 V. Our results indicate that the two physical phenomena, two-terminal quantum Hall conductance and charge-trap memory operation, can be integrated into one device without affecting each other. PMID:26242388

  11. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  12. Assessment of Dysarthric Speech: A Case for a Combined Perceptual and Physiological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoros, Deborah; Murdoch, Bruce; Horton, Sue

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the importance of a combined approach to the assessment of dysarthria with reference to two case studies of individuals with dysarthric speech: a 32-year-old adult who suffered a severe closed head injury and a 9-year-old child who experienced a cerebrovascular accident involving the basilar artery. (Author/VWL)

  13. Evaluation of the Combined AERCOARE/AERMOD Modeling Approach for Offshore Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRON conducted an evaluation of the combined AERCOARE/AERMOD (AERCOARE-MOD) modeling approach for offshore sources using tracer data from four field studies. AERCOARE processes overwater meteorological data for use by the AERMOD air quality dispersion model (EPA, 2004a). AERC...

  14. Combining Best-Practice and Experimental Approaches: Redundancy, Images, and Misperceptions in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenesi, Barbara; Heisz, Jennifer J.; Savage, Philip I.; Shore, David I.; Kim, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment combined controlled experimental design with a best-practice approach (i.e., real course content, subjective evaluations) to clarify the role of verbal redundancy, confirm the multimodal impact of images and narration, and highlight discrepancies between actual and perceived understanding. The authors presented 1 of 3…

  15. Combination HIV Prevention Interventions: The Potential of Integrated Behavioral and Biomedical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985

  16. Is Combining Child Labour and School Education the Right Approach? Investigating the Cambodian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…

  17. A Kalman-Filter-Based Approach to Combining Independent Earth-Orientation Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.; Freedman, A. P.; Dickey, J. O.; Runge, T. F.

    1998-01-01

    An approach. based upon the use of a Kalman filter. that is currently employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for combining independent measurements of the Earth's orientation, is presented. Since changes in the Earth's orientation can be described is a randomly excited stochastic process, the uncertainty in our knowledge of the Earth's orientation grows rapidly in the absence of measurements. The Kalman-filter methodology allows for an objective accounting of this uncertainty growth, thereby facilitating the intercomparison of measurements taken at different epochs (not necessarily uniformly spaced in time) and with different precision. As an example of this approach to combining Earth-orientation series, a description is given of a combination, SPACE95, that has been generated recently at JPL.

  18. Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Chen, Tianjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yongzhi; Li, Yong; Xu, Xiahong; Shao, Shengzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang; Rogers, Karyne M

    2016-07-20

    Multielement and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, (207)Pb/(206)Pb, and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of individual isotopes or elemental characterization. LDA shows strong promise as an improved method to discriminate genuine organic Brassica vegetables from produce treated with chemical fertilizers and could be used as a robust test for organic produce authentication. PMID:27355562

  19. Combined orthodontic-surgical approach in the treatment of impacted maxillary canines: three clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    SPUNTARELLI, M.; CECCHETTI, F.; ARCURI, L.; TESTI, D.; MELONE, P.; BIGELLI, E.; GERMANO, F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaction of maxillary canine is a relatively frequent orthodontic anomaly which could represent fuctional and aesthetic problems for patients. Nowadays, the conventional technique to impacted canines consists of a combined orthodontic and surgical approach, aimed to guide cuspids at the center of the alveolar ridge in a stable position and surrounded by healthy hard and soft tissues. This article presents three cases studies with different combined surgical-orthodontic approaches for the treatment of infraosseous impacted canines. An impacted maxillary canine could be guided, after adequate space is created orthodontically, to the center of the ridge through an orthodontic traction directly applied to the crown of impacted cuspid. Several surgical techniques have been proposed to expose the crown of impacted tooth. Location (buccal or palatal side) of impactation and depth influence surgical approach in order to obtain best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:27555906

  20. Boost OCR accuracy using iVector based system combination approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xujun; Cao, Huaigu; Natarajan, Prem

    2015-01-01

    Optical character recognition (OCR) is a challenging task because most existing preprocessing approaches are sensitive to writing style, writing material, noises and image resolution. Thus, a single recognition system cannot address all factors of real document images. In this paper, we describe an approach to combine diverse recognition systems by using iVector based features, which is a newly developed method in the field of speaker verification. Prior to system combination, document images are preprocessed and text line images are extracted with different approaches for each system, where iVector is transformed from a high-dimensional supervector of each text line and is used to predict the accuracy of OCR. We merge hypotheses from multiple recognition systems according to the overlap ratio and the predicted OCR score of text line images. We present evaluation results on an Arabic document database where the proposed method is compared against the single best OCR system using word error rate (WER) metric.

  1. Optimization or Simulation? Comparison of approaches to reservoir operation on the Senegal River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raso, Luciano; Bader, Jean-Claude; Pouget, Jean-Christophe; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Design of reservoir operation rules follows, traditionally, two approaches: optimization and simulation. In simulation, the analyst hypothesizes operation rules, and selects them by what-if analysis based on effects of model simulations on different objectives indicators. In optimization, the analyst selects operational objective indicators, finding operation rules as an output. Optimization rules guarantee optimality, but they often require further model simplification, and can be hard to communicate. Selecting the most proper approach depends on the system under analysis, and the analyst expertise and objectives. We present advantage and disadvantages of both approaches, and we test them for the Manantali reservoir operation rule design, on the Senegal River, West Africa. We compare their performance in attaining the system objectives. Objective indicators are defined a-priori, in order to quantify the system performance. Results from this application are not universally generalizable to the entire class, but they allow us to draw conclusions on this system, and to give further information on their application.

  2. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    SciTech Connect

    RODRIGUEZ,C.GOLOSKOKOV,I.FISHBONE,L.GOODEY,K.LOOMIS,M.CRAIN,B.JR.LARSEN,R.

    2003-07-18

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to develop and implement MPC&A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC&A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC&A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC&D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical inventory procedures, and

  3. Orbiter/payload proximity operations SES Postsim report. Lateral approach and other techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, O.

    1978-01-01

    Various approach and stationkeeping simulations (proximity operations) were conducted in the Shuttle engineering simulator (SES). This simulator is the first to dynamically include the Orbiter reaction control system (RCS) plume effects on a payload being recovered after rendezvous operations. A procedure for braking, using the simultaneous firing of both jets, was evaluated and found very useful for proximity operations. However this procedure is very inefficient in the RCS usage and requires modifications to the digital autopilot (DAP) software. A new final approach, the lateral approach technique (LAT), or the momentum vector proximity approach, was also evaluated in the simulations. The LAT, which included a tailfirst approach for braking, was evaluated successfully with both inertial and gravity stabilized payloads.

  4. A decomposition approach for the combined master surgical schedule and surgical case assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Coppi, Alberto; Corsini, Matteo; Dellino, Gabriella; Meloni, Carlo; Pranzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    This research aims at supporting hospital management in making prompt Operating Room (OR) planning decisions, when either unpredicted events occur or alternative scenarios or configurations need to be rapidly evaluated. We design and test a planning tool enabling managers to efficiently analyse several alternatives to the current OR planning and scheduling. To this aim, we propose a decomposition approach. More specifically, we first focus on determining the Master Surgical Schedule (MSS) on a weekly basis, by assigning the different surgical disciplines to the available sessions. Next, we allocate surgeries to each session, focusing on elective patients only. Patients are selected from the waiting lists according to several parameters, including surgery duration, waiting time and priority class of the operations. We performed computational experiments to compare the performance of our decomposition approach with an (exact) integrated approach. The case study selected for our simulations is based on the characteristics of the operating theatre (OT) of a medium-size public Italian hospital. Scalability of the method is tested for different OT sizes. A pilot example is also proposed to highlight the usefulness of our approach for decision support. The proposed decomposition approach finds satisfactory solutions with significant savings in computation time. PMID:23783452

  5. [Postoperative vomitting and gastroatonia following aorto-bifemoral bypass operations during halothane-combination anaesthesia and neuroleptanaesthesia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Menzel, T; Langbein, L; Liebenshütz, F; Henneberg, U

    1977-02-01

    44 patients are analysed for the frequency of postoperative vomiting and the amount of gastroatonia following aorto-femoral bypass operations during neuroleptanaesthesia and halothane combination anasthesia. More than 60% of patients develop gastroatonia during both methods of anaesthesia. However it is less apparent on the first postoperative day after neuroleptanaesthesia and does not affect as many patients as after halothane combination anaesthesia. Postoperative vomiting is significantly more frequent after halothan combination anaesthesia than after neuroleptanaesthesia. PMID:842814

  6. Management of inflammatory carcinoma of breast with combined modality approach - an update

    SciTech Connect

    Buzdar, A.U.; Montague, E.D.; Barker, J.L.; Hortobagyi, G.N.; Blumenschein, G..

    1981-06-01

    Thirty-two patients with inflammatory breast cancer were treated with a combined modality approach consisting of combination chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide, followed by radiation therapy. The disease-free interval and survival of this group were compared with 32 patients with inflammatory breast cancer treated with irradiation without systemic therapy at our institution in the past. In the actuarial median follow-up of 62 months (range 42+ to 76+ months) of study, 11 patients in combined modality group and three patients in the irradiation group were free of disease. Overall median disease-free interval was 22.8 months for the combined modality group and nine months for the irradiation group, and 30.1 months and 18 months, respectively. The median disease-free interval of patients less than 50 years of age was 19 months for the combined modality group and nine months for the irradiation group; median survival was 24 months for both subgroups. Forty percent of the patients under 50 years of age in the combined modality group and 7% in the irradiation group had recurrence of central nervous system disease. Of the patients greater than of equal to 50 years of age, the median disease-free interval was 32.1 months for the combined modality group and nine months for irradiation group; median survival was 42 months and 18 months, respectively. The combined modality approach has resulted in improved disease-free interval of patients less than 50 years of age, but survival of this subgroup was not significantly improved possibly because of the high incidence of central nervous system disease recurrence. This treatment was effective in prolonging the disease-free interval and survival of patients greater than or equal to 50 years of age, with an estimated 45% of the patients surviving free of disease beyond 42 months.

  7. Operational earthquake forecasting in California: A prototype system combining UCERF3 and CyberShake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.; Field, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about time-dependent earthquake probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To attain this goal, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground motion exceedance probabilities as well as short-term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long-term forecasts of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. We have combined the Third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3) of the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., 2014) with the CyberShake ground-motion model of the Southern California Earthquake Center (Graves et al., 2011; Callaghan et al., this meeting) into a prototype OEF system for generating time-dependent hazard maps. UCERF3 represents future earthquake activity in terms of fault-rupture probabilities, incorporating both Reid-type renewal models and Omori-type clustering models. The current CyberShake model comprises approximately 415,000 earthquake rupture variations to represent the conditional probability of future shaking at 285 geographic sites in the Los Angeles region (~236 million horizontal-component seismograms). This combination provides significant probability gains relative to OEF models based on empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs), primarily because the physics-based CyberShake simulations account for the rupture directivity, basin effects, and directivity-basin coupling that are not represented by the GMPEs.

  8. PBO Operations in Alaska and Cascadia, Combining Regions and Collaborating with our Regional Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Boyce, E. S.; Dausz, K.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Pyatt, C.; Willoughby, H.; Woolace, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    During the last year, the Alaska and the Cascadia regions of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network were combined into a single management unit. While both remain distinct regions with their own challenges and engineering staff, every effort has been made to operate as a single team to improve efficiency and provide the highest possible data quality and uptime. Over the last several years a concerted effort has been made to work collaboratively with other institutions and stakeholders to defray ongoing costs by sharing staff and resources. UNAVCO currently operates four integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, eight with the Alaska Volcano Observatory, and three with the EarthScope TA. By the end of 2015, PBO and TA plan to install another 3 integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While most of these are designed around existing PBO stations, the 2014 installation at Middleton Island is a new station for both groups, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data in Alaska. There were two major joint maintenance efforts in 2015:, the largest was a 5 day mission among PBO, AVO, and TA, which shared boat, helicopter, and staff on and around Augustine Volcano; the second, was a 10 day helicopter mission shared between AVO and PBO on Unimak Island. PBO Pacific Northwest is working closely with University of Washington to co-locate at least 9 Earthquake Early Warning Systems, which include the addition of strong motion sensors and high speed RT telemetry at PBO sites. The project is managed by University of Washington but UNAVCO is providing land contact information and infrastructure support. Summer 2015 upgrades include a complete overhaul of aging radio technology at two major networks and several small radio networks in Cascadia. The upgrades will increase reliability and enhance the speed of existing telemetry infrastructure and will continue through summer 2018.

  9. Mental imagery combined with physical practice of approach shots for golf beginners.

    PubMed

    Brouziyne, M; Molinaro, C

    2005-08-01

    Recent research on motor skills of golf have pointed to the usefulness of mental imagery. In golf, such training is rarely used as a teaching technique for beginners on the grounds that only top professionals stand to gain from mental imagery. This study tested whether mental imagery combined with physical practice can improve golf performance for the approach shot. 23 volunteer beginners, 8 women and 15 men, M age 23.4 yr. (SD = 3.7), enrolled in the University Physical and Sporting Activities Department, were divided into three groups, using a combination of physical practice of the approach shot plus mental imagery, physical practice only, and a third group engaging in various sporting activities instead of either mental or physical practice of the chip shot. Analysis showed that the beginners' approach shot performance improved most in the group combining physical practice and mental imagery when compared with the group just physically practising the approach shot. It seems mental training can be used effectively to improve performance even with beginners. PMID:16350625

  10. Ethics education for clinician–researchers in genetics: The combined approach

    PubMed Central

    Zawati, Ma'n; Cohen, Eliza; Parry, David; Avard, Denise; Syncox, David

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in genomic technology and genetic research have uncovered new and unforeseen ethical and legal issues that must now be faced by clinician–researchers. However, lack of adequate ethical training places clinician–researchers in a position where they might be unable to effectively assess and resolve the issues presented to them. The literature demonstrates that ethics education is relevant and engaging where it is targeted to the level and context of the learners, and it includes real-world based cases approached in innovative ways. In order to test the feasibility of a combined approach to ethics education, a conference was held in 2012 to raise awareness and familiarize participants with the ethical and legal issues surrounding medical technology in genetics and then to have them apply this to reality-based case studies. The conference included participants from a variety of backgrounds and was divided into three sections: (i) informative presentations by experts in the field; (ii) mock REB deliberations; and (iii) a second mock-REB, conducted by a panel of experts. Feedback from participants was positive and indicated that they felt the learning objectives had been met and that the material was presented in a clear and organized fashion. Although only an example of the combined approach in a particular setting, the success of this conference suggests that combining small group learning, practical cases, role-play and interdisciplinary learning provides a positive experience and is an effective approach to ethics education. PMID:26937344

  11. Combined Approach for Tegmen Defects Repair in Patients with Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea or Herniations: Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Marchioni, Daniele; Bonali, Marco; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Rubini, Alessia; Pavesi, Giacomo; Presutti, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe our departmental experience in the surgical repair of tegmen tympani defects using a combined transmastoid/minicraniotomic approach. Design Retrospective review of videos from surgery and patients' charts. Setting Tertiary university referral center. Participants Twenty-two patients who underwent surgical repair of tegmen defects associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and/or meningocele/meningoencephalocele by a combined transmastoid/minicraniotomic approach. Main Outcome Measures A retrospective review of videos of surgery and charts of patients with tegmen tympani or tegmen antri defects and CSF leakage, temporal lobe encephalocele, and/or meningoencephalocele. Results All patients underwent the combined approach and had their defects closed, without significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions Mastoidectomy with temporal minicraniotomy represents an effective approach in patients with tegmen tympani dehiscence; the advantages of this technique are the control of the floor of the middle cranial fossa and the possibility to reach bony defects located anteriorly without manipulation of the ossicular chain and temporal lobe. PMID:25093152

  12. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-12-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  13. Operative Treatment of Terrible Triad of the Elbow via Posterolateral and Anteromedial Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-dong; Fei, Jun; Zhao, Gang-sheng; Wu, Li-jun; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the clinical outcome of posterolateral and anteromedial approaches in treatment of terrible triad of the elbow. The study involved 12 patients with closed terrible triad of the elbow treated by posterolateral and anteromedial approaches between January 2010 and June 2012. The mechanism of injury included fall from height in 9 patients and traffic accident in 3. According to O’Driscoll classification for fractures of the ulnar coronoid, there were 11 patients with type Ⅰ and 1 with type Ⅱ fractures. According to Mason classification for fractures of the radial head, there were 3 patients with type Ⅰ, 7 with type Ⅱ and 2 with type Ⅲ fractures. All patients were followed up for 12-27 months (average 15.5 months), which showed no pain or severe pain in all patients except for 2 patients with mild pain. At the last follow-up, the mean flexion was for 125°(range, 90°-140°), the mean extension loss for 20°(range, 0°-70°), the mean pronation for 66°(range, 20°-85°) and the mean supination for 60°(range, 30°-85°). The bony union time was 8-14 weeks (average 11 weeks) and the elbows were stable in flexion-extension and varus-valgus in all patients. The elbows maintained a concentric reduction of both the ulnotrochlear and the radiocapitellar articulation. Mild heterotopic ossification of the elbow occurred in 3 patients at 6 months after operation and mild degenerative change in 1 patient at 18 months after operation. The Broberg and Morrey elbow performance score was 82 points (range, 58-98 points). The results were excellent in 6 patients, good in 4, fair in 1 and poor in 1, with excellence rate of 83.3%. The results showed that the combined posterolateral and anteromedial approaches can facilitate the reduction and fixation of terrible triad of the elbow. Repair of radial head, coronoid, medial and lateral collateral ligaments can sufficiently restore the elbow stability, allow early postoperative motion and

  14. Dual-mode Operation of a Rocket-Ramjet Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Tani, Koichiro; Masumoto, Ryo; Ueda, Shuuichi

    One-dimensional evaluation of Ramjet-mode operation was carried out on a rocket-ramjet combined cycle engine model. For simplicity, instantaneous mixing between the airflow and rocket exhaust, instantaneous heat release, and pressure recovery by a normal-shock wave were assumed. Shock wave location was so decided that the heat release at the injection (heat addition) location was to thermally-choke the combustion gas flow. By changing the injection location, it was shown that a further downstream injection resulted in a further thrust production and a further fuel flow rate requirement for choking, and a lesser specific impulse. Balancing the thrust production and the specific impulse in terms of the launch vehicle acceleration performance should be pursued. The total pressure loss within the engine model was dominated by the shock wave location, not depended on injection location and fuel flow rate, so that having shock wave penetration to further upstream location was beneficial both for thrust production in the engine and at the external nozzle.

  15. Properties of biomass-derived biochars: Combined effects of operating conditions and biomass types.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Xu, Chuang; Chen, Zien; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-09-01

    Combined effects of operating conditions including heating temperature (200-700 °C), time (1-8h) and rate, and atmosphere (air-flow, air-limited and N2) on the physicochemical properties of biochars with pine sawdust, maize straw and sugarcane bagasse as feedstocks were investigated. The results demonstrated that production temperature and atmosphere acted as the predominant factors that determined the properties of biochars. The X-ray diffraction data confirmed the occurrence of phase transition in the biomass structures at around 400 °C. Heating time and rate showed little effect on the functional group compositions of the biochars within 8h, particularly under N2 atmosphere. In addition, the molecular weights of the biochar-derived dissolved organic carbon tended to increase with increasing temperature. Feedstock type also affected the biochar properties by the compositional differences in mineral salts and cellulose/lignin in the three biomass materials. This work provides important information for optimizing procedures for biochar production with desired properties and high yield. PMID:26022969

  16. Adaptive convex combination approach for the identification of improper quaternion processes.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Bukhari Che; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P

    2014-01-01

    Data-adaptive optimal modeling and identification of real-world vector sensor data is provided by combining the fractional tap-length (FT) approach with model order selection in the quaternion domain. To account rigorously for the generality of such processes, both second-order circular (proper) and noncircular (improper), the proposed approach in this paper combines the FT length optimization with both the strictly linear quaternion least mean square (QLMS) and widely linear QLMS (WL-QLMS). A collaborative approach based on QLMS and WL-QLMS is shown to both identify the type of processes (proper or improper) and to track their optimal parameters in real time. Analysis shows that monitoring the evolution of the convex mixing parameter within the collaborative approach allows us to track the improperness in real time. Further insight into the properties of those algorithms is provided by establishing a relationship between the steady-state error and optimal model order. The approach is supported by simulations on model order selection and identification of both strictly linear and widely linear quaternion-valued systems, such as those routinely used in renewable energy (wind) and human-centered computing (biomechanics). PMID:24806652

  17. Choice of approach for hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma located in the caudate lobe: Isolated or combined lobectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Qiu, Bao-An; Bai, Gang; Bai, Hong-Wei; Xia, Nian-Xin; Yang, Ying-Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Yong; An, Yang; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of the surgical approaches in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the caudate lobe with a multivariate regression analysis using a Cox proportional hazard model. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with HCC underwent caudate lobectomy at a single tertiary referral center between January 1995 and June 2010. In this series, left-sided, right-sided and bilateral approaches were used. The outcomes of patients who underwent isolated caudate lobectomy or caudate lobectomy combined with an additional partial hepatectomy were compared. The survival curves of the isolated and combined resection groups were generated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by a log-rank test. RESULTS: Sixteen (44.4%) of 36 patients underwent isolated total or partial caudate lobectomy whereas 20 (55.6%) received a total or partial caudate lobectomy combined with an additional partial hepatectomy. The median diameter of the tumor was 6.7 cm (range, 2.1-15.8 cm). Patients who underwent an isolated caudate lobectomy had significantly longer operative time (240 min vs 170 min), longer length of hospital stay (18 d vs 13 d) and more blood loss (780 mL vs 270 mL) than patients who underwent a combined caudate lobectomy (P < 0.05). There were no perioperative deaths in both groups of patients. The complication rate was higher in the patients who underwent an isolated caudate lobectomy than in those who underwent combined caudate lobectomy (31.3% vs 10.0%, P < 0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates for the isolated caudate lobectomy and the combined caudate lobectomy groups were 54.5%, 6.5% and 0% and 85.8%, 37.6% and 0%, respectively (P < 0.05). The corresponding overall survival rates were 73.8%, 18.5% and 0% and 93.1%, 43.6% and 6.7% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The caudate lobectomy combined with an additional partial hepatectomy is preferred because this approach is technically less demanding and offers an adequate surgical

  18. Combined Retrograde/Antegrade Approach to Transcatheter Closure of an Aortic Paravalvular Leak

    PubMed Central

    Damluji, Abdulla A.; Kaynak, Husnu E.

    2015-01-01

    New interventional techniques have made transcatheter closure of aortic paravalvular leaks a viable therapeutic option to treat the sequelae of these defects, including congestive heart failure and hemolysis. We report the transcatheter closure of an aortic paravalvular leak via a combined retrograde/antegrade approach. This was necessary because of difficulty in crossing the defect with a sheath from the retrograde approach. This technique might be useful in application to other difficult structural heart interventions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a treated paravalvular leak around a Mitroflow® Aortic Pericardial Heart Valve. PMID:26504437

  19. Combined infection training-a pioneering collaborative approach to educating infection specialists.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Syba Susan; Nedumaran, Suganya; Aston, Stephen; Neal, Timothy; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    This commentary discusses the recent pioneering overhaul of training for UK doctors wishing to pursue a career in the infection specialities. Changes include the introduction of new curricula that embrace increased collaboration between the laboratory-based and clinical specialties and a broad-based infection training period, named 'Combined Infection Training', which has never been seen before. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges associated with the collaborative approach to training with particular reference to points that educators responsible for training programme design need to consider. We also describe our own local experiences in adopting a proactive, multidisciplinary approach to address potential obstacles prospectively. PMID:27377893

  20. Simulation of operational typhoon rainfall nowcasting using radar reflectivity combined with meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a practical typhoon effective rainfall nowcasting (TERN) model was developed for use in real-time forecasting. The TERN model was derived from a data-driven adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The model inputs include meteorological data and radar reflectivity data. The model simulation process begins with an online typhoon warning issued by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) of Taiwan. It is then determined whether the typhoon approaches the study area according to the typhoon track predicted by the CWB. When a typhoon hits Taiwan, various data are received from sensor instruments, including the ground precipitation data, typhoon climatological data, and radar reflectivity factor by using Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) products. The study site was Shihmen Catchment. A maximum of 10 typhoon events from 2000 to 2010 were collected. Regarding the model construction, the input combinations of the ground precipitations and reflectivity factors over the catchment functioned as optimal input variables. To verify the practicability of the ANFIS-based TERN model, Typhoon Krosa, which hit Taiwan in 2007, was simulated. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology of real-time rainfall forecasts during typhoon warning periods yielded favorable performance levels, reliably predicting results regarding 1 h to 6 h forecasting horizons.

  1. Challenges for Complex Microbial Ecosystems: Combination of Experimental Approaches with Mathematical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Haruta, Shin; Yoshida, Takehito; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the past couple of decades, molecular ecological techniques have been developed to elucidate microbial diversity and distribution in microbial ecosystems. Currently, modern techniques, represented by meta-omics and single cell observations, are revealing the incredible complexity of microbial ecosystems and the large degree of phenotypic variation. These studies propound that microbiological techniques are insufficient to untangle the complex microbial network. This minireview introduces the application of advanced mathematical approaches in combination with microbiological experiments to microbial ecological studies. These combinational approaches have successfully elucidated novel microbial behaviors that had not been recognized previously. Furthermore, the theoretical perspective also provides an understanding of the plasticity, robustness and stability of complex microbial ecosystems in nature. PMID:23995424

  2. Combining different classification approaches to improve off-line Arabic handwritten word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, Ilya; Borovikov, Eugene; Davis, Ericson; Borovikov, Anna; Summers, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Machine perception and recognition of handwritten text in any language is a difficult problem. Even for Latin script most solutions are restricted to specific domains like bank checks courtesy amount recognition. Arabic script presents additional challenges for handwriting recognition systems due to its highly connected nature, numerous forms of each letter, and other factors. In this paper we address the problem of offline Arabic handwriting recognition of pre-segmented words. Rather than focusing on a single classification approach and trying to perfect it, we propose to combine heterogeneous classification methodologies. We evaluate our system on the IFN/ENIT corpus of Tunisian village and town names and demonstrate that the combined approach yields results that are better than those of the individual classifiers.

  3. Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach in Total Hip Arthroplasty for Crowe IV Dysplasia or Ankylosed Hips.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Kim, Ki-Choul; Ha, Yong-chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated 70 patients (71 hips) who underwent complex total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the combined anterior and posterior approach. Sixty-five patients (32 dislocated hips and 34 ankylosed hips) were followed-up at a minimum of 3 years (median, 6 years; range, 3-10 years). Seven patients (10.6%), who had transient paresthesia on the anterior thigh, recovered within 3 months. All patients had a good clinical outcome in terms of range of motion, pain and recovery of walking. At the latest follow-up, all prostheses had bone-ingrown stability without any detectable wear or osteolysis. The combined approach allows an excellent exposure of the acetabulum for accurate cup alignment, leg lengthening and mobilization of joint in complex THA without trochanteric osteotomy, excessive abductor release and femoral shortening osteotomy. PMID:25682205

  4. Study on different surgical approaches for acute Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lianbing; Fang, Liangqin; Qiu, Yihua; Xing, Shunming; Chen, Dechun; He, Xiang; Wang, Jinxin; Lai, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Jiefeng; Liao, Teng; Tan, Junming

    2014-01-01

    To compare the long and short term effectiveness and complications of different surgical approaches for Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome and find a better surgical method for the disease. In this study, follow up records of 144 patients received conventional laminectomy and minimally invasive decompression and fenestration 48 hours within acute injury of lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome were analyzed. Surgical outcome immediately and 3, 6, 12, 36 months after the surgery were compared to evaluate the effectiveness two different approaches. The results indicated that there are no significant differences regarding age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) score as well as Frankel scores before the surgery, and significant differences VAS score as well as Frankel scores immediately after the surgery. In conclusion, minimally invasive decompression and fenestration can be of the same effectiveness and less complications comparing with the conventional laminectomy. PMID:25674258

  5. Earthquake Early Warning using a Seismogeodetic Approach: An operational plan for Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Schmidt, D. A.; Melbourne, T. I.; Scrivner, C. W.; Santillan, V. M.; Szeliga, W. M.; Minson, S. E.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present an operational plan for implementing combined seismic and geodetic time series in an earthquake early warning system for Cascadia. The Cascadian subduction zone presents one of the greatest risks for a megaquake in the continental United States. Ascertaining the full magnitude and extent of large earthquakes is problematic for earthquake early warning systems due to instability when double integrating strong-motion records to ground displacement. This problem can be mitigated by augmenting earthquake early warning systems with real-time GPS data, allowing for the progression and spatial extent of large earthquakes to be better resolved due to GPS's ability to measure both dynamic and permanent displacements. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) at the University of Washington is implementing an integrated seismogeodetic approach to earthquake early warning. Regional GPS data are provided by the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) at Central Washington University. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions are sent from PANGA to the PNSN through JSON formatted streams and processed with a Python-based quality control (QC) module. The QC module also ingest accelerations from PNSN seismic stations through the Earthworm seismic acquisition and processing system for the purpose of detecting outliers and Kalman filtering when collocated instruments exist. The QC module outputs time aligned and cleaned displacement waveforms to ActiveMQ, an XML-based messaging broker that is currently used in seismic early warning architecture. Earthquake characterization modules read displacement information from ActiveMQ when triggered by warnings from ElarmS earthquake early warning algorithm. Peak ground displacement and P-wave scaling relationships from Kalman filtered waveforms provide initial magnitude estimates. Additional modules perform more complex source modeling such as centroid moment tensors and slip inversions that characterize the full size and

  6. Approach-Related Complications of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a Combined Spine and Vascular Surgical Team

    PubMed Central

    Mobbs, Ralph J.; Phan, Kevin; Daly, Daniel; Rao, Prashanth J.; Lennox, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cohort data. Objective Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Detailed and comprehensive descriptions of intra- and postoperative complications of ALIF are surprisingly limited in the literature. In this report, we describe our experience with a team model for ALIF and report all complications occurring in our patient series. Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled between January 2009 and January 2013 by a combined spine surgeon and vascular surgeon team. All patients underwent an open ALIF using an anterior approach to the lumbosacral spine. Results From the 227 ALIF cases, mean operative blood loss was 103 mL, ranging from 30 to 900 mL. Mean operative time was 78 minutes. The average length of stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative vascular injury requiring primary repair with suturing occurred in 15 patients (6.6%). There were 2 cases of postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma. Three patients (1.3%) had incisional hernia requiring revision surgery; 7 (3.1%) patients had prolonged ileus (>7 days) managed conservatively. Four patients described retrograde ejaculation. Sympathetic dysfunction occurred in 15 (6.6%) patients. There were 5 (2.2%) cases of superficial wound infection treated with oral antibiotics, with no deep wound infections requiring reoperation or intravenous therapy. There were no mortalities in this series. Conclusions ALIF is a safe procedure when performed by a combined vascular surgeon and spine surgeon team with acceptably low complication rates. Our series confirms that the team approach results in short operative times and length of stay, with rapid control of intraoperative vessel injury and low overall blood loss. PMID:26933616

  7. Approach-Related Complications of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a Combined Spine and Vascular Surgical Team.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Ralph J; Phan, Kevin; Daly, Daniel; Rao, Prashanth J; Lennox, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cohort data. Objective Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Detailed and comprehensive descriptions of intra- and postoperative complications of ALIF are surprisingly limited in the literature. In this report, we describe our experience with a team model for ALIF and report all complications occurring in our patient series. Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled between January 2009 and January 2013 by a combined spine surgeon and vascular surgeon team. All patients underwent an open ALIF using an anterior approach to the lumbosacral spine. Results From the 227 ALIF cases, mean operative blood loss was 103 mL, ranging from 30 to 900 mL. Mean operative time was 78 minutes. The average length of stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative vascular injury requiring primary repair with suturing occurred in 15 patients (6.6%). There were 2 cases of postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma. Three patients (1.3%) had incisional hernia requiring revision surgery; 7 (3.1%) patients had prolonged ileus (>7 days) managed conservatively. Four patients described retrograde ejaculation. Sympathetic dysfunction occurred in 15 (6.6%) patients. There were 5 (2.2%) cases of superficial wound infection treated with oral antibiotics, with no deep wound infections requiring reoperation or intravenous therapy. There were no mortalities in this series. Conclusions ALIF is a safe procedure when performed by a combined vascular surgeon and spine surgeon team with acceptably low complication rates. Our series confirms that the team approach results in short operative times and length of stay, with rapid control of intraoperative vessel injury and low overall blood loss. PMID:26933616

  8. Combination approaches to potentiate immune response after photodynamic therapy for cancer†

    PubMed Central

    St Denis, Tyler G.; Aziz, Kanza; Waheed, Anam A.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as a cancer therapy for forty years but has not advanced to a mainstream cancer treatment. Although it has been shown to be an efficient way to destroy local tumors by a combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light, it is its additional effects in mediating the stimulation of the host immune system that gives PDT great potential to become more widely used. Although the stimulation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells that can destroy distant tumor deposits after PDT has been reported in some animal models, it remains the exception rather than the rule. This realization has prompted several investigators to test various combination approaches that could potentiate the immune recognition of tumor antigens that have been released after PDT. This review will cover these combination approaches using immunostimulants including various microbial preparations that activate Toll-like receptors and other receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokines growth factors, and approaches that target regulatory T-cells. We believe that by understanding the methods employed by tumors to evade immune response and neutralizing them, more precise ways of potentiating PDT-induced immunity can be devised. PMID:21479313

  9. Change Detection in Uav Video Mosaics Combining a Feature Based Approach and Extended Image Differencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Change detection is an important task when using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video surveillance. We address changes of short time scale using observations in time distances of a few hours. Each observation (previous and current) is a short video sequence acquired by UAV in near-Nadir view. Relevant changes are, e.g., recently parked or moved vehicles. Examples for non-relevant changes are parallaxes caused by 3D structures of the scene, shadow and illumination changes, and compression or transmission artifacts. In this paper we present (1) a new feature based approach to change detection, (2) a combination with extended image differencing (Saur et al., 2014), and (3) the application to video sequences using temporal filtering. In the feature based approach, information about local image features, e.g., corners, is extracted in both images. The label "new object" is generated at image points, where features occur in the current image and no or weaker features are present in the previous image. The label "vanished object" corresponds to missing or weaker features in the current image and present features in the previous image. This leads to two "directed" change masks and differs from image differencing where only one "undirected" change mask is extracted which combines both label types to the single label "changed object". The combination of both algorithms is performed by merging the change masks of both approaches. A color mask showing the different contributions is used for visual inspection by a human image interpreter.

  10. Effectiveness of dereverberation, feature transformation, discriminative training methods, and system combination approach for various reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachioka, Yuuki; Narita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    The recently released REverberant Voice Enhancement and Recognition Benchmark (REVERB) challenge includes a reverberant automatic speech recognition (ASR) task. This paper describes our proposed system based on multi-channel speech enhancement preprocessing and state-of-the-art ASR techniques. For preprocessing, we propose a single-channel dereverberation method with reverberation time estimation, which is combined with multichannel beamforming that enhances direct sound compared with the reflected sound. In addition, this paper also focuses on state-of-the-art ASR techniques such as discriminative training of acoustic models including the Gaussian mixture model, subspace Gaussian mixture model, and deep neural networks, as well as various feature transformation techniques. Although, for the REVERB challenge, it is necessary to handle various acoustic environments, a single ASR system tends to be overly tuned for a specific environment, which degrades the performance in the mismatch environments. To overcome this mismatch problem with a single ASR system, we use a system combination approach using multiple ASR systems with different features and different model types because a combination of various systems that have different error patterns is beneficial. In particular, we use our discriminative training technique for system combination that achieves better generalization by making systems complementary with the modified discriminative criteria. Experiments show the effectiveness of these approaches, reaching 6.76 and 18.60 % word error rates on the REVERB simulated and real test sets. These are 68.8 and 61.5 % relative improvements over the baseline.

  11. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits

  12. Construction of a gene-gene interaction network with a combined score across multiple approaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A M; Song, H; Shen, Y H; Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in computational methods for inves-tigating physical and functional gene interactions has provided new insights into the complexity of biological processes. An essential part of these methods is presented visually in the form of gene interaction networks that can be valuable in exploring the mechanisms of disease. Here, a combined network based on gene pairs with an extra layer of re-liability was constructed after converting and combining the gene pair scores using a novel algorithm across multiple approaches. Four groups of kidney cancer data sets from ArrayExpress were downloaded and analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes using a rank prod-ucts analysis tool. Gene co-expression network, protein-protein interac-tion, co-occurrence network and a combined network were constructed using empirical Bayesian meta-analysis approach, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database, an odds ratio formula of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and a novel rank algorithm with combined score, respectively. The topological features of these networks were then compared to evaluate their performances. The results indicated that the gene pairs and their relationship rank-ings were not uniform. The values of topological parameters, such as clustering coefficient and the fitting coefficient R(2) of interaction net-work constructed using our ranked based combination score, were much greater than the other networks. The combined network had a classic small world property which transferred information quickly and displayed great resilience to the dysfunction of low-degree hubs with high-clustering and short average path length. It also followed distinct-ly a scale-free network with a higher reliability. PMID:26125911

  13. Use of Combined Biogeochemical Model Approaches and Empirical Data to Assess Critical Loads of Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, Mark E.; Driscoll, Charles; Zhou, Qingtao; Rao, Leela E.; Meixner, Tom; Allen, Edith B.; Yuan, Fengming; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical and dynamic biogeochemical modelling are complementary approaches for determining the critical load (CL) of atmospheric nitrogen (N) or other constituent deposition that an ecosystem can tolerate without causing ecological harm. The greatest benefits are obtained when these approaches are used in combination. Confounding environmental factors can complicate the determination of empirical CLs across depositional gradients, while the experimental application of N amendments for estimating the CL does not realistically mimic the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition. Biogeochemical and vegetation simulation models can provide CL estimates and valuable ecosystem response information, allowing for past and future scenario testing with various combinations of environmental factors, pollutants, pollutant control options, land management, and ecosystem response parameters. Even so, models are fundamentally gross simplifications of the real ecosystems they attempt to simulate. Empirical approaches are vital as a check on simulations and CL estimates, to parameterize models, and to elucidate mechanisms and responses under real world conditions. In this chapter, we provide examples of empirical and modelled N CL approaches in ecosystems from three regions of the United States: mixed conifer forest, desert scrub and pinyon- juniper woodland in California; alpine catchments in the Rocky Mountains; and lakes in the Adirondack region of New York state.

  14. Assessing human impact on droughts in a tropical Vietnamese catchment using a combined modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Ribbe, Lars; Tran Van, Tra; Viet, Trinh Quoc; Firoz, Abm; Fink, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Historical drought frequency, drought risk and types are still poorly investigated in tropical regions and particularly in South East Asia. However, evolving drought periods during the dry season severely impact on socio economic factors such as livelihood (irrigated rice production), hydropower generation and urban water supply in such regions as in the VuGiaThuBon river basin (10,350 km²) in Central Vietnam. Besides the increasing frequency of heat waves and prolonged dry periods without rainfall, hydropower development and over-exploitation of water resources due to demographic and socioeconomic development are the main causes for drought-related disasters and subsequent salt water intrusion. Precipitation and runoff time series from 1982 to 2009 were used to assess drought severity and typology before hydropower development started in 2010. We applied different rainfall-runoff modelling approaches of increasing complexity (HBV light, J2000 and Mike NAM) as well as meteorological and hydrological drought indices such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and its runoff homologue (SRI). In the scope of the BMBF funded research project "Land use and Climate Change interactions (LUCCi)" (www.lucci-vietnam.info), the impacts of the human-induced hydrological alterations on drought risk were quantified by integrating the distributed physically-based hydrological model J2000 with the reservoir operation tool HEC ResSim and the River basin model Mike Basin to simulate the runoff to the coastal system. The salt water intrusion behavior in the flat coastal area was represented by the hydrodynamic Mike 11 model relating low flow thresholds to salt intrusion. The different discharge simulations before and after the reservoir construction were compared and evaluated regarding their relevance for the drought severity being dominated either by meteorological dry spells or hydrological alterations. Results show a clear impact of the hydropower reservoir and resulting

  15. Giant Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma: Combined Microscopic Surgery and an Adjuvant Endoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Savastano, Ersilia; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatomas (PBCs) are epidermoid cysts, which have developed in the petrous portion of the temporal bone and may be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatomas arising in this region have a tendency to invade bone and functional structures and the middle and posterior fossae reaching an extensive size. Traditionally, surgery of a giant PBC contemplates lateral transtemporal or middle fossa microscopic surgery; however, in recent years, endoscopic surgical techniques (primary or complementary endoscopic approach) are starting to receive a greater consensus for middle ear and mastoid surgeries. We report the rare case of an 83-year-old Caucasian male affected by a giant cholesteatoma that eroded the labyrinth and the posterior fossa dura and extended to the infralabyrinthine region, going beyond the theca and reaching the first cervical vertebra. The giant cholesteatoma was managed through a combined approach (microscopic and, subsequently, complementary endoscopic approach). In this case report, we illustrate some advantages of this surgical choice. PMID:26937334

  16. Giant Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma: Combined Microscopic Surgery and an Adjuvant Endoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Iannella, Giannicola; Savastano, Ersilia; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatomas (PBCs) are epidermoid cysts, which have developed in the petrous portion of the temporal bone and may be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatomas arising in this region have a tendency to invade bone and functional structures and the middle and posterior fossae reaching an extensive size. Traditionally, surgery of a giant PBC contemplates lateral transtemporal or middle fossa microscopic surgery; however, in recent years, endoscopic surgical techniques (primary or complementary endoscopic approach) are starting to receive a greater consensus for middle ear and mastoid surgeries. We report the rare case of an 83-year-old Caucasian male affected by a giant cholesteatoma that eroded the labyrinth and the posterior fossa dura and extended to the infralabyrinthine region, going beyond the theca and reaching the first cervical vertebra. The giant cholesteatoma was managed through a combined approach (microscopic and, subsequently, complementary endoscopic approach). In this case report, we illustrate some advantages of this surgical choice. PMID:26937334

  17. Sensitive detection of human insulin using a designed combined pore approach.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang; Noonan, Owen; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Qian, Kun; Xu, Chun; Zhang, Jun; Nouwens, Amanda; Yu, Chengzhong

    2014-06-25

    A unique combined pore approach to the sensitive detection of human insulin is developed. Through a systematic study to understand the impact of pore size and surface chemistry of nanoporous materials on their enrichment and purification performance, the advantages of selected porous materials are integrated to enhance detection sensitivity in a unified two-step process. In the first purification step, a rationally designed large pore material (ca. 100 nm in diameter) is chosen to repel the interferences from nontarget molecules. In the second enrichment step, a hydrophobically modified mesoporous material with a pore size of 5 nm is selected to enrich insulin molecules. A low detection limit of 0.05 ng mL(-1) in artificial urine is achieved by this advanced approach, similar to most antibody-based analysis protocols. This designer approach is efficient and low cost, and thus has great potential in the sensitive detection of biomolecules in complex biological systems. PMID:24599559

  18. Phytophagous Insects on Native and Non-Native Host Plants: Combining the Community Approach and the Biogeographical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Kim; Zemel, Hidde; Chiba, Satoshi; Smit, Christian; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH) is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community) or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native). Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines) in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis. PMID:25955254

  19. A new approach to retrieving cirrus cloud height with a combination of MODIS 1.24- and 1.38-μm channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Ding, Shouguo; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2012-12-01

    An approach is developed for inferring cloud top height (CTH) by using two shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels (i.e., 1.24- and 1.38-μm) with similar cloud scattering and absorption properties but very different water vapor absorption properties. This channel combination is used to accurately infer the column water vapor amount above the clouds, from which the CTH can be retrieved. The approach performs best for ice clouds located in the upper troposphere. For those clouds, our approach performs as well or better than the current operational cloud height retrieval algorithm adopted by the MODIS science team.

  20. Simplified approach to implementing controlled-unitary operations in a two-qubit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Skinner, S. R.

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a scheme for realizing arbitrary controlled-unitary operations in a two-qubit system. If the 2×2 unitary matrix is special unitary (has unit determinant), the controlled-unitary gate operation can be realized in a single pulse operation. The pulse in our scheme will constitute varying one of the parameters of the system between an arbitrarily maximum and a “calculated” minimum value. This parameter will constitute the variable parameter of the system while the other parameters, which include the coupling between the two qubits, will be treated as fixed parameters. The values of the parameters are what we solve for using our approach in order to realize an arbitrary controlled-unitary operation. We further show that the computational complexity of the operation is no greater than that required for a controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. Since conventional schemes realize a controlled-unitary operation by breaking it into a sequence of single-qubit and CNOT gate operations, our method is an improvement because we not only require less time duration, but also fewer control lines to implement the same operation. To demonstrate improvement over other schemes, we show, as examples, how two controlled-unitary operations, one being the controlled-Hadamard gate, can be realized in a single pulse operation using our scheme. Furthermore, our method can be applied to a wide range of coupling schemes and can be used to realize gate operations between two qubits coupled via Ising, Heisenberg, and anisotropic interactions.

  1. Approach and Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Greco, Martin; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Portock, Brian; Steltzner, Adam

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th, 2012, at 10:31 PM PDT, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed safely within Gale Crater. Her successful landing de-pended not only upon the flawless execution of the numerous critical activities during the seven minute entry, descent, and landing (EDL), but also upon the operational preparations and decisions made by the flight team during approach, the final weeks, days, and hours prior to landing. During this period, decisions made by the flight team balanced operational risk to the spacecraft in flight with any resulting risks incurred during EDL as a result of those decisions. This pa-per summarizes the operations plans made in preparation for Approach and EDL and the as flown decisions and actions executed that balanced the operational and EDL risks and prepared the vehicle for a successful landing.

  2. Combining Model-Based and Feature-Driven Diagnosis Approaches - A Case Study on Electromechanical Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav

    2010-01-01

    Model-based diagnosis typically uses analytical redundancy to compare predictions from a model against observations from the system being diagnosed. However this approach does not work very well when it is not feasible to create analytic relations describing all the observed data, e.g., for vibration data which is usually sampled at very high rates and requires very detailed finite element models to describe its behavior. In such cases, features (in time and frequency domains) that contain diagnostic information are extracted from the data. Since this is a computationally intensive process, it is not efficient to extract all the features all the time. In this paper we present an approach that combines the analytic model-based and feature-driven diagnosis approaches. The analytic approach is used to reduce the set of possible faults and then features are chosen to best distinguish among the remaining faults. We describe an implementation of this approach on the Flyable Electro-mechanical Actuator (FLEA) test bed.

  3. Probabilistic approach to derive operational intervention levels for nuclear emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, B; Bäverstam, U

    1999-08-01

    A probabilistic approach is presented for the derivation of operational intervention levels as guidelines for intervention in a nuclear emergency. The probabilistic approach differs from the standard, deterministic approach in that the many variables needed for a risk and dose estimate are allowed to fluctuate and sampled, rather than using point estimate of key parameters. The fluctuations have a large effect on the operational intervention levels, leading to optimized levels that depend both on the accident scenario and on the distance from the site of the hypothetical accident. The methodology is illustrated for the case of dose rate operational intervention levels for sheltering. At distances larger than a few kilometers, values of dose rate operational intervention levels are obtained that are considerably higher than values developed through deterministic practices. As demonstrated, calculations of site-specific operational intervention levels can augment the emergency preparedness for nuclear facilities. In principle, the approach can be expanded to yield optimized emergency response planning for any nuclear facility subject to various accident conditions. PMID:12877334

  4. Attitudes Toward Combining Psychological, Mind-Body Therapies and Nutritional Approaches for the Enhancement of Mood.

    PubMed

    Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the

  5. [CHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH TO COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS IN COMBINATION WITH THE OPISTHORCHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaya, O A

    2015-01-01

    The development of new technologies of medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic cholecystitis in combination with a chronic opisthorchiasis, remains an actual problem of clinical gastroenterology. The use of a group chronobiological approach to the complex treatment of these patients including EHF-therapy allows to increase efficiency of the conducted measures. The analysis of results testified to beneficial effect of such approach on indicators of a functional condition of hepatobiliarity system and an organism in general. The positive dynamics of all studied indicators provided high thera- peutic effect (to 84.8%), and the revealed contingency of these results to features of carrying out treatment, allowed to establish their interrelation (χ² = 104.13; p = 0.0001; Kramer's V-coefficient = 0.35). It guarantees (is a predictor) receiving of high therapeutic effect (Percent Concordant of = 86.4%; the standardized coefficient = 2.54; r = 0.001) of the complex treatment including EHF-therapy with use of chronobiological approach to treatment of patients with chronic cholecystitis in combination with a chronic opisthorchiasis. The established dependences have a great practical importance and can be used in a choice of tactics of treatment of this category of patients. PMID:27214989

  6. Prediction of Candidate Drugs for Treating Pancreatic Cancer by Using a Combined Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xinran; Li, Ying; Yang, Bo; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the leading cause of death from solid malignancies worldwide. Currently, gemcitabine is the only drug approved for treating pancreatic cancer. Developing new therapeutic drugs for this disease is, therefore, an urgent need. The C-Map project has provided a wealth of gene expression data that can be mined for repositioning drugs, a promising approach to new drug discovery. Typically, a drug is considered potentially useful for treating a disease if the drug-induced differential gene expression profile is negatively correlated with the differentially expressed genes in the target disease. However, many of the potentially useful drugs (PUDs) identified by gene expression profile correlation are likely false positives because, in C-Map, the cultured cell lines to which the drug is applied are not derived from diseased tissues. To solve this problem, we developed a combined approach for predicting candidate drugs for treating pancreatic cancer. We first identified PUDs for pancreatic cancer by using C-Map-based gene expression correlation analyses. We then applied an algorithm (Met-express) to predict key pancreatic cancer (KPC) enzymes involved in pancreatic cancer metabolism. Finally, we selected candidates from the PUDs by requiring that their targets be KPC enzymes or the substrates/products of KPC enzymes. Using this combined approach, we predicted seven candidate drugs for treating pancreatic cancer, three of which are supported by literature evidence, and three were experimentally validated to be inhibitory to pancreatic cancer celllines. PMID:26910401

  7. An Approach to Realizing Process Control for Underground Mining Operations of Mobile Machines

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    The excavation and production in underground mines are complicated processes which consist of many different operations. The process of underground mining is considerably constrained by the geometry and geology of the mine. The various mining operations are normally performed in series at each working face. The delay of a single operation will lead to a domino effect, thus delay the starting time for the next process and the completion time of the entire process. This paper presents a new approach to the process control for underground mining operations, e.g. drilling, bolting, mucking. This approach can estimate the working time and its probability for each operation more efficiently and objectively by improving the existing PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). If the delay of the critical operation (which is on a critical path) inevitably affects the productivity of mined ore, the approach can rapidly assign mucking machines new jobs to increase this amount at a maximum level by using a new mucking algorithm under external constraints. PMID:26062092

  8. SimSup's Loop: A Control Theory Approach to Spacecraft Operator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Brandon Dewain; Crocker, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive simulation is a staple of training for many complex system operators, including astronauts and ground operators of spacecraft. However, while much has been written about simulators, simulation facilities, and operator certification programs, the topic of how one develops simulation scenarios to train a spacecraft operator is relatively understated in the literature. In this paper, an approach is presented for using control theory as the basis for developing the immersive simulation scenarios for a spacecraft operator training program. The operator is effectively modeled as a high level controller of lower level hardware and software control loops that affect a select set of system state variables. Simulation scenarios are derived from a STAMP-based hazard analysis of the operator's high and low level control loops. The immersive simulation aspect of the overall training program is characterized by selecting a set of scenarios that expose the operator to the various inadequate control actions that stem from control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop. Results from the application of this approach to the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission are provided through an analysis of the simulation scenarios used for operator training and the actual anomalies that occurred during the mission. The simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are mapped to specific control flaws and inadequate control executions in the different sections of the typical control loop to illustrate the characteristics of anomalies arising from the different sections of the typical control loop (and why it is important for operators to have exposure to these characteristics). Additionally, similarities between the simulation scenarios and inflight anomalies are highlighted to make the case that the simulation scenarios prepared the operators for the mission.

  9. 49 CFR 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors-combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted... first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one...

  10. 49 CFR 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors-combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted... first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one...

  11. 49 CFR 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors-combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted... first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one...

  12. 49 CFR 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors-combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted... first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one...

  13. 49 CFR 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors-combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted... first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one...

  14. New approach for treatment of advanced malignant tumors: combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Ju, Hua-lamg; Chem, Zhem-ming

    1995-03-01

    Eighty-three patients suffering from moderate or advanced malignant tumors were treated by combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in our hospital. The short term result of such management is very promising, the effectiveness seems to be nearly 100% and the general responsive rate is 79.5% (CR + PR). If compared with another group of 84 similar patients whom were treated with PDT alone, the short term efficacy is 85.7% while the general response rate is 54.7% (P < 0.01), there is a significant statistic. The better result of the combined approach is probably due to the action of the chemotherapeutic agent, potentially blocking the mitosis of the cellular cycle at certain phases of the cancer cells, making the cell membrane become more permeable to the photochemical agent, HPD, and eliciting a better cancerocidal effect.

  15. An Alternative Approach to Combine Orbital Prosthesis and Obturator: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soganci, Gokce; Yalug, Suat; Kocacikli, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a different approach for diminishing the movements of orbital prosthesis during mimic movements and chewing function. Mechanical devices such as magnets are used to enhance the retention in case lack of the implants. However rigid fixation of obturator and orbital prosthesis can result in movements of the orbital prosthesis during mastication. In this case obturator and orbital prosthesis are combined by magnets. However this combination is not rigid because of an active part which provides movement. This active part allows movements in a space constructed in the acrylic base of orbital prosthesis. Thus, the movements that may occur on orbital prosthesis during chewing can be diminished by this simple mechanism. Due to the fact that designing such a mechanism that minimizes the movements of the orbital prosthesis contributes patient’s comfort. PMID:21912502

  16. Facile Approach To Construct Ternary Cocktail Nanoparticles for Cancer Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Ao, Junping; Zhou, Linzhu; Su, Yue; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2016-07-20

    Drug combinations have been widely used in cancer treatment. However, it remains a formidable challenge to deliver three or more therapeutic agents in one nanoparticle with a precise and tunable molar ratio because of differences in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of various anticancer drugs. Herein, we reported a facile approach to construct ternary cocktail nanoparticles, which are composed of three different anticancer drugs, such as gemcitabine, chlorambucil, and irinotecan, through the molecular coassembly of two amphiphilic drug-drug conjugates. The component of these nanoparticles can be simply adjusted by changing the feed ratio of two amphiphilic drug-drug conjugates in the coassembly process. Without the help of any drug carriers, they can self-deliver, release three drugs synchronally, and obtain the optimal synergistic therapeutic effect. This facile strategy may open a new way for cancer combination therapy. PMID:27206493

  17. Advanced Strategies for End-Stage Heart Failure: Combining Regenerative Approaches with LVAD, a New Horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Cheyenne C. S.; Ramjankhan, Faiz Z.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the population with end-stage heart failure (HF) is progressively growing. The scarcity of the gold standard therapy, heart transplantation, demands novel therapeutic approaches. For patients awaiting transplantation, ventricular-assist devices have been of great benefit on survival. To allow explantation of the assist device and obviate heart transplantation, sufficient and durable myocardial recovery is necessary. However, explant rates so far are low. Combining mechanical circulatory support with regenerative therapies such as cell (-based) therapy and biomaterials might give rise to improved long-term results. Although synergistic effects are suggested with mechanical support and stem cell therapy, evidence in both preclinical and clinical setting is lacking. This review focuses on advanced and innovative strategies for the treatment of end-stage HF and furthermore appraises clinical experience with combined strategies. PMID:25905105

  18. A nonlinear image reconstruction technique for ECT using a combined neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashdeh, Q.; Warsito, W.; Fan, L.-S.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2006-08-01

    A combined multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFF-NN) and analogue Hopfield network is developed for nonlinear image reconstruction of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The (nonlinear) forward problem in ECT is solved using the MLFF-NN trained with a set of capacitance data from measurements based on a back-propagation training algorithm with regularization. The inverse problem is solved using an analogue Hopfield network based on a neural-network multi-criteria optimization image reconstruction technique (HN-MOIRT). The nonlinear image reconstruction based on this combined MLFF-NN + HN-MOIRT approach is tested on measured capacitance data not used in training to reconstruct the permittivity distribution. The performance of the technique is compared against commonly used linear Landweber and semi-linear image reconstruction techniques, showing superiority in terms of both stability and quality of reconstructed images.

  19. Assessing the impacts of reservoir operation to floodplain inundation by combining hydrological, reservoir management, and hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Cherry May; Hanasaki, Naota; Komori, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kenji; Kiguchi, Masashi; Champathong, Adisorn; Sukhapunnaphan, Thada; Yamazaki, Dai; Oki, Taikan

    2014-09-01

    A catastrophic flood event which caused massive economic losses occurred in Thailand, in 2011. Several studies have already been conducted to analyze the Thai floods, but none of them have assessed the impacts of reservoir operation on flood inundation. This study addresses this gap by combining physically based hydrological models to explicitly simulate the impacts of reservoir operation on flooding in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand. H08, an integrated water resources model with a reservoir operation module, was combined with CaMa-Flood, a river routing model with representation of flood dynamics. The combined H08-CaMa model was applied to simulate and assess the historical and alternative reservoir operation rules in the two largest reservoirs in the basin. The combined H08-CaMa model effectively simulated the 2011 flood: regulated flows at a major gauging station have high daily NSE-coefficient of 92% as compared with observed discharge; spatiotemporal extent of simulated flood inundation match well with those of satellite observations. Simulation results show that through the operation of reservoirs in 2011, flood volume was reduced by 8.6 billion m3 and both depth and area of flooding were reduced by 40% on the average. Nonetheless, simple modifications in reservoir operation proved to further reduce the flood volume by 2.4 million m3 and the depth and area of flooding by 20% on the average. By modeling reservoir operation with a hydrodynamic model, a more realistic simulation of the 2011 Thai flood was made possible, and the potential of reducing flood inundation through improved reservoir management was quantified.

  20. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  1. Combined High Pressure and Heavy-Ion Irradiation: a Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, M.; Zhang, F; Lian, J; Trautmann, C; Neumann, R; Ewing, R

    2009-01-01

    Swift heavy-ion irradiations of a wide variety of materials have been used to modify and manipulate the properties of solids at the nanoscale. Recently, these high-energy irradiations have been successfully combined with high-pressure experiments. Based on results obtained for zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), this paper introduces this new experimental approach involving diamond anvil cells and large ion-accelerator facilities. This technique provides a wide spectrum of geoscience applications from nanoscale simulations of fission-track formation under crustal conditions to phase transitions of radiation-damaged minerals resulting from meteorite impact.

  2. Rationale for combining glutamatergic and cholinergic approaches in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Francis, Paul T; Parsons, Chris G; Jones, Roy W

    2012-11-01

    A total of 40 years of biochemical, clinical and neuropathological research have revolutionized our understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, yet at the present moment the only drugs licensed for treatment are targeted essentially at symptoms. Some disease-modifying drugs remain in clinical trials, but many that have used similar approaches have failed. It is therefore of considerable interest to examine the optimal way of using existing medications for the benefit of patients. This article looks at the rationale behind the combined use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist, memantine, from both preclinical and clinical perspectives. PMID:23234396

  3. Combining bayesian source imaging with equivalent dipole approach to solve the intracranial EEG source localization problem.

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Steven; Caune, Vairis; Ranta, Radu; Korats, Gundars; Louis-Dorr, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    The brain source localization problem has been extensively studied in the past years, yielding a large panel of methodologies, each bringing their own strengths and weaknesses. Combining several of these approaches might help in enhancing their respective performance. Our study is carried out in the particular context of intracranial recordings, with the objective to explain the measurements based on a reduced number of dipolar activities. We take benefit of the sparse nature of the Bayesian approaches to separate the noise from the source space, and to distinguish between several source contributions on the electrodes. This first step provides accurate estimates of the dipole projections, which can be used as an entry to an equivalent current dipole fitting procedure. We demonstrate on simulations that the localization results are significantly enhanced by this post-processing step when up to five dipoles are activated simultaneously. PMID:26736344

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  7. Nonnormal operators in physics, a singular-vectors approach: illustration in polarization optics.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Tiberiu

    2016-04-20

    The singular-vectors analysis of a general nonnormal operator defined on a finite-dimensional complex vector space is given in the frame of a pure operatorial ("nonmatrix," "coordinate-free") approach, performed in a Dirac language. The general results are applied in the field of polarization optics, where the nonnormal operators are widespread as operators of various polarization devices. Two nonnormal polarization devices representative for the class of nonnormal and even pathological operators-the standard two-layer elliptical ideal polarizer (singular operator) and the three-layer ambidextrous ideal polarizer (singular and defective operator)-are analyzed in detail. It is pointed out that the unitary polar component of the operator exists and preserves, in such pathological case too, its role of converting the input singular basis of the operator in its output singular basis. It is shown that for any nonnormal ideal polarizer a complementary one exists, so that the tandem of their operators uniquely determines their (common) unitary polar component. PMID:27140139

  8. A combined NLP-differential evolution algorithm approach for the optimization of looped water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feifei; Simpson, Angus R.; Zecchin, Aaron C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization approach for the least cost design of looped water distribution systems (WDSs). Three distinct steps are involved in the proposed optimization approach. In the first step, the shortest-distance tree within the looped network is identified using the Dijkstra graph theory algorithm, for which an extension is proposed to find the shortest-distance tree for multisource WDSs. In the second step, a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver is employed to optimize the pipe diameters for the shortest-distance tree (chords of the shortest-distance tree are allocated the minimum allowable pipe sizes). Finally, in the third step, the original looped water network is optimized using a differential evolution (DE) algorithm seeded with diameters in the proximity of the continuous pipe sizes obtained in step two. As such, the proposed optimization approach combines the traditional deterministic optimization technique of NLP with the emerging evolutionary algorithm DE via the proposed network decomposition. The proposed methodology has been tested on four looped WDSs with the number of decision variables ranging from 21 to 454. Results obtained show the proposed approach is able to find optimal solutions with significantly less computational effort than other optimization techniques.

  9. Combined analgesics in (headache) pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain in general and headache in particular are characterized by a change in activity in brain areas involved in pain processing. The therapeutic challenge is to identify drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state, resulting in meaningful pain relief or even freedom from pain. Different aspects of pain perception, i.e. sensory and affective components, also explain why there is not just one single target structure for therapeutic approaches to pain. A network of brain areas ("pain matrix") are involved in pain perception and pain control. This diversification of the pain system explains why a wide range of molecularly different substances can be used in the treatment of different pain states and why in recent years more and more studies have described a superior efficacy of a precise multi-target combination therapy compared to therapy with monotherapeutics. Discussion In this article, we discuss the available literature on the effects of several fixed-dose combinations in the treatment of headaches and discuss the evidence in support of the role of combination therapy in the pharmacotherapy of pain, particularly of headaches. The scientific rationale behind multi-target combinations is the therapeutic benefit that could not be achieved by the individual constituents and that the single substances of the combinations act together additively or even multiplicatively and cooperate to achieve a completeness of the desired therapeutic effect. As an example the fixesd-dose combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), paracetamol (acetaminophen) and caffeine is reviewed in detail. The major advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets and thus are able to act on more signalling cascades involved in pain than most single analgesics without adding more side effects to the therapy. Summary Multitarget therapeutics like combined analgesics broaden the array of therapeutic

  10. Effectiveness of a Local Inter-Loan System for Five Academic Libraries: An Operational Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, A. F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of operational effectiveness in libraries focuses on a modeling approach that was used to compare the effectiveness of a local interlibrary loan system with using a national system, the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC). Cost figures and surveys of five academic libraries are described. (six references) (LRW)

  11. Schools' Capacity to Absorb a "Healthy School" Approach into Their Operations: Insights from a Realist Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Drouin, Nathalie; Tessier, Caroline; Couturier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how a Canadian intervention based on a professional development (PD) model did or did not influence schools' capacities to absorb a Healthy School (HS) approach into their operations. This study is the second part of a research project: previously published results regarding this research…

  12. The Combined Approach to Lysis Utilizing Eptifibatide and rt-PA in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pancioli, Arthur M.; Broderick, Joseph; Brott, Thomas; Tomsick, Thomas; Khoury, Jane; Bean, Judy; del Zoppo, Gregory; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Woo, Daniel; Khatri, Pooja; Castaldo, John; Frey, James; Gebel, James; Kasner, Scott; Kidwell, Chelsea; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Libman, Richard; Mackenzie, Richard; Scott, Phillip; Starkman, Sidney; Thurman, R. Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multiple approaches are being studied to enhance the rate of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of myocardial infarction with a combination of a reduced-dose fibrinolytic agent and a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist has been shown to improve the rate of recanalization versus fibrinolysis alone. The combined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) (CLEAR) stroke trial assessed the safety of treating acute ischemic stroke patients within 3 hours of symptom onset with this combination. Methods The CLEAR trial was a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–funded multicenter, double-blind, randomized, dose-escalation and safety study. Patients were randomized 3:1 to either low-dose rt-PA (tier 1=0.3 mg/kg, tier 2=0.45 mg/kg) plus eptifibatide (75 μg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 μg/kg per min infusion for 2 hours) or standard-dose rt-PA (0.9 mg/kg). The primary safety end point was the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours. Secondary analyses were performed regarding clinical efficacy. Results Ninety-four patients (40 in tier 1 and 54 in tier 2) were enrolled. The combination group of the 2 dose tiers (n=69) had a median age of 71 years and a median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14, and the standard-dose rt-PA group (n=25) had a median age of 61 years and a median baseline NIHSS score of 10 (P=0.01 for NIHSS score). Fifty-two (75%) of the combination treatment group and 24 (96%) of the standard treatment group had a baseline modified Rankin scale score of 0 (P=0.04). There was 1 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.3%) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the combination group and 2 (8.0%; 95% CI, 0% to 19.2%) in the rt-PA–only arm (P=0.17). During randomization in tier 2, a review by the independent data safety monitoring board demonstrated that the safety

  13. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment. PMID:24965093

  14. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  15. Combined experiment and theory approach in surface chemistry: Stairway to heaven?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Kai S.; Heß, Franziska; Over, Herbert; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective we discuss how an intimate interaction of experiments with theory is able to deepen our insight into the catalytic reaction system on the molecular level. This strategy is illustrated by discussing various examples from our own research of surface chemistry and model catalysis. The particular examples were carefully chosen to balance the specific strength of both approaches - theory and experiment - and emphasize the benefit of this combined approach. We start with the determination of complex surface structures, where diffraction techniques in combination with theory are clear-cut. The promoter action of alkali metals in heterogeneous catalysis is rationalized with theory and experiment for the case of CO coadsorption. Predictive power of theory is limited as demonstrated with the apparent activity of chlorinated TiO2(110) in the oxidation of HCl: Even if we know all elementary reaction steps of a catalytic reaction mechanism, the overall kinetics may remain elusive and require the application kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Catalysts are not always stable under reaction conditions and may chemically transform as discussed for the CO oxidation reaction over ruthenium. Under oxidizing reaction conditions ruthenium transforms into RuO2, a process which is hardly understood on the molecular level. Lastly we focus on electrochemical reactions. Here theory is clearly ahead since spectroscopic methods are not available to resolve the processes at the electrode surface.

  16. ADZE: a rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations

    PubMed Central

    Szpiech, Zachary A.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of the distribution of alleles across populations is a useful tool for examining population diversity and relationships. However, sample sizes often differ across populations, sometimes making it difficult to assess allelic distributions across groups. Results: We introduce a generalized rarefaction approach for counting alleles private to combinations of populations. Our method evaluates the number of alleles found in each of a set of populations but absent in all remaining populations, considering equal-sized subsamples from each population. Applying this method to a worldwide human microsatellite dataset, we observe a high number of alleles private to the combination of African and Oceanian populations. This result supports the possibility of a migration out of Africa into Oceania separate from the migrations responsible for the majority of the ancestry of the modern populations of Asia, and it highlights the utility of our approach to sample size correction in evaluating hypotheses about population history. Availability: We have implemented our method in the computer pro-gram ADZE, which is available for download at http://rosenberglab.bioinformatics.med.umich.edu/adze.html. Contact: szpiechz@umich.edu PMID:18779233

  17. Trypanothione Reductase: A Target Protein for a Combined In Vitro and In Silico Screening Approach

    PubMed Central

    Garoff, Linnéa; Noack, Sandra; Krauth-Siegel, R. Luise; Selzer, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    With the goal to identify novel trypanothione reductase (TR) inhibitors, we performed a combination of in vitro and in silico screening approaches. Starting from a highly diverse compound set of 2,816 compounds, 21 novel TR inhibiting compounds could be identified in the initial in vitro screening campaign against T. cruzi TR. All 21 in vitro hits were used in a subsequent similarity search-based in silico screening on a database containing 200,000 physically available compounds. The similarity search resulted in a data set containing 1,204 potential TR inhibitors, which was subjected to a second in vitro screening campaign leading to 61 additional active compounds. This corresponds to an approximately 10-fold enrichment compared to the initial pure in vitro screening. In total, 82 novel TR inhibitors with activities down to the nM range could be identified proving the validity of our combined in vitro/in silico approach. Moreover, the four most active compounds, showing IC50 values of <1 μM, were selected for determining the inhibitor constant. In first on parasites assays, three compounds inhibited the proliferation of bloodstream T. brucei cell line 449 with EC50 values down to 2 μM. PMID:26042772

  18. On the bioavailability of trace metals in surface sediments: a combined geochemical and biological approach.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Prygiel, Emilie; Lesven, Ludovic; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals was estimated in three river sediments (Sensée, Scarpe, and Deûle Rivers) impacted by different levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn (Northern France). For that, a combination of geochemistry and biological responses (bacteria and chironomids) was used. The results obtained illustrate the complexity of the notion of "bioavailability." Indeed, geochemical indexes suggested a low toxicity, even in surface sediments with high concentrations of total metals and a predicted severe effect levels for the organisms. This was also suggested by the abundance of total bacteria as determined by DAPI counts, with high bacterial cell numbers even in contaminated areas. However, a fraction of metals may be bioavailable as it was shown for chironomid larvae which were able to accumulate an important quantity of metals in surface sediments within just a few days.We concluded that (1) the best approach to estimate bioavailability in the selected sediments is a combination of geochemical and biological approaches and that (2) the sediments in the Deûle and Scarpe Rivers are highly contaminated and may impact bacterial populations but also benthic invertebrates. PMID:26884242

  19. A combined ligand and structure based approach to design potent PPAR-alpha agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhoke, Gaurao V.; Gangwal, Rahul P.; Sangamwar, Abhay T.

    2012-11-01

    A combined ligand and structure based pharmacophore modeling approach was employed to reveal structural and chemical features necessary for PPAR-alpha agonistic activity. The best HypoGen pharmacophore model Hypo1 for PPAR-alpha agonists contains two hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA), two general hydrophobic (H), and one negative ionizable (NI) feature. In addition, one structure based pharmacophore model was developed using LigandScout3.0, which has identified additional three hydrophobic features. Further, molecular docking studies of all agonists showed hydrogen bond interactions with important amino acids (Ser280, Tyr314 and Tyr464) and these interactions were compared with Hypo1, which shows that the Hypo1 has a good predictive ability. The screened virtual hits from Hypo1 were subjected to the Lipinski's rule of five, structure based pharmacophore screening and molecular docking analysis. Finally, three novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were selected as possible candidates for the designing of potent PPAR-alpha agonists. Combination of these two approaches results in designing an ideal pharmacophore model, which provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel PPAR-alpha agonists.

  20. Combined biofouling and scaling in membrane feed channels: a new modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Radu, A I; Bergwerff, L; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Picioreanu, C

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for combined fouling due to biofilms and mineral precipitates in membrane feed channels with spacers. Finite element simulation of flow and solute transport in two-dimensional geometries was coupled with a particle-based approach for the development of a composite (cells and crystals) foulant layer. Three fouling scenarios were compared: biofouling only, scaling only and combined fouling. Combined fouling causes a quicker flux decline than the summed flux deterioration when scaling and biofouling act independently. The model results indicate that the presence of biofilms leads to more mineral formation due to: (1) an enhanced degree of saturation for salts next to the membrane and within the biofilm; and (2) more available surface for nucleation to occur. The impact of biofilm in accelerating gypsum precipitation depends on the composition of the feed water (eg the presence of NaCl) and the kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth. Interactions between flow, solute transport and biofilm-induced mineralization are discussed. PMID:25587632

  1. Combining immunological and androgen-directed approaches: an emerging concept in prostate cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Drake, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The autologous antigen-presenting cell immunotherapy, sipuleucel-T, was the first and remains the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. In this article, we will summarize recent clinical data on several additional immune-directed strategies, some of which have now entered phase 3 trials. Recent findings Multiple studies are now testing sipuleucel-T in different disease settings and/or in combination with conventional and novel hormonal therapies. In addition, a poxviral-based vaccine has shown promise in early-phase clinical studies and has now entered phase 3 testing in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Next, a DNA vaccine has been evaluated in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer and has shown early signs of clinical efficacy. Finally, several studies are evaluating the role of immune checkpoint blockade using ipilimumab in pivotal phase 3 trials in prostate cancer patients with advanced disease, as well as in earlier phase studies in combination with androgen ablation. Summary The abundance of new treatment options for men with advanced prostate cancer will challenge the role of immunotherapy in these patients. Future progress may rely on optimal combination and sequencing of various immunotherapies with androgen-directed approaches as well as with other standard prostate cancer therapies, an effort which is now just beginning. PMID:22410456

  2. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  3. A combined NMR and computational approach to investigate peptide binding to a designed Armadillo repeat protein.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Christina; Christen, Martin T; Watson, Randall P; Mihajlovic, Maja; Zhou, Ting; Honegger, Annemarie; Plückthun, Andreas; Caflisch, Amedeo; Zerbe, Oliver

    2015-05-22

    The specific recognition of peptide sequences by proteins plays an important role both in biology and in diagnostic applications. Here we characterize the relatively weak binding of the peptide neurotensin (NT) to the previously developed Armadillo repeat protein VG_328 by a multidisciplinary approach based on solution NMR spectroscopy, mutational studies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, totaling 20μs for all MD runs. We describe assignment challenges arising from the repetitive nature of the protein sequence, and we present novel approaches to address them. Partial assignments obtained for VG_328 in combination with chemical shift perturbations allowed us to identify the repeats not involved in binding. Their subsequent elimination resulted in a reduced-size binder with very similar affinity for NT, for which near-complete backbone assignments were achieved. A binding mode suggested by automatic docking and further validated by explicit solvent MD simulations is consistent with paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data collected using spin-labeled NT. Favorable intermolecular interactions are observed in the MD simulations for the residues that were previously shown to contribute to binding in an Ala scan of NT. We further characterized the role of residues within the N-cap for protein stability and peptide binding. Our multidisciplinary approach demonstrates that an initial low-resolution picture for a low-micromolar-peptide binder can be refined through the combination of NMR, protein design, docking, and MD simulations to establish its binding mode, even in the absence of crystallographic data, thereby providing valuable information for further design. PMID:25816772

  4. Pre-operative embolization facilitating a posterior approach for the surgical resection of giant sacral neurogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kangwu; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Huilin; Qian, Zhonglai; Wang, Genlin; Wu, Guizhong; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Sun, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess a posterior approach for the surgical resection of giant sacral neurogenic tumors, and to evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes. A total of 16 patients with giant sacral neurogenic tumors underwent pre-operative embolization and subsequent posterior sacral resection between January 2000 and June 2010. Benign tumors were identified in 12 cases, while four cases exhibited malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). An evaluation of the operative techniques used, the level of blood loss, any complications and the functional and oncological outcomes was performed. All tumor masses were removed completely without intra-operative shock or fatalities. The mean tumor size was 17.5 cm (range, 11.5-28 cm) at the greatest diameter. The average level of intra-operative blood loss was 1,293 ml (range, 400-4,500 ml). Wound complications occurred in four patients (25%), including three cases of cutaneous necrosis and one wound infection. The mean follow-up time was 59 months (range, 24-110 months). Tumor recurrence or patient mortality as a result of the disease did not occur in any of the patients with benign sacral neurogenic tumors. The survival rate of the patients with malignant lesions was 75% (3/4 patients) since 25 % (1/4 patients) had multiple local recurrences and succumbed to the disease. The patients with benign tumors scored an average of 92.8% on the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score functional evaluation, while the patients with malignant tumors scored an average of 60.3%. A posterior approach for the surgical resection of giant sacral neurogenic tumors, combined with pre-operative embolization may be safely conducted with satisfactory oncological and functional outcomes. PMID:23946813

  5. Mapping tillage operations over a peri-urban region using combined SPOT4 and ASAR/ENVISAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Baghdadi, N.; Gilliot, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential of combining synchronous SPOT4 and ENVISAT/ASAR images (HH and HV polarizations) for mapping tillage operations (TOs) of bare agricultural fields over a peri-urban area characterized by conventional tillage system in the western suburbs of Paris (France). The reference spatial units for spatial modeling are 57 within-field areas named “reference zones” (RZs) homogeneous for their soil properties, constructed in the vicinity of 57 roughness measurement locations, spread across 20 agricultural fields for which TOs were known. The total RZ dataset was half dedicated to successive random selections of training/validating RZs, the remaining half (29 RZs) being kept for validating the final map results. Five supervised per-pixels classifiers were used in order to map 2 TOs classes (seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough) in addition to 4 landuse classes (forest, urban, crops and grass, water bodies): support vector machine with polynomial kernel (pSVM), SVM with radial basis kernel (rSVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and regression tree (RT). All 5 classifiers were implemented in a bootstrapping approach in order to assess the uncertainty of map results. The best results were obtained with pSVM for the SPOT4/ASAR pair with producer's and user's mean validation accuracies (PmVA/UmVA) of 91.7%/89.8% and 73.2%/73.3% for seedbed&harrowed and late winter plough conditions, respectively. Whatever classifier, the SPOT4/ASAR pair appeared to perform better than each of the single images, particularly for late winter plough: PmVA/UmVA of 61.6%/53.0% for the single SPOT4 image; 0%/6% for the single ASAR image. About 73% of the validation agricultural fields (79% of the RZs) were correctly predicted in terms of TOs in the best pSVM-derived final map. Final map results could be improved through masking non-agricultural areas with land use identification system layer prior to classifying images. Such

  6. A LUT-based approach to estimate surface solar irradiance by combining MODIS and MTSAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guanghui; Ma, Mingguo; Liang, Shunlin; Liu, Shaomin; Li, Xin

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a new satellite-derived approach for obtaining instantaneous surface solar irradiance (SSI) by combining Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) data is presented and validated using one year pyranometer measurements from five stations in northern China. The approach is based on look-up tables created via comprehensive radiative transfer modeling to achieve high accuracy and high computational efficiency. The synergy of the multispectral sensor MODIS and the high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite MTSAT enables the adequate use of multisource remote sensing information to determine the atmosphere and surface states, and thereby complements shortcomings of their own. Here we use MTSAT data to capture the changes of cloud fields in the atmosphere and use MODIS products to obtain the dynamic aerosol loading, water vapor content, surface reflectance, and other information. Meanwhile, on the basis of instantaneous retrieval results, the calculation of hourly average SSI is also explored. The preliminary validation demonstrates that both instantaneous and hourly SSIs can be produced accurately over northern China using this approach, and the retrieval quality of hourly SSI data is slightly better than that of instantaneous SSI data. However, in mountainous areas the results need further refinement.

  7. Estimation of the PPARα agonism of fibrates by a combined MM-docking approach.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Fabio; Marrone, Alessandro; Re, Nazzareno

    2013-01-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha receptor (PPARα) activators derived from fibric acid and are the most clinically used therapeutics in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Recently, we reported a computational approach for the investigation of the binding properties of fibrates, characterized by similar carboxylic heads but differing in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic portion. This procedure is based on a combination of standard docking and molecular mechanics approaches to better describe the adaptation of the protein target to the bound ligand. The application of our approach to a set of 23 fibrates and the use of an effective regression procedure, allowed the development of predictive models of the PPARα agonism. The obtained models are characterized by good performances realizing a fair trade-off between accuracy and computational costs. The best model is more specialized in the ranking of fibrate agonists whose binding is mainly controlled by steric rather than by electronic modulation. Here, we describe in details the application of this computational procedure for the prediction of PPARα agonism of fibrate ligands. PMID:23100237

  8. Modeling of combustion processes of stick propellants via combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.; Athavale, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    This research is motivated by the improved ballistic performance of large-caliber guns using stick propellant charges. A comprehensive theoretical model for predicting the flame spreading, combustion, and grain deformation phenomena of long, unslotted stick propellants is presented. The formulation is based upon a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to simulate special characteristics of the two phase combustion process in a cartridge loaded with a bundle of sticks. The model considers five separate regions consisting of the internal perforation, the solid phase, the external interstitial gas phase, and two lumped parameter regions at either end of the stick bundle. For the external gas phase region, a set of transient one-dimensional fluid-dynamic equations using the Eulerian approach is obtained; governing equations for the stick propellants are formulated using the Lagrangian approach. The motion of a representative stick is derived by considering the forces acting on the entire propellant stick. The instantaneous temperature and stress fields in the stick propellant are modeled by considering the transient axisymmetric heat conduction equation and dynamic structural analysis.

  9. Phenomics of Vascular Disease: The Systematic Approach to the Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Yeshan; Li, Li; Zhang, Yaping; Yuan, Hong; Ye, Linda; Zhao, Jianzhong; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases are usually caused by multifactorial pathogeneses involving genetic and environmental factors. Our current understanding of vascular disease is, however, based on the focused genotype/phenotype studies driven by the "one-gene/one-phenotype" hypothesis. Drugs with "pure target" at individual molecules involved in the pathophysiological pathways are the mainstream of current clinical treatments and the basis of combination therapy of vascular diseases. Recently, the combination of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has unraveled the etiology and pathophysiology of vascular disease in a big-data fashion and also revealed unmatched relationships between the omic variability and the much narrower definition of various clinical phenotypes of vascular disease in individual patients. Here, we introduce the phenomics strategy that will change the conventional focused phenotype/genotype/genome study to a new systematic phenome/genome/proteome approach to the understanding of pathophysiology and combination therapy of vascular disease. A phenome is the sum total of an organism's phenotypic traits that signify the expression of genome and specific environmental influence. Phenomics is the study of phenome to quantitatively correlate complex traits to variability not only in genome, but also in transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, interactome, and environmental factors by exploring the systems biology that links the genomic and phenomic spaces. The application of phenomics and the phenome-wide associated study (PheWAS) will not only identify a systemically-integrated set of biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of vascular disease but also provide novel treatment targets for combination therapy and thus make a revolutionary paradigm shift in the clinical treatment of these devastating diseases. PMID:25313004

  10. Phenomics of Vascular Disease: The Systematic Approach to the Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yeshan; Li, Li; Zhang, Yaping; Yuan, Hong; Ye, Linda; Zhao, Jianzhong; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases are usually caused by multifactorial pathogeneses involving genetic and environmental factors. Our current understanding of vascular disease is, however, based on the focused genotype/phenotype studies driven by the “one-gene/one-phenotype” hypothesis. Drugs with “pure target” at individual molecules involved in the pathophysiological pathways are the mainstream of current clinical treatments and the basis of combination therapy of vascular diseases. Recently, the combination of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has unraveled the etiology and pathophysiology of vascular disease in a big-data fashion and also revealed unmatched relationships between the omic variability and the much narrower definition of various clinical phenotypes of vascular disease in individual patients. Here, we introduce the phenomics strategy that will change the conventional focused phenotype/genotype/genome study to a new systematic phenome/genome/proteome approach to the understanding of pathophysiology and combination therapy of vascular disease. A phenome is the sum total of an organism’s phenotypic traits that signify the expression of genome and specific environmental influence. Phenomics is the study of phenome to quantitatively correlate complex traits to variability not only in genome, but also in transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, interactome, and environmental factors by exploring the systems biology that links the genomic and phenomic spaces. The application of phenomics and the phenome-wide associated study (PheWAS) will not only identify a systemically-integrated set of biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of vascular disease but also provide novel treatment targets for combination therapy and thus make a revolutionary paradigm shift in the clinical treatment of these devastating diseases.

  11. A dual active-restrictive approach to incorporating environmental flow targets into existing reservoir operation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Environmental flow schemes may be implemented through active or restrictive strategies. The former may be applied via reservoir releases, and the latter can be executed by reducing water demands. We present a dual active-restrictive approach to devising the optimal reservoir operation rules that aim to secure off-stream water supplies while maximizing environmental benefits. For the active part, a multicomponent environmental flow target (including the minimum and monthly flows) is incorporated in the operation rules. For the restrictive counterpart, we use a novel demands partitioning and prioritizing (DPP) approach to reallocating the demands of various sectors. The DPP approach partitions the existing off-stream demand and newly incorporated environmental demand and reassembles the two as the first- and second-priority demands. Water is reallocated to each demand according to the ratios derived from the prioritized demands. The proposed approach is coupled with a multicriteria optimization framework to seek the optimal operation rules for the existing Feitsui Reservoir system (Taiwan) under various scenarios. The best overall performance is achieved by an optimal dual strategy whose operational parameters are all determined by optimization. The optimal environmental flow target may well be a top-priority constant base flow rather than the variable quantities. The active strategy would outperform the restrictive one. For the former, a top-priority base flow target is essential; for the latter, the off-stream demand can become vanishingly small in compensation for the eliminated base flow target, thus promoting the monthly flow target as nearly the top-priority demand. For either the active or restrictive strategy, a prioritized environmental flow demand would provide a path toward the optimal overall performance. A significantly improved overall performance over the existing operation rules is unlikely if the active and restrictive parameters are both favorable

  12. The School Media Centre and the Public Library: Combination or Co-Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken

    In considering possible combinations of public and school library services, thought must be given to the varying roles of the two kinds of libraries, the location of facilities, the collection and circulation of materials, hours of services, qualifications of staff, system services, and community involvement. Some school-housed public libraries…

  13. Radiation exposure during coronary angiography via transradial or transfemoral approaches when performed by experienced operators

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Bangalore, Sripal; Feit, Frederick; Fernandez, Gregory; Coppola, John; Attubato, Michael J.; Slater, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies demonstrate an increase in radiation exposure with transradial approach (TRA) when compared with transfemoral approach (TFA) for coronary angiography. Given the learning curve associated with TRA, it is not known if this increased radiation exposure to patients is seen when procedures are performed by experienced operators. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 1,696 patients who underwent coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by experienced operators at a tertiary center from October 2010 to June 2011. Experienced operators were defined as those that perform >75 PCIs/year with >95% of cases performed using the TRA or TFA approach for ≥5 years. The outcomes of interest were dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time (FT). Results Of the 1,696 patients, 1,382 (81.5%) were performed by experienced femoral operators using TFA and 314 (18.5%) were performed by experienced radial operators using TRA. Most of these cases (65.4%) were diagnostic only (870 TFA and 240 TRA) with both DAP (6040 [3210–8786] vs 5019 [3377–6869] μGy·m2, P = .003] and FT [6.2 [4.0–10.3] vs 3.3 [2.6–5.0] minutes, P < .001) significantly higher using TRA versus TFA. For procedures involving PCI, despite similar baseline patient, procedural and lesion characteristics, DAP and FT remained significantly higher using TRA versus TFA (19,649 [11,996–25,929] vs 15,395 [10,078–21,617] μGy·m2, P = .02 and 22.1 [13.3–31.0] vs. 13.8 [9.8–20.3] minutes, P < .001). Conclusions In a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography by experienced operators, TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure when compared with TFA. PMID:23453094

  14. A low cost commercial approach to space systems development and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, T. F.; Faget, M. A.; Allen, J. P.; Langstaff, D. H.

    In recent years a number of factors have led to increased attention to the lowering of costs for space flight systems and the operation of those systems. To that end Space Industries Inc. (SII), a small commercial space company based in Houston, Tex., is employing proven methods derived from over three decades of space flight development and space operations. These methods are based on a philosophy that is cost-sensitive focused with a primary objective to drive the cost of space systems and their operations down to the lowest level practical, consistent with the mission objectives, acceptable risk and safety considerations. This approach involves a process of: (1) addressing the basic requirements in the simplest and most cost effective manner, i.e. limit new development wherever possible, maximize use of proven and existing technology and eliminate non-essential requirements; (2) incorporation of proven industrial practices where possible, i.e. focus on performance envelopes (not on restrictive, specific and detailed specifications) and streamline program management, documentation, testing and other procedures; and (3) delivery of the "best" price, i.e. maximum customer utility at minimum cost with emphasis on customer service. The overriding factor, and indeed the most important aspect of the low cost commercial approach, is the willingness to accept greater risks to achieve all of the user's objectives. Our development approach is customer focused with emphasis on fully understanding the customer needs while striving constantly to limit new development requirements and, consequently, additional costs. This approach involves a process of designing for operations, i.e. low operation and life-cycle costs, while ensuring a reliability level consistent with customer budget constraints, mission objectives and safety consideration. In executing this low cost, customer-focused approach, we strive to maintain minimal overheads, simple interfaces, reduced documentation

  15. Combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Anmin

    2007-06-15

    We propose and prove protocols of combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations belonging to the restricted sets [A. M. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)] using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We present the protocols in detail in the cases of one qubit, with two senders and with one controller, respectively. Then we study the variations of protocols with many senders, or with many controllers, or with both many senders and controllers using a multipartite GHZ state. Furthermore, we extend these protocols to the cases of multiqubits. Because our protocols have to request that the senders work together and transfer the information in turn or receive the repertoire of extra supercontrollers, or/and the controller(s) open the quantum channel and distribute the passwords in different ways, they definitely have the strong security in remote quantum information processing and communications. Moreover, the combined protocol with many senders is helpful to arrive at the power of remote implementations of quantum operations to the utmost extent in theory, since the different senders may have different operational resources and different operational rights in practice, and the controlled protocol with many controllers is able to enhance security and increase applications of remote implementations of quantum operations in engineering, since it has some common features in a controlled process.

  16. Combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An Min

    2007-06-01

    We propose and prove protocols of combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations belonging to the restricted sets [A. M. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)] using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We present the protocols in detail in the cases of one qubit, with two senders and with one controller, respectively. Then we study the variations of protocols with many senders, or with many controllers, or with both many senders and controllers using a multipartite GHZ state. Furthermore, we extend these protocols to the cases of multiqubits. Because our protocols have to request that the senders work together and transfer the information in turn or receive the repertoire of extra supercontrollers, or/and the controller(s) open the quantum channel and distribute the passwords in different ways, they definitely have the strong security in remote quantum information processing and communications. Moreover, the combined protocol with many senders is helpful to arrive at the power of remote implementations of quantum operations to the utmost extent in theory, since the different senders may have different operational resources and different operational rights in practice, and the controlled protocol with many controllers is able to enhance security and increase applications of remote implementations of quantum operations in engineering, since it has some common features in a controlled process.

  17. A Riemann–Hilbert approach to the inverse problem for the Stark operator on the line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Its, A.; Sukhanov, V.

    2016-05-01

    The paper is concerned with the inverse scattering problem for the Stark operator on the line with a potential from the Schwartz class. In our study of the inverse problem, we use the Riemann–Hilbert formalism. This allows us to overcome the principal technical difficulties which arise in the more traditional approaches based on the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equations, and indeed solve the problem. We also produce a complete description of the relevant scattering data (which have not been obtained in the previous works on the Stark operator) and establish the bijection between the Schwartz class potentials and the scattering data.

  18. Combined virtual and real robotic test-bed for single operator control of multiple robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sam Y.-S.; Hunt, Shawn; Cao, Alex; Pandya, Abhilash

    2010-04-01

    Teams of heterogeneous robots with different dynamics or capabilities could perform a variety of tasks such as multipoint surveillance, cooperative transport and explorations in hazardous environments. In this study, we work with heterogeneous robots of semi-autonomous ground and aerial robots for contaminant localization. We developed a human interface system which linked every real robot to its virtual counterpart. A novel virtual interface has been integrated with Augmented Reality that can monitor the position and sensory information from video feed of ground and aerial robots in the 3D virtual environment, and improve user situational awareness. An operator can efficiently control the real multi-robots using the Drag-to-Move method on the virtual multi-robots. This enables an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in a collaborative way for allowing more contaminant sources to be pursued simultaneously. The advanced feature of the virtual interface system is guarded teleoperation. This can be used to prevent operators from accidently driving multiple robots into walls and other objects. Moreover, the feature of the image guidance and tracking is able to reduce operator workload.

  19. 76 FR 14699 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Generating Plant (VEGP) site located in Burke County, Georgia. The reactors are to be identified as VEGP... On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia... Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton, Georgia, an incorporated municipality in the State of...

  20. 76 FR 16645 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Generating Plant (VEGP) site located in Burke County, Georgia. The reactors are to be identified as VEGP... On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia... Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton, Georgia, an incorporated municipality in the State of...

  1. SCREENING/FLOTATION TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. VOLUME II: FULL-SCALE OPERATION, RACINE, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study involved the planning, design, construction and operation of a two-year evaluation period, of three full-scale demonstration systems for the treatment of storm generated discharges. As part of the evaluation, the quality of the receiving body was also monitored. Two of...

  2. 78 FR 1267 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... December 26, 2012. The last biweekly notice was published on December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73684). ADDRESSES... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit... amendments revised the Operating Licenses. Date of initial notice in Federal Register: October 9, 2012 (77...

  3. On the nonlinear dynamics of a rotor in autorotation: a combined experimental and numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Rezgui, D; Lowenberg, M H

    2015-09-28

    This article presents a systematic assessment of the use of numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques in investigating the nonlinear periodic behaviour of a teetering rotor operating in forward autorotation. The aim is to illustrate the potential of these tools in revealing complex blade dynamics, when used in combination (not necessarily at the same time) with physical testing. We show a simple procedure to promote understanding of an existing but not fully understood engineering instability problem, when uncertainties in the numerical modelling and constraints in the experimental testing are present. It is proposed that continuation and bifurcation methods can play a significant role in developing numerical and experimental techniques for studying the nonlinear dynamics not only for rotating blades but also for other engineering systems with uncertainties and constraints. PMID:26303919

  4. A combined kinetic and thermodynamic approach for the interpretation of continuous-flow heterogeneous catalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Olga; Cavazzini, Alberto; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Greco, Roberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Massi, Alessandro; Pasti, Luisa

    2013-06-10

    The heterogeneous proline-catalyzed aldol reaction was investigated under continuous-flow conditions by means of a packed-bed microreactor. Reaction-progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) was used in combination with nonlinear chromatography for the interpretation, under synthetically relevant conditions, of important mechanistic aspects of the heterogeneous catalytic process at a molecular level. The information gathered by RPKA and nonlinear chromatography proved to be highly complementary and allowed for the assessment of optimal operating variables. In particular, the determination of the rate-determining step was pivotal for optimizing the feed composition. On the other hand, the competitive product inhibition was responsible for the unexpected decrease in the reaction yield following an apparently obvious variation in the feed composition. The study was facilitated by a suitable 2D instrumental arrangement for simultaneous flow reaction and online flow-injection analysis. PMID:23589216

  5. Nitrogen isotopes in Tree-Rings - An approach combining soil biogeochemistry and isotopic long series with statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Martine M.; Bégin, Christian; Paré, David; Marion, Joëlle; Laganière, Jérôme; Séguin, Armand; Stefani, Franck; Smirnoff, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America generally started less than 25 years ago. To compensate for the lack of monitoring, previous investigations have interpreted tree-ring N changes using the known chronology of human activities, without facing the challenge of separating climatic effects from potential anthropogenic impacts. Here we document such an attempt conducted in the oil sands (OS) mining region of Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The reactive nitrogen (Nr)-emitting oil extraction operations began in 1967, but air quality measurements were only initiated in 1997. To investigate if the beginning and intensification of OS operations induced changes in the forest N-cycle, we sampled white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) stands located at various distances from the main mining area, and receiving low, but different N deposition. Our approach combines soil biogeochemical and metagenomic characterization with long, well dated, tree-ring isotopic series. To objectively delineate the natural N isotopic behaviour in trees, we have characterized tree-ring N isotope (15N/14N) ratios between 1880 and 2009, used statistical analyses of the isotopic values and local climatic parameters of the pre-mining period to calibrate response functions and project the isotopic responses to climate during the extraction period. During that period, the measured series depart negatively from the projected natural trends. In addition, these long-term negative isotopic trends are better reproduced by multiple-regression models combining climatic parameters with the proxy for regional mining Nr emissions. These negative isotopic trends point towards changes in the forest soil biogeochemical N cycle. The biogeochemical data and ultimate soil mechanisms responsible for such changes will be discussed during the presentation.

  6. In situ combination of fermentation and electrodialysis with bipolar membranes for the production of lactic acid: operational compatibility and uniformity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Yaoming; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Tongwen

    2012-12-01

    An in situ combination of fermentation and electrodialysis with bipolar membranes was customized for the production of lactic acid to achieve their operational compatibility and uniformity. Primarily, fermentation experiments for lactic acid production were conducted by Lactobacillus plantarum with an average lactate productivity of 1.76 g/(Lh) and yield coefficient of 56.77%. Subsequently, an electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBMs) stack was established with the fermented lactate mixtures as a feed. Effect of operating current density on the production of lactic acid and alkali liquor was investigated. Results indicated that only the current density of no less than 50 mA/cm(2) can produce enough alkali liquor to meet the need for fermentation. Ultimately, a combination of fermentation and EDBM process was carried out and the integration can achieve a lactic acid recovery ratio of 86.05% at the current density 60 mA/cm(2). PMID:23026329

  7. A multivariate approach for high throughput pectin profiling by combining glycan microarrays with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sousa, António G; Ahl, Louise I; Pedersen, Henriette L; Fangel, Jonatan U; Sørensen, Susanne O; Willats, William G T

    2015-05-29

    Pectin-one of the most complex biomacromolecules in nature has been extensively studied using various techniques. This has been done so in an attempt to understand the chemical composition and conformation of pectin, whilst discovering and optimising new industrial applications of the polymer. For the last decade the emergence of glycan microarray technology has led to a growing capacity of acquiring simultaneous measurements related to various carbohydrate characteristics while generating large collections of data. Here we used a multivariate analysis approach in order to analyse a set of 359 pectin samples probed with 14 different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were utilised to obtain the most optimal qualitative and quantitative information from the spotted microarrays. The potential use of microarray technology combined with chemometrics for the accurate determination of degree of methyl-esterification (DM) and degree of blockiness (DB) was assessed. PMID:25950120

  8. Evolutionary genetics in wild primates: combining genetic approaches with field studies of natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Alberts, Susan C; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary studies of wild primates hold important keys to understanding both the shared characteristics of primate biology and the genetic and phenotypic differences that make specific lineages, including our own, unique. Although complementary genetic research on nonhuman primates has long been of interest, recent technological and methodological advances now enable functional and population genetic studies in an unprecedented manner. In the past several years, novel genetic data sets have revealed new information about the demographic history of primate populations and the genetics of adaptively important traits. In combination with the rich history of behavioral, ecological, and physiological work on natural primate populations, genetic approaches promise to provide a compelling picture of primate evolution in the past and in the present day. PMID:20580115

  9. Photoaffinity labeling combined with mass spectrometric approaches as a tool for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Robinette, David; Neamati, Nouri; Tomer, Kenneth B; Borchers, Christoph H

    2006-08-01

    Protein chemistry, such as crosslinking and photoaffinity labeling, in combination with modern mass spectrometric techniques, can provide information regarding protein-protein interactions beyond that normally obtained from protein identification and characterization studies. While protein crosslinking can make tertiary and quaternary protein structure information available, photoaffinity labeling can be used to obtain structural data about ligand-protein interaction sites, such as oligonucleotide-protein, drug-protein and protein-protein interaction. In this article, we describe mass spectrometry-based photoaffinity labeling methodologies currently used and discuss their current limitations. We also discuss their potential as a common approach to structural proteomics for providing 3D information regarding the binding region, which ultimately will be used for molecular modeling and structure-based drug design. PMID:16901199

  10. A combined statistical and dynamical approach for downscaling large-scale footprints of European windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.; Pinto, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of mid-latitude windstorms is related to strong socio-economic effects. For detailed and reliable regional impact studies, large datasets of high-resolution wind fields are required. In this study, a statistical downscaling approach in combination with dynamical downscaling is introduced to derive storm related gust speeds on a high-resolution grid over Europe. Multiple linear regression models are trained using reanalysis data and wind gusts from regional climate model simulations for a sample of 100 top ranking windstorm events. The method is computationally inexpensive and reproduces individual windstorm footprints adequately. Compared to observations, the results for Germany are at least as good as pure dynamical downscaling. This new tool can be easily applied to large ensembles of general circulation model simulations and thus contribute to a better understanding of the regional impact of windstorms based on decadal and climate change projections.

  11. Understanding macroalgal dispersal in a complex hydrodynamic environment: a combined population genetic and physical modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Georgina; Kregting, Louise; Beatty, Gemma E.; Cole, Claudia; Elsäßer, Björn; Savidge, Graham; Provan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow in macroalgal populations can be strongly influenced by spore or gamete dispersal. This, in turn, is influenced by a convolution of the effects of current flow and specific plant reproductive strategies. Although several studies have demonstrated genetic variability in macroalgal populations over a wide range of spatial scales, the associated current data have generally been poorly resolved spatially and temporally. In this study, we used a combination of population genetic analyses and high-resolution hydrodynamic modelling to investigate potential connectivity between populations of the kelp Laminaria digitata in the Strangford Narrows, a narrow channel characterized by strong currents linking the large semi-enclosed sea lough, Strangford Lough, to the Irish Sea. Levels of genetic structuring based on six microsatellite markers were very low, indicating high levels of gene flow and a pattern of isolation-by-distance, where populations are more likely to exchange migrants with geographically proximal populations, but with occasional long-distance dispersal. This was confirmed by the particle tracking model, which showed that, while the majority of spores settle near the release site, there is potential for dispersal over several kilometres. This combined population genetic and modelling approach suggests that the complex hydrodynamic environment at the entrance to Strangford Lough can facilitate dispersal on a scale exceeding that proposed for L. digitata in particular, and the majority of macroalgae in general. The study demonstrates the potential of integrated physical–biological approaches for the prediction of ecological changes resulting from factors such as anthropogenically induced coastal zone changes. PMID:24671941

  12. A combined approach against tumorigenesis using glucose deprivation and mitochondrial complex 1 inhibition by rotenone.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nupur Rani; Maurya, Nancy; Pawar, Jogendra Singh; Ghosh, Ilora

    2016-07-01

    Cancer cells exhibit various degrees of mitochondrial metabolic alterations. Owing to their multiple roles, mitochondria are attractive target for cancer therapy. Cancerous cells have high glucose (HG) requirements for their growth. Depriving them of glucose has been an approach used in many studies to restrict their perpetuation. However, such deprivation can negatively affect the surrounding normal cells in vivo. Keeping this in view, we treated HeLa cells with only physiological glucose (PG, 5.5 mM) and a combination of physiological glucose with a very low dose (1 nM) of rotenone (PGT), taking high glucose (HG, 25 mM)-treated HeLa cells as normal. We demonstrated that HeLa cells under PG condition mainly exhibited growth arrest. The PGT combination induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by generation of ROS, decrease in ATP production even with around 1.89-fold increase in glucose consumption, cell cycle arrest at S-phase and substantial increase in sub-diploid (Sub-D) population. The oxidative stress generated in both PG and PGT conditions stabilised p53 by localising it in the nuclei of HeLa cells, which would have otherwise undergone HPV-mediated inactivation. Pre-mature senescence induced due to limited glucose availability was found to be regulated by nuclear translocated p53 which, in turn, induced p21, pAkt and pERK. The cyto-toxic effect of rotenone on glucose deprived HeLa cells, synergistically activated NFκB, caspase-3 and Bax along with reduced expression of hyaluronan, a ROS scavenging molecule on their cell surface. Thus, our finding might be a valuable approach to specifically target cancerous cells in a more physiologically feasible condition and can serve as a relevant biochemical basis to gain new insights into cancer therapy. PMID:27109893

  13. Novel Approach for Improving the Productivity of Antibiotic-Producing Strains by Inducing Combined Resistant Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haifeng; Ochi, Kozo

    2001-01-01

    We developed a novel approach for improving the production of antibiotic from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations. Mutants with enhanced (1.6- to 3-fold-higher) actinorhodin production were detected at a high frequency (5 to 10%) among isolates resistant to streptomycin (Strr), gentamicin (Genr), or rifampin (Rifr), which developed spontaneously on agar plates which contained one of the three drugs. Construction of double mutants (str gen and str rif) by introducing gentamicin or rifampin resistance into an str mutant resulted in further increased (1.7- to 2.5-fold-higher) actinorhodin productivity. Likewise, triple mutants (str gen rif) thus constructed were found to have an even greater ability for producing the antibiotic, eventually generating a mutant able to produce 48 times more actinorhodin than the wild-type strain. Analysis of str mutants revealed that a point mutation occurred within the rpsL gene, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. rif mutants were found to have a point mutation in the rpoB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutation points in gen mutants still remain unknown. These single, double, and triple mutants displayed in hierarchical order a remarkable increase in the production of ActII-ORF4, a pathway-specific regulatory protein, as determined by Western blotting analysis. This reflects the same hierarchical order observed for the increase in actinorhodin production. The superior ability of the triple mutants was demonstrated by physiological analyses under various cultural conditions. We conclude that by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations we can continuously increase the production of antibiotic in a stepwise manner. This new breeding approach could be especially effective for initially improving the production of antibiotics from wild-type strains. PMID:11282646

  14. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Pirvu, Tatiana; Blanquer, Sebastien B G; Benneker, Lorin M; Grijpma, Dirk W; Richards, Robert G; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture, restores disc height, reduces further disc degeneration and enhances self-repair capacities is an unmet clinical need. In this study, a poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) scaffold seeded with human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and covered with a poly(ester-urethane) (PU) membrane was assessed for AF rupture repair in a bovine organ culture annulotomy model under dynamic load for 14 days. PTMC scaffolds combined with the sutured PU membrane restored disc height of annulotomized discs and prevented herniation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. Implanted MSCs showed an up-regulated gene expression of type V collagen, a potential AF marker, indicating in situ differentiation capability. Furthermore, MSCs delivered within PTMC scaffolds induced an up-regulation of anabolic gene expression and down-regulation of catabolic gene expression in adjacent native disc tissue. In conclusion, the combined biomaterial and cellular approach has the potential to hinder herniation of NP tissue, stabilize disc height, and positively modulate cell phenotype of native disc tissue. PMID:25542789

  15. Examination of turbulent entrainment-mixing mechanisms using a combined approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.; Liu, Y.; Niu, S.

    2011-10-01

    Turbulent entrainment-mixing mechanisms are investigated by applying a combined approach to the aircraft measurements of three drizzling and two nondrizzling stratocumulus clouds collected over the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site during the March 2000 cloud Intensive Observation Period. Microphysical analysis shows that the inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process occurs much more frequently than the homogeneous counterpart, and most cases of the inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process are close to the extreme scenario, having drastically varying cloud droplet concentration but roughly constant volume-mean radius. It is also found that the inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process can occur both near the cloud top and in the middle level of a cloud, and in both the nondrizzling clouds and nondrizzling legs in the drizzling clouds. A new dimensionless number, the scale number, is introduced as a dynamical measure for different entrainment-mixing processes, with a larger scale number corresponding to a higher degree of homogeneous entrainment mixing. Further empirical analysis shows that the scale number that separates the homogeneous from the inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process is around 50, and most legs have smaller scale numbers. Thermodynamic analysis shows that sampling average of filament structures finer than the instrumental spatial resolution also contributes to the dominance of inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing mechanism. The combined microphysical-dynamical-thermodynamic analysis sheds new light on developing parameterization of entrainment-mixing processes and their microphysical and radiative effects in large-scale models.

  16. Striking similarities in diverse telomerase proteins revealed by combining structure prediction and machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyung; Hamilton, Michael; Gleeson, Colin; Caragea, Cornelia; Zaback, Peter; Sander, Jeffry D; Li, Xue; Wu, Feihong; Terribilini, Michael; Honavar, Vasant; Dobbs, Drena

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric DNA repeat sequences to the ends of linear chromosomes. The enzyme plays pivotal roles in cellular senescence and aging, and because it provides a telomere maintenance mechanism for approximately 90% of human cancers, it is a promising target for cancer therapy. Despite its importance, a high-resolution structure of the telomerase enzyme has been elusive, although a crystal structure of an N-terminal domain (TEN) of the telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) from Tetrahymena has been reported. In this study, we used a comparative strategy, in which sequence-based machine learning approaches were integrated with computational structural modeling, to explore the potential conservation of structural and functional features of TERT in phylogenetically diverse species. We generated structural models of the N-terminal domains from human and yeast TERT using a combination of threading and homology modeling with the Tetrahymena TEN structure as a template. Comparative analysis of predicted and experimentally verified DNA and RNA binding residues, in the context of these structures, revealed significant similarities in nucleic acid binding surfaces of Tetrahymena and human TEN domains. In addition, the combined evidence from machine learning and structural modeling identified several specific amino acids that are likely to play a role in binding DNA or RNA, but for which no experimental evidence is currently available. PMID:18229711

  17. Sheath-flow microfluidic approach for combined surface enhanced Raman scattering and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Pentecost, Amber M; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott; Schultz, Zachary D

    2015-04-21

    The combination of hydrodynamic focusing with embedded capillaries in a microfluidic device is shown to enable both surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and electrochemical characterization of analytes at nanomolar concentrations in flow. The approach utilizes a versatile polystyrene device that contains an encapsulated microelectrode and fluidic tubing, which is shown to enable straightforward hydrodynamic focusing onto the electrode surface to improve detection. A polydimethyslsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel positioned over both the embedded tubing and SERS active electrode (aligned ∼200 μm from each other) generates a sheath flow that confines the analyte molecules eluting from the embedded tubing over the SERS electrode, increasing the interaction between the Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and the SERS active electrode. The microfluidic device was characterized using finite element simulations, amperometry, and Raman experiments. This device shows a SERS and amperometric detection limit near 1 and 100 nM, respectively. This combination of SERS and amperometry in a single device provides an improved method to identify and quantify electroactive analytes over either technique independently. PMID:25815795

  18. Sheath-Flow Microfluidic Approach for Combined Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The combination of hydrodynamic focusing with embedded capillaries in a microfluidic device is shown to enable both surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and electrochemical characterization of analytes at nanomolar concentrations in flow. The approach utilizes a versatile polystyrene device that contains an encapsulated microelectrode and fluidic tubing, which is shown to enable straightforward hydrodynamic focusing onto the electrode surface to improve detection. A polydimethyslsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel positioned over both the embedded tubing and SERS active electrode (aligned ∼200 μm from each other) generates a sheath flow that confines the analyte molecules eluting from the embedded tubing over the SERS electrode, increasing the interaction between the Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and the SERS active electrode. The microfluidic device was characterized using finite element simulations, amperometry, and Raman experiments. This device shows a SERS and amperometric detection limit near 1 and 100 nM, respectively. This combination of SERS and amperometry in a single device provides an improved method to identify and quantify electroactive analytes over either technique independently. PMID:25815795

  19. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F H; Hettne, Kristina M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small.Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents. PMID:27141091

  20. Combining Small-Volume Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approaches for Assessing Brain Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The integration of disparate data types provides a more complete picture of complex biological systems. Here we combine small-volume metabolomic and transcriptomic platforms to determine subtle chemical changes and to link metabolites and genes to biochemical pathways. Capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE–MS) and whole-genome gene expression arrays, aided by integrative pathway analysis, were utilized to survey metabolomic/transcriptomic hippocampal neurochemistry. We measured changes in individual hippocampi from the mast cell mutant mouse strain, C57BL/6 KitW-sh/W-sh. These mice have a naturally occurring mutation in the white spotting locus that causes reduced c-Kit receptor expression and an inability of mast cells to differentiate from their hematopoietic progenitors. Compared with their littermates, the mast cell-deficient mice have profound deficits in spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. A total of 18 distinct metabolites were identified in the hippocampus that discriminated between the C57BL/6 KitW-sh/W-sh and control mice. The combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression changes revealed a number of altered pathways. Importantly, results from both platforms indicated that multiple pathways are impacted, including amino acid metabolism, increasing the confidence in each approach. Because the CE–MS and expression profiling are both amenable to small-volume analysis, this integrated analysis is applicable to a range of volume-limited biological systems. PMID:23409944

  1. Chemical entity recognition in patents by combining dictionary-based and statistical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Pons, Ewoud; Afzal, Zubair; van Haagen, Herman; Becker, Benedikt F.H.; Hettne, Kristina M.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Kors, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development of a chemical entity recognition system and its application in the CHEMDNER-patent track of BioCreative 2015. This community challenge includes a Chemical Entity Mention in Patents (CEMP) recognition task and a Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) classification task. We addressed both tasks by an ensemble system that combines a dictionary-based approach with a statistical one. For this purpose the performance of several lexical resources was assessed using Peregrine, our open-source indexing engine. We combined our dictionary-based results on the patent corpus with the results of tmChem, a chemical recognizer using a conditional random field classifier. To improve the performance of tmChem, we utilized three additional features, viz. part-of-speech tags, lemmas and word-vector clusters. When evaluated on the training data, our final system obtained an F-score of 85.21% for the CEMP task, and an accuracy of 91.53% for the CPD task. On the test set, the best system ranked sixth among 21 teams for CEMP with an F-score of 86.82%, and second among nine teams for CPD with an accuracy of 94.23%. The differences in performance between the best ensemble system and the statistical system separately were small. Database URL: http://biosemantics.org/chemdner-patents PMID:27141091

  2. A combined in vitro approach to improve the prediction of mitochondrial toxicants.

    PubMed

    Eakins, Julie; Bauch, Caroline; Woodhouse, Heather; Park, Benjamin; Bevan, Samantha; Dilworth, Clive; Walker, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Drug induced mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in organ toxicity and the withdrawal of drugs or black box warnings limiting their use. The development of highly specific and sensitive in vitro assays in early drug development would assist in detecting compounds which affect mitochondrial function. Here we report the combination of two in vitro assays for the detection of drug induced mitochondrial toxicity. The first assay measures cytotoxicity after 24h incubation of test compound in either glucose or galactose conditioned media (Glu/Gal assay). Compounds with a greater than 3-fold toxicity in galactose media compared to glucose media imply mitochondrial toxicity. The second assay measures mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis and a reserve capacity with mechanistic responses observed within one hour following exposure to test compound. In order to assess these assays a total of 72 known drugs and chemicals were used. Dose-response data was normalised to 100× Cmax giving a specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 100%, 81% and 92% respectively for this combined approach. PMID:27083147

  3. Laparoscopic treatment for inguinal hernia combined with cryptorchidism: Totally extraperitoneal repair with orchiectomy under the same operative view

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, Hajime; Sasaki, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Yu; Morimoto, Akio; Inomata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 7% of child patients with inguinal hernias also present with cryptorchidism. On the other hand, combined adult cases are uncommon. Here we report two adult cases of inguinal hernia combined with intra-canalicular cryptorchidism who underwent totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair with orchiectomy under the same operative view. Presentation of cases We treated two patients (49- and 38-year-old men) with right indirect inguinal hernias and cryptorchidism. Both patients underwent TEP repair with orchiectomy. In operative findings, an atrophic testis was drawn out with a hernia sac from the internal inguinal ring. After the testis was separated from the sac and cord structure was sheared, it was removed. The procedure did not require special techniques and devices. In both patients, the postoperative courses were satisfactory. Discussion To our knowledge, there has been only one such reported case till date which demonstrated the feasibility of TEP repair accompanied by orchiectomy. Conclusions TEP repair with orchiectomy under the same operative view could be safely performed in adults with an inguinal hernia combined with extra-abdominal cryptorchidism. This procedure could be an option for the treatment of such adult patients. PMID:26581081

  4. Improving Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability Using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimizes the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque(R) drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind conditions and turbine operations.

  5. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  6. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  7. An Evidenced-Based Approach for Estimating Decompression Sickness Risk in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ronald R.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Conkin, Johnny

    1999-01-01

    Estimating the risk of decompression Sickness (DCS) in aircraft operations remains a challenge, making the reduction of this risk through the development of operationally acceptable denitrogenation schedules difficult. In addition, the medical recommendations which are promulgated are often not supported by rigorous evaluation of the available data, but are instead arrived at by negotiation with the aircraft operations community, are adapted from other similar aircraft operations, or are based upon the opinion of the local medical community. We present a systematic approach for defining DCS risk in aircraft operations by analyzing the data available for a specific aircraft, flight profile, and aviator population. Once the risk of DCS in a particular aircraft operation is known, appropriate steps can be taken to reduce this risk to a level acceptable to the applicable aviation community. Using this technique will allow any aviation medical community to arrive at the best estimate of DCS risk for its specific mission and aviator population and will allow systematic reevaluation of the decisions regarding DCS risk reduction when additional data are available.

  8. Quantification of in Situ Biodegradation Rate Constants Using a Novel Combined Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, P.; Sültenfuß, J.; Martus, P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the enormous potential of the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) for studying the biodegradation of organic compounds such as monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated solvents and other organic contaminants and environmental transformation mechanisms in groundwater. In addition, two-dimensional isotope analysis such as carbon and hydrogen have been successfully studied indicating the potential to also investigate site-specific reaction mechanisms. The main objective of the current study however is to quantify real effective in situ biodegradation rate constants in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer by combining compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and tracer-based (3H-3He) ground-water dating (TGD). Hence, groundwater samples are used to determine groundwater residence times, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes are analyzed for selected BTEX and PAH. The results of the hydrogen stable isotopes surprisingly indicate no isotope fractionation and therefore no biodegradation. In contrast, for stable carbon isotopes of selected BTEX such as o-xylene and toluene, isotope shifts are detected indicating active biodegradation under sulfate-reducing conditions. These and previous results of stable carbon isotopes show that only for o-xylene a clear evidence for biodegradation is possible for the studied site. Nevertheless, in combining these results with the groundwater residence times, which range between 1 year for the shallow wells (20 m below surface) and 41 years for the deeper wells (40 m below surface), it is feasible to effectively determine in situ biodegradation rate constants for o-xylene. Conversely, the outcome also evidently demonstrate the major limitations of the novel combined isotope approach for a successful implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) at such field sites.

  9. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Deborah R; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  10. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Deborah R.; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G.; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  11. Combined multi-fluid and drift-flux approaches for analysis of pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, B.; Starostin, A.; Spesivtsev, P.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Osiptsov, A.

    2013-10-01

    We propose an approach for generalization of 1D transient model for multiphase flows. It allows to combine an arbitrary number of phases with interaction defined by multi-fluid and drift-flux models. Commonly a fluid carries a number of components. The model is based on a graph of fluids and components, where on higher level the flow of several fluids is governed by the multi-fluid approach, while on lower level the relative motion of components within each fluid is described by drift-flux relations. The proposed model is applied to flows in oil and gas wells. The model is implemented numerically using a SIMPLE-like iterative scheme with the geometry conservation based algorithm (GCBA). The numerical realization of the algorithm for an arbitrary number of fluids and components is presented. For illustration, particular cases are considered which are relevant to wellbore flows in oil and gas applications. The introduction of drift-flux correlations into the numerical implementation is discussed. The code is validated against experimental flow patterns and stability study of stratified flows. The typical graphs for gas/liquid transport are discussed. The simulation of phase segregation in a vertical pipe demonstrates the flexibility of model.

  12. Combined Approach for Government E-Tendering Using GA and TOPSIS with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Information

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyu; Yu, Dejian

    2015-01-01

    As E-government continues to develop with ever-increasing speed, the requirement to enhance traditional government systems and affairs with electronic methods that are more effective and efficient is becoming critical. As a new product of information technology, E-tendering is becoming an inevitable reality owing to its efficiency, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Thus, developing and promoting government E-tendering (GeT) is imperative. This paper presents a hybrid approach combining genetic algorithm (GA) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to enable GeT to search for the optimal tenderer efficiently and fairly under circumstances where the attributes of the tenderers are expressed as fuzzy number intuitionistic fuzzy sets (FNIFSs). GA is applied to obtain the optimal weights of evaluation criteria of tenderers automatically. TOPSIS is employed to search for the optimal tenderer. A prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example from GeT to verify the feasibility and availability of the proposed approach. PMID:26147468

  13. Semantic classification of urban buildings combining VHR image and GIS data: An improved random forest approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shihong; Zhang, Fangli; Zhang, Xiuyuan

    2015-07-01

    While most existing studies have focused on extracting geometric information on buildings, only a few have concentrated on semantic information. The lack of semantic information cannot satisfy many demands on resolving environmental and social issues. This study presents an approach to semantically classify buildings into much finer categories than those of existing studies by learning random forest (RF) classifier from a large number of imbalanced samples with high-dimensional features. First, a two-level segmentation mechanism combining GIS and VHR image produces single image objects at a large scale and intra-object components at a small scale. Second, a semi-supervised method chooses a large number of unbiased samples by considering the spatial proximity and intra-cluster similarity of buildings. Third, two important improvements in RF classifier are made: a voting-distribution ranked rule for reducing the influences of imbalanced samples on classification accuracy and a feature importance measurement for evaluating each feature's contribution to the recognition of each category. Fourth, the semantic classification of urban buildings is practically conducted in Beijing city, and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and accurate. The seven categories used in the study are finer than those in existing work and more helpful to studying many environmental and social problems.

  14. Combined Approach for Government E-Tendering Using GA and TOPSIS with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Wenyu; Yu, Dejian

    2015-01-01

    As E-government continues to develop with ever-increasing speed, the requirement to enhance traditional government systems and affairs with electronic methods that are more effective and efficient is becoming critical. As a new product of information technology, E-tendering is becoming an inevitable reality owing to its efficiency, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Thus, developing and promoting government E-tendering (GeT) is imperative. This paper presents a hybrid approach combining genetic algorithm (GA) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to enable GeT to search for the optimal tenderer efficiently and fairly under circumstances where the attributes of the tenderers are expressed as fuzzy number intuitionistic fuzzy sets (FNIFSs). GA is applied to obtain the optimal weights of evaluation criteria of tenderers automatically. TOPSIS is employed to search for the optimal tenderer. A prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example from GeT to verify the feasibility and availability of the proposed approach. PMID:26147468

  15. An approach using multi-factor combination to evaluate high rocky slope safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaizhi; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    A high rocky slope is an open complex giant system for which there is contradiction among different influencing factors and coexistence of qualitative and quantitative information. This study presents a comprehensive intelligent evaluation method of high rocky slope safety through an integrated analytic hierarchy process, extension matter element model and entropy weight to assess the safety behavior of the high rocky slope. The proposed intelligent evaluation integrates subjective judgments derived from the analytic hierarchy process with the extension matter model and entropy weight into a multiple indexes dynamic safety evaluation approach. A combined subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation process, a more objective study, through avoiding subjective effects on the weights, and a qualitative safety assessment and quantitative safety amount are presented in the proposed method. The detailed computational procedures were also provided to illustrate the integration process of the above methods. Safety analysis of one high rocky slope is conducted to illustrate that this approach can adequately handle the inherent imprecision and contradiction of the human decision-making process and provide the flexibility and robustness needed for the decision maker to better monitor the safety status of a high rocky slope. This study was the first application of the proposed integrated evaluation method in the safety assessment of a high rocky slope. The study also indicated that it can also be applied to other similar problems.

  16. Prediction of the PPARα agonism of fibrates by combined MM-docking approaches.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Fabio; Marrone, Alessandro; Re, Nazzareno

    2011-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated alpha receptor (PPARα) activators derived from fibric acid and are the most clinically used therapeutics in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Long standing studies on these drugs have accumulated a large body of experimental data about their biological activity and, more recently, on the molecular mechanism mediating their PPARα agonism. An immense interest for the discovery of new fibrates with improved potency and PPARα selectivity has stimulated many investigations toward a deeper understanding of structure-activity relationships controlling their activity. The present study aimed at investigating the binding properties of a set of 23 fibrates, characterized by similar carboxylic heads but differing in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic portion, using computational approaches. We combined standard docking and molecular mechanics approaches to better describe the adaptation of the protein target to the bound ligand. The agonist potencies were then regressed against the calculated binding energies to elaborate predictive model equations. The obtained models were characterized by good performances realizing a fair trade-off between accuracy and computational costs. The best model was obtained with a regression procedure allowing automatic generation of a training subset from the whole set of trials and filtering out outliers, thus highlighting the importance of regression strategies. PMID:21414824

  17. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria, the combined approach: kinetic modelling, metabolic control and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, Marcel H N; Starrenburg, Marjo J C; Martens, Dirk E; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Van Swam, Iris I; Bongers, Roger; Westerhoff, Hans V; Snoep, Jacky L

    2002-04-01

    Everyone who has ever tried to radically change metabolic fluxes knows that it is often harder to determine which enzymes have to be modified than it is to actually implement these changes. In the more traditional genetic engineering approaches 'bottle-necks' are pinpointed using qualitative, intuitive approaches, but the alleviation of suspected 'rate-limiting' steps has not often been successful. Here the authors demonstrate that a model of pyruvate distribution in Lactococcus lactis based on enzyme kinetics in combination with metabolic control analysis clearly indicates the key control points in the flux to acetoin and diacetyl, important flavour compounds. The model presented here (available at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za/wcfs.html) showed that the enzymes with the greatest effect on this flux resided outside the acetolactate synthase branch itself. Experiments confirmed the predictions of the model, i.e. knocking out lactate dehydrogenase and overexpressing NADH oxidase increased the flux through the acetolactate synthase branch from 0 to 75% of measured product formation rates. PMID:11932446

  18. Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-Shedding in Agent-Based Microgrid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Research, development, and demonstration projects on microgrids have been progressed in many countries. Furthermore, microgrids are expected to introduce into power grids as eco-friendly small-scale power grids in the near future. Load-shedding is a problem not avoided to meet power balance between power supply and power demand to maintain specific frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Load-shedding causes consumers inconvenience and therefore should be performed minimally. Recently, agent-based microgrid operation has been studied and new algorithms for their autonomous operation including load-shedding has been required. The bankruptcy problem deals with distribution insufficient sources to claimants. In this paper, we approach the load-shedding problem as a bankruptcy problem and adopt the Talmud rule as an algorithm. Load-shedding using the Talmud rule is tested in islanded microgrid operation based on a multiagent system.

  19. Quantum Operator Approach Applied to the Position-Dependent Mass Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovando, G.; Peña, J. J.; Morales, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, the quantum operator approach is applied to both, the position-dependent mass Schrödinger equation (PDMSE) and the Schrodinger equation with constant mass (CMSE). This fact enable us to find the factorization operators that relates both Hamiltonians by means of a kinetic energy operator that comes from the proposal of Morrow and Brownstein. With this approach is possible to find the exactly-solvable PDMSE, for any value of the parameters α and γ in the von Roos's Hamiltonian. For that, our proposal can be considered as a unified treatment of the PDMSE because it contains as particular cases, the kinetic energy operators of various authors such as BenDaniel-Duke, Gora-Williams, Zhu-Kroemer and Li-Kuhn among others. To show the usefulness of our result, we show the solvable PDMSE that comes from the harmonic oscillator potential model for the CMSE. The proposal is general and can easily be extended to other potential models and mass distributions which will be given in the extended paper.

  20. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  1. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  2. Ionization source utilizing a jet disturber in combination with an ion funnel and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Taeman; Tang, Keqi; Udseth, Harold R.

    2003-06-24

    A jet disturber used in combination with an ion funnel to focus ions and other charged particles generated at or near atmospheric pressure into a relatively low pressure region, which allows increased conductance of the ions and other charged particles. The jet disturber is positioned within an ion funnel and may be interfaced with a multi-capillary inlet juxtaposed between an ion source and the interior of an instrument maintained at near atmospheric pressure. The invention finds particular advantages when deployed to improve the ion transmission between an electrospray ionization source and the first vacuum stage of a mass spectrometer.

  3. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  4. Pesticides in the Lake Kinneret basin: a combined approach towards mircopollutant management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaßmann, M.; Friedler, E.; Dubwoski, Y.; Dinerman, E.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Kinneret is the only large surface waterbody in Israel, supplying about 27% of the country's freshwater. Water quality in Lake Kinneret is of major concern and improving the ecological status of this large water body is now a national priority. While many studies in the past focused on nutrients inflows and phytoplankton dynamics, less research has been done on assessing the fate and pathways of micropollutants at semi-arid environments in common and Lake Kinneret in particular. Since the watershed area of Lake Kinneret is used primarily for agriculture, it is important to evaluate the fate and dynamic transfer of organic micropollutants such as pesticides and herbicides in the watershed streams and in the lake itself. This study introduces a combined concept of extensive measurements and modelling tools to observe and simulate the pesticide release chain (i) application - (ii) diffuse release to rivers - (iii) transport in the river - (iv) accumulation in the lake. The available information regarding identification of application zones (i) and the amounts of used pesticides is based on stakeholders interviews, a survey of the different crop types and orchards and a comparison to sold amounts of the target pesticides (Melman and Bar-Ilan 2008). In the current research, a single field mass balance of pesticides is carried out to determine the field release to rivers (ii) by an extensive measurement campaign on the different compartments (soil, vegetation, atmosphere) and phases (water, air, solids) of a single field. The mass balance results in a release pattern of pesticide, which will be overtaken into the modelling approach. Transport of pesticides in rivers (iii) is modelled on the base of a recently developed stream network model for ephemeral streams (MOHID River), introducing important instream fate processes of pesticides and supported by six instream measurement stations of hydrological as well as pesticide data in the basin. To determine the final

  5. New quadrature approach based on operational matrix for solving a class of fractional variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezz-Eldien, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript presents a new numerical approach to approximate the solution of a class of fractional variational problems. The presented approach is consisting of using the shifted Legendre orthonormal polynomials as basis functions of the operational matrix of fractional derivatives (described in the Caputo sense) and that of fractional integrals (described in the sense of Riemann-Liouville) with the help of the Legendre-Gauss quadrature formula together with the Lagrange multipliers method for converting such fractional variational problems into easier problems that consist of solving an algebraic system in the unknown coefficients. The convergence of the proposed method is analyzed. Finally, in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method, some test problems are introduced with their approximate solutions and comparisons with other numerical approaches.

  6. Operational flight evaluation of the two-segment approach for use in airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwind, G. K.; Morrison, J. A.; Nylen, W. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    United Airlines has developed and evaluated a two-segment noise abatement approach procedure for use on Boeing 727 aircraft in air carrier service. In a flight simulator, the two-segment approach was studied in detail and a profile and procedures were developed. Equipment adaptable to contemporary avionics and navigation systems was designed and manufactured by Collins Radio Company and was installed and evaluated in B-727-200 aircraft. The equipment, profile, and procedures were evaluated out of revenue service by pilots representing government agencies, airlines, airframe manufacturers, and professional pilot associations. A system was then placed into scheduled airline service for six months during which 555 two-segment approaches were flown at three airports by 55 airline pilots. The system was determined to be safe, easy to fly, and compatible with the airline operational environment.

  7. A combined vision-inertial fusion approach for 6-DoF object pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Bernardos, Ana M.; Tarrío, Paula; Casar, José R.

    2015-02-01

    The estimation of the 3D position and orientation of moving objects (`pose' estimation) is a critical process for many applications in robotics, computer vision or mobile services. Although major research efforts have been carried out to design accurate, fast and robust indoor pose estimation systems, it remains as an open challenge to provide a low-cost, easy to deploy and reliable solution. Addressing this issue, this paper describes a hybrid approach for 6 degrees of freedom (6-DoF) pose estimation that fuses acceleration data and stereo vision to overcome the respective weaknesses of single technology approaches. The system relies on COTS technologies (standard webcams, accelerometers) and printable colored markers. It uses a set of infrastructure cameras, located to have the object to be tracked visible most of the operation time; the target object has to include an embedded accelerometer and be tagged with a fiducial marker. This simple marker has been designed for easy detection and segmentation and it may be adapted to different service scenarios (in shape and colors). Experimental results show that the proposed system provides high accuracy, while satisfactorily dealing with the real-time constraints.

  8. Orbit Determination from Combined Radar and Optical Tracks during XMM Contingency Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.; Kuusela, J.; Leushacke, L.; Schildknecht, T.; Ploner, M.

    2009-03-01

    On 18 October 2008 the operators of ESA's X-ray Multi- Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) lost contact with the satellite. XMM is one of Europe's largest scientific satellites. It resides in a highly eccentric (21700 km x 99500 km) orbit with an inclination of 58 deg. The XMM operators asked to support the analysis of the contingency situation, in particular to acquire tracking data of the noncooperative target via suitable tracking facilities, and to determine a precise orbit. Any information on orbital states and attitude was highly desirable in order to better understand the situation and to ensure proper followups with the ground facilities during communication attempts. We present the fusion of radar and optical observations into a common orbit determination of a noncooperative target using the predicted orbit as a-priori information. Three European sensors participated in the adhoc tracking campaign: the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA) of the Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften (FGAN) near Bonn, Germany, the ESA Space Debris telescope at Tenerife, Spain, and the telescopes ZIMLAT and ZimSMART at the Zimmerwald observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in Switzerland. All sensors were able to observe XMM close to the predicted positions. In the meantime the New Norcia ground station could establish a weak carrier-link. This finally led to re-establishing full radio contact. We validate the quality of the orbit determination through a comparison with the operational orbit. This work demonstrates the generation of orbit information for passive bodies by using European sensors only, even if the orbit is highly eccentric.

  9. Analysis of operation of the gas turbine in a poligeneration combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle IGCC polygeneration system, of which the task is to produce both electricity and synthesis gas, are shown. Assuming the structure of the system and the power rating of a combined cycle, the consumption of the synthesis gas for chemical production makes it necessary to supplement the lack of synthesis gas used for electricity production with the natural gas. As a result a change of the composition of the fuel gas supplied to the gas turbine occurs. In the paper the influence of the change of gas composition on the gas turbine characteristics is shown. In the calculations of the gas turbine the own computational algorithm was used. During the study the influence of the change of composition of gaseous fuel on the characteristic quantities was examined. The calculations were realized for different cases of cooling of the gas turbine expander's blades (constant cooling air mass flow, constant cooling air index, constant temperature of blade material). Subsequently, the influence of the degree of integration of the gas turbine with the air separation unit on the main characteristics was analyzed.

  10. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: toxicity of whole abdominal irradiation after operation, combination chemotherapy, and reoperation

    SciTech Connect

    Schray, M.F.; Martinez, A.; Howes, A.E.; Ballon, S.C.; Podratz, K.C.; Sikic, B.I.; Malkasian, G.D.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced ovarian cancer have received, as salvage therapy, irradiation consisting of 30 Gy to the entire abdominal contents with partial liver/kidney shielding and boosts to 42 and 51 Gy for the paraaortic/diaphragmatic and pelvic regions, respectively. These patients had received 6 to 25 cycles (median, 11 cycles) of prior combination chemotherapy (included cisplatin in 30), with second-look laparotomy performed in 33; 24 (68%) had three or more laparotomies. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was generally mild. Significant hematologic toxicity (leukocytes less than 2000/mm3; or platelets less than 100,000/mm3) was seen in 19 (54%); platelet suppression occurred in 18 of these 19. Nine patients failed to complete the prescribed course of therapy; in seven, this was secondary to hematologic toxicity. Amount of prior chemotherapy and advanced age correlated with degree of hematologic toxicity. Five patients without evidence of disease (laparotomy confirmed) have developed treatment-related bowel obstruction. No other chronic toxicity of clinical significance has been observed. Seven patients have developed bowel obstruction associated with progressive neoplasm. Irradiation was well tolerated symptomatically, but hematologic toxicity associated with prior chemotherapy prevented its completion in 20% of patients. Clinical manifestations of radiation bowel toxicity have been moderate to date and should be interpreted in the context of the aggressive combined modality program.

  11. Identification of inelastic parameters based on deep drawing forming operations using a global-local hybrid Particle Swarm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Miguel; Luersen, Marco A.; Muñoz-Rojas, Pablo A.; Trentin, Robson G.

    2016-04-01

    Application of optimization techniques to the identification of inelastic material parameters has substantially increased in recent years. The complex stress-strain paths and high nonlinearity, typical of this class of problems, require the development of robust and efficient techniques for inverse problems able to account for an irregular topography of the fitness surface. Within this framework, this work investigates the application of the gradient-based Sequential Quadratic Programming method, of the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex algorithm, of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and of a global-local PSO-Nelder-Mead hybrid scheme to the identification of inelastic parameters based on a deep drawing operation. The hybrid technique has shown to be the best strategy by combining the good PSO performance to approach the global minimum basin of attraction with the efficiency demonstrated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm to obtain the minimum itself.

  12. [Simultaneous operation of WPW syndrome combined with mitral regurgitation caused by infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Sueda, T; Nakashima, Y; Hamanaka, Y; Ishihara, H; Matsuura, Y; Isobe, F

    1990-03-01

    A case of WPW syndrome combined with mitral regurgitation caused by infective endocarditis underwent surgical division of accessory pathway and mitral valve replacement preserving posterior leaflet simultaneously. A 56-years old woman suffered atrial fibrillation with pseudo VT and cardiac failure caused by mitral regurgitation. Electro-physiological study (EPS) revealed accessory pathway in postero-lateral wall in left atrium and atrio-fascicular pathway like James bundle in AV node. ECHO cardiography showed mitral valve prolapse and severe regurgitation. Accessory pathway was divided surgically and deep freeze coagulation was followed. Perforation of anterior leaflet and chordal rupture of posterior leaflet caused by infective endocarditis were repaired by annuloplasty (Kay and McGoon method) at first, but regurgitation retained moderately. After re-clamping of aorta, mitral valve was replaced with prosthesis (SJM 29 mm) preserving posterior leaflet. Postoperative examination revealed division of accessory pathway and no regurgitation of mitral prosthesis. PMID:2348136

  13. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  14. Development of a subway operation incident delay model using accelerated failure time approaches.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Xuedong; Meng, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to develop a subway operational incident delay model using the parametric accelerated time failure (AFT) approach. Six parametric AFT models including the log-logistic, lognormal and Weibull models, with fixed and random parameters are built based on the Hong Kong subway operation incident data from 2005 to 2012, respectively. In addition, the Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity is also considered to compare the model performance. The goodness-of-fit test results show that the log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is most suitable for estimating the subway incident delay. First, the results show that a longer subway operation incident delay is highly correlated with the following factors: power cable failure, signal cable failure, turnout communication disruption and crashes involving a casualty. Vehicle failure makes the least impact on the increment of subway operation incident delay. According to these results, several possible measures, such as the use of short-distance and wireless communication technology (e.g., Wifi and Zigbee) are suggested to shorten the delay caused by subway operation incidents. Finally, the temporal transferability test results show that the developed log-logistic AFT model with random parameters is stable over time. PMID:25171521

  15. Spatial analysis of agro-ecological data: Detection of spatial patterns combining three different methodical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, A.; Casper, M. C.; Vohland, M.

    2009-04-01

    Processes in natural systems and the resulting patterns occur in ecological space and time. To study natural structures and to understand the functional processes it is necessary to identify the relevant spatial and temporal space at which these all occur; or with other words to isolate spatial and temporal patterns. In this contribution we will concentrate on the spatial aspects of agro-ecological data analysis. Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each of about 5 hectares, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots had been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. Data about physical and chemical soil properties, vegetation and topography were i) collected by measurements in the field during three vegetation periods (2005-2008) and/or ii) derived from hyperspectral image data, acquired by a HyMap airborne imaging sensor (2005). To detect spatial variability within the plots, we applied three different approaches that examine and describe relationships among data. First, we used variography to get an overview of the data. A comparison of the experimental variograms facilitated to distinguish variables, which seemed to occur in related or dissimilar spatial space. Second, based on data available in raster-format basic cell statistics were conducted, using a geographic information system. Here we could make advantage of the powerful classification and visualization tool, which supported the spatial distribution of patterns. Third, we used an approach that is being used for visualization of complex highly dimensional environmental data, the Kohonen self-organizing map. The self-organizing map (SOM) uses multidimensional data that gets further reduced in dimensionality (2-D) to detect similarities in data sets and correlation between single variables. One of SOM's advantages is its powerful visualization capability. The combination of the three approaches leads to

  16. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module II-C-2: Operations and Activities of a Food Service Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waskey, Frank

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on operations and activities of a food service operation is the second in a set of three modules on occupational education relating to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  17. Operational Data Quality Assessment of the Combined PBO, TLALOCNet and COCONet Real-Time GNSS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Fox, O.; Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Phillips, D.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, currently operates a network of ~460, real-time, high-rate GNSS stations (RT-GNSS). The majority of these RT stations are part of the Earthscope PBO network, which spans the western US Pacific North-American plate boundary. Approximately 50 are distributed throughout the Mexico and Caribbean region funded by the TLALOCNet and COCONet projects. The entire network is processed in real-time at UNAVCO using Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The real-time streams are freely available to all and user demand has grown almost exponentially since 2010. Data usage is multidisciplinary, including tectonic and volcanic deformation studies, meteorological applications, atmospheric science research in addition to use by national, state and commercial entities. 21 RT-GNSS sites in California now include 200-sps accelerometers for the development of Earthquake Early Warning systems. All categories of users of real-time streams have similar requirements, reliable, low-latency, high-rate, and complete data sets. To meet these requirements, UNAVCO tracks the latency and completeness of the incoming raw observations and also is developing tools to monitor the quality of the processed data streams. UNAVCO is currently assessing the precision, accuracy and latency of solutions from various PPP software packages. Also under review are the data formats UNAVCO distributes; for example, the PPP solutions are currently distributed in NMEA format, but other formats such as SEED or GeoJSON may be preferred by different user groups to achieve specific mission objectives. In this presentation we will share our experiences of the challenges involved in the data operations of a continental-scale, multi-project, real-time GNSS network, summarize the network's performance in terms of latency and completeness, and present the comparisons of PPP solutions using different PPP processing techniques.

  18. Identification of Novel Short Ragweed Pollen Allergens Using Combined Transcriptomic and Immunoproteomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bouley, Julien; Groeme, Rachel; Jain, Karine; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergy to short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen is a serious and expanding health problem in North America and Europe. Whereas only 10 short ragweed pollen allergens are officially recorded, patterns of IgE reactivity observed in ragweed allergic patients suggest that other allergens contribute to allergenicity. The objective of the present study was to identify novel allergens following extensive characterization of the transcriptome and proteome of short ragweed pollen. Methods Following a Proteomics-Informed-by-Transcriptomics approach, a comprehensive transcriptomic data set was built up from RNA-seq analysis of short ragweed pollen. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses and IgE reactivity profiling after high resolution 2D-gel electrophoresis were then combined to identify novel allergens. Results Short ragweed pollen transcripts were assembled after deep RNA sequencing and used to inform proteomic analyses, thus leading to the identification of 573 proteins in the short ragweed pollen. Patterns of IgE reactivity of individual sera from 22 allergic patients were assessed using an aqueous short ragweed pollen extract resolved over 2D-gels. Combined with information derived from the annotated pollen proteome, those analyses revealed the presence of multiple unreported IgE reactive proteins, including new Amb a 1 and Amb a 3 isoallergens as well as 7 novel candidate allergens reacting with IgEs from 20–70% of patients. The latter encompass members of the carbonic anhydrase, enolase, galactose oxidase, GDP dissociation inhibitor, pathogenesis related-17, polygalacturonase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase families. Conclusions We extended the list of allergens identified in short ragweed pollen. These findings have implications for both diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy purposes. PMID:26317427

  19. Mining the Unknown: A Systems Approach to Metabolite Identification Combining Genetic and Metabolic Information

    PubMed Central

    Krumsiek, Jan; Suhre, Karsten; Evans, Anne M.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Mohney, Robert P.; Milburn, Michael V.; Wägele, Brigitte; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Gieger, Christian; Theis, Fabian J.; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with metabolomics data linked genetic variation in the human genome to differences in individual metabolite levels. A strong relevance of this metabolic individuality for biomedical and pharmaceutical research has been reported. However, a considerable amount of the molecules currently quantified by modern metabolomics techniques are chemically unidentified. The identification of these “unknown metabolites” is still a demanding and intricate task, limiting their usability as functional markers of metabolic processes. As a consequence, previous GWAS largely ignored unknown metabolites as metabolic traits for the analysis. Here we present a systems-level approach that combines genome-wide association analysis and Gaussian graphical modeling with metabolomics to predict the identity of the unknown metabolites. We apply our method to original data of 517 metabolic traits, of which 225 are unknowns, and genotyping information on 655,658 genetic variants, measured in 1,768 human blood samples. We report previously undescribed genotype–metabotype associations for six distinct gene loci (SLC22A2, COMT, CYP3A5, CYP2C18, GBA3, UGT3A1) and one locus not related to any known gene (rs12413935). Overlaying the inferred genetic associations, metabolic networks, and knowledge-based pathway information, we derive testable hypotheses on the biochemical identities of 106 unknown metabolites. As a proof of principle, we experimentally confirm nine concrete predictions. We demonstrate the benefit of our method for the functional interpretation of previous metabolomics biomarker studies on liver detoxification, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Our approach is generic in nature and can be directly transferred to metabolomics data from different experimental platforms. PMID:23093944

  20. Combining Digital Archives Content with Serious Game Approach to Create a Gamified Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, D.-T.; Lin, C. L.; Tseng, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary to develop content-aware application that combines game with learning on specific categories of digital archives. The employment of content-oriented game enhances the gamification and efficacy of learning in culture education on architectures and history of Hsinchu County, Taiwan. The gamified form of the application is used as a backbone to support and provide a strong stimulation to engage users in learning art and culture, therefore this research is implementing under the goal of "The Digital ARt/ARchitecture Project". The purpose of the abovementioned project is to develop interactive serious game approaches and applications for Hsinchu County historical archives and architectures. Therefore, we present two applications, "3D AR for Hukou Old " and "Hsinchu County History Museum AR Tour" which are in form of augmented reality (AR). By using AR imaging techniques to blend real object and virtual content, the users can immerse in virtual exhibitions of Hukou Old Street and Hsinchu County History Museum, and to learn in ubiquitous computing environment. This paper proposes a content system that includes tools and materials used to create representations of digitized cultural archives including historical artifacts, documents, customs, religion, and architectures. The Digital ARt / ARchitecture Project is based on the concept of serious game and consists of three aspects: content creation, target management, and AR presentation. The project focuses on developing a proper approach to serve as an interactive game, and to offer a learning opportunity for appreciating historic architectures by playing AR cards. Furthermore, the card game aims to provide multi-faceted understanding and learning experience to help user learning through 3D objects, hyperlinked web data, and the manipulation of learning mode, and then effectively developing their learning levels on cultural and historical archives in Hsinchu County.

  1. Hybrid approach combining chemometrics and likelihood ratio framework for reporting the evidential value of spectra.

    PubMed

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Zadora, Grzegorz; Neocleous, Tereza; Michalska, Aleksandra; Dean, Nema

    2016-08-10

    Many chemometric tools are invaluable and have proven effective in data mining and substantial dimensionality reduction of highly multivariate data. This becomes vital for interpreting various physicochemical data due to rapid development of advanced analytical techniques, delivering much information in a single measurement run. This concerns especially spectra, which are frequently used as the subject of comparative analysis in e.g. forensic sciences. In the presented study the microtraces collected from the scenarios of hit-and-run accidents were analysed. Plastic containers and automotive plastics (e.g. bumpers, headlamp lenses) were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and car paints were analysed using Raman spectroscopy. In the forensic context analytical results must be interpreted and reported according to the standards of the interpretation schemes acknowledged in forensic sciences using the likelihood ratio approach. However, for proper construction of LR models for highly multivariate data, such as spectra, chemometric tools must be employed for substantial data compression. Conversion from classical feature representation to distance representation was proposed for revealing hidden data peculiarities and linear discriminant analysis was further applied for minimising the within-sample variability while maximising the between-sample variability. Both techniques enabled substantial reduction of data dimensionality. Univariate and multivariate likelihood ratio models were proposed for such data. It was shown that the combination of chemometric tools and the likelihood ratio approach is capable of solving the comparison problem of highly multivariate and correlated data after proper extraction of the most relevant features and variance information hidden in the data structure. PMID:27282749

  2. A combined parasitological molecular approach for noninvasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts.

    PubMed

    Budischak, Sarah A; Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Art; Jolles, Anna E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-09-01

    Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity of lethal sampling severely restricts the host species that can be studied, the adequacy of sample sizes to assess diversity, the geographic scope of collections and the research questions that can be addressed. Focusing on gastrointestinal nematodes of wild African buffalo, we evaluated whether accurate characterization of nematode communities could be made using a noninvasive technique that combined conventional parasitological approaches with molecular barcoding. To establish the reliability of this new method, we compared estimates of gastrointestinal nematode abundance, prevalence, richness and community composition derived from lethal sampling with estimates derived from our noninvasive approach. Our noninvasive technique accurately estimated total and species-specific worm abundances, as well as worm prevalence and community composition when compared to the lethal sampling method. Importantly, the rate of parasite species discovery was similar for both methods, and only a modest number of barcoded larvae (n = 10) were needed to capture key aspects of parasite community composition. Overall, this new noninvasive strategy offers numerous advantages over lethal sampling methods for studying nematode-host interactions in wildlife and can readily be applied to a range of study systems. PMID:25644900

  3. Combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and continuous theta burst stimulation: a novel approach for neuroplasticity induction.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Yang, Ruiting; Pitcher, Julia B; Ridding, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation can induce functionally relevant plasticity in the human cortex, making it potentially useful as a therapeutic tool. However, the induced changes are highly variable between individuals, potentially limiting research and clinical utility. One factor that might contribute to this variability is the level of cortical inhibition at the time of stimulation. The alpha rhythm (~ 8-13 Hz) recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) is thought to reflect pulsatile cortical inhibition; therefore, targeting non-invasive brain stimulation to particular phases of the alpha rhythm may provide an approach to enhance plasticity induction. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to entrain cortical oscillations in a frequency-specific manner. We investigated whether the neuroplastic response to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was enhanced by timing bursts of stimuli to the peak or the trough of a tACS-imposed alpha rhythm. While motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were unaffected when cTBS was applied in-phase with the peak of the tACS-imposed oscillation, MEP depression was enhanced when cTBS was applied in-phase with the trough. This enhanced MEP depression was dependent on the individual peak frequency of the endogenous alpha rhythm recorded with EEG prior to stimulation, and was strongest in those participants classified as non-responders to standard cTBS. These findings suggest that tACS may be used in combination with cTBS to enhance the plasticity response. Furthermore, the peak frequency of endogenous alpha, as measured with EEG, may be used as a simple marker to pre-select those individuals likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:26663460

  4. Endoscopic endonasal transclival transodontoid approach for ventral decompression of the craniovertebral junction: operative technique and nuances.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Goldstein, Ira M; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The transoral approach is considered the gold-standard surgical route for performing anterior odontoidectomy and ventral decompression of the craniovertebral junction for pathological conditions that result in symptomatic cervicomedullary compression, including basilar invagination, rheumatoid pannus, platybasia with retroflexed odontoid processes, and neoplasms. Extended modifications to increase the operative corridor and exposure include the transmaxillary, extended "open-door" maxillotomy, transpalatal, and transmandibular approaches. With the advent of extended endoscopic endonasal skull base techniques, there has been increased interest in the last decade in the endoscopic endonasal transclival transodontoid approach to the craniovertebral junction. The endonasal route represents an attractive minimally invasive surgical alternative, especially in cases of irreducible basilar invagination in which the pathology is situated well above the palatine line. Angled endoscopes and instrumentation can also be used for lower-lying pathology. By avoiding the oral cavity and subsequently using a transoral retractor, the endonasal route has the advantages of avoiding complications related to tongue swelling, tracheal swelling, prolonged intubation, velopharyngeal insufficiency, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Postoperative recovery is quicker, and hospital stays are shorter. In this report, the authors describe and illustrate their method of purely endoscopic endonasal transclival odonotoidectomy for anterior decompression of the craniovertebral junction and describe various operative pearls and nuances of the technique for avoiding complications. PMID:25828493

  5. An operational approach to spacetime symmetries: Lorentz transformations from quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Philipp A.; Müller, Markus P.

    2016-06-01

    In most approaches to fundamental physics, spacetime symmetries are postulated a priori and then explicitly implemented in the theory. This includes Lorentz covariance in quantum field theory and diffeomorphism invariance in quantum gravity, which are seen as fundamental principles to which the final theory has to be adjusted. In this paper, we suggest, within a much simpler setting, that this kind of reasoning can actually be reversed, by taking an operational approach inspired by quantum information theory. We consider observers in distinct laboratories, with local physics described by the laws of abstract quantum theory, and without presupposing a particular spacetime structure. We ask what information-theoretic effort the observers have to spend to synchronize their descriptions of local physics. If there are ‘enough’ observables that can be measured universally on several different quantum systems, we show that the observers’ descriptions are related by an element of the orthochronous Lorentz group {{{O}}}+(3,1), together with a global scaling factor. Not only does this operational approach predict the Lorentz transformations, but it also accurately describes the behavior of relativistic Stern–Gerlach devices in the WKB approximation, and it correctly predicts that quantum systems carry Lorentz group representations of different spin. This result thus hints at a novel information-theoretic perspective on spacetime.

  6. On the Foundations of the Brussels Operational-Realistic Approach to Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    The scientific community is becoming more and more interested in the research that applies the mathematical formalism of quantum theory to model human decision-making. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations of the quantum approach to cognition that we developed in Brussels. These foundations rest on the results of two decade studies on the axiomatic and operational-realistic approaches to the foundations of quantum physics. The deep analogies between the foundations of physics and cognition lead us to investigate the validity of quantum theory as a general and unitary framework for cognitive processes, and the empirical success of the Hilbert space models derived by such investigation provides a strong theoretical confirmation of this validity. However, two situations in the cognitive realm, `question order effects' and `response replicability', indicate that even the Hilbert space framework could be insufficient to reproduce the collected data. This does not mean that the mentioned operational-realistic approach would be incorrect, but simply that a larger class of measurements would be in force in human cognition, so that an extended quantum formalism may be needed to deal with all of them. As we will explain, the recently derived `extended Bloch representation' of quantum theory (and the associated `general tension-reduction' model) precisely provides such extended formalism, while remaining within the same unitary interpretative framework.

  7. Extensions of algebraic image operators: An approach to model-based vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morelli, Michael V.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers extend their previous research on a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets. Addition and multiplication are defined for the set of all grey-level images, which can then be described as polynomials of two variables. Utilizing this new algebraic structure, researchers devised an innovative, efficient edge detection scheme. An accurate method for deriving gradient component information from this edge detector is presented. Based upon this new edge detection system researchers developed a robust method for linear feature extraction by combining the techniques of a Hough transform and a line follower. The major advantage of this feature extractor is its general, object-independent nature. Target attributes, such as line segment lengths, intersections, angles of intersection, and endpoints are derived by the feature extraction algorithm and employed during model matching. The algebraic operators are global operations which are easily reconfigured to operate on any size or shape region. This provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis. A method for optimizing the linear feature extractor which capitalizes on the spatially reconfiguration nature of the edge detector/gradient component operator is discussed.

  8. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  9. Combined Operation of AC and DC Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozian, Reza; Abedi, Mehrdad; Gharehpetian, Gevorg

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a DC distribution system which has been supplied by external AC systems as well as local DG units in order to demonstrate an overall solution to power quality issue. In this paper, the proposed operation method is demonstrated by simulation of power transfer between external AC systems, DG units, AC and DC loads. The power flow control in DC distribution system has been achieved by network converters and DG converters. Also, the mathematical model of the network, DG and load converters are obtained by using the average technique, which allows converter systems accurately simulated and control strategies for this converters is achieved. A suitable control strategy for network converters has been proposed that involves DC voltage droop regulator and novel instantaneous power regulation scheme. Also, a novel control technique has been proposed for DG converters. In this paper, a novel control system based on stationary and synchronously rotating reference frame has been proposed for load converters for supplying AC loads connected to the DC bus by balanced voltages. The several case studies have been studied based on proposed methods. The simulation results show that DC distribution systems including DG units can improve the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the power distribution system or industrial power system.

  10. Cervical nerve root decompression by lateral approach as salvage operation after failed anterior transdiscal surgery: technical case report

    PubMed Central

    George, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Cervical nerve root compression caused by disco-osteophytic changes is classically operated by anterior transdiscal approach with disc replacement. If compression persists or recurs, reoperation via the same surgical route may be difficult, because of scar tissue and/or implants. An alternative approach may be necessary. We recommend the lateral cervical approach (retrojugular) as salvage operation in such cases. We report a patient with cervical nerve root compression operated by anterior transdiscal approach with plate and bone graft. As some compression persisted clinically and radiologically, the patient was re-operated via a lateral approach. The surgical access was free of scar tissue. The arthrodesis could be left intact and did not prevent effective nerve root decompression. The patient became asymptomatic. The lateral cervical approach (retrojugular) as reported here, is an excellent alternative pathway if reoperation after anterior transdiscal surgery with disc replacement becomes necessary. PMID:19449041

  11. Health Monitoring of a Rotating Disk Using a Combined Analytical-Experimental Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Lekki, John D.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks undergo rigorous mechanical loading conditions that make them subject to a variety of failure mechanisms leading to structural deformities and cracking. During operation, periodic loading fluctuations and other related factors cause fractures and hidden internal cracks that can only be detected via noninvasive types of health monitoring and/or nondestructive evaluation. These evaluations go further to inspect material discontinuities and other irregularities that have grown to become critical defects that can lead to failure. Hence, the objectives of this work is to conduct a collective analytical and experimental study to present a well-rounded structural assessment of a rotating disk by means of a health monitoring approach and to appraise the capabilities of an in-house rotor spin system. The analyses utilized the finite element method to analyze the disk with and without an induced crack at different loading levels, such as rotational speeds starting at 3000 up to 10 000 rpm. A parallel experiment was conducted to spin the disk at the desired speeds in an attempt to correlate the experimental findings with the analytical results. The testing involved conducting spin experiments which, covered the rotor in both damaged and undamaged (i.e., notched and unnotched) states. Damaged disks had artificially induced through-thickness flaws represented in the web region ranging from 2.54 to 5.08 cm (1 to 2 in.) in length. This study aims to identify defects that are greater than 1.27 cm (0.5 in.), applying available means of structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation, and documenting failure mechanisms experienced by the rotor system under typical turbine engine operating conditions.

  12. A high-temperature gas-and-steam turbine plant operating on combined fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Milman, O. O.; Shifrin, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    A high-temperature gas-steam turbine plant (GSTP) for ultrasupercritical steam conditions is proposed based on an analysis of prospects for the development of power engineering around the world and in Russia up to 2040. The performance indicators of a GSTP using steam from a coal-fired boiler with a temperature of 560-620°C with its superheating to 1000-1500°C by firing natural gas with oxygen in a mixingtype steam superheater are analyzed. The thermal process circuit and design of a GSTP for a capacity of 25 MW with the high- and intermediate-pressure high-temperature parts with the total efficiency equal to 51.7% and the natural gas utilization efficiency equal to 64-68% are developed. The principles of designing and the design arrangement of a 300 MW GSTP are developed. The effect of economic parameters (the level and ratio of prices for solid fuel and gas, and capital investments) on the net cost of electric energy is determined. The net cost of electric energy produced by the GSTP is lower than that produced by modern combined-cycle power plants in a wide variation range of these parameters. The components of a high-temperature GSTP the development of which determines the main features of such installations are pointed out: a chamber for combusting natural gas and oxygen in a mixture with steam, a vacuum device for condensing steam with a high content of nondensables, and a control system. The possibility of using domestically available gas turbine technologies for developing the GSTP's intermediate-pressure high-temperature part is pointed out. In regard of its environmental characteristics, the GSTP is more advantageous as compared with modern condensing power plants: it allows a flow of concentrated carbon dioxide to be obtained at its outlet, which can be reclaimed; in addition, this plant requires half as much consumption of fresh water.

  13. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  14. Comparative Orbital Volumes between a Single Incisional Approach and a Double Incisional Approach in Patients with Combined Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Wook; Seo, Bommie F.; Rhie, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Oh, Deuk Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Blowout fracture characterized by concurrent floor and medial wall fractures is a rare entity. We compared surgical outcomes between a single approach and a double approach in patients with orbital fracture by measuring the postoperative orbital volume. Methods. We confirmed that 21 (8.5%) of a total of 246 patients with orbital fractures had fractures of the medial wall and floor through a retrospective chart review. Of these, 10 patients underwent the single approach and the remaining 11 patients had the double approach. We performed a statistical analysis of changes between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes at a 6-month follow-up. Results. Compared with the contralateral, nonaffected side, the orbital volume was 115.3 (±6.09)% preoperatively and 106.5 (±6.15)% postoperatively in the single approach group and 118.2 (±11.16)% preoperatively and 108.6 (±13.96)% postoperatively in the double approach. These results indicated that there was a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes in each group (P < 0.05). However there was no significant difference between the single approach and the double approach (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in surgical outcomes between the two modalities. The treatment modality may be selected based on the surgeons' preference, as well as the fracture type. PMID:25961049

  15. A combined-water-system approach for tackling water scarcity: application to the Permilovo groundwater basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena A.; Baldenkov, Mikhail G.

    2016-03-01

    The suitability of a combined water system (CWS) is assessed for meeting drinking-water demand for the city of Arkhangelsk (northwestern Russian Federation), instead of using the polluted surface water of the Northern Dvina River. An appropriate aquifer system (Permilovo groundwater basin) was found and explored in the 1980s, and there were plans then to operate an abstraction scheme using traditional pumping methods. However, the 1980s planned water system was abandoned due to projected impermissible stream depletion such that complete interception of the cone of depression with the riverbed would cause the riverbed to become dry. The design of a CWS is now offered as an approach to addressing this environmental problem. Several sets of major pumping wells associated with the CWS are located on the banks of Vaymuga River and induce infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons is compensated for by pumping from aquifer storage. A numerical model was constructed using MODFLOW-2000. The results of the simulation showed the efficiency of the compensation pumping. The streamflow depletion caused by the CWS is equal to the minimum permissible stream flow and is lower than the depletion projected by the abandoned plan. Application of the CWS in the Permilovo groundwater basin makes it possible to meet water demands during water-limited periods and to avoid environmental problems.

  16. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions. PMID:25977721

  17. Bond breaking in epoxy systems: A combined QM/MM approach.

    PubMed

    Barr, Stephen A; Kedziora, Gary S; Ecker, Allison M; Moller, James C; Berry, Rajiv J; Breitzman, Tim D

    2016-06-28

    A novel method to combine quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics has been developed to accurately and efficiently account for covalent bond breaking in polymer systems under high strain without the use of predetermined break locations. Use of this method will provide a better fundamental understanding of the mechano-chemical origins of fracture in thermosets. Since classical force fields cannot accurately account for bond breaking, and QM is too demanding to simulate large systems, a hybrid approach is required. In the method presented here, strain is applied to the system using a classical force field, and all bond lengths are monitored. When a bond is stretched past a threshold value, a zone surrounding the bond is used in a QM energy minimization to determine which, if any, bonds break. The QM results are then used to reconstitute the system to continue the classical simulation at progressively larger strain until another QM calculation is triggered. In this way, a QM calculation is only computed when and where needed, allowing for efficient simulations. A robust QM method for energy minimization has been determined, as well as appropriate values for the QM zone size and the threshold bond length. Compute times do not differ dramatically from classical molecular mechanical simulations. PMID:27369541

  18. Event-based prediction of stream turbidity using a combined cluster analysis and classification tree approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Amanda L.; Johnson, Richard L.

    2015-11-01

    Stream turbidity typically increases during streamflow events; however, similar event hydrographs can produce markedly different event turbidity behaviors because many factors influence turbidity in addition to streamflow, including antecedent moisture conditions, season, and supply of turbidity-causing materials. Modeling of sub-hourly turbidity as a function of streamflow shows that event model parameters vary on an event-by-event basis. Here we examine the extent to which stream turbidity can be predicted through the prediction of event model parameters. Using three mid-sized streams from the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., we show the model parameter set for each event can be predicted based on the event characteristics (e.g., hydrologic, meteorologic and antecedent moisture conditions) using a combined cluster analysis and classification tree approach. The results suggest that the ratio of beginning event discharge to peak event discharge (an estimate of the event baseflow index), as well as catchment antecedent moisture, are important factors in the prediction of event turbidity. Indicators of antecedent moisture, particularly those derived from antecedent discharge, account for the majority of the splitting nodes in the classification trees for all three streams. For this study, prediction of turbidity during streamflow events is based upon observed data (e.g., measured streamflow, precipitation and air temperature). However, the results also suggest that the methods presented here can, in future work, be used in conjunction with forecasts of streamflow, precipitation and air temperature to forecast stream turbidity.

  19. A combined proteomics and metabolomics approach to assess the effects of gold nanoparticles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gioria, Sabrina; Lobo Vicente, Joana; Barboro, Paola; La Spina, Rita; Tomasi, Giorgio; Urbán, Patricia; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; François, Rossi; Chassaigne, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Omics technologies, such as proteomics or metabolomics, have to date been applied in the field of nanomaterial safety assessment to a limited extent. To address this dearth, we developed an integrated approach combining the two techniques to study the effects of two sizes, 5 and 30 nm, of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in Caco-2 cells. We observed differences in cells exposed for 72 h to each size of AuNPs: 61 responsive (up/down-regulated) proteins were identified and 35 metabolites in the cell extract were tentatively annotated. Several altered biological pathways were highlighted by integrating the obtained multi-omics data with bioinformatic tools. This provided a unique set of molecular information on the effects of nanomaterials at cellular level. This information was supported by complementary data obtained by immunochemistry, microscopic analysis, and multiplexed assays. A part from increasing our knowledge on how the cellular processes and pathways are affected by nanomaterials (NMs), these findings could be used to identify specific biomarkers of toxicity or to support the safe-by-design concept in the development of new nanomedicines. PMID:26647645

  20. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant.

    PubMed

    Charney, Noah D; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish's lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population's life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  1. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish’s lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population’s life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  2. A novel correction scheme for DFT: A combined vdW-DF/CCSD(T) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Jan; Bludský, Ota

    2013-07-01

    A system-specific but very accurate density functional theory (DFT) correction scheme is proposed for precise calculations of adsorbent-adsorbate interactions by combining the non-empirical van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method and the empirical DFT/CC correction scheme to reach accuracy of the coupled clusters method with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The new approach is applied to small molecules (CH4, CO2, H2, H2O, N2) interacting with silica surfaces and purely siliceous microporous solids. The vdW-DF/CC results for a perfectly reconstructed α-quartz surface are consistent with other dispersion-corrected DFT methods. Corrected for ZPVE, the vdW-DF/CC enthalpies of adsorption in pure-silica zeolite LTA (ΔHads(0 K)) of 3.6 and 5.2 kcal/mol for methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental values of 3.6 and 5.0 kcal/mol. The very high accuracy of the new scheme and its relatively easy use and numerical stability as compared to the earlier DFT/CC scheme offer a straightforward solution for obtaining reliable predictions of adsorption energies.

  3. A novel correction scheme for DFT: a combined vdW-DF/CCSD(T) approach.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Jan; Bludský, Ota

    2013-07-21

    A system-specific but very accurate density functional theory (DFT) correction scheme is proposed for precise calculations of adsorbent-adsorbate interactions by combining the non-empirical van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method and the empirical DFT/CC correction scheme to reach accuracy of the coupled clusters method with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The new approach is applied to small molecules (CH4, CO2, H2, H2O, N2) interacting with silica surfaces and purely siliceous microporous solids. The vdW-DF/CC results for a perfectly reconstructed α-quartz surface are consistent with other dispersion-corrected DFT methods. Corrected for ZPVE, the vdW-DF/CC enthalpies of adsorption in pure-silica zeolite LTA (ΔHads(0 K)) of 3.6 and 5.2 kcal/mol for methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental values of 3.6 and 5.0 kcal/mol. The very high accuracy of the new scheme and its relatively easy use and numerical stability as compared to the earlier DFT/CC scheme offer a straightforward solution for obtaining reliable predictions of adsorption energies. PMID:23883018

  4. Global response of Plasmodium falciparum to hyperoxia: a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over its life cycle, the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is exposed to different environmental conditions, particularly to variations in O2 pressure. For example, the parasite circulates in human venous blood at 5% O2 pressure and in arterial blood, particularly in the lungs, at 13% O2 pressure. Moreover, the parasite is exposed to 21% O2 levels in the salivary glands of mosquitoes. Methods To study the metabolic adaptation of P. falciparum to different oxygen pressures during the intraerythrocytic cycle, a combined approach using transcriptomic and proteomic techniques was undertaken. Results Even though hyperoxia lengthens the parasitic cycle, significant transcriptional changes were detected in hyperoxic conditions in the late-ring stage. Using PS 6.0™ software (Ariadne Genomics) for microarray analysis, this study demonstrate up-expression of genes involved in antioxidant systems and down-expression of genes involved in the digestive vacuole metabolism and the glycolysis in favour of mitochondrial respiration. Proteomic analysis revealed increased levels of heat shock proteins, and decreased levels of glycolytic enzymes. Some of this regulation reflected post-transcriptional modifications during the hyperoxia response. Conclusions These results seem to indicate that hyperoxia activates antioxidant defence systems in parasites to preserve the integrity of its cellular structures. Moreover, environmental constraints seem to induce an energetic metabolism adaptation of P. falciparum. This study provides a better understanding of the adaptive capabilities of P. falciparum to environmental changes and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:21223545

  5. Structural insights into human 5-lipoxygenase inhibition: combined ligand-based and target-based approach.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; Hénichart, Jean-Pierre; Durant, François; Wouters, Johan

    2006-01-12

    The human 5-LOX enzyme and its interaction with competitive inhibitors were investigated by means of a combined ligand-based and target-based approach. First, a pharmacophore model was generated for 16 non redox 5-LOX inhibitors with Catalyst (HipHop module). It includes two hydrophobic groups, an aromatic ring, and two hydrogen bond acceptors. The 3D structure of human 5-LOX was then modeled based on the crystal structure of rabbit 15-LOX, and the binding modes of representative ligands were studied by molecular docking. Confrontation of the docking results with the pharmacophore model allowed the weighting of the pharmacophoric features and the integration of structural information. This led to the proposal of an interaction model inside the 5-LOX active site, consisting of four major and two secondary interaction points: on one hand, two hydrophobic groups, an aromatic ring, and a hydrogen bond acceptor, and, on the other hand, an acidic moiety and an additional hydrogen bond acceptor. PMID:16392803

  6. Bond breaking in epoxy systems: A combined QM/MM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen A.; Kedziora, Gary S.; Ecker, Allison M.; Moller, James C.; Berry, Rajiv J.; Breitzman, Tim D.

    2016-06-01

    A novel method to combine quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics has been developed to accurately and efficiently account for covalent bond breaking in polymer systems under high strain without the use of predetermined break locations. Use of this method will provide a better fundamental understanding of the mechano-chemical origins of fracture in thermosets. Since classical force fields cannot accurately account for bond breaking, and QM is too demanding to simulate large systems, a hybrid approach is required. In the method presented here, strain is applied to the system using a classical force field, and all bond lengths are monitored. When a bond is stretched past a threshold value, a zone surrounding the bond is used in a QM energy minimization to determine which, if any, bonds break. The QM results are then used to reconstitute the system to continue the classical simulation at progressively larger strain until another QM calculation is triggered. In this way, a QM calculation is only computed when and where needed, allowing for efficient simulations. A robust QM method for energy minimization has been determined, as well as appropriate values for the QM zone size and the threshold bond length. Compute times do not differ dramatically from classical molecular mechanical simulations.

  7. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-02-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  8. A combined approach to assess the microbial contamination of the archimedes palimpsest.

    PubMed

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Jörg; Quandt, Abigail; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    A combined approach, using molecular and microscopic techniques, was used to identify the microbiota associated with the Archimedes Palimpsest, an unusual parchment manuscript. SEM analyses revealed the microbial damage to the collagen fibers and the presence of characteristic cell chains typical of filamentous bacteria and fungal spores. Molecular analysis confirmed a homogeneous bacterial community colonizing the manuscript. The phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were associated with this ancient parchment; the sequences were most related to uncultured clones detected in the human skin microbiome and in ephitelium, and to cultivated species of the genera Acinetobacter and Nocardiopsis. Nevertheless, a great variation was observed among the different sampled areas indicating fungal diversity. Blumeria spp. dominated in the healthy areas of the parchment while degraded areas showed disparate fungal communities, with dominant members of the genera Mucor and Cladosporium. In addition, the quantification of the β-actin gene by real-time PCR analyses (qPCR) revealed a higher fungal abundance on degraded areas than on the healthy ones. PMID:25135817

  9. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%. PMID:19759458

  10. Comparison of chemical and thermal protein denaturation by combination of computational and experimental approaches. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Christiansen, Alexander; Samiotakis, Antonios; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2011-11-01

    Chemical and thermal denaturation methods have been widely used to investigate folding processes of proteins in vitro. However, a molecular understanding of the relationship between these two perturbation methods is lacking. Here, we combined computational and experimental approaches to investigate denaturing effects on three structurally different proteins. We derived a linear relationship between thermal denaturation at temperature Tb and chemical denaturation at another temperature Tu using the stability change of a protein (ΔG). For this, we related the dependence of ΔG on temperature, in the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, to that of ΔG on urea concentration in the linear extrapolation method, assuming that there is a temperature pair from the urea (Tu) and the aqueous (Tb) ensembles that produces the same protein structures. We tested this relationship on apoazurin, cytochrome c, and apoflavodoxin using coarse-grained molecular simulations. We found a linear correlation between the temperature for a particular structural ensemble in the absence of urea, Tb, and the temperature of the same structural ensemble at a specific urea concentration, Tu. The in silico results agreed with in vitro far-UV circular dichroism data on apoazurin and cytochrome c. We conclude that chemical and thermal unfolding processes correlate in terms of thermodynamics and structural ensembles at most conditions; however, deviations were found at high concentrations of denaturant.

  11. Combined analytical FEM approach for efficient simulation of Lamb wave damage detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Lamb waves have been widely explored as a promising inspection tool for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This article presents a combined analytical finite element model (FEM) approach (CAFA) for the accurate, efficient, and versatile simulation of 2-D Lamb wave propagation and interaction with damage. CAFA used a global analytical solution to model wave generation, propagation, scattering, mode conversion, and detection, while the wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The analytical procedure was coded using MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The methodology of obtaining WDICs from local FEM was presented. Case studies were carried out for Lamb wave propagation in a pristine plate and a damaged plate. CAFA predictions compared well with full scale multi-physics FEM simulations and experiments with scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV), while achieving remarkable performance in computational efficiency and computer resource saving compared with conventional FEM. PMID:27085109

  12. A combined proteomics and metabolomics approach to assess the effects of gold nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gioria, Sabrina; Lobo Vicente, Joana; Barboro, Paola; La Spina, Rita; Tomasi, Giorgio; Urbán, Patricia; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; François, Rossi; Chassaigne, Hubert

    2016-08-01

    Omics technologies, such as proteomics or metabolomics, have to date been applied in the field of nanomaterial safety assessment to a limited extent. To address this dearth, we developed an integrated approach combining the two techniques to study the effects of two sizes, 5 and 30 nm, of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in Caco-2 cells. We observed differences in cells exposed for 72 h to each size of AuNPs: 61 responsive (up/down-regulated) proteins were identified and 35 metabolites in the cell extract were tentatively annotated. Several altered biological pathways were highlighted by integrating the obtained multi-omics data with bioinformatic tools. This provided a unique set of molecular information on the effects of nanomaterials at cellular level. This information was supported by complementary data obtained by immunochemistry, microscopic analysis, and multiplexed assays. A part from increasing our knowledge on how the cellular processes and pathways are affected by nanomaterials (NMs), these findings could be used to identify specific biomarkers of toxicity or to support the safe-by-design concept in the development of new nanomedicines. PMID:26647645

  13. Spectroscopic Properties of Anisole at the Air-Ice Interface: A Combined Experimental-Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Malongwe, Joseph K'Ekuboni; Nachtigallová, Dana; Corrochano, Pablo; Klán, Petr

    2016-06-14

    A combined experimental and computational approach was used to investigate the spectroscopic properties of anisole in aqueous solutions and at the ice-air interface in the temperature range of 77-298 K. The absorption, diffuse reflectance, and emission spectra of ice samples containing anisole prepared by different techniques, such as slow freezing (frozen aqueous solutions), shock freezing (ice grains), or anisole vapor deposition on ice grains, were measured to evaluate changes in the contaminated ice matrix that occur at different temperatures. It was found that the position of the lowest absorption band of anisole and its tail shift bathochromically by ∼4 nm in frozen samples compared to liquid aqueous solutions. On the other hand, the emission spectra of aqueous anisole solutions were found to fundamentally change upon freezing. While one emission band (∼290 nm) was observed under all circumstances, the second band at ∼350 nm, assigned to an anisole excimer, appeared only at certain temperatures (150-250 K). Its disappearance at lower temperatures is attributed to the formation of crystalline anisole on the ice surface. DFT and ADC(2) calculations were used to interpret the absorption and emission spectra of anisole monomer and dimer associates. Various stable arrangements of the anisole associates were found at the disordered water-air interface in the ground and excited states, but only those with a substantial overlap of the aromatic rings are manifested by the emission band at ∼350 nm. PMID:27243785

  14. Orthogonal polynomial approach to calculate the two-nucleon transition operator in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolnicki, Kacper; Golak, Jacek; Skibiński, Roman; Witała, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    We give a short report on the possibility to use orthogonal polynomials (OP) in calculations that involve the two-nucleon (2N) transition operator. The presented work adds another approach to the set of previously developed methods (described in Phys. Rev. C 81, 034006 (2010); Few-Body Syst. 53, 237 (2012); K. Topolnicki, PhD thesis, Jagiellonian University (2014)) and is applied to the transition operator calculated at laboratory kinetic energy 300MeV. The new results for neutron-neutron and neutron-proton scattering observables converge to the results presented in Few-Body Syst. 53, 237 (2012) and to results obtained using the Arnoldi algorithm (Y. Saad, Iterative methods for sparse linear systems (SIAM Philadelphia, PA, USA 2003)). The numerical cost of the calculations performed using the new scheme is large and the new method can serve only as a backup to cross-check the previously used calculation schemes.

  15. Earth based approaches to enhancing the health and safety of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koller, A. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current state of our earth based knowledge of space safety hazards; identification of several key areas of concern for space operations; and proposed approaches to providing technology enhancement and information needed to improve the health and safety to those conducting space operations. Included are a review of the identified hazards for space oeprations by hazard classification; a summarization of the information currently available on space experiences and an assessment of potential hazards for long duration spaceflight; a discussion of potential failure modes and their significance for Space Station work: and an assessment of current work which indicates additional research and experimentation which can only be accomplished in actual space missions.

  16. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners. PMID:27305794

  17. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  18. Rectal atresia-operative management with endoscopy and transanal approach: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Pernilla; Clementson Kockum, Christina; Arnbjörnsson, Einar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the technique and outcome of the management of a newborn child with rectal atresia. A girl born with rectal atresia was diagnosed during physical examination and confirmed with X-ray. The anatomic appearance of the external anus, and lower pelvis was normal. The rectal ending was located 2 cm cranial from the anus and the distance between the rectal endings was 2 cm. A colostomy was established. At the age of five months the child was operated on with a rectal anastomosis using the endoscopic and transanal approach. Closure of the colostomy was performed at the age of ten months. The rectal anastomosis was treated with rectal dilatation weekly in order to avoid stricture. The patient was faecally continent at followup one and three months postoperatively. In conclusion, the endoscopic and transanal approach is an alternative to other surgical techniques in the management of rectal atresia. PMID:22091364

  19. The operation experience of endoscopic thyroidectomy by areola and axilla approach.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lai-Yang; He, Chun; Huang, Xing-Wei; Xi, Xun; Liu, Xue-Kui

    2016-03-01

    To explore the feasibility of endoscopic thyroidectomy via breast areola and axilla approach. The clinical data of 36 cases that underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy via breast areola and axilla approach from February 2012 to December 2013 were reviewed. All cases were completed, the mean operation time was 136.3 min (95-183 min), intraoperative blood loss was 15.8 ml (5-60 ml). The average hospitalization time was 5 days (4-6 days). There were no conversions to open surgery, no permanent nerve injuries, and no cases of hypoparathyroidism. Three patients had postoperative subcutaneous ecchymosis who were cured spontaneously after 1 month. Endoscopic thyroidectomy is safe and feasible for patients with thyroid diseases with good cosmetic results, and is worthy of being widely applied for patients who have cosmetic demand. PMID:25480477

  20. A high-resolution approach to estimating ecosystem respiration at continental scales using operational satellite data.

    PubMed

    Jägermeyr, Jonas; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Hostert, Patrick; Migliavacca, Mirco; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2014-04-01

    A better understanding of the local variability in land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is crucial to improving the accuracy of global carbon budgets. Operational satellite data backed by ground measurements at Fluxnet sites proved valuable in monitoring local variability of gross primary production at highly resolved spatio-temporal resolutions. Yet, we lack similar operational estimates of ecosystem respiration (Re) to calculate net carbon fluxes. If successful, carbon fluxes from such a remote sensing approach would form an independent and sought after measure to complement widely used dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we establish an operational semi-empirical Re model, based only on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a resolution of 1 km and 8 days. Fluxnet measurements between 2000 and 2009 from 100 sites across North America and Europe are used for parameterization and validation. Our analysis shows that Re is closely tied to temperature and plant productivity. By separating temporal and intersite variation, we find that MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) are sufficient to explain observed Re across most major biomes with a negligible bias [R² = 0.62, RMSE = 1.32 (g C m(-2) d(-1)), MBE = 0.05 (g C m(-2) d(-1))]. A comparison of such satellite-derived Re with those simulated by the DGVM LPJmL reveals similar spatial patterns. However, LPJmL shows higher temperature sensitivities and consistently simulates higher Re values, in high-latitude and subtropical regions. These differences remain difficult to explain and they are likely associated either with LPJmL parameterization or with systematic errors in the Fluxnet sampling technique. While uncertainties remain with Re estimates, the model formulated in this study provides an operational, cross-validated and unbiased approach to scale Fluxnet Re to the continental scale and advances knowledge of spatio-temporal Re variability

  1. Heisenberg magnetic chain with single-ion easy-plane anisotropy: Hubbard operators approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, D. V.; Fridman, Yu. A.

    2003-03-01

    We investigate the gap in excitation spectrum of one-dimensional S=1 ferro- and antiferromagnets with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy. The self-consistent modification of Hubbard operators approach which enables to account single-site term exactly is used. For antiferromagnetic model we found Haldane phase that exists up to point D=4 J (where D is anisotropy parameter, J is exchange coupling), while quadrupolar phase realizes at larger values of anisotropy. Our results specify those of Golinelli et al. (Phys. Rev. B. 45 (1992) 9798), where similar model was studied. Besides the method gives gap value closer to numerical estimations than usual spin-wave theories.

  2. Associative memory in a volume holographic medium: a new approach based on operator theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaie, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we present a new method for holographic implementation of associative memories. In the current approach, the memory capacity is implemented in the form of spatial perturbation of refractive index within the volume of a three dimensional holographic material. We use operator theory to solve the inverse problem and compute a closed-form solution for the spatial distribution of the perturbation considering any arbitrary set of input-output prototype vectors. Simplicity of the hardware is the major advantage of the current method.

  3. Kinetic Rate Kernels via Hierarchical Liouville-Space Projection Operator Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-05-19

    Kinetic rate kernels in general multisite systems are formulated on the basis of a nonperturbative quantum dissipation theory, the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) formalism, together with the Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique. The present approach exploits the HEOM-space linear algebra. The quantum non-Markovian site-to-site transfer rate can be faithfully evaluated via projected HEOM dynamics. The developed method is exact, as evident by the comparison to the direct HEOM evaluation results on the population evolution. PMID:26757138

  4. Queueing Network Models for Parallel Processing of Task Systems: an Operational Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, Victor W. K.

    1986-01-01

    Computer performance modeling of possibly complex computations running on highly concurrent systems is considered. Earlier works in this area either dealt with a very simple program structure or resulted in methods with exponential complexity. An efficient procedure is developed to compute the performance measures for series-parallel-reducible task systems using queueing network models. The procedure is based on the concept of hierarchical decomposition and a new operational approach. Numerical results for three test cases are presented and compared to those of simulations.

  5. The combined water system as approach for tackling water scarcity in Permilovo groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, Elena; Baldenkov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    groundwater basin (PGB) was developed to illustrate the application of CWS. PGB is located in northwest of the Northern Dvina Artesian Basin, Russia. The principle aquifer is in the Carboniferous fissured and karstified rocks. The aquifer has a good hydraulic connection to the stream. The basin was explored but not used due to impermissible stream depletion. The organization of CWS is offered as approach for tackling environmental problem. The major well is located on the bank of river Vaymuga and induces infiltration from the stream. The deficiency of the stream flow in dry seasons (from November to April) is compensated for by the pumping aquifer storage. The aquifer system under consideration belongs to the first hydraulic case (a), where distance between CW and the stream should be sufficient enough to prevent the groundwater drawdown levels from reaching the stream edge during the pumping period. The developed PGB model showed the efficiency of compensation pumping. Application of the combined water system in PGB allows of meet water demands during water-limited periods and of avoid the environmental problems.

  6. An Integrated Risk Approach for Assessing the Use of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts in Hydroelectric Reservoir Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, T. S.; Wigmosta, M.; Barco, J.; Voisin, N.; Bier, A.; Coleman, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an integrated risk approach using ensemble streamflow forecasts for optimizing hydro-electric power generation. Uncertainty in the streamflow forecasts are translated into integrated risk by calculating the deviation of an optimized release schedule that simultaneously maximizes power generation and environmental performance from release schedules that maximize the two objectives individually. The deviations from each target are multiplied by the probability of occurrence and then summed across all probabilities to get the integrated risk. The integrated risk is used to determine which operational scheme exposes the operator to the least amount of risk or conversely, what are the consequences of basing future operations on a particular prediction. Decisions can be made with regards to the tradeoff between power generation, environmental performance, and exposure to risk. The Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and Environment (HydroSCOPE) model developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to model the flow, temperature, and power generation and is coupled with the DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) optimization package to identify the maximum potential power generation, the maximum environmental performance, and the optimal operational scheme that maximizes both for each instance of the ensemble forecasts. The ensemble forecasts were developed in a collaborative effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to develop an Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting System (EHFS) that incorporates advanced ensemble forecasting approaches and algorithms, spatiotemporal datasets, and automated data acquisition and processing. Both the HydroSCOPE model and the EHFS forecast tool are being developed as part of a larger, multi-laboratory water-use optimization project funded through the US Department of Energy. The simulations were based on the

  7. Value centric approaches to the design, operations and maintenance of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadabadi, Madhur Aravind

    Wind turbine maintenance is emerging as an unexpectedly high component of turbine operating cost, and there is an increasing interest in managing this cost. This thesis presents an alternative view of maintenance as a value-driver, and develops an optimization algorithm to evaluate the value delivered by different maintenance techniques. I view maintenance as an operation that moves the turbine to an improved state in which it can generate more power and, thus, earn more revenue. To implement this approach, I model the stochastic deterioration of the turbine in two dimensions: the deterioration rate, and the extent of deterioration, and then use maintenance to improve the state of the turbine. The value of the turbine is the difference between the revenue from to the power generation and the costs incurred in operation and maintenance. With a focus on blade deterioration, I evaluate the value delivered by implementing two different maintenance schemes, predictive maintenance and scheduled maintenance. An example of predictive maintenance technique is the use of Condition Monitoring Systems to precisely detect deterioration. I model Condition Monitoring System (CMS) of different degrees of fidelity, where a higher fidelity CMS would allow the blade state to be determined with a higher precision. The same model is then applied for the scheduled maintenance technique. The improved state information obtained from these techniques is then used to derive an optimal maintenance strategy. The difference between the value of the turbine with and without the inspection type can be interpreted as the value of the inspection. The results indicate that a higher fidelity (and more expensive) inspection method does not necessarily yield the highest value, and, that there is an optimal level of fidelity that results in maximum value. The results also aim to inform the operator of the impact of regional parameters such as wind speed, variance and maintenance costs to the optimal

  8. Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map.

    PubMed

    Li, Jay-Shake; Huston, Joseph P

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to apply non-linear dynamic tools to the analysis of operant behavior revealed some promise for this kind of approach, but also some doubts, since the complexity of animal behavior seemed to be beyond the analyzing ability of the available tools. We here outline a series of studies based on a novel approach. We modified the so-called 'return map' and developed a new method, the 'extended return map' (ERM) to extract information from the highly irregular time series data, the inter-response time (IRT) generated by Skinner-box experiments. We applied the ERM to operant lever pressing data from rats using the four fundamental reinforcement schedules: fixed interval (FI), fixed ratio (FR), variable interval (VI) and variable ratio (VR). Our results revealed interesting patterns in all experiment groups. In particular, the FI and VI groups exhibited well-organized clusters of data points. We calculated the fractal dimension out of these patterns and compared experimental data with surrogate data sets, that were generated by randomly shuffling the sequential order of original IRTs. This comparison supported the finding that patterns in ERM reflect the dynamics of the operant behaviors under study. We then built two models to simulate the functional mechanisms of the FI schedule. Both models can produce similar distributions of IRTs and the stereotypical 'scalloped' curve characteristic of FI responding. However, they differ in one important feature in their formulation: while one model uses a continuous function to describe the probability of occurrence of an operant behavior, the other one employs an abrupt switch of behavioral state. Comparison of ERMs showed that only the latter was able to produce patterns similar to the experimental results, indicative of the operation of an abrupt switch from one behavioral state to another over the course of the inter-reinforcement period. This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of

  9. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 science operations: Operational approaches and lessons learned for managing science during human planetary surface missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Hörz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary; Marinova, Margarita; May, Lisa; Meyer, Jonathan; Ming, Doug; Monteleone, Brian; Morisset, Caroline; Noble, Sarah; Rampe, Elizabeth; Rice, James; Schutt, John; Skinner, James; Tewksbury-Christle, Carolyn M.; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Vaughan, Alicia; Yingst, Aileen; Young, Kelsey

    2013-10-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space. The results from the RATS tests allow selection of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  10. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Horz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  11. Prediction of Groundwater Flow and Transport Processes in an Urban Area: A Combined Approach of Field Testing and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Andrea; Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Borer, Paul; Affolter, Annette; Epting, Jannis; Huggenberger, Peter; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Drinking water supply in urban areas is challenging due to different kinds of water use and potential groundwater contamination. We investigate an area where drinking water production is close to different contaminated sites. The study site is characterized by a high complexity of the tectonic and geological setting with a gravel and a karstic aquifer. The two aquifers are partly connected, partly disconnected by an aquitard. To avoid drinking water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water into the gravel aquifer is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and the water abstraction wells. Trace compounds, that were found in former times in the surface water but not nowadays, are still detected in the extracted drinking water. Different studies have been performed such as numerical modeling, intensive groundwater monitoring and investigation of drilling cores to get a differentiated overview of the distribution of the contaminants. Back-diffusion from the matrix due to changing hydraulic boundary was stated to be the reason for the actual distribution of the contaminants. In a first approach due to the lack of experimental data or evidence from field measurements, the permeabilities of the karstic aquifer were assumed as homogeneous. In our study, we seek to identify the flow and transport processes within the system including the fracture network in a combined approach of field work and 3D modeling with FEFLOW. During a field campaign we acquired water samples for the analysis of stable water isotopes as well as organic and inorganic compounds. Furthermore, tritium and helium samples were taken to estimate water ages and to determine the flow through the fracture networks. A combination of existing and recently obtained data was used to build and validate a 3D flow and transport model. The simulation of different scenarios such as the water flow for varying injection and extraction rates as well as particle

  12. Improved regional seismic location and confidence bounds using a combined model and empirical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Flanagan, M.; Pasyanos, M.; Schultz, C.

    2003-04-01

    We demonstrate improvement in seismic location using a combined model and empirical approach. We find that no individual earth model provides optimal travel-time prediction everywhere. We have, therefore, adopted an approach whereby travel-time predictions from any number of models and empirical observations are geographically merged to form a travel-time model for each network station. Starting with a set of candidate earth models, which often range from 3-dimensional regional models to radially symmetric global models, we evaluate travel-time prediction for distinct distance ranges and geographic regions. Models are then assigned to each distance/region based on performance of travel-time prediction. In addition to assessing travel-time prediction accuracy we develop non-stationary uncertainty models for each set of travel-time predictions. The multi-model, travel-time predictions and uncertainties are merged to form one travel-time prediction model for each station. We further refine model-based predictions and uncertainties using empirical observations and the Modified Bayesian Kriging method of Schultz et al. (1998). This calibration process results in hypocenter-specific travel time predictions and uncertainties for each station and phase. We test and validate throughout the calibration process. A corner stone of our calibration and validation process is the LLNL database. We refine seismicity catalogs by identifying locations that meet strict network criteria (Bondar et al. 2002). We also include event locations determined using non-seismic techniques, such as InSAR satellite. Arrival-time measurements are directly and statistically validated using detailed review of select waveforms. Using this data set and non-circular statistical test, we measure the improvement of travel-time prediction and validate travel-time prediction uncertainty. Ultimately, we use a set of well-located events that are left out of the calibration process to measure improvement in

  13. Combined mixed approach algorithm for in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    De Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Giannini, Cinzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Rigon, Luigi; Longo, Renata; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: In the past decade, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) has been applied to study different kinds of tissues and human body parts, with an increased improvement of the image quality with respect to simple absorption radiography. A technique closely related to PCI is phase-retrieval imaging (PRI). Indeed, PCI is an imaging modality thought to enhance the total contrast of the images through the phase shift introduced by the object (human body part); PRI is a mathematical technique to extract the quantitative phase-shift map from PCI. A new phase-retrieval algorithm for the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging is here proposed. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a mixed transfer-function and transport-of-intensity approach (MA) and it requires, at most, an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy in the initial estimate determines the convergence speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm retrieves both the object phase and its complex conjugate in a combined MA (CMA). Results: Although slightly less computationally effective with respect to other mixed-approach algorithms, as two phases have to be retrieved, the results obtained by the CMA on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The authors have also tested the CMA on noisy experimental phase-contrast data obtained by a suitable weakly absorbing sample consisting of a grid of submillimetric nylon fibers as well as on a strongly absorbing object made of a 0.03 mm thick lead x-ray resolution star pattern. The CMA has shown a good efficiency in recovering phase information, also in presence of noisy data, characterized by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratios down to a few dBs, showing the possibility to enhance with phase radiography the signal-to-noise ratio for features in the submillimetric scale with respect to the attenuation

  14. "Concordia res parvae crescunt" or how different approaches can be combined to decrypt root water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Javaux, Mathieu; Lobet, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a new operation pipe showing that the combined use of computer models and in vivo experiments allows one a better analysis of the water fluxes in the soil-plant system and can help researchers to decrypt the root water uptake dynamics. From an experimental point of view, we monitored in 2D the evolution of soil water content around roots of transpiring maize plants using a light transmission imaging (LTI) technique on a rhizotron. Subsequently, we digitized the entire root system in order to create an input file for the model RSWMS (HYDRUS-like model for soil-plant water transfers). In the other hand, we performed a global sensitivity analysis of the modeled experiment to highlight the plant parameters that can be measured thanks to such a procedure. Then fitting the simulated changes of distributed Sink term in Richards equation to experimental data enabled us to depict the local radial and axial conductivities. The use of the RSWMS model in association with experimental data gave us an insight on the water potential distribution in the plant and fluxes by and through individual segments during the entire duration of the experiment. Finally, this analysis can be optimized by changing the timing and/or types of measurements included in the protocol in order to maximize the information content of the experiment. A validation of the results can also take place: the optimized conductivities of the root segments are indeed sensitive to a global conductance measurement and to other root water uptake experiments. In the future, this experimental set-up will enable us to compare genotypes hydraulic architectures in order to answer questions such as: which genotype is the best adapted to avoid a drought stress occurring at a certain time in a given environment?

  15. Human Factors Assessment: The Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST) Operational Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Sanford, Beverly D.

    1998-01-01

    Automation to assist air traffic controllers in the current terminal and en route air traff ic environments is being developed at Ames Research Center in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration. This automation, known collectively as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), provides decision- making assistance to air traffic controllers through computer-generated advisories. One of the CTAS tools developed specifically to assist terminal area air traffic controllers is the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pFAST). An operational evaluation of PFAST was conducted at the Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas, Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facility. Human factors data collected during the test describe the impact of the automation upon the air traffic controller in terms of perceived workload and acceptance. Results showed that controller self-reported workload was not significantly increased or reduced by the PFAST automation; rather, controllers reported that the levels of workload remained primarily the same. Controller coordination and communication data were analyzed, and significant differences in the nature of controller coordination were found. Controller acceptance ratings indicated that PFAST was acceptable. This report describes the human factors data and results from the 1996 Operational Field Evaluation of Passive FAST.

  16. Operative results of keyhole supracerebellar-infratentorial approach to the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Phillip A; Boettcher, Lillian B; Cheema, Ahmed A; Maurer, Adrian J; Sughrue, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    The supracerebellar-infratentorial approach to the pineal region is typically accomplished with a craniotomy that extends to at least the rim of the foramen magnum. Minimally invasive techniques that limit the inferior extent of the craniotomy have been described for this approach but, to our knowledge, no operative results have been published demonstrating the feasibility and safety of such techniques. We present a series of patients who underwent surgical resection of pineal region lesions using the minimally invasive method at our institution. Clinical, radiologic, and operative data were prospectively collected on patients treated for lesions of the pineal region by the senior author from January 2012 to July 2014. Seven patients were identified. The sitting position was employed in each patient. Keyhole craniotomies were limited to a maximum diameter of 2.5 cm. Adequate working corridors were attained, and in no patient was resection limited by the exposure. No neurological or systemic complications were seen in the perioperative and early follow-up periods. In this feasibility study, we demonstrate that it is not necessary to extend a craniotomy inferiorly to the rim of the foramen magnum in order to gain access to the pineal region via relaxation of the cerebellum. The same surgical goals can be safely accomplished with a smaller craniotomy. PMID:25913279

  17. A Combined Stable Isotope And Machine Learning Approach To Quantify And Classify Of Nitrate Pollution Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P. F.; Xue, D.; De Baets, B.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope analyses of NO3- (δ15N and δ18O) are widely used to determine the sources of nitrate pollution in water. The objective of our study was (1) to quantify NO3- sources in surface water and to classify surface waters in NO3- pollution classes via a combined stable isotope and machine learning approach; and (2) to assess a decision tree model with physicochemical data for retrieving the latter classification. A logical approach has been followed: (1) 2-year monthly sampling of 30 sampling points from different river basins in Belgium, which were classified into 5 different NO3- pollution classes using experts knowledge (Agriculture (A), Agriculture with groundwater compensation (AGC), Combination of agriculture and horticulture (AH), Greenhouses in an agricultural area (G) and Households (H)); (2) estimating proportional NO3- source contribution per NO3- pollution class by applying a Bayesian isotopic mixing model (SIAR) for measured isotopic data of NO3-; (3) re-classifying the 30 sampling points into NO3- pollution classes via a k-means clustering of the SIAR outputs; and (4) building a decision tree model using physicochemical data to retrieve expert knowledge and k-means clustering classification. SIAR successfully estimated proportional contribution ranges of five potential NO3- sources: NO3- in precipitation, NO3- in fertilizer, NH4+ in fertilizer and precipitation, manure and sewage and soil N. For classes A, AGC, AH and H in winter manure and sewage were major (40 - 60%), NO3- in precipitation minor (< 10%), and the other three sources intermediate (10 - 30%) sources. For class G in winter manure and sewage was a dominant source (50%) and the other four sources contributed in an equal range (10 - 20%). The proportional source contributions shifted in summer. Manure and sewage was the dominant source (30 - 40%) for classes A and AH. For class G the source contributions of manure and sewage and NO3- in precipitation were dominant (30% each) and

  18. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

  19. Cellular inorganic carbon fluxes in Trichodesmium: a combined approach using measurements and modelling.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Meri; Thoms, Silke; Kranz, Sven A; Rost, Björn

    2015-02-01

    To predict effects of climate change on phytoplankton, it is crucial to understand how their mechanisms for carbon acquisition respond to environmental conditions. Aiming to shed light on the responses of extra- and intracellular inorganic C (Ci) fluxes, the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was grown with different nitrogen sources (N2 vs NO3 (-)) and pCO2 levels (380 vs 1400 µatm). Cellular Ci fluxes were assessed by combining membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), (13)C fractionation measurements, and modelling. Aside from a significant decrease in Ci affinity at elevated pCO2 and changes in CO2 efflux with different N sources, extracellular Ci fluxes estimated by MIMS were largely unaffected by the treatments. (13)C fractionation during biomass production, however, increased with pCO2, irrespective of the N source. Strong discrepancies were observed in CO2 leakage estimates obtained by MIMS and a (13)C-based approach, which further increased under elevated pCO2. These offsets could be explained by applying a model that comprises extracellular CO2 and HCO3 (-) fluxes as well as internal Ci cycling around the carboxysome via the CO2 uptake facilitator NDH-14. Assuming unidirectional, kinetic fractionation between CO2 and HCO3 (-) in the cytosol or enzymatic fractionation by NDH-14, both significantly improved the comparability of leakage estimates. Our results highlight the importance of internal Ci cycling for (13)C composition as well as cellular energy budgets of Trichodesmium, which ought to be considered in process studies on climate change effects. PMID:25429001

  20. Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Predict the Glass-Water Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.

    2011-10-01

    The use of mineral and glass dissolution rates measured in laboratory experiments to predict the weathering of primary minerals and volcanic and nuclear waste glasses in field studies requires the construction of rate models that accurately describe the weathering process over geologic timescales. Additionally, the need to model the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass for the purpose of estimating radionuclide release rates requires that rate models be validated with long-term experiments. Several long-term test methods have been developed to accelerate the glass-water reaction [drip test, vapor hydration test, product consistency test B, and pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF)], thereby reducing the duration required to evaluate long-term performance. Currently, the PUF test is the only method that mimics the unsaturated hydraulic properties expected in a subsurface disposal facility and simultaneously monitors the glass-water reaction. PUF tests are being conducted to accelerate the weathering of glass and validate the model parameters being used to predict long-term glass behavior. A one-dimensional reactive chemical transport simulation of glass dissolution and secondary phase formation during a 1.5-year-long PUF experiment was conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. Results show that parameterization of the computer model by combining direct bench scale laboratory measurements and thermodynamic data provides an integrated approach to predicting glass behavior over the length of the experiment. Over the 1.5-year-long test duration, the rate decreased from 0.2 to 0.01 g/(m2 day) based on B release for low-activity waste glass LAWA44. The observed decrease is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the decrease observed under static conditions with the SON68 glass (estimated to be a decrease by four orders of magnitude) and suggests that the gel-layer properties are less protective under these dynamic

  1. Determination of contact maps in proteins: A combination of structural and chemical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołek, Karol; Gómez-Sicilia, Àngel; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Contact map selection is a crucial step in structure-based molecular dynamics modelling of proteins. The map can be determined in many different ways. We focus on the methods in which residues are represented as clusters of effective spheres. One contact map, denoted as overlap (OV), is based on the overlap of such spheres. Another contact map, named Contacts of Structural Units (CSU), involves the geometry in a different way and, in addition, brings chemical considerations into account. We develop a variant of the CSU approach in which we also incorporate Coulombic effects such as formation of the ionic bridges and destabilization of possible links through repulsion. In this way, the most essential and well defined contacts are identified. The resulting residue-residue contact map, dubbed repulsive CSU (rCSU), is more sound in its physico-chemical justification than CSU. It also provides a clear prescription for validity of an inter-residual contact: the number of attractive atomic contacts should be larger than the number of repulsive ones — a feature that is not present in CSU. However, both of these maps do not correlate well with the experimental data on protein stretching. Thus, we propose to use rCSU together with the OV map. We find that the combined map, denoted as OV+rCSU, performs better than OV. In most situations, OV and OV+rCSU yield comparable folding properties but for some proteins rCSU provides contacts which improve folding in a substantial way. We discuss the likely residue-specificity of the rCSU contacts. Finally, we make comparisons to the recently proposed shadow contact map, which is derived from different principles.

  2. Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Predict the Glass-Water Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M; Bacon, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The use of mineral and glass dissolution rates measured in laboratory experiments to predict the weathering of primary minerals and volcanic and nuclear waste glasses in field studies requires the construction of rate models that accurately describe the weathering process over geologic time-scales. Additionally, the need to model the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass for the purpose of estimating radionuclide release rates requires that rate models are validated with long-term experiments. Several long-term test methods have been developed to accelerate the glass-water reaction [drip test, vapor hydration test, product consistency test-B, and pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF)], thereby reducing the duration required to evaluate long-term performance. Currently, the PUF test is the only method that mimics the unsaturated hydraulic properties expected in a subsurface disposal facility and simultaneously monitors the glass-water reaction. PUF tests are being conducted to accelerate the weathering of glass and validate the model parameters being used to predict long-term glass behavior. A one-dimensional reactive chemical transport simulation of glass dissolution and secondary phase formation during a 1.5-year long PUF experiment was conducted with the subsurface transport over reactive multi-phases code. Results show that parameterization of the computer model by combining direct bench-scale laboratory measurements and thermodynamic data provides an integrated approach to predicting glass behavior over the length of the experiment. Over the 1.5-year long test duration, the rate decreased from 0.2 to 0.01 g/(m2 d) base on B release. The observed decrease is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the decrease observed under static conditions with the SON68 glass (estimated to be a decrease by 4 orders of magnitude) and suggest the gel-layer properties are less protective under these dynamic conditions.

  3. Determination of contact maps in proteins: A combination of structural and chemical approaches.

    PubMed

    Wołek, Karol; Gómez-Sicilia, Àngel; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-12-28

    Contact map selection is a crucial step in structure-based molecular dynamics modelling of proteins. The map can be determined in many different ways. We focus on the methods in which residues are represented as clusters of effective spheres. One contact map, denoted as overlap (OV), is based on the overlap of such spheres. Another contact map, named Contacts of Structural Units (CSU), involves the geometry in a different way and, in addition, brings chemical considerations into account. We develop a variant of the CSU approach in which we also incorporate Coulombic effects such as formation of the ionic bridges and destabilization of possible links through repulsion. In this way, the most essential and well defined contacts are identified. The resulting residue-residue contact map, dubbed repulsive CSU (rCSU), is more sound in its physico-chemical justification than CSU. It also provides a clear prescription for validity of an inter-residual contact: the number of attractive atomic contacts should be larger than the number of repulsive ones - a feature that is not present in CSU. However, both of these maps do not correlate well with the experimental data on protein stretching. Thus, we propose to use rCSU together with the OV map. We find that the combined map, denoted as OV+rCSU, performs better than OV. In most situations, OV and OV+rCSU yield comparable folding properties but for some proteins rCSU provides contacts which improve folding in a substantial way. We discuss the likely residue-specificity of the rCSU contacts. Finally, we make comparisons to the recently proposed shadow contact map, which is derived from different principles. PMID:26723590

  4. Determination of contact maps in proteins: A combination of structural and chemical approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-12-28

    Contact map selection is a crucial step in structure-based molecular dynamics modelling of proteins. The map can be determined in many different ways. We focus on the methods in which residues are represented as clusters of effective spheres. One contact map, denoted as overlap (OV), is based on the overlap of such spheres. Another contact map, named Contacts of Structural Units (CSU), involves the geometry in a different way and, in addition, brings chemical considerations into account. We develop a variant of the CSU approach in which we also incorporate Coulombic effects such as formation of the ionic bridges and destabilization of possible links through repulsion. In this way, the most essential and well defined contacts are identified. The resulting residue-residue contact map, dubbed repulsive CSU (rCSU), is more sound in its physico-chemical justification than CSU. It also provides a clear prescription for validity of an inter-residual contact: the number of attractive atomic contacts should be larger than the number of repulsive ones — a feature that is not present in CSU. However, both of these maps do not correlate well with the experimental data on protein stretching. Thus, we propose to use rCSU together with the OV map. We find that the combined map, denoted as OV+rCSU, performs better than OV. In most situations, OV and OV+rCSU yield comparable folding properties but for some proteins rCSU provides contacts which improve folding in a substantial way. We discuss the likely residue-specificity of the rCSU contacts. Finally, we make comparisons to the recently proposed shadow contact map, which is derived from different principles.

  5. Extending peripersonal space representation without tool-use: evidence from a combined behavioral-computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Serino, Andrea; Canzoneri, Elisa; Marzolla, Marilena; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Magosso, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli from different sensory modalities occurring on or close to the body are integrated in a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e., peripersonal space (PPS). PPS dynamically modifies depending on experience, e.g., it extends after using a tool to reach far objects. However, the neural mechanism underlying PPS plasticity after tool use is largely unknown. Here we use a combined computational-behavioral approach to propose and test a possible mechanism accounting for PPS extension. We first present a neural network model simulating audio-tactile representation in the PPS around one hand. Simulation experiments showed that our model reproduced the main property of PPS neurons, i.e., selective multisensory response for stimuli occurring close to the hand. We used the neural network model to simulate the effects of a tool-use training. In terms of sensory inputs, tool use was conceptualized as a concurrent tactile stimulation from the hand, due to holding the tool, and an auditory stimulation from the far space, due to tool-mediated action. Results showed that after exposure to those inputs, PPS neurons responded also to multisensory stimuli far from the hand. The model thus suggests that synchronous pairing of tactile hand stimulation and auditory stimulation from the far space is sufficient to extend PPS, such as after tool-use. Such prediction was confirmed by a behavioral experiment, where we used an audio-tactile interaction paradigm to measure the boundaries of PPS representation. We found that PPS extended after synchronous tactile-hand stimulation and auditory-far stimulation in a group of healthy volunteers. Control experiments both in simulation and behavioral settings showed that the same amount of tactile and auditory inputs administered out of synchrony did not change PPS representation. We conclude by proposing a simple, biological-plausible model to explain plasticity in PPS representation after tool-use, which is

  6. Extending peripersonal space representation without tool-use: evidence from a combined behavioral-computational approach.

    PubMed

    Serino, Andrea; Canzoneri, Elisa; Marzolla, Marilena; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Magosso, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli from different sensory modalities occurring on or close to the body are integrated in a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e., peripersonal space (PPS). PPS dynamically modifies depending on experience, e.g., it extends after using a tool to reach far objects. However, the neural mechanism underlying PPS plasticity after tool use is largely unknown. Here we use a combined computational-behavioral approach to propose and test a possible mechanism accounting for PPS extension. We first present a neural network model simulating audio-tactile representation in the PPS around one hand. Simulation experiments showed that our model reproduced the main property of PPS neurons, i.e., selective multisensory response for stimuli occurring close to the hand. We used the neural network model to simulate the effects of a tool-use training. In terms of sensory inputs, tool use was conceptualized as a concurrent tactile stimulation from the hand, due to holding the tool, and an auditory stimulation from the far space, due to tool-mediated action. Results showed that after exposure to those inputs, PPS neurons responded also to multisensory stimuli far from the hand. The model thus suggests that synchronous pairing of tactile hand stimulation and auditory stimulation from the far space is sufficient to extend PPS, such as after tool-use. Such prediction was confirmed by a behavioral experiment, where we used an audio-tactile interaction paradigm to measure the boundaries of PPS representation. We found that PPS extended after synchronous tactile-hand stimulation and auditory-far stimulation in a group of healthy volunteers. Control experiments both in simulation and behavioral settings showed that the same amount of tactile and auditory inputs administered out of synchrony did not change PPS representation. We conclude by proposing a simple, biological-plausible model to explain plasticity in PPS representation after tool-use, which is

  7. Cellular inorganic carbon fluxes in Trichodesmium: a combined approach using measurements and modelling

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Meri; Thoms, Silke; Kranz, Sven A.; Rost, Björn

    2015-01-01

    To predict effects of climate change on phytoplankton, it is crucial to understand how their mechanisms for carbon acquisition respond to environmental conditions. Aiming to shed light on the responses of extra- and intracellular inorganic C (Ci) fluxes, the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was grown with different nitrogen sources (N2 vs NO3 –) and pCO2 levels (380 vs 1400 µatm). Cellular Ci fluxes were assessed by combining membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), 13C fractionation measurements, and modelling. Aside from a significant decrease in Ci affinity at elevated pCO2 and changes in CO2 efflux with different N sources, extracellular Ci fluxes estimated by MIMS were largely unaffected by the treatments. 13C fractionation during biomass production, however, increased with pCO2, irrespective of the N source. Strong discrepancies were observed in CO2 leakage estimates obtained by MIMS and a 13C-based approach, which further increased under elevated pCO2. These offsets could be explained by applying a model that comprises extracellular CO2 and HCO3 – fluxes as well as internal Ci cycling around the carboxysome via the CO2 uptake facilitator NDH-14. Assuming unidirectional, kinetic fractionation between CO2 and HCO3 – in the cytosol or enzymatic fractionation by NDH-14, both significantly improved the comparability of leakage estimates. Our results highlight the importance of internal Ci cycling for 13C composition as well as cellular energy budgets of Trichodesmium, which ought to be considered in process studies on climate change effects. PMID:25429001

  8. A general approach for combining diverse rare variant association tests provides improved robustness across a wider range of genetic architectures.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian; Hainline, Allison; Arbet, Jaron; Grinde, Kelsey; Benitez, Alejandra; Tintle, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    The widespread availability of genome sequencing data made possible by way of next-generation technologies has yielded a flood of different gene-based rare variant association tests. Most of these tests have been published because they have superior power for particular genetic architectures. However, for applied researchers it is challenging to know which test to choose in practice when little is known a priori about genetic architecture. Recently, tests have been proposed which combine two particular individual tests (one burden and one variance components) to minimize power loss while improving robustness to a wider range of genetic architectures. In our analysis we propose an expansion of these approaches, yielding a general method that works for combining any number of individual tests. We demonstrate that running multiple different tests on the same data set and using a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing is never better than combining tests using our general method. We also find that using a test statistic that is highly robust to the inclusion of non-causal variants (joint-infinity) together with a previously published combined test (sequence kernel adaptive test-optimal) provides improved robustness to a wide range of genetic architectures and should be considered for use in practice. Software for this approach is supplied. We support the increased use of combined tests in practice - as well as further exploration of novel combined testing approaches using the general framework provided here - to maximize robustness of rare variant testing strategies against a wide range of genetic architectures. PMID:26508571

  9. An operational approach for classifying storms in real-time radar rainfall estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumchean, Siriluk; Seed, Alan; Sharma, Ashish

    2008-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents an operational approach to integrate a storm classification method into a real-time radar rainfall estimation. A minor modification of a texturing classification algorithm proposed by Steiner et al. [Steiner, M., Houze Jr., R.A., Yuter, S.E., 1995. Climatological characterisation of three-dimensional storm structure from operational radar and rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1978-2007] that can classify each pixel in the radar image as stratiform or convective is used to classify the instantaneous reflectivity field into convective and stratiform components. A method to derive the climatological Z-R relations for convective and stratiform rainfall is proposed. Vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs) are used to verify the accuracy of the storm classification. An alternative method for verification of a storm classification scheme based on differences between probability distribution functions of rain gauge rainfall of the two rainfall categories is also presented. A 6-month record of radar and rain gauge rainfall for Sydney, Australia for November 2000-April 2001 is used for training and rainfall events during February 2007-March 2007 are used to evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed operational approach for classifying storms in real-time radar rainfall estimates reduces RMSE between radar and rain gauge rainfall from 4.63 to 4.30 mm h -1 and from 5.31 to 5.01 mm h -1 for the training and verification periods compared to the case where the rainfall is assumed to have a single Z-R relationship.

  10. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions. PMID:22163386

  11. Post-traumatic flexion contractures of the elbow: Operative treatment via the limited lateral approach

    PubMed Central

    Brinsden, Mark D; Carr, Andrew J; Rees, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    Varying surgical techniques, patient groups and results have been described regards the surgical treatment of post traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow. We present our experience using the limited lateral approach on patients with carefully defined contracture types. Surgical release of post-traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow was performed in 23 patients via a limited lateral approach. All patients had an established flexion contracture with significant functional deficit. Contracture types were classified as either extrinsic if the contracture was not associated with damage to the joint surface or as intrinsic if it was. Overall, the mean pre-operative deformity was 55 degrees (95%CI 48 – 61) which was corrected at the time of surgery to 17 degrees (95%CI 12 – 22). At short-term follow-up (7.5 months) the mean residual deformity was 25 degrees (95%CI 19 – 30) and at medium-term follow-up (43 months) it was 32 degrees (95%CI 25 – 39). This deformity correction was significant (p < 0.01). One patient suffered a post-operative complication with transient dysaesthesia in the distribution of the ulnar nerve, which had resolved at six weeks. Sixteen patients had an extrinsic contracture and seven an intrinsic. Although all patients were satisfied with the results of their surgery, patients with an extrinsic contracture had significantly (p = 0.02) better results than those with an intrinsic contracture. (28 degrees compared to 48 degrees at medium term follow up). Surgical release of post-traumatic flexion contracture of the elbow via a limited lateral approach is a safe technique, which reliably improves extension especially for extrinsic contractures. In this series all patients with an extrinsic contracture regained a functional range of movement and were satisfied with their surgery. PMID:18783605

  12. Multicentric neoadjuvant pilot Phase II study of cetuximab combined with docetaxel in operable triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nabholtz, J M; Chalabi, N; Radosevic-Robin, N; Dauplat, M M; Mouret-Reynier, M A; Van Praagh, I; Servent, V; Jacquin, J P; Benmammar, K E; Kullab, S; Bahadoor, M R K; Kwiatkowski, F; Cayre, A; Abrial, C; Durando, X; Bignon, Y J; Chollet, P; Penault-Llorca, F

    2016-05-01

    Systemic therapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is mostly based upon chemotherapy. Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in around 50% of TNBC and may play a role in its pathogenesis. Consequently, we performed a multicentric pilot Phase II neoadjuvant trial of cetuximab (anti-EGFR antibody) combined with docetaxel for patients with operable, Stage II-III TNBC. Therapy consisted of weekly cetuximab (first infusion: 400 mg/m(2), then 250 mg/m(2)) combined with six cycles of docetaxel (T: 100 mg/m(2)) q.3 weeks. Subsequently, all patients underwent surgery. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) while clinical response, toxicity and ancillary studies were secondary endpoints. Paraffin-embedded and frozen tumor samples were systematically collected in order to identify predictive biomarkers of efficacy and resistance. From a total of 35 accrued patients, 25 were assessable for pathologic response. The pCR rate was 24% [95% CI: 7.3-40.7]. Complete clinical response rate (cCR) was observed in 22% of cases. Conservative surgery was performed in 75% of patients. Toxicity, mostly cutaneous and hematologic, was manageable. The pre-therapy ratio between CD8+ and FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes equal or higher than 2.75 was predictive of pCR: 43% versus 0%, p = 0.047. Cetuximab in combination with docetaxel displays a modest activity, but acceptable toxicity as neoadjuvant therapy of operable TNBC. Similarly to previous observations using panitumumab, another anti-EGFR antibody, the immune component of the tumor microenvironment may play an important role in predicting TNBC response to the neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:26649807

  13. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  14. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  15. Detailing renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach.

    PubMed

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesize that combining quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with established invasive techniques will enable advanced insights into renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in small animal models. We developed a NIRS technique to monitor absolute values of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin within the renal cortex of rats. This NIRS technique was combined with invasive methods to simultaneously record renal tissue oxygen tension and perfusion. The results of test procedures including occlusions of the aorta or the renal vein, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia demonstrated that the combined approach, by providing different but complementary information, enables a more comprehensive characterization of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. PMID:25780726

  16. Detailing renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that combining quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with established invasive techniques will enable advanced insights into renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in small animal models. We developed a NIRS technique to monitor absolute values of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin within the renal cortex of rats. This NIRS technique was combined with invasive methods to simultaneously record renal tissue oxygen tension and perfusion. The results of test procedures including occlusions of the aorta or the renal vein, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia demonstrated that the combined approach, by providing different but complementary information, enables a more comprehensive characterization of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. PMID:25780726

  17. Unequal-period combination approach of gray code and phase-shifting for 3-D visual measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin

    2016-09-01

    Combination of Gray code and phase-shifting is the most practical and advanced approach for the structured light 3-D measurement so far, which is able to measure objects with complex and discontinuous surface. However, for the traditional combination of the Gray code and phase-shifting, the captured Gray code images are not always sharp cut-off in the black-white conversion boundaries, which may lead to wrong decoding analog code orders. Moreover, during the actual measurement, there also exists local decoding error for the wrapped analog code obtained with the phase-shifting approach. Therefore, for the traditional approach, the wrong analog code orders and the local decoding errors will consequently introduce the errors which are equivalent to a fringe period when the analog code is unwrapped. In order to avoid one-fringe period errors, we propose an approach which combines Gray code with phase-shifting according to unequal period. With theoretical analysis, we build the measurement model of the proposed approach, determine the applicable condition and optimize the Gray code encoding period and phase-shifting fringe period. The experimental results verify that the proposed approach can offer a reliable unwrapped analog code, which can be used in 3-D shape measurement.

  18. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  19. Indentification and Analysis of Occludin Phosphosites: A Combined Mass Spectroscoy and Bioinformatics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, J.; Tash, B; Murakami, T; Flanagan, J; Bewley, M; Stanley, B; Gonsar, K; Antonetti, D

    2009-01-01

    The molecular function of occludin, an integral membrane component of tight junctions, remains unclear. VEGF-induced phosphorylation sites were mapped on occludin by combining MS data analysis with bioinformatics. In vivo phosphorylation of Ser490 was validated and protein interaction studies combined with crystal structure analysis suggest that Ser490 phosphorylation attenuates the interaction between occludin and ZO-1. This study demonstrates that combining MS data and bioinformatics can successfully identify novel phosphorylation sites from limiting samples.

  20. Simulating California reservoir operation using the classification and regression-tree algorithm combined with a shuffled cross-validation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tiantian; Gao, Xiaogang; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    The controlled outflows from a reservoir or dam are highly dependent on the decisions made by the reservoir operators, instead of a natural hydrological process. Difference exists between the natural upstream inflows to reservoirs and the controlled outflows from reservoirs that supply the downstream users. With the decision maker's awareness of changing climate, reservoir management requires adaptable means to incorporate more information into decision making, such as water delivery requirement, environmental constraints, dry/wet conditions, etc. In this paper, a robust reservoir outflow simulation model is presented, which incorporates one of the well-developed data-mining models (Classification and Regression Tree) to predict the complicated human-controlled reservoir outflows and extract the reservoir operation patterns. A shuffled cross-validation approach is further implemented to improve CART's predictive performance. An application study of nine major reservoirs in California is carried out. Results produced by the enhanced CART, original CART, and random forest are compared with observation. The statistical measurements show that the enhanced CART and random forest overperform the CART control run in general, and the enhanced CART algorithm gives a better predictive performance over random forest in simulating the peak flows. The results also show that the proposed model is able to consistently and reasonably predict the expert release decisions. Experiments indicate that the release operation in the Oroville Lake is significantly dominated by SWP allocation amount and reservoirs with low elevation are more sensitive to inflow amount than others.

  1. [Combined Anterior and Posterior Surgical Approaches for Resection of a 2nd-rib Chondrosarcoma Occupying the Superior Sulcus].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Anraku, Masaki; Saito, Noriyuki; Fukumoto, Kento; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old man with right chest wall chondrosarcoma invading vertebral bodies underwent resection. Computed tomography (CT) showed that the tumor occupied the right superior sulcus, and was close to mediastinal organs including the trachea and esophagus. We adopted a combined anterior and posterior approaches that made safe and curative resection possible. In the anterior approach, we dissected and mobilized the neurovascular structures and neighboring organs from the tumor. A-4 cm gutter on the ventral side of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies was created for safe resection. By the subsequent posterior approach, successful resection was achieved without violating tumor margins. PMID:27246126

  2. The influence of operating temperature on the efficiency of a combined heat and power fuel cell plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, S. F.; McPhail, S. J.; Woudstra, N.; Hemmes, K.

    It is generally accepted that the ideal operating temperature of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is 650 °C. Nevertheless, when waste heat utilization in the form of an expander and steam production cycle is introduced in the system, another temperature level might prove more productive. This article is a first attempt to the optimization of MCFC operating temperatures of a MCFC system by presenting a case study in which the efficiency of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant is analyzed. The fuel cell plant under investigation is designed around a 250 kW-class MCFC fuelled by natural gas, which is externally reformed by a heat exchange reformer (HER). The operating temperature of the MCFC is varied over a temperature range between 600 and 700 °C while keeping the rest of the system the same as far as possible. Changes in energetic efficiency are given and the causes of these changes are further analyzed. Furthermore, the exergetic efficiencies of the system and the distribution of exergy losses in the system are given. Flowsheet calculations show that there is little dependency on the temperature in the first order. Both the net electrical performance and the overall exergetic performance show a maximum at approximately 675 °C, with an electrical efficiency of 51.9% (LHV), and an exergy efficiency of 58.7%. The overall thermal efficiency of this CHP plant increases from 87.1% at 600 °C to 88.9% at 700 °C. Overall, the change in performance is small in this typical range of MCFC operating temperature.

  3. Mountain permafrost detection inferred by a combined remote sensing, geomorphological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Mössinger, Max; Ott, Patrick; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf; Sass, Oliver; Stötter, Johann

    2013-04-01

    of the single datasets, a tomography including all results was created. For a further investigation of the occurrence and distribution of permafrost, 15 temperature-loggers were installed, which measured the base temperature of the snowpack (BTS) during the whole winter and so recorded potential freezing and thawing of the ground. This offered a further possibility for validation of the geophysical measurements. Additionally, the BTS was measured two times in the area close to the end of the winter snow accumulation period, to get a general idea of the possible distribution of permafrost or ice in the underground. The results of the measurements at Rofenberg show good correlation. In the areas detected within the multitemporal ALS dataset permafrost is assumed at a depth between 2 meters and 8 meters and similar ground structures can be spotted for every geophysical method. The combined approach of geophysical methods, remote sensing and field investigations allowed a profound cross-validation of the different methods.

  4. Operational optimization of irrigation scheduling for citrus trees using an ensemble based data assimilation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, H.; Han, X.; Martinez, F.; Jimenez, M.; Manzano, J.; Chanzy, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    Data assimilation (DA) techniques, like the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) not only offer the opportunity to update model predictions by assimilating new measurement data in real time, but also provide an improved basis for real-time (DA-based) control. This study focuses on the optimization of real-time irrigation scheduling for fields of citrus trees near Picassent (Spain). For three selected fields the irrigation was optimized with DA-based control, and for other fields irrigation was optimized on the basis of a more traditional approach where reference evapotranspiration for citrus trees was estimated using the FAO-method. The performance of the two methods is compared for the year 2013. The DA-based real-time control approach is based on ensemble predictions of soil moisture profiles, using the Community Land Model (CLM). The uncertainty in the model predictions is introduced by feeding the model with weather predictions from an ensemble prediction system (EPS) and uncertain soil hydraulic parameters. The model predictions are updated daily by assimilating soil moisture data measured by capacitance probes. The measurement data are assimilated with help of LETKF. The irrigation need was calculated for each of the ensemble members, averaged, and logistic constraints (hydraulics, energy costs) were taken into account for the final assigning of irrigation in space and time. For the operational scheduling based on this approach only model states and no model parameters were updated by the model. Other, non-operational simulation experiments for the same period were carried out where (1) neither ensemble weather forecast nor DA were used (open loop), (2) Only ensemble weather forecast was used, (3) Only DA was used, (4) also soil hydraulic parameters were updated in data assimilation and (5) both soil hydraulic and plant specific parameters were updated. The FAO-based and DA-based real-time irrigation control are compared in terms of soil moisture

  5. Combining Multiple Performance Measures: Do Common Approaches Undermine Districts' Personnel Evaluation Systems? CALDER Working Paper No. 118

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michael; Lemke, Mariann; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and principal evaluation systems now emerging in response to federal, state and/or local policy initiatives typically require that a component of teacher evaluation be based on multiple performance metrics, which must be combined to produce summative ratings of teacher effectiveness. Districts have utilized three common approaches to…

  6. Combining CBT and Behavior-Analytic Approaches to Target Severe Emotion Dysregulation in Verbal Youth with ASD and ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Veronique; Birtwell, Kirstin B.; Lambright, Nathan; DuBard, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an individual intervention combining cognitive-behavioral and behavior-analytic approaches to target severe emotion dysregulation in verbal youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) concurrent with intellectual disability (ID). The article focuses on two specific individuals who received the treatment within a therapeutic…

  7. Improving Outcomes for Youth with ADHD: A Conceptual Framework for Combined Neurocognitive and Skill-Based Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Kofler, Michael; Jarrett, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and chronic mental health condition that often results in substantial impairments throughout life. Although evidence-based pharmacological and psychosocial treatments exist for ADHD, effects of these treatments are acute, do not typically generalize into non-treated settings, rarely sustain over time, and insufficiently affect key areas of functional impairment (i.e., family, social, and academic functioning) and executive functioning. The limitations of current evidence-based treatments may be due to the inability of these treatments to address underlying neurocognitive deficits that are related to the symptoms of ADHD and associated areas of functional impairment. Although efforts have been made to directly target the underlying neurocognitive deficits of ADHD, extant neurocognitive interventions have shown limited efficacy, possibly due to misspecification of training targets and inadequate potency. We argue herein that despite these limitations, next-generation neurocognitive training programs that more precisely and potently target neurocognitive deficits may lead to optimal outcomes when used in combination with specific skill-based psychosocial treatments for ADHD. We discuss the rationale for such a combined treatment approach, prominent examples of this combined treatment approach for other mental health disorders, and potential combined treatment approaches for pediatric ADHD. Finally, we conclude with directions for future research necessary to develop a combined neurocognitive + skill-based treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:25120200

  8. Decontamination of a municipal landfill leachate from endocrine disruptors using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo; Senesi, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Sorption and biodegradation are the main mechanisms for the removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDs) from both solid and liquid matrices. There are recent evidences about the capacity of white-rot fungi to decontaminate water systems from phenolic EDs by means of their ligninolytic enzymes. Most of the available studies report the removal of EDs by biodegradation or adsorption separately. This study assessed the simultaneous removal of five EDs—the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestradiol (EE2), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), and the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate—from a municipal landfill leachate (MLL) using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach. The adsorption matrices used were potato dextrose agar alone or added with each of the following adsorbent materials: ground almond shells, a coffee compost, a coconut fiber, and a river sediment. These matrices were either not inoculated or inoculated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and superimposed on the MLL. The residual amount of each ED in the MLL was quantified after 4, 7, 12, and 20 days by HPLC analysis and UV detection. Preliminary experiments showed that (1) all EDs did not degrade significantly in the untreatedMLL for at least 28 days, (2) the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was largely stimulated by components of the MLL, and (3) the enrichment of potato dextrose agar with any adsorbent material favored the fungal growth for 8 days after inoculation. A prompt relevant disappearance of EDs in the MLL occurred both without and, especially, with fungal activity, with the only exception of the very water soluble dimethoate that was poorly adsorbed and possibly degraded only during the first few days of experiments. An almost complete removal of phenolic EDs, especially EE2 and NP, occurred after 20 days or much earlier and was generally enhanced by the adsorbent materials used. Data obtained indicated that both adsorption and biodegradation mechanisms contribute

  9. Automatic tremor detection with a combined cross-correlation and neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, T.; Harrington, R. M.; Cochran, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Low-amplitude, long-duration, and ambiguous phase arrivals associated with crustal tremor make automatic detection difficult. We present a new detection method that combines cross-correlation with a neural network clustering algorithm. The approach is independent of any a priori assumptions regarding tremor event duration; instead, it examines frequency content, amplitude, and motion products of continuous data to distinguish tremor from earthquakes and background noise in an automated fashion. Because no assumptions regarding event duration are required, the clustering algorithm is therefore able to detect short, burst-like events which may be missed by many current methods. We detect roughly 130 seismic events occurring over 100 minutes, including earthquakes and tremor, in a three-week long test data set of waveforms recorded near Cholame, California. The detection has a success rate of over 90% when compared to visually selected events. We use continuous broadband data from 13 STS-2 seismometers deployed from May 2010 to July 2011 along the Cholame segment of the San Andreas Fault, as well as stations from the HRSN network. The large volume of waveforms requires first reducing the amount of data before applying the neural network algorithm. First, we filter the data between 2 Hz and 8 Hz, calculate envelopes, and decimate them to 0.2 Hz. We cross-correlate signals at each station with two master stations using a moving 520-second time window with a 5-sec time step. We calculate a mean cross-correlation coefficient value between all station pairs for each time window and each master station, and select the master station with the highest mean value. Time windows with mean coefficients exceeding 0.3 are used in the neural network approach, and windows separated by less than 300 seconds are grouped together. In the second step, we apply the neural network algorithm, i.e., Self Organized Map (SOM), to classify the reduced data set. We first calculate feature

  10. Delivering an Automated and Integrated Approach to Combination Screening Using Acoustic-Droplet Technology.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin; Craggs, Richard; Swift, Denise; Sitaram, Anesh; Daya, Sandeep; Roberts, Mark; Hawley, Shaun; Owen, Paul; Isherwood, Bev

    2016-02-01

    Drug combination testing in the pharmaceutical industry has typically been driven by late-stage opportunistic strategies rather than by early testing to identify drug combinations for clinical investigation that may deliver improved efficacy. A rationale for combinations exists across a number of diseases in which pathway redundancy or resistance to therapeutics are evident. However, early assays are complicated by the absence of both assay formats representative of disease biology and robust infrastructure to screen drug combinations in a medium-throughput capacity. When applying drug combination testing studies, it may be difficult to translate a study design into the required well contents for assay plates because of the number of compounds and concentrations involved. Dispensing these plates increases in difficulty as the number of compounds and concentration points increase and compounds are subsequently rolled onto additional labware. We describe the development of a software tool, in conjunction with the use of acoustic droplet technology, as part of a compound management platform, which allows the design of an assay incorporating combinations of compounds. These enhancements to infrastructure facilitate the design and ordering of assay-ready compound combination plates and the processing of combinations data from high-content organotypic assays. PMID:25835292

  11. An introduction to shuttle/LDEF retrieval operations: The R-bar approach option. [orbital mechanics and braking schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simulated orbiter direct approaches during long duration exposure facility (LDEF) retrieval operations reveal that the resultant orbiter jet plume fields can significantly disturb LDEF. An alternate approach technique which utilizes orbital mechanics forces in lieu of jets to brake the final orbiter/LDEF relative motion during the final approach, is described. Topics discussed include: rendezvous operations from the terminal phase initiation burn through braking at some standoff distance from LDEF, pilot and copilot activities, the cockpit instrumentation employed, and a convenient coordinate frame for studying the relative motion between two orbiting bodies. The basic equations of motion for operating on the LDEF radius vector are introduced. Practical considerations of implementing an R-bar approach, namely, orbiter/LDEF relative state uncertainties and orbiter control system limitations are explored. A possible R-bar approach strategy is developed and demonstrated.

  12. A Model-Based Approach to Developing Your Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert R.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lock, Patricia D; Valerio, Charlene P.

    2014-01-01

    Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) is an increasingly popular methodology for designing complex engineering systems. As the use of MBSE has grown, it has begun to be applied to systems that are less hardware-based and more people- and process-based. We describe our approach to incorporating MBSE as a way to streamline development, and how to build a model consisting of core resources, such as requirements and interfaces, that can be adapted and used by new and upcoming projects. By comparing traditional Mission Operations System (MOS) system engineering with an MOS designed via a model, we will demonstrate the benefits to be obtained by incorporating MBSE in system engineering design processes.

  13. A novel semi-supervised hyperspectral image classification approach based on spatial neighborhood information and classifier combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kun; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun; Du, Peijun

    2015-07-01

    In the process of semi-supervised hyperspectral image classification, spatial neighborhood information of training samples is widely applied to solve the small sample size problem. However, the neighborhood information of unlabeled samples is usually ignored. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for hyperspectral image semi-supervised classification in which the spatial neighborhood information is combined with classifier to enhance the classification ability in determining the class label of the selected unlabeled samples. There are two key points in this algorithm: (1) it is considered that the correct label should appear in the spatial neighborhood of unlabeled samples; (2) the combination of classifier can obtains better results. Two classifiers multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) are combined together in the above way to further improve the performance. The performance of the proposed approach was assessed with two real hyperspectral data sets, and the obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is effective for hyperspectral classification.

  14. Understanding and predicting suicidality using a combined genomic and clinical risk assessment approach

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, A B; Levey, D F; Phalen, P L; Le-Niculescu, H; Dainton, H D; Jain, N; Belanger, E; James, A; George, S; Weber, H; Graham, D L; Schweitzer, R; Ladd, T B; Learman, R; Niculescu, E M; Vanipenta, N P; Khan, F N; Mullen, J; Shankar, G; Cook, S; Humbert, C; Ballew, A; Yard, M; Gelbart, T; Shekhar, A; Schork, N J; Kurian, S M; Sandusky, G E; Salomon, D R

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, one person dies every 40 seconds by suicide, a potentially preventable tragedy. A limiting step in our ability to intervene is the lack of objective, reliable predictors. We have previously provided proof of principle for the use of blood gene expression biomarkers to predict future hospitalizations due to suicidality, in male bipolar disorder participants. We now generalize the discovery, prioritization, validation, and testing of such markers across major psychiatric disorders (bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia) in male participants, to understand commonalities and differences. We used a powerful within-participant discovery approach to identify genes that change in expression between no suicidal ideation and high suicidal ideation states (n=37 participants out of a cohort of 217 psychiatric participants followed longitudinally). We then used a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach with existing prior evidence in the field to prioritize the candidate biomarkers identified in the discovery step. Next, we validated the top biomarkers from the prioritization step for relevance to suicidal behavior, in a demographically matched cohort of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=26). The biomarkers for suicidal ideation only are enriched for genes involved in neuronal connectivity and schizophrenia, the biomarkers also validated for suicidal behavior are enriched for genes involved in neuronal activity and mood. The 76 biomarkers that survived Bonferroni correction after validation for suicidal behavior map to biological pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response, mTOR signaling and growth factor regulation. mTOR signaling is necessary for the effects of the rapid-acting antidepressant agent ketamine, providing a novel biological rationale for its possible use in treating acute suicidality. Similarly, MAOB, a target of antidepressant inhibitors, was one of the increased

  15. A Multi - Disciplinary Approach Combining Geological, Geomorphological and Geophysical Data for Mapping the Susceptibility to Sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio; Quarta, Tatiana A. M.; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Salento region of southern Italy has a great number of active sinkholes, related to both natural and anthropogenic cavities. The presence of sinkholes is at the origin of several problems to the built-up environment, due to the increasing population growth and development pressures. In such a context, the detection of cavities, and therefore the assessment of the sinkhole hazard presents numerous difficulties. Multidisciplinary - approach, comprising geological, geomorphological and geophysical analyses, is therefore necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge of the complex phenomena in karstic areas. Geophysical methods can also be of great help to identify and map the areas at higher risk of collapse. In this case it is important to identify the features related to the underground voids, likely evolving to sinkholes, by contrasts in physical properties such as density, electrical resistivity, and so on, with the surrounding sediments. At the same time, identification of the presence of sinkholes by geophysical methods has to adapt to the different geological conditions, so that there is not the possibility to use the same techniques everywhere. At this aim, the present paper illustrates the advantages of integrating geological and geomorphological surveys with surface geophysical techniques such as seismic, geoelectrical and ground penetrating radar methods for the identification of sinkhole-prone areas. The present work illustrates the results concerning a sinkhole system at Nociglia (inland Salento, southeastern Italy) where the shallow phreatic speleogenesis operates close to the water table level with formation of karst conduits and proto-caves whose evolution occurs through successive roof collapse, formation of wide caverns and sinkhole development at the surface. All of this creates serious problems to the nearby infrastructures, including a province road that has often been threatened by the sinkhole development. Geological and geomorphological

  16. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  17. The Optimized Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Units Oriented for the Grid-Connected Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shu; Ge, Xiaolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, according to various grid-connected demands, the optimization scheduling models of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are established with three scheduling modes, which are tracking the total generation scheduling mode, tracking steady output scheduling mode and tracking peaking curve scheduling mode. In order to reduce the solution difficulty, based on the principles of modern algebraic integers, linearizing techniques are developed to handle complex nonlinear constrains of the variable conditions, and the optimized operation problem of CHP units is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Finally, with specific examples, the 96 points day ahead, heat and power supply plans of the systems are optimized. The results show that, the proposed models and methods can develop appropriate coordination heat and power optimization programs according to different grid-connected control.

  18. Alumina calcination with the advanced circulating fluid bed technology: A design with increased efficiency combined with operating flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.W.; Stockhausen, W.; Silberberg, A.N.

    1996-10-01

    The Circulating Fluid Bed (CFB) technology has now been applied to alumina calcination for a quarter of a century. The combined capacity of the 32 units installed is greater than 10 million metric tons per year. The paper highlights the consistency of the product quality which is based upon the operating experience of the last decade and improvements to the calcination system which also provides lower heat consumption. The principal modifications are incorporated in the preheating and cooling sections of the plant. These design modifications have also reduced capital cost. Overall the plant retains its proven features of high flexibility, unique temperature control, high availability, reliable performance, and low maintenance cost. The design is applicable to single train units up to a capacity of 3,000 MTPD (alumina).

  19. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  20. Management of cardiac device infections: A retrospective survey of a non-surgical approach combining antibiotic therapy with transvenous removal.

    PubMed

    Tascini, C; Bongiorni, M G; Gemignani, G; Soldati, E; Leonildi, A; Arena, G; Doria, R; Giannola, G; La Pira, F; Tagliaferri, E; Caravelli, P; Dell'Anna, R; Menichetti, F

    2006-04-01

    Pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have become life-saving therapeutic tools for patients with cardiac arrhythmia. Complications include thrombosis, embolism and infections at a highly variable rate. Surgical removal of the infected device has been perceived as the only way to guarantee a successful outcome and to reduce the high risk of mortality. Recently, a transvenous extraction method has been developed to remove infected intracardiac leads without sternotomy. This survey was designed to evaluate the outcome of an approach combining antibiotic therapy with non-surgical transvenous complete removal for the management of cardiac device infections (CDIs). We reviewed case-histories of 121 patients (105 with PM and 16 with ICD infections). The aim of our retrospective survey was to ascertain that a non-invasive transvenous complete removal of the infected devices is safe and effective when associated with appropriate antibiotic therapy starting 10 days before the procedure and extending to at least three weeks after. The infected devices were successfully removed in all patients with a non-surgical transvenous technique. The infections were most frequently caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (70%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%), and Gram-negative rods (12%). Polymicrobial infections were documented in 19 patients and represent 16% of all device-related infections. The removal of the devices was done during antibiotic therapy, administered for a median of 26 days (range 23 to 45 days). Neither fatalities nor relapse of infections were recorded in the patient population during the one-year follow-up visits. According to our experience, CDIs can be treated with antibiotic therapy and non-surgical removal of the entire infected device, thus allowing a successful reimplantation. This procedure prevents recurrent infections and operative mortality. PMID:16736884