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Sample records for ophiolitic melange nellore-khammam

  1. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  2. Relict blue-schist in Himalayan Ophiolitic Melange: does it emplaced through subduction channel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, K.; Mukherjee, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    Among the planets, the Earth face retains signature of emplacement mechanisms which can be viewed through plate tectonics to reveal the paleo-earth history. And this fact has been manifested through the occurrence of high-pressure, low temperature rock of Zildat Ophiolitic Melange in North West Himalaya (India). The Ophiolitic Melange units form thin (~100s metres) layer of thrust sheets along suture zone, sandwiched between the upper mantle dunite- peridotites rock of Nidar ophiolite and ultrahigh-pressure gneissic dome Tso Morari Crystalline (TMC). Our data shows that the mlange matrix represents overprinting of various metamorphisms from granulite to green-schist facies, relics of Na- amphibole point to the occurrence of an older blueschist facies, oceanic basalt clast, pelagic sediment, chert, sheared carbonates, hydrated peridotite(?) , serpentinite melange. Detail of mineral fabric study and chemical analysis suggest the occurrence of heterogeneous metamorphism in Zildat ophiolitic melange likely to be decoupled with tectonic evolution. It has been interpreted that the melange is thought to preserve shearing related to the emplacement mechanism. And the final emplacement path of melange material from different depths of eclogite-blueschist transition possibly returned through fossil subduction channel which is assisted by serpentinised matrix. The serpentine and melange material is now juxtaposed with continental TMC gneissic dome. To validate the final emplacement history combined isotopic (?18O) data has been deployed; results fluid mobility exchange between continental TMC gneiss and Zildat ophiolitic melange is synchronous.

  3. Application of imaging spectrometer data to the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1988-01-01

    The Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange in east-central California is thought to be an obducted oceanic fracture zone and provides the rare opportunity to examine in detail the complex nature of this type of terrain. It is anticipated that the distribution and abundance of components in the melange can be used to determine the relative importance of geologic processes responsible for the formation of fracture zone crust. Laboratory reflectance spectra of field samples indicate that the melange components have distinct, diagnostic absorptions at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The spatial and spectral resolution of AVIRIS is ideally suited for addressing important scientific questions concerning the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange and fracture zones in general.

  4. West Point Melange, remnants of a Lower Paleozoic ophiolitic, eclogite-bearing melange in the Southern Appalachians, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.F. III; Higgins, M.W.; Crawford, T.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic West Point melange in the West Point thrust sheet is locally preserved beneath and commonly folded with ocean-floor Ropes Creek Metabasalt of the Ropes Creek thrust sheet in the crystalline terrane of Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. The melange overlies a calc-alkaline island arc assemblage known as the Paulding volcanic-plutonic complex in the Paulding thrust sheet. The matrix of the melange is generally highly sheared talc-actinolite schist and (or) highly deformed amphibolite, and less commonly sheared scaly pelitic schist. Most clasts in the melange are of a wide variety of mafic and ultramafic rocks, including dunite, coronite troctolite, olivine gabbro, wehrlite, cortlandite, pyroxenite, and olivine-pyroxenite. Eclogite clasts are found at several localities in northern Georgia, southern North Carolina, and in Alabama. The mostly mafic ophiolitic nature of the West Point melange, the clasts of eclogite, and its location between an island-arc assemblage and ocean-ridge basalts suggests that it is the remnants of a subduction melange formed between the mid-Iapetus ridge and the oceanic Paulding island arc. The melange also forms part of the Hillabee Greenstone in Alabama and the Lake Chatuge sill and Shooting Creek complex in northern Georgia and southern North Carolina.

  5. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.

    2007-12-01

    Metre to decameter-size clasts of amphibolite are found embedded in ophiolitic melanges underlying the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone Ophiolites, South Tibet, China. These ophiolites and melanges occur at the limit between Indian and Tibetan-derived rocks and represent remnants of an Early Cretaceous intraoceanic supra-subduction zone domain, the Neo-Tethys. In the Saga-Dazuka segment (500 km along-strike), we discovered new occurrences of strongly foliated amphibolites found as clasts in the ophiolitic melange. In garnet-free samples, hornblende is green-blue magnesio-hornblende and cpx is low-Al diopside. In garnet- bearing samples, garnet is almandine with a strong pyrope component (up to 30 mol%) whereas coexisting hornblende is brown Ti-rich tschermakite and clinopyroxene is Al-diopside. Plagioclase composition was ubiquitously shifted to albite during a late metasomatic event. Geochemistry of these rocks indicates that their igneous protoliths crystallized from a slightly differentiated tholeiitic basaltic liquid that did not undergo major fractionation. Trace element patterns reveal geochemical characteristics identical to those of the overlying ophiolitic crust. These are 1) trace element abundances similar to that of N-MORBs or BABBs, 2) a slight depletion of LREE and 3) a moderate to strong Ta-Nb negative anomaly and a slight Ti anomaly. Such characteristics suggest genesis over a spreading center close to a subduction zone, possibly a back-arc basin. Step-heating Ar/Ar plateau ages were obtained from hornblende separates. All ages fall in the range of 123-128 Ma, overlapping the crystallization ages from the overlying ophiolite (126-131 Ma). Pseudosections were built with the THERMOCALC software in the system NCFMASH. Results indicate that the observed assemblage Hb+Pl+Gt+Cpx is stable over a wide range of P-T conditions, between 10-18 kbars and at more than 800°C. Measured mineral modes and solid solution compositions were successfully modeled, indicating equilibrium between 11-13 kbars and 825-850°C, corresponding to high-P granulite facies conditions. In a general way, the geochemistry of the strongly foliated amphibolite clasts suggests that their igneous protolith probably crystallized within the same supra-subduction zone as the crustal rocks from the overlying ophiolite. Then some of these rocks were entrained to mantle depth and were rapidly exhumed, most likely along a lithospheric scale thrust fault underneath the ophiolite. This event corresponds with the end of magmatic activity within the ophiolitic crust and mantle and could be regarded as the inception of a subduction plane at the spreading ridge of a back-arc basin. The whole package was later on obducted over the Indian passive margin, at about 70 Ma. Such a model suggests that closure of the oceanic domain separating India from Eurasia implied disruption of at least one arc-back-arc system, thus requiring at least one early intraoceanic collision or major plate movement reorganization prior to the Late Cretaceous obduction.

  6. Melange genesis in the construction of the Anatolian subcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Parlak, Osman; Ustaömer, Timur; Unlugenç, Ulvican; Nairn, Steven; Üçtaş Özbey, Zeynep

    2010-05-01

    Melanges can be defined as chaotically deformed blocks with, or without, a matrix and may be of tectonic, or sedimentary origin, or both. Classic examples throughout Anatolia have mainly Carboniferous (Konya-Teke Dere-Karaburun), Late Triassic (Karakaya), Late Cretaceous (e.g. Ankara), Eocene (Pontides) and Oligo-Miocene (Misis-Andırın) ages of formation. All of the major melanges reflect contractional processes and delineate convergent plate margins or suture zones. The Carboniferous melanges record southward (?) subduction of "older Palaeotethys" beneath the N margin of Gondwana. The U. Triassic melanges reflect late-stage northward subduction of "younger Palaeotethys" beneath Eurasia. The U. Cretaceous melanges record northward subduction of Mesozoic oceanic crust; i.e. Ankara-Izmir-Erzincan ocean in the N (e.g. Domuzdağ Melange, central Pontides; Ankara Melange) and S Neotethys in the south (e.g. Berit Melange). The Eocene melanges in the Pontides reflect final closure of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean. The Oligocene-Lower Miocene melanges in SE Turkey (e.g. Killan Melange) document later-stage subduction/closure of the S Neotethys. The melanges typically reflect the interaction of both tectonic and sedimentary processes. Tectonic processes include frontal accretion, forearc subcretion, subduction channel mixing, high pressure/low temperature metamorphism/deformation (e.g. Anatolide melanges), exhumation; also, re-imbrication to maintain a critical taper. Sedimentary processes include collapse of seamounts/continental margins into subduction trenches (e.g. Carboniferous mélanges), reworking as debris flows in trench/forearc basin settings (e.g. U. Cretaceous Anatolide melanges), also genesis of large-scale collision-related mega-debris flows, e.g. driven by seamount-trench collision (e.g. U. Triassic Karakaya melange), trench-passive margin collision (e.g. U. Cretaceous Tauride melanges), or continent-continent collision (e.g. Eocene Pontide melanges and Oligo-Miocene S Neotethyan melanges). Important controls of the melange genesis include: 1. Subduction setting, either continental margin or oceanic, with e.g. Carboniferous melanges representing near continental margin subduction with high terrigenous input, compared to e.g. some U. Cretaceous melanges that formed in sediment-starved more oceanic settings. 2. Age of subducting oceanic lithosphere: older ocean (e.g. Carboniferous melanges), was more easily subducted than young, buoyant, ocean (e.g. some U. Cretaceous melanges); 3. SSZ-type oceanic lithosphere: where present dismembered ophiolites including mantle rocks were accreted preferentially (e.g. U. Cretaceous Ankara Melange); 4. Igneous seamounts or continental fragments; where present (e.g. U Triassic Karakaya melange; U. Cretaceous Ankara melange) large volumes of ocean-island-type volcanics, cover sediments and flank facies were accreted. 5. Large-scale plate dynamics; slab roll-back favoured accretion but slab roll-forward subduction erosion. In the absence of situations favouring crustal accretion the normal condition was non-accretion such that melange genesis was skewed to exceptional geological settings (e.g. collision of plume-type seamounts or SSZ-type oceanic lithosphere with subduction trenches). Melanges generally lack incorporated oceanic lithosphere in cases where the subduction décollement was located at a high structural level in the subduction trench, well above oceanic basement (e.g. for the Carboniferous melanges). None of the major Anatolian mélanges formed by mainly sedimentary processes as "olistostromes" or in rift settings (either continental, or backarc), although relatively small-scale debris flow deposits characterise several extension-related settings (e.g. Triassic rifting of Antalya Complex; Eocene back-arc Maden Formation). Finally, the varied Anatolian melanges can be used as a model to infer modes of melange formation elsewhere (e.g. some Iapetus-related melanges).

  7. Ophiolite emplacement by collision between the Sula Platform and the Sulawesi Island Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Eli A.; McCaffrey, Robert; Joyodiwiryo, Yoko; Stevens, Scott

    1983-11-01

    Much of the tectonic complexity displayed in eastern Indonesia results from a series of Neogene collision events between island arcs, continental fragments, and the Australian continent. Here we examine the emplacement of a large ophiolite belt, resulting from the Miocene collision between the Sulawesi island arc and a continental fragment, the Sula platform. We present the results of several marine geophysical expeditions to the SW Molucca Sea and the NW Banda Sea, plus gravity and geology on the east arms of Sulawesi. The Batui thrust separates the ophiolite from sedimentary rocks deformed along the leading edge of the Sula platform. We mapped this thrust eastward from Sulawesi along the southern margin of the Gorontalo basin. The latter is floored by oceanic crust, and its south edge is uplifted against the thrust. Thus the Sulawesi ophiolite can be traced offshore to its origin as basement of the Gorontalo basin. The ophiolite is composed of harzburgite in the Southeast Arm and passes upward through a complex of gabbros and diabase dikes in the East Arm. Ophiolite melange underlies the harzburgites on the Southeast Arm beneath low-angle thrust contacts where seen. Our local observations show the melange to be composed of thrust packets of both serpentine and red shale matrix varieties. The packets are several hundred meters thick, and the melange, where studied, has a moderate north to northeast dipping foliation. This orientation, if regionally representative of the melange fabric, is consistent with a significant northward component of movement of the lower plate, probably the Sula platform or its margin. Where the ophiolite is in contact with rocks of the central schist belt, it dips under the schist, but where it encounters melange, or Mesozoic or Paleogene sedimentary rocks, the ophiolite is thrust over them. The tectonic overlap sequence, from west to east, is schist over ophiolite over older sediments or melange. The ophiolite appears to have been emplaced by oblique convergence of the Sula platform along the southern edge of the Gorontalo basin. We suggest that the Gorontalo basin represents a forearc basin and the ophiolite is its basement, analogous to a number of other forearc settings. Deformation of the ophiolite may have occurred in part on the seafloor prior to emplacement, but we feel that much of the deformation occurred during emplacement. The Sulawesi ophiolite is only one of a number of ophiolites in the Indonesian region, each of which has a very different origin and tectonic history.

  8. Diverse sources for igneous blocks in Franciscan melanges, California Coast Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, G.J. ); Phipps, S.P. ); Grossman, J.N. )

    1990-11-01

    Igneous blocks in Franciscan melanges are of three chemical-petrologic types: (1) tholeiitic basalts of both arc and spreading center origin, with depletions in light relative to heavy rare-earth elements, 3% > TiO{sub 2} > 1%, high Y/Zr and Y/Ti ratios, and relict augites that generally have low Al and Ti and well-defined iron-enrichment trends; (2) basalts of probable seamount origin with marked enrichments in light relative to heavy rare-earth elements, 5% > TiO{sub 2} > 1%, lower Y/Zr and Y/Ti than (1), and Ti-Al-rich augites showing little if any iron-enrichment trends; and (3) hypabyssal intrusives having SiO{sub 2} > 52%, TiO{sub 2} < 1%, flat or only slightly fractionated rare-earth-abundance patterns, and diopsidic augites that are very low in Ti and Al and show no iron-enrichment trends. All of the blocks are metamorphosed; most are undeformed pumpellyite-bearing greenstones, and a few contain sodic amphibole {plus minus} lawsonite {plus minus} sodic pyroxene. The melanges are probably olistostromal in origin, deriving their igneous block detritus both from the downgoing Pacific plate (ocean floor basalts and seamounts) and from the hanging wall of the Franciscan trench (basalts and arc-related silic intrusive rocks). The silicic intrusive rocks and some of the basalts are eroded fragments of the fore-arc crust that ultimately become the Coast Range Ophiolite. These fragments were incorporated into the Franciscan trench fill and subducted. Results suggest that the igneous blocks in ophiolitic melanges provide important information about melange formation and about the tectonics and paleogeography of the regions in which the melanges are found.

  9. Diverse melanges of an ancient subduction complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lash, Gary G.

    1987-07-01

    Three lithologically and structurally diverse melanges occur within an early Paleozoic (Early Middle Ordovician) subduction complex in the central Appalachian orogen. Type I melange, characterized by horizons of variably deformed sandstone and scaly mudstone that alternate with coherent sandstone-rich sequences, is interpreted to reflect accretion-related deformation of water-saturated trench deposits. Type II melange, composed of exotic radiolaria-bearing mudstone clasts in a scaly mudstone matrix, can be explained by remobilization and mixing of inner-trench slope sediments. Type III melange is a poorly sorted polymict assemblage of native lithology clasts in a scaly mudstone matrix. Evidence of forceful injection of matrix mud into clasts and inferred discordant contacts between melange and surrounding bedded deposits suggest that the type III melange formed from mud diapirism. The close association of these melanges points out the diversity of tectonic and sedimentary processes previously documented from modern convergent margins that may be reflected in older subduction complexes.

  10. Overview of ophiolites and related units in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Cenozoic magmatic and tectonic development of Tethys in the northern part of the Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Karamata, Stevan; ari?, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    The northern Balkan Peninsula, including Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Croatia and the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, represents an excellent region for the study of tectonic processes related to Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolite genesis and emplacement. We first summarise the main tectonic units of the northern Balkan Peninsula and then use this information to discuss tectonic processes, including rifting, sea-floor spreading, ophiolite genesis and emplacement, melange accretion, ocean-basin closure and collision. We then discuss alternative models of ophiolite genesis and emplacement for the region and suggest that multi-ocean-basin interpretations fit the data better than single-ocean-basin interpretations. Rifting of Adria (Gondwana) during the Triassic created a rift in the south (Budva zone) and opened a Triassic oceanic basin further north (Dinaride ocean). Occurrences of inferred sub-continental mantle lithosphere in the Dinaride ophiolite belt (e.g. Zlatibor) may record extensional exhumation within an ocean-continent transition zone bordering the Adria/Dinaride continent. This was followed by emplacement together with ophiolites and melange during Upper Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Upper Triassic radiolarites and mid-ocean ridge-type basalts formed at a spreading ridge after continental break-up. The oceanic lithosphere of the Dinaride ophiolite belt was partly generated above a subduction zone. The metamorphic soles of the Dinaride ophiolites formed during Mid-Late Jurassic mainly based on K/Ar dating. Widespread melange that is associated with the ophiolites represents a subduction complex, controlled by tectonic accretion and sedimentary reworking in trench and fore-arc basin settings. A possible cause of Jurassic Dinaride ophiolite emplacement was collision of a subduction trench with a continental margin. Further north, Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere subducted northeastwards (present coordinates) opening a Late Jurassic marginal basin in the Main Vardar zone. The Dinaride ocean in the south closed during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time (Tithonian-Berriasian). Deformed oceanic crust, melange and magmatic arc rocks further north (Main Vardar zone) were transgressed by mainly clastic sediments during the Early Cretaceous. However, part of the Vardar ocean (Vardar zone western belt, or Sava zone) remained partially open until latest Cretaceous time. Generally northward subduction within this remnant ocean triggered further supra-subduction zone ophiolite genesis during the Late Cretaceous. The ocean closed by the Maastrichtian, followed by Early Cenozoic regional-scale southward thrusting that locally intercalated older and younger Mesozoic ophiolites and melanges. Future progress particularly depends on determining the crystallisation ages of the ophiolites, obtaining better structural data on the direction of initial ophiolite emplacement and unravelling the Palaeozoic tectonic development of the Eurasian continental margin.

  11. Hurricane Mountain Formation melange: history of Cambro-Ordovician accretion of the Boundary Mountains terrane within the northern Appalachian orthotectonic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.M.; Boudette, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Hurricane Mountain Formation (HMF) melange and associated ophiolitic and volcanogenic formations of Cambrian and lowermost Ordovician age bound the SE margin of the Precambrian Y (Helikian) Chain Lakes Massif in western Maine. HMF melange matrix, though weakly metamorphosed, contains a wide variety of exotic greenschist to amphibolite facies blocks as components of its polymictic assemblage, but blocks of high-grade cratonal rocks such as those of Chain Lakes or Grenville affinity are lacking. Formations of melange exposed in structural culminations of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks NE of the HMF in Maine and in the Fournier Group in New Brunswick are lithologically similar and probably tectonically correlative with the HMF; taken together, they may delineate a common pre-Middle Ordovician tectonic boundary. The authors infer that the Hurricane Mountain and St. Daniel melange belts define the SE and NW margins of the Boundary Mountains accreted terrane (BMT), which may consist of cratonal basement of Chain Lakes affinity extending from eastern Gaspe (deBroucker and St. Julien, 1985) to north-central New Hampshire. The Laurentian continental margin, underlain by Grenville basement, underplated the NW margin of this terrane, marked by the SDF suture zone, in late Cambrian to early Ordovician time, while terranes marked by Cambrian to Tremadocian (.) lithologies dissimilar to the Boundary Mountains terrane were accreted to its outboard margin penecontemporaneously. The docking of the Boundary Mountains terrane and the initiation of its peripheral melanges are equated to the Penobscottian disturbance.

  12. Ophiolites and oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moores, E.M.; Jackson, E.D.

    1974-01-01

    OPHIOLITES consist of a pseudostratiform sequence, of harzburgite, tectonite, ultramafic and mafic cumulates sometimes including gabbro and quartz diorite (plagiogranite) intrusions, dolerite dyke swarms, pillow lava 1, and deep-sea sediments2-4. This assemblage occurs in all Phanerozoic mountain systems and is interpreted as fossil oceanic crust and uppermost mantle5-10. Outstanding problems include differences between the chemical properties of Ophiolites and rocks thought to represent present-day oceanic crust11,12, the lack in some complexes of recognised dyke swarms or cumulates, and the relative thinness of ophiolite mafic rocks compared with standard oceanic crustal sections5,8,13. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In Turkey, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the Anatolian continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper-extended domains derived ophiolites. We interpret the parent body as related to the exhumation of mantle rocks along low angle detachment faults either during the rifting or the oceanic accretion. The peridotites record a high serpentization degree, increasing toward the surface. Outcropping of the mantle rocks at the sea floor is responsible for the reworking of materials as tectonosedimentary breccias (ophicalcites). The emplacement of the gabbro will be constrained by U-Pb zircon geochronology.

  14. Chunky Gal Melange and its tectonic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Lacazette, A. Jr.; Rast, N.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed mapping of the Chunky Gal Mafic/Ultramafic Complex of SW North Carolina indicates that the complex is involved in a set of ductile shear zones separating pods of less deformed material. The product is a tectonic mixture of fragments of amphibolites, granites, calc-silicates and ultramafic rocks in the Tallulah Falls Fm. Some inclusions are in different states of metamorphism. Foliation within the amphibolite, migmatite and granite lumps is truncated at their edges. The metasediments show a transposed pervasive late foliation (S/sub 2/.) although the sense of intersection of earlier fabrics is locally determinable. Linear fabric elements plunge east. In the amphibolites, the foliation is folded but not transposed. The zone, therefore, is termed the Chunky Gal Melange. Although syntectonic porphyroblasts suggest that the movement began during the metamorphism, the melange postdates the peak of the main regional metamorphism and separates superposed granulite facies rocks from those of amphibolite facies. A weaker lower amphibolite metamorphism postdates the melange. In the vicinity of Chunky Gal Mountain the melange coincides with the premetamorphic Hayesville Thrust of R. Hatcher. A tectonic model suggested here is that the eastern Blue Ridge represents a poorly to fully developed accretionary prism that was built above an east dipping subduction zone during the closure of a marginal sea. Mafic and ultramafic rocks were incorporated with the metasediments at this time. The Hayesville Thrust itself reflects an early stage of suturing of this terrane with North America.

  15. Ophiolitic terranes of northern and central Alaska and their correlatives in Canada and northeastern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.W. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    All of the major ophiolitic terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Innoko, Seventymile, and Goodnews terranes) in the northern and central Alaska belong to the Tethyan-type' of Moores (1982) and were obducted onto Paleozoic and Proterozoic continental and continental margin terranes in Mesozoic time. Tethyan-type' ophiolitic assemblages also occur in the Slide Mountain terrane in the Canadian Cordillera and extend from western Alaska into northeastern Russia. Although investigators have suggested widely different ages from their times of abduction onto the continent, these ophiolitic terranes display some remarkably similar features: (1) they consist of a stack of imbricated thrust slices dominated by ocean floor sediments, basalt, and high-level gabbro of late Paleozoic and Triassic age; (2) their mafic-ultramafic complexes generally are confined to the uppermost thrust sheets; (3) they lack the large tectonic melanges zones and younger accretionary flysch deposits associated with the ophiolitic terranes of southern Alaska and the Koryak region of northeastern Russia; (4) blueschist mineral assemblages occur in the lower part of these ophiolite terranes and (or) in the underlying continental terranes; and (5) they are bordered on their outboard' side by Mesozoic intraoceanic volcanic arc terranes. Recent geochemical and geologic studies of the mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Anagayucham and Tozitna terranes strongly suggest they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) and that they are directly overlain by volcanic rocks of the Koyukuk terrane.

  16. Origin of tonalites from the Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine, marks the suture between the Boundary Mountain and Gander terranes that became amalgamated in the late Cambrian during a pre-Taconic collisional event known as the Penobscottian orogeny. This even formed a composite terrane that is believed to have collided with the proto-North American margin during the Ordovician Taconic orogeny. The ophiolite is unusual in that there is no associated tectonized ultramafic section; there is a lack of a sheeted dike sequence; and an intrusive tonalite layer comprises a significant volume of the complex. Preliminary major and trace element geochemical analysis of the tonalites indicates that this unit is derived by partial melting of the associated mafic volcanics. This melting may have been induced by stopping water-rich hydrothermally altered basalts into subcrustal magma chambers. The association of arc-like volcanics and plutonics of the Boil Mountain ophiolite with the adjacent Hurricane melange suggests that the Boil Mountain may be a fragment of a forearc supra-subduction zone complex. Similar interpretations have been made recently for the Late Proterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite in Morocco and the Coast Range ophiolite.

  17. Petrology and structure of greenstone blocks encased in mud-matrix melange of the Franciscan complex near San Simeon, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, R.K.; Cloos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Greenstones comprise about 20% of all mappable (>1 m) blocks encased in blueschist-block-bearing mud-matrix melange exposed in a 10 km-length of sea cliffs near San Simeon. Field and petrographic analysis of 25 blocks show they vary from finely crystalline (<1 mm) locally porphyritic or amygdaloidal, volcanics to coarsely crystalline (1 to 5 mm) diabase. Some are in contact with bedded chert and two have relict pillows. However, most blocks are intensely deformed. Pinch-and-swell and boundinage are recognized on scales from cm to about 10 m. Distortion was accommodated by cataclasis to an aggregate of pieces from mm to m across. Generally, m-sized blocks are pervasively cataclastic whereas larger blocks are crosscut by cataclastic zones that emanate from pervasively cataclastic margins or necked regions of boudins. Discontinuous, cm-thick veins and cavities that are lined by quartz and clacite and rarely, laumontite, prehnite and aragonite locally crosscut all other structures. Relict igneous textures show the primary minerals are plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Abundant secondary minerals, particularly in cataclastic zones, are albite, chlorite, pumpellyite (some have high Al), and calcite. The metamorphic parageneses indicate relatively minor greenschist-facies, sea-floor-type alterations under static conditions followed by lower-temperature alterations synchronous with cataclasis and the development of boudinage. If the blocks are fragments of disrupted ophiolites, only the uppermost section of the suite are present within the mud-matrix melange near San Simeon. The simplest explanation for their crystallization, metamorphism and incorporation into the melange is that they are fragments of seamounts dismembered during subduction.

  18. Melanges, intrusive and extrusive sediments, and hydraulic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Christopher J.; von Brunn, Victor

    1989-05-01

    Water-carrying sediment may intrude (with or without associated extrusion) wherever the fluid pressure exceeds the intrusion strength of the surrounding materials. It has recently been suggested that thrust sheets moving toward continental interiors act as giant squeegees driving fluids through their substrates ahead of them. Active ice sheets and sedimentary prisms can also squeeze fluids through rocks. Such fluids potentially inject hydraulic melanges along their plumbing systems, but these are difficult to distinguish from other melanges and from broken formations or olistostromes because of surficial slumping or extrusion. Miniature examples of melanges pumped through a marine slope by the tidal grounding of an ice sheet of Permian-Carboniferous Dwyka age in South Africa are used to illustrate that there are even more categories of melange than previously suspected. Instead of being clarified by recent work, the problem of deducing the origin of individual melanges becomes more difficult. This is because melanges are formed by the mixing of thick hydrous slurries in any confined conditions and are not diagnostic of subduction. Nonetheless, the results of hydraulic activity within a subglacial marine slope suggest that the sedimentary volcanoes developed on many accretionary prisms overlie relatively cold hydraulic arcs oceanward of the hot magmatic arcs behind subduction zones.

  19. Structure and tectonics of a Lower Ordovician forearc ophiolite in central western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzer, L.M.; Dilek, Y. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    The Lower Ordovician Boil Mountain ophiolite complex (BMO) in central western Maine occurs in the Gander tectonic zone, nearly 100 km SE of the main Appalachian ophiolite belt, and represents part of the Iapetus oceanic domain. It is exposed in an ENE trending narrow zone immediately south of the Precambrian Chain Lakes massif (CLM). The contact between the CLM and the BMO is characterized by a steeply to vertically south-dipping shear zone composed of several fault planes, which display subhorizontal slickenside lineations with sinistral sense of shearing and counterclockwise rotated porphyroclasts. The BMO consists mainly of pyroxenite, gabbro, diorite, plagiogranite, autobreccia, mafic to felsic volcanic, volcaniclastic, and hemipelagic sedimentary rocks, and contacts between these lithologic units are commonly vertical and faulted. Autobreccia outcrops containing clasts and blocks of serpentinite, diabase, pillowed basalt, and radioalarian chert in a medium-grained hemipelagic matrix indicates deposition penecontemporaneous with ocean floor tectonism during evolution of the ophiolite. Extrusive rocks include basaltic, massive to pillow-lava flows, and andesites, dacites, and rhyolites and are commonly metamorphosed up to a lower-greenschist facies. The BMO is overlain to the SE by a melange-flysch sequence composed mainly of metapelite, metagraywacke, phyllite, and slate with abundant volcanic material suggesting alternated shallow- and deep-water sedimentation in a forearc basin. These relations and the observed structures in the ophiolite indicate its development in an oceanic environment with a low magma budget and active vertical tectonism. The available geochemical data show low Ti, Zr, Y, Cr, and REE contents of volcanic rocks suggesting a depleted magma source in a suprasubduction zone tectonic setting for the ophiolite.

  20. Geochemistry and tectonomagmatic affinity of the Yungbwa ophiolite, SW Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christine; Thöni, Martin; Frank, Wolfgang; Schuster, Ralf; Melcher, Frank; Meisel, Thomas; Zanetti, Alberto

    2003-02-01

    The Yungbwa ophiolite is a thrust sheet of about 800 km 2 tectonically overlying an Upper Cretaceous melange south of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone in SW Tibet. Both units have been thrust over the sedimentary series of the Tibetan Tethys zone in the course of the India-Eurasia collision. Harzburgite and clinopyroxene-poor lherzolite are the dominant lithologies. Occasional gabbronoritic and basaltic dikes crosscut the mantle tectonites, but plutonic and volcanic sections are notably absent. The majority of basaltic dikes are tholeiitic and similar to N-MORB with respect to LREE depletion, ratios of diagnostic trace elements and Sr and Nd isotope systematics. Sm-Nd isotope data of three tholeiitic samples yielded an isochron age of 147±25 Ma (MSWD=0.59), and an initial ɛ( t)Nd value of +8.8. In addition, magnesio-hornblende in a tholeiitic basaltic dike yielded a 40Ar/ 39Ar age of 152±33 Ma. The mineral chemistry of the spinel-peridotites is consistent with an origin in a tectonic setting similar to abyssal peridotites. The nearly chondritic initial 187Os/ 188Os value of a Re-poor orthopyroxene concentrate matches the composition of abyssal peridotites. The strongly LREE depleted trace element signature of the peridotite clinopyroxenes resembles that of clinopyroxenes from ocean floor peridotites. The Nd isotopic composition of a clinopyroxene concentrate is extremely depleted ( 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.514420), indicating an early Jurassic time of depletion ( TDM=187 Ma) and suggesting that this clinopyroxene represents residual mantle material. In contrast, the bulk peridotites are characterized by convex-downward REE patterns, coupled with low 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios and elevated 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. We suggest that these geochemical signatures resulted from secondary processes during or after emplacement of the ophiolite complex.

  1. Metamorphosed melange in the central Piedmont of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mittwede, S.K.; Maybin, A.H. III )

    1989-09-01

    The Enoree melange is exposed in the central Piedmont of South Carolina near the boundary between the Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The melange is composed of ultramafic and mafic blocks in a highly deformed matrix of biotite-feldspar-quartz gneiss which has a composition consistent with a felsic-to-intermediate volcanic precursor. The mafic and ultramafic blocks are separated chemically and petrographically into four compositional groups: metagabbro-clinopyroxenite, websterite, orthopyroxenite, and metasomatized (steatitized) orthopyroxenite. Based on their chemistry and mineralogy, the blocks are clearly exotic relative to their metavolcaniclastic( ) matrix and likely originated as parts of a plutonic suite from the basal or forward part of the Carolina arc terrane. If the Piedmont terrane-Carolina terrane boundary is a continent-arc suture, then the Enoree melange probably formed in the accretionary prism at this convergent margin. The matrix gneisses are interpreted as reworked volcanic debris shed by the Carolina arc terrane edifice and accumulated as graywacke in the accretionary deposits. West-vergent structures in the matrix suggest that the melange was emplaced to its present tectonostratigraphic position either during docking of the Carolina terrane or during widespread Alleghenian thrusting.

  2. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  3. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic ophiolite arc, and blueschist terranes in southwestern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlock, R.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The nature and significance of disrupted Mesozoic oceanic rocks on Isla Santa Margarita and Isla Magdalena, western Baja California Sur, have been reinterpreted on the basis of detailed mapping and petrologic studies. Three structural units are recognized. (1) The upper plate consists of ophiolitic, arc, and forearc basin rocks. Ophiolitic rocks, including metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, gabbro, dikes, volcanic rocks, and chert, underwent strong contractional deformation and penetrative greenschist-facies metamorphism. Arc rocks, including gabbro, a dike and sill complex, compositionally diverse volcanic rocks, lahars, and volcaniclastic strata, lack a penetrative fabric and are weakly metamorphosed. Forearc basin rocks consist of unmetamorphosed conglomerated and rhythmically bedded siliciclastic turbidites. (2) The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of weakly to moderately foliated and metamorphosed pillow and massive lavas, breccia, and tuff( ), interbedded red and green siliceous argillite, and rare radiolarian ribbon chert and limestone. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is indicated by lawsonite, aragonite, sodic amphibole, and sodic clino-pyroxene. (3) Serpentine-matrix melange crops out in shallowly dipping fault zones between the upper and lower plates. The structural and petrologic characteristics of the Mesozoic units, the geometry of contacts between them, and the age of extension are similar to those in the Isla Cedros-Vizcalno Peninsula region, 400 km to the northwest. The author infers that syn-subduction extension was a regional event that affected much of the western Baja forearc during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

  4. Early Proterozoic ophiolite, central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The 1.73 Ga Payson ophiolite is a pseudostratigraphic sequence of mafic plutons, dike swarms, sheeted dikes, and submarine basalts that intruded and erupted upon a 1.75-1.76 Ga magmatic-arc complex. The composition of the sheeted dikes is tholeiitic basalt (minor andesite) with island-arc affinities. The submarine basalts are overlain by dacitic breccias and a thick section of turbidites with ca. 1.72 Ga ash beds. The entire sequence was deformed, intruded by ca. 1.70 Ga granites, and unconformably overlain by fluvial to shallow-shelf sediments. Although most of the 1.8-1.6 Ga juvenile crust of Arizona consists of magmatic-arc rocks, the Payson ophiolite is unique and is interpreted to have formed the floor of an intra-arc basin. The ophiolite developed in situ on the older arc basement, as opposed to being thrust over it. The basin was accreted to the continent by ca. 1.70 Ga.

  5. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  6. Multistage melange formation in the Franciscan Complex, northernmost California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, K. R.

    1981-12-01

    Matrix induration and deformation style denote relative time and process of melange origin related to subduction. Mappable melange units contain chiefly blocks of greenstone, chert, and graywacke dispersed in weakly indurated argillite. Emplacement of these units as olistostromes is indicated by depositional contacts and lateral inter-tonguing with turbidites. Some blocks in sheared olistostromes are in themselves complexly mixed. These include breccias of gabbro, plagiogranite, diabase, basalt, tuff, chert, graywacke, and argillite variously combined and brittlely deformed. Blocks of intercalated tuff and argillite and of diamictite containing rounded clasts of tuff, chert, and graywacke dispersed in highly indurated, foliated argillite exhibit primary ductile and secondary brittle deformation. All block material was indurated, brecciated, and/or foliated during underplating at the base of a trench slope and later uplifted to provide olistostrome detritus. The Elk Head and Klamath coast terranes are highly indurated and compositionally similar to the mixed-lithology blocks in olistostromes. They are interpreted to form an accretionary prism consisting of tectonic melange slabs separating slope-basin rocks.

  7. Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, John; Dewey, John

    2013-04-01

    The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. Subducted slab refrigeration of the hanging wall ensues and accretion of MORB metabasites to the hanging wall of the subduction channel initiates. Mafic protolith garnet/two pyroxene granulites to greenschists accrete and form the inverted P and T metamorphic sole prior to obduction. Sole accretion of lithosphere begins at about 1000°C and the full retrogressive sole may be fully formed within ten to fifteen million years of accretion, at which time low grade subduction melanges accrete. Obduction of the SSZ forearc ophiolite with its subjacent metamorphic sole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable buoyant continental or back arc margin.

  8. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  9. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (I) Paleozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi; Stern, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Iran is a mosaic of Ediacaran-Cambrian (Cadomian; 520-600 Ma) blocks, stitched together by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. In this paper we summarize the Paleozoic ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience including field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. We focus on the five best known examples of Middle to Late Paleozoic ophiolites which are remnants of Paleotethys, aligned in two main zones in northern Iran: Aghdarband, Mashhad and Rasht in the north and Jandagh-Anarak and Takab ophiolites to the south. Paleozoic ophiolites were emplaced when N-directed subduction resulted in collision of Gondwana fragment “Cimmeria” with Eurasia in Permo-Triassic time. Paleozoic ophiolites show both SSZ- and MORB-type mineralogical and geochemical signatures, perhaps reflecting formation in a marginal basin. Paleozoic ophiolites of Iran suggest a progression from oceanic crust formation above a subduction zone in Devonian time to accretionary convergence in Permian time. The Iranian Paleozoic ophiolites along with those of the Caucausus and Turkey in the west and Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Tibet to the east, define a series of diachronous subduction-related marginal basins active from at least Early Devonian to Late Permian time.

  10. Controls on accretion of flysch and melange belts at convergent margins: evidence from the Chugach Bay thrust and Iceworm melange, Chugach accretionary wedge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusky, T.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Haeussler, P.J.; Karl, S.

    1997-01-01

    Controls on accretion of flysch and melange terranes at convergent margins are poorly understood. Southern Alaska's Chugach terrane forms the outboard accretionary margin of the Wrangellia composite terrane, and consists of two major lithotectonic units, including Triassic-Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex and Late Cretaceous flysch of the Valdez Group. The contact between the McHugh Complex and the Valdez Group on the Kenai Peninsula is a tectonic boundary between chaotically deformed melange of argillite, chert, greenstone, and graywacke of the McHugh Complex and a less chaotically deformed melange of argillite and graywacke of the Valdez Group. We assign the latter to a new, informal unit of formational rank, the Iceworm melange, and interpret it as a contractional fault zone (Chugach Bay thrust) along which the Valdez Group was emplaced beneath the McHugh Complex. The McHugh Complex had already been deformed and metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite facies prior to formation of the Iceworm melange. The Chugach Bay thrust formed between 75 and 55 Ma, as shown by Campanian-Maastrichtian depositional ages of the Valdez Group, and fault-related fabrics in the Iceworm melange that are cut by Paleocene dikes. Motion along the Chugach Bay thrust thus followed Middle to Late Cretaceous collision (circa 90-100 Ma) of the Wrangellia composite terrane with North America. Collision related uplift and erosion of mountains in British Columbia formed a submarine fan on the Farallon plate, and we suggest that attempted subduction of this fan dramatically changed the subduction/accretion style within the Chugach accretionary wedge. We propose a model in which subduction of thinly sedimented plates concentrates shear strains in a narrow zone, generating melanges like the McHugh in accretionary complexes. Subduction of thickly sedimented plates allows wider distribution of shear strains to accommodate plate convergence, generating a more coherent accretionary style including the fold-thrust structures that dominate the outcrop pattern in the Valdez belt. Rapid underplating and frontal accretion of the Valdez Group caused a critical taper adjustment of the accretionary wedge, including exhumation of the metamorphosed McHugh Complex, and its emplacement over the Valdez Group. The Iceworm melange formed in a zone of focused fluid flow at the boundary between the McHugh Complex and Valdez Group during this critical taper adjustment of the wedge to these changing boundary conditions.

  11. Tethyan vs. Cordilleran ophiolites: a reappraisal of distinctive tectono-magmatic features of supra-subduction complexes in relation to the subduction mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaluva, Luigi; Coltorti, Massimo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Siena, Franca

    2004-11-01

    Supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites deserve special attention because they represent fundamental markers of intraoceanic convergence and generation of new lithosphere above subduction zones. Moreover, owing to their structural characteristics and location in the overriding plate, these complexes are far better represented and preserved than Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalt (MORB) ophiolites in orogenic belts. In terms of their structure, tectonics, and magmatic features, SSZ ophiolites may be classified in two main types: (1) "Tethyan complexes" (such as those of the Albanide-Hellenide belt), which mostly consist of complete and extensive volcanic, dyke, plutonic, and mantle sections with prevalent Island Arc Tholeiitic (IAT) affinity and the significant presence of Boninites, obducted as relatively intact lithospheric slabs onto collisional continental margins; (2) "Cordilleran complexes" (including the circum-Caribbean ophiolites of Guatemala, Cuba, and Venezuela), mostly represented by dismembered sections of arc volcanic, plutonic, and subordinate mantle sequences with tholeiitic to Calc-Alkaline (IAC) magmatic affinity and acidic differentiates, commonly associated with metamorphic "subduction complexes" and tectonically emplaced onto or juxtaposed against the continental margin within polygenetic terranes. These two types appear to be related to significantly different subduction modes and intraoceanic plate dynamics whereby SSZ ophiolites were generated. The Tethyan complexes can best be compared with west Pacific-type subduction with accentuated steepening and retreat of the subducted slab, accompanied by progressive decoupling of the converging plates, intense mantle diapirism, and tensional events in the upper plate with generation of large IAT-sheeted dike complexes in "open" oceanic spreading systems. Continuous slab sinking and roll back allow increasing asthenospheric diapirism and interarc spreading from the arc axis to the forearc region with generation of boninites and Back Arc Basin Basalts (BABB) with intermediate MORB/IAT composition. By contrast, the genesis of the Cordilleran complexes requires a subduction mode characterized by a steady state regime, with moderate and constant dip of the subducted slab and limited extension in the backarc region. The magmatic evolution of these ophiolites from IAT to IAC and the significant presence of rhyodacite (and tonalite) differentiates coherently indicate a more mature stage of arc magmatism, as well as the occurrence of efficient differentiation processes developing under nearly "closed-system" conditions in independent magma chambers. Tethyan complexes are likely to be obducted as large and relatively intact slabs onto the continental margins through the interposition of metamorphic soles, which represent relics of the MORB lithosphere underplating the SSZ ophiolites. On the other hand, the common emplacement of Cordilleran complexes within polygenetic terranes appears to be controlled by prolonged accretionary mechanisms that trap, against the continental margin, parts of the arc structure, subduction complexes, melanges, and volcanoclastic products.

  12. Contact metamorphism by an ophiolite peridotite from neyriz, iran.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    1980-06-13

    Ophiolites are conventionally regarded as fragments of former oceanic lithosphere. Mineralogical and field evidence indicates that peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite was intruded at high temperature into folded crystalline limestones, forming skarns. This excludes the formation of the ophiolite at a mid-ocean ridge but is consistent with its origin by intrusion during continental rifting. PMID:17830810

  13. Obduction-related ophiolitic polymict breccias covering the ophiolites of Antalya (southwestern Turkey)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagabrielle, Y.; Whitechurch, H.; Marcoux, J.; Juteau, T.; Reuber, I.; Guillocheau, F.; Capan, U.

    1986-09-01

    The ophiolites of the Antalya nappes, cropping out in the area if Kemer (southwestern Turkey), are capped by a spectacular detrital sequence composed of various ophiolitic breccias whose total thickness reaches 1000 m. Four main formations have been distinguished within the breccias. The basal formations are in depositional contact over the previously tectonized and eroded deepest part of the ophiolites. The upper breccias are dated as middle Maastrichtian, which is the age of the deposition of synchronous serpentinitic olistostromes onto the continental margin. These data suggest that the breccias formed as debris slides from bathymetric highs on the ocean crust as a result of renewed tectonic activity accompanying obduction onto the continental margin.

  14. Occurrence of Upper Cretaceous pelagic carbonates within ophiolite-related pillow basalts in the Mt. Kozara area of the Vardar zone western belt, northern Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubi?, Aleksandar; Radoi?i?, Rajka; Kneevi?, Mirjana; Cviji?, Ranko

    2009-03-01

    Deformed lenses of red silty micrite interstratified with basaltic pillow lavas outcrop at the confluence of the River Crna Reka and Krvavac Creek on Mt. Kozara in northern Bosnia. Interbedded pelagic carbonates contain microfossils, notably several species of Globotruncana, of Upper Santonian-Lower Campanian age. The pillow lavas and sediments form part of ~ 50 km 2 tectonically emplaced body of mafic igneous rocks, composed of pillow lava, sheeted diabase and minor gabbro. This body is tectonically emplaced within melange of the Vardar zone western belt. The basic igneous body has been interpreted as the upper part of an ophiolite that was tectonically emplaced when Neotethys finally closed during latest Cretaceous time. Accordingly, the Late Cretaceous age of the interbedded pelagic sediments, as reported here, indicates that oceanic crust still existed in this region of the Tethyan orogen during Late Cretaceous time.

  15. Ophiolite Perspectives on Oceanic Mantle Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Day, J. M.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The mantle sections of ophiolites offer a useful approach to studying compositional heterogeneities in the oceanic mantle. A potential caveat is that the tectonic provenance of ophiolites is often not easy to decipher, although many have undergone at least supra-subduction zone (SSZ) processing. Significant outstanding questions include the degree to which ophiolite peridotites preserve evidence of pre-SSZ events and the way that SSZ melt extraction modifies the character of these peridotites. A suite of Caledonian ophiolites associated with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean offers an opportunity to shed light on these issues, in particular to assess the degree to which long (regional) wavelength compositional heterogeneities survive SSZ melting. Observations on the combined highly-siderophile element (HSE) and 187Os/188Os systematics of the broadly coetaneous (490-500 Ma) Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland) and Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC; Norway) are presented here. Generally, the lithological composition of each locality is harzburgitic, and hosts lenses and layers of dunite, chromitite and pyroxenite that are interpreted as representing SSZ-related (channelised) melt migration and melt-rock interaction. Although the bulk of the harzburgitic rocks have approximately chondritic initial 187Os/188Os and HSE abundances, ancient (Proterozoic) melt depletion (TRD =1.4 to 1 Ga) is recorded in ~10% of samples from each locality. This is also commonly observed in abyssal peridotites. One important implication of the data is that SSZ melt generation/migration has had no discernible impact on the bulk Os isotopic composition of the Iapetus oceanic mantle. By contrast, non-harzburgitic lithologies consistently exhibit more radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os and more variable HSE abundances. The dunites, chromitites and pyroxenites of the LOC can be separated into two groups on the basis of isochrons that they define; yielding ages of 481±22 Ma and 589±15 Ma, respectively. The former age corresponds, within error, to the accepted age of the ophiolite (497 ± 2 Ma). The meaning of the latter age is uncertain, but may correspond to the early stages of Iapetus opening. The data imply that the oceanic mantle represented by both ophiolites resembles a 'patchwork' of peridotites of different ages and compositions.

  16. Mapping the Oman Ophiolite using TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ophiolite terrains, considered to be the onland occurrences of oceanic crust, host a number of types of mineral deposits: volcanogenic massive sulfides, podiform chromite, and asbestos. Thematic Mapper data for the Semail Ophiolite in Oman were used to separate and map ultramafic lithologies hosting these deposits, including identification of the components of the extrusive volcanic sequence, mapping of serpentinization due to various tectonic processes, and direct identification of gossans. Thematic Mapper data were found to be extremely effective for mapping in this terrain due to the excellent spatial resolution and the presence of spectral bands which allow separation of the pertinent mineralogically caused spectral features associated with the rock types of interest.

  17. Field evidence for fault controlled intrusion of blue-schist-bearing melange into an accretionary wedge, Island Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lamons, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two lithologic units of the Franciscan are well exposed along a loop of the Eel River at Island Mountain. They are 1) zeolite or lower grade lithic graywackes, and 2) a 0.5 km wide band of black shaly melange containing blueschist, chert, greenstone, metagraywacke, and a graywacke-hosted copper deposit. Sedimentary features were not observed in the melange. The graywacke was subdivided on the basis of presence or absence of sodium-cobaltonitrate stained K-spar. Field relationships suggest that the blueschist-bearing melange was emplaced along steep NW-dipping faults in an accretionary wedge. Mapping of S. Jewett Rock and SW Lake Mountain quadrangles show narrow anastomosing bands of the melange following NW-trending faults. East of this band, graywackes without K-spar are folded along NW/SE axes. No folds were found to the west. Other Melange bands pinch out into faults which juxtapose graywackes of different facies. The sheared melange bands are not folded and shale beds in the graywacke show little shear so the melange bands are unlikely to be sheared olistostromes. The areal extent of graywacke is about ten times that of melange shales. Assuming this pattern continues laterally and at depth, the amount of ductile material in the melange is far less than that assumed by Cloos (1982) in his flow model for melange. The ductile melange may have been forced upward by metamorphically produced volatiles, or as a result of relative plate motion. It originated at depth, moved up along the top of a subducting slab, plucking clasts, then splayed upward into pre-existing faults in the accretionary wedge.

  18. Numerical Models of Ophiolite Genesis and Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmette, C.; Beaumont, C.; Jamieson, R.

    2013-12-01

    Ophiolites are relics of oceanic lithosphere tectonically emplaced in continental settings. They are diagnostic features of continental suture zones, where they mark past plate boundaries. Even after having been studied for more than 40 years, the mechanisms involved in the genesis and subsequent obduction of ophiolites over continental margins are still debated. We present the results of 2D thermal-mechanical numerical models that successfully reproduce characteristics of natural examples like the Semail, Bay of Islands, Yarlung-Zangbo, and Coast Range ophiolites. The numerical models are upper mantle scale and use pressure-, temperature- and strain-dependent viscous-plastic rheologies. Both divergent and convergent velocity boundary conditions are used and tectonic boundary forces are monitored. The models start with the rifting of a stable continent, followed by development of an ocean ridge and accretion of oceanic lithosphere at a total rate of 3 cm/y. Once a specified ocean size/age is achieved, the velocity boundary conditions are reversed leading to convergence and the spontaneous inception of a suduction zone at the mid-ocean ridge. We present results for models including different ages of oceans (40 to 90 Ma) and different convergence velocities (5 to 15 cm/y). The interaction between the lower plate passive margin and the oceanic upper plate results in 5 different tectonic styles. These differ mainly by the presence or absence of oceanic spreading in the upper plate (back-arc basin), leading to supra-subduction zone ophiolites vs. MORB-type, and by the behaviour of the oceanic slab, e.g., slab rollback vs. breakoff. The evolution of effective slab pull is interpreted to be the major control on the resulting tectonic style. Low effective slab pull models (young oceans and fast convergence rates) fail to obduct an ophiolite. Strong effective slab pull models (old oceans and lower convergence rates) result in subduction zone retreat and spontaneous oceanic spreading in the upper plate. The collision between the trench and the continental passive margin causes either obduction of a supra-subduction zone spreading center, fore-arc block subduction, or subduction polarity flip, reminiscent of the Semail, Yarlung-Zangbo, and Coast Range ophiolites, respectively. In Semail-style models, there is lithospheric-scale thrusting in the supra-subduction zone region. In Yarlung-Zangbo-style models, a second subduction zone of the same polarity initiates at the back-arc spreading center and the fore-arc block is engulfed. In Coast Range-style models, a second subduction zone of opposite polarity initiates at the back-arc spreading center, preserving the fore-arc block and turning the upper-plate margin into an active margin with a double ophiolite belt, one emplaced on the continental margin (cf. Great Valley Ophiolite) and one on an ocean-facing subduction complex (cf. Coast Range Ophiolite).

  19. Osmium Isotopes from Appalachian Ophiolite Chromites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Pagé, P.; Bécu, V.; Bédard, J. H.; Walker, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    A band of tectonically-emplaced ophiolites stretches along the length of the Appalachian orogen, and represent preserved oceanic lithosphere subducted and accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconic orogeny. They may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge, a back-arc, or fore-arc spreading environment. The association of voluminous boninitic magmas with a number of these ophiolites suggests a fore-arc setting based on comparison with modern arcs. Chrome-rich spinels from these rocks are resistant to alteration and contain high concentrations of osmium and low Re/Os ratios, hence preserve information about the initial 187Os/188Os at crystallization. Massive chromites additionally concentrate and average chromium and osmium from large volumes of mantle. The Thetford Mines, Quebec chromites contain 8-80 ppb osmium and 0.1 ppb Re, resulting in little age correction to 480 Ma. The 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1246 to 0.1263, corresponding to initial γOs of +0.7 to +2.0 (2σ s.d.<0.2%). These values bracket the fit curve (0.126 at 500 Ma) to ophiolite chromites reported by Walker et al. (2002) for a variety of mostly supra-subduction-zone ophiolites. Os concentrations in slab-derived fluids and melts are probably low relative to fertile mantle, so arc ophiolites are dominated by the mantle Os. A massive chromite sample from Soldier's Delight serpentine barrens, part of the Baltimore Mafic Complex (MD,USA 489 Ma) yields a 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1284, or γOs of +3.8. This more radiogenic ratio may be related to the continental arc setting suggested by Nd and Pb isotopes. Analysis of additional ophiolite chromites from the Appalachian chain will constrain the average Os isotopic composition and isotopic variability of asthenospheric mantle at 500 Ma. This variability may provide additional information on contributions to the arc osmium budget from 1) ancient non-radiogenic lithospheric mantle, and 2) subducted slab-derived radiogenic mafic crust delivered in fore-arc systems in melt conduits within highly-depleted mantle.

  20. Detrital zircon geochronology overlying the Naga Hills ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, T.; Aitchison, J.; Stojanovic, D.; Agarwal, A.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Nagaland ophiolite in NE India represents the easternmost section of the ophiolitic belt running along the India-Asia suture. Outcrops near the border between Nagaland and Myanmar include not only a full suite of ophiolitic rocks but also high P/T blueschist rocks within a serpentinite-matrix mélange. Although Upper Jurassic radiolarians have been reported from the ophiolite itself (Baxter et al., 2011), few constraints have been placed on the timing of its emplacement onto India. Terrestrial sediments of the Phokphur Formation unconformably overlie the ophiolite. Similar to other sediments from along the ophiolite belt such as the Luiqu conglomerates in Tibet (Davis et al., 2002), they contain detritus derived from both the ophiolite and the continental margin onto which the ophiolite was emplaced. The clastic sediments of the Phokphur Formation potentially record not only the timing of ophiolite generation but also the ages of source terranes and can be used to place a minimum age constraint on the timing of ophiolite emplacement. As a contribution towards extending knowledge of the ophiolite belt and the India/Asia collision, we report preliminary results of an investigation into the sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology of the Phokphur Formation in areas near Salumi and Zephu. Baxter, A.T., Aitchison, J.C., Zyabrev, S.V., Ali, J.R., 2011. Upper Jurassic radiolarians from the Naga Ophiolite, Nagaland, northeast India. Gondwana Research 20, 638-644. Davis, A.M., Aitchison, J.C., Badengzhu, Luo, H., Zyabrev, S., 2002. Paleogene island arc collision-related conglomerates, Yarlung-Tsangpo suture zone, Tibet. Sedimentary Geology 150, 247-273.

  1. A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Harald; de Wit, Maarten; Staudigel, Hubert; Rosing, Minik; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2007-03-23

    A sheeted-dike complex within the approximately 3.8-billion-year-old Isua supracrustal belt (ISB) in southwest Greenland provides the oldest evidence of oceanic crustal accretion by spreading. The geochemistry of the dikes and associated pillow lavas demonstrates an intraoceanic island arc and mid-ocean ridge-like setting, and their oxygen isotopes suggest a hydrothermal ocean-floor-type metamorphism. The pillows and dikes are associated with gabbroic and ultramafic rocks that together make up an ophiolitic association: the Paleoarchean Isua ophiolite complex. These sheeted dikes offer evidence for remnants of oceanic crust formed by sea-floor spreading of the earliest intact rocks on Earth. PMID:17379806

  2. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  3. The Ophiolite - Oceanic Fore-Arc Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Stern, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Miyashiro (1973, EPSL) put forward the hypothesis that many ophiolites are generated in subduction zone settings. More recently, ophiolitic sequences including MORB-like basalts underlying boninites or other subduction-related rock types have been linked to near-trench spreading during subduction infancy (e.g., Stern and Bloomer, 1992, GSA Bull.; Shervais, 2001, G-cubed; Stern et al., 2012, Lithos.). These contentions were given strong support by the results of Shinkai 6500 diving in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc (e.g., Reagan et al., 2010, G-cubed; Ishizuka et al., 2011, EPSL; Reagan et al., 2013, EPSL). Based on widely spaced dives and grab sampling at disbursed dive stops, these studies concluded that the most abundant and most submerged volcanic rocks in the IBM fore-arc are MORB-like basalts (fore-arc basalts or FAB), and that these basalts appear to be part of a crustal sequence of gabbro, dolerite, FAB, boninite, and normal arc lavas overlying depleted peridotite. This ophiolitic sequence was further postulated to make up most or all of the IBM fore-arc from Guam to Japan, with similar magmatic ages (52 Ma FAB to 45 Ma arc) north to south, reflecting a western-Pacific wide subduction initiation event. At the time of this writing, IODP Expedition 352 is about to set sail, with a principal goal of drilling the entire volcanic sequence in the Bonin fore-arc. This drilling will define the compositional gradients through the volcanic sequence associated with subduction initiation and arc infancy, and test the hypothesized oceanic fore-arc - ophiolite genetic relationship. A primary goal of this expedition is to illustrate how mantle compositions and melting processes evolved during decompression melting of asthenosphere during subduction initiation to later flux melting of depleted mantle. These insights will provide important empirical constraints for geodynamic models of subduction initiation and early arc development.

  4. The Oman Ophiolite from Detachment to Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    An overview model is presented accounting for older and up-dated published data. Detachment of the Oman ophiolite exhumed a 20 km thick fragment of oceanic lithosphere 500 x 100 km2 in extension. This detachment occurred at margin of a fast spreading NeoTethyan Ocean, at P/T conditions ~900°C-200 MPa, 95-95.5 Ma ago. The Hawasinah nappes underlying the ophiolite at present, represent the stacking of the sedimentary cover deposited on the Arabian continental margin, thinned and rifted since Permian time, and extending more than 300 km north from the present shore. The sedimentary record points to the collapse of the continental basement at Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, 140 Ma ago. Subduction of the rifted continental margin is inferred, as recorded in the Saih Hatat high-pressure rocks whose metamorphic age 80-140 Ma is discussed, as well as the vergence of related subduction. Late Cretaceous time 85-70 Ma marks the emplacement of the Oman ophiolite in the Muti Basin, to its present position inland the Permo-Triassic continental margin. These episodes are not similarly recorded in the northern part of the Oman Mountains, that do not expose any HP metamorphic belt, but granulitic crustal rocks and large development of syn-obduction non-MORB magmatism in the ophiolite crustal section. Collision is achieved at the northern tip, the Musandam area, linked to the opening of the Gulf of Aden 25 Ma ago, and northward drift of the Arabian Plate.

  5. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport. PMID:10736270

  6. Blueschist Blocks in the Shale-matrix Melange of the Franciscan Complex of California: Metamorphic Aureoles and Subduction Channel Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloos, Mark; Ukar, Estibalitz

    2014-05-01

    The subduction channel concept postulates that where oceanic lithosphere converges faster than ~2 cm/yr, the plate boundary is best approximated as a viscous shear zone. Channel capacity can abruptly decrease where there is a sharp increase in the pressure gradient along the top of the shear zone. Where this occurs, subducted sediment can upwell and flow back towards the inlet. The Central Belt of the Franciscan Complex is up to tens of km wide and extends from where subduction continues in Oregon southwards to the Nacimiento Block, west of the San Andreas fault. The scaly shale matrix outcrops poorly along the 1500+ km belt because it is weakly metamorphosed (<200°C, pumpellyite±lawsonite-bearing). The best exposures, as pointed out by Ken Hsu in 1969, are found near San Simeon. The Central Belt mélange is renowned for the "high-grade" garnet-bearing blueschists (e.g., Tiburon, Jenner Beach). How these high-T blocks, the oldest metamorphics in the Franciscan and the more voluminous lower-T blueschists became rounded fragments encased in shale-matrix has been the subject of much discussion. Uplift in serpentine diapirs is widely invoked, but the scarcity of these blocks in serpentinite where exposures are good is problematic. Explaining the blocks as sedimentary olistoliths requires both a phantom source terrane and exhumation mechanism. The simplest explanation is that the coarse blueschists are fragments of a metamorphic aureole formed during subduction initiation that were later detached from the base of the ophiolitic leading edge of the North American plate. Later, tectonic melange was generated by subduction-driven shearing that caused upwelling of shale-rich sediment. Slabs of blueschist were boudinaged and mixed with fragments of greenstone and chert detached from seamounts. Blueschist block incorporation into upwelling mélange is a kind of subduction erosion akin to plucking by glaciers. The exposure of the blueschist along the roof of the subduction channel may have been mostly localized to near where normal faults formed in the overriding block as Farallon plate dip flattened from 80 to 40 Ma. Only blocks of the appropriate size and density can upwell to shallower depths where they are accreted by underplating or offscraping. Blocks that are large and dense enough to sink faster than the rate of upwelling, bottom out and become subducted.

  7. Ophiolite Tectonics, Rock Magnetism and Palaeomagnetism, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Lagroix, F.; Hamilton, T. D.; Trebilcock, D.-A.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic properties of minerals may be sensitive indicators of provenance. Remanence-bearing minerals (RBM) such as iron-titanium oxides, and matrix-forming minerals such as paramagnetic phyllosilicate or diamagnetic calcite yield different clues to provenance, strain history and tectonics, and are essential supplements for the full interpretation of palaeomagnetic data. Moreover, mineral magnetic properties provide magnetic-petrofabric indicators of tectonic strain, determine the suitability of sites for palaeomagnetism, and permit the restoration of palaeomagnetic vectors in some strained rocks. In the Cretaceous Troodos ophiolite (~88 Ma) magnetic properties are dictated by the relative importance of mafic silicates and largely primary, ophiolite-derived RBM. In its cover of deformed pelagic sedimentary rock, magnetic properties are dictated by the balance of clastic RBM versus matrix calcite and in some cases clay. The two larger Cretaceous ophiolite outcrops (Troodos & Akamas) share a common orientation of their plutonic flow fabrics, determined by magnetic methods. The dike complex shows fabrics indicating plume-like feeders spaced along and perpendicular to the spreading axis, with longevities >0.5 Ma. South of the ophiolite, its Cretaceous-Miocene limestone cover possesses ubiquitous tectonic petrofabrics inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent susceptibility (AARM). Its foliation and maximum extension dip and plunge gently northward, sub-parallel to a common but previously unreported North-dipping stylolitic cleavage. In well-known localized areas, there are S-vergent thrusts and overturned folds. The S-vergent deformation fabrics are due to Late Miocene (pre-Messinian ~8 Ma) deformation. The structures are geometrically consistent with overthrusting of the Cretaceous Troodos-Akamas ophiolite, and its sedimentary cover, onto the underlying Triassic Mamonia terrane. The northern limit of pre-Messinian tectonic fabrics, the Troodos-Mamonia terrane boundary and the Arakapas-Transform fault form an approximate E-W composite boundary that we term the Troodos Tectonic Front. Miocene deformation remagnetized the ophiolite and its sedimentary cover in many places and also affects the Mamonia terrane to the SW, with which the Troodos terrane docked in the late Cretaceous. Magnetic mineralogy, particularly of the RBM traces the progressive un-roofing of the ophiolite during the deposition of its sedimentary cover. During the submarine exposure and erosion of the ophiolite, the contribution of RBM clasts to the overlying sedimentary cover changed qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, magnetic mineralogy of the sedimentary rock cover records the progressive denudation of the ophiolite from lavas, down through dikes, to gabbros and deeper mantle rocks. Palaeomagnetic studies previously revealed the anticlockwise rotation of the Troodos terrane and its northwards migration. Characteristic remanent magnetism (ChRM) is most reliable for lavas and dikes although it is usually carried by recrystallized RBM. These correspond to the age of greenschist facies ocean-floor metamorphism, perhaps 7-15 Ma after igneous crystallization with an extent and depth dependent on depth and degree of hydrothermal circulation. The gabbros and mantle rocks commonly bear young (<12 Ma) remanences probably acquired (or re-acquired) during uplift of the Troodos terrane. In the cover of pre-Messinian deformed limestone (>8 Ma), the remagnetizing effects of penetrative strain have been under-estimated. Where strain has occurred, un-tilting procedures produce erroneous restorations for the remanence vectors, and thus for the associated paleopoles. We find that de-straining of limestone sites most appropriately restores ChRM vectors to their original orientation. The best-determined and restored ChRMs define an apparent polar wander path (APWP). Since the APWP terminates at the present N-pole, we inverted it to determine the true plate-motion of the Troodos-terrane. Thus, in present-day coordinates, Troodos rocks moved ~1,000 km South; then ~4,500 km East and finally ~900 km North at an approximate rate of 75 km/Ma [1 km/Ma = 1 mm/a]. This true motion path commenced ~88 Ma ago and rates of motion since 65 Ma may be too high due to the limited precision of strain-corrections of the ChRM orientations in limestone. This true motion path is compatible with the eastward and then northward rotation of Africa relative to Europe although other workers show relative motion paths.

  8. Late Mesozoic and possible early Tertiary accretion in western Washington State: the Helena-Haystack melange and the Darrington- Devils Mountain fault zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Helena-Haystack melange (HH melange) and coincident Darrington-Devils Mountain fault zone (DDMFZ) in northwestern Washington separate two terranes, the northwest Cascade System (NWCS) and the western and eastern melange belts (WEMB). The two terranes of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks superficially resemble each other but record considerable differences in structural and metamorphic history. The HH melange is a serpentinite-matrix melange containing blocks of adjacent terranes but also exotic blocks. The HH melange must have formed between early Cretaceous and late middle Eocene time, because it contains tectonic clasts of early Cretaceous Shuksan Greenschist and is overlain by late middle Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The possible continuation of the DDMFZ to the northwest as the San Juan and the West Coast faults on Vancouver Island suggests that the structure has had a major role in the emplacement of all the westernmost terranes in the Pacific Northwest. -from Author

  9. Geology of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Castanada, G.C.; Bacuta, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Zambales ophiolite of western Luzon, Philippines, exposes a typical succession of basalt flows, diabasic dikes, gabbro and tectonized harzburgite. The age established by limiting strata is late Eocene. Lack of evidence of thrust faulting and the general domal disposition of the lithologie units indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are exposed by uplift. Highly complex internal layered structures within the complex are related to processes developed during formation of the ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite may be one of the least disturbed (by emplacement) ophiolitic masses known. The exposed mass trends north and the upper surface plunges at low angles (a few degrees) to the north and south. The chemistry and composition of the rocks in the northwest part of the Zambales area (Acoje block) is distinct from that in the southeastern segment (Coto block). The Acoje block, according to Evans (1983) and Hawkins and Evans (1983), resembles (on a chemical basis) arc-tholeiite series rocks from intra-island arcs and the rocks in the Coto block are typical back-arc basin rock series. The present writer believes that the ophiolite composes a single genetic unit and that the changes in composition are the result of changes that took place during the initial formation. The gabbro probably formed below a spreading center in an elongate, in cross section, V-shaped, magma chamber. The gabbro is estimated by the writer to be less than 2 km thick and may be less than 1 km in places. Numerous erosional windows through the gabbro in the northern and eastern side of the Zambales area show that the gabbro remaining in those areas is likely to be only a few hundred meters thick. Harzburgite is exposed to a depth of about 800 m in the Bagsit River area and this may be the deepest part of the ophiolite accessible for study on which there is any control on depth. A transitional zone, about 200 m thick lying between the gabbro and harzburgite, is composed of serpentinized dunite. Commonly the dunite contains disseminated sulfide minerals and at the Acoje Mines, platinum-group elements. A compositional layering within the gabbro is in places cumulate in the lower part of the unit but may have formed by nucleation higher up on the relatively steep sides of the magma chamber. A widespread gneissic banding in the gabbro forms large mappable structures which are many times more complex than is the disposition of the major rock units. These structures are believed to be the result of extensive slumping in the magma chamber. The structure produced by the cumulate layering merges with the gneissic banding, commonly without discernible change in attitude. This tectonic layered structure crosses the gabbro-peridotite boundary at any angle without seeming to disturb the original rock distribution. At greater depths below the boundary (ca. 800 m), the harzburgite contains low dipping banding, which probably reflects the result of differential movement within the mantle. Chromite occurs almost exclusively in a zone that generally lies no more than 200-300 m below the gabbro-peridotite boundary. Refractory-grade chromite is found in this zone below the olivine gabbro in the Goto block and as low-grade metallurgical grade chromite below norite in the Acoje block. At Acoje Mines the chromite is present in layers in dunite, which the writer interprets as being distributed in a zone along the gently dipping (ca. 25??) gabbro-peridotite boundary. The steeply dipping (ca. 60-80 ?? ) individual layers lie en echelon along the boundary at an angle (ca. 50 ?? ) to the contact. At Coto the chromite forms large discontinuous masses in the lowest dunite and in the uppermost harzburgite. Except for the chromite present as layers at Acoje, the regional tectonic layering crosses the chromite deposits without structural deviation. The chromite deposits and associated peridotite may be cumulate in origin, but have been modified to such an extent that cumulate textures are gener

  10. Origin and tectonic significance of the Aldrich Mountains serpentinite matrix melange, northeastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Paul S.; Walker, Nicholas W.

    1992-06-01

    The Permian - Triassic Aldrich Mountains serpentinite melange consists of a matrix of massive and foliated serpentinite (lizardite + chrysotile) that encases a variety of metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary block types. Serpentinite matrix foliation trends NE-SW, dips steeply (> 75°), and is parallel to long dimensions of blocks. At block-matrix contacts, the foliation traces block margins. The volumetrically most abundant block types are greenstone, chert, and metagabbro; subordinate block types are amphibolite tectonites, epiclastic sediments (breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, and argillite), silicic volcanic rocks, silicic plutonic rocks, and ultramafic rocks. Three types of metamorphism are evident from textures and mineral assemblages of blocks and matrix: (1) serpentinization and related hydrous alteration confined to matrix, ultramafic blocks, and margins of mafic blocks; (2) lower to middle greenschist and prehnite-actinolite facies metamorphism characterized by static, non penetrative fabrics of some blocks, and; (3) dynamothermal epidote amphibolite to upper amphibolite/lower granulite metamorphism exhibited by strongly schistose amphibolite tectonites. Mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry indicate amphibolite tectonites formed at moderate to high temperatures (550°-780°C) and low to moderate pressures (3-5 kbar). Most blocks were affected by variable degrees of post metamorphic brittle deformation prior to immersion in serpentinite matrix. The melange is interpreted to have formed within a Permian to Late Triassic sediment-starved, tectonically active forearc. Fragments of abyssal oceanic crust and Early Permian ensimatic arc crust were mixed by tectonic and sedimentary processes within the forearc. Highly mobile serpentinite, generated beneath the forearc, was protrusively emplaced into the tectonized forearc and mixed with the blocks, forming the melange. Melange generation probably began in the late Early Permian and ceased by the Late Triassic.

  11. Chromites from the early Proterozoic Outokumpu-Jormua Ophiolite Belt: a comparison with chromites from Mesozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liipo, J.; Vuollo, J.; Nykänen, V.; Piirainen, T.; Pekkarinen, L.; Tuokko, I.

    1995-08-01

    Chromites from the ultramafic rocks of the early Proterozoic Outokumpu-Jormua Ophiolite Belt were found to possess textural and {Cr}/{(Cr + Al)} and {Mg}/{(Mg + Fe 2+) } ratios that resemble those described in Mesozoic ophiolite complexes. Chromites of cumulus texture were found at all locations along the Belt, whereas residual and podiform chromites were found only in the Outokumpu complex. The chromites in the Outokumpu complex originated in a supra-subduction zone environment, whereas those in the Jormua ophiolite complex originated in a mid-ocean ridge environment. The main difference between the early Proterozoic ophiolitic chromites and those of Mesozoic age is the relatively high Zn content in the former, which is a metasomatic feature related to the presence of large amounts of Cu-Co-Zn-Au ore. The data and observations presented provide evidence contributing to the concept of Proterozoic plate tectonics.

  12. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed by the mineral assemblage Na-amphibole + lawsonite seen as inclusion in epidote porphyroblasts within the melange. It could represent a structure of the prograde path but it could also have formed during the peak HP event. This is followed by successive folding episodes that are related to axial plane foliations and a ~E-W intersection/stretching lineation formed by typical blueschist- to epidote-blueschist facies mineral assemblages. The main foliation that can be observed in all three units is a greenschist-facies axial plane foliation accompanied by a ~ENE-WSW stretching lineation. The shear sense during the prograde path is constantly towards the WSW. In the greenschists-facies an unambiguous top-to ENE can be observed mostly in mylonitic rocks. The following deformation episodes include semi-brittle to brittle structures (shear bands brittle open folds, crenulation cleavage, and faults with increasingly higher-angle) that are not as penetrative and record the passage of the units through the brittle-ductile transitions and to higher structural levels. The kinematics of these late episodes is also towards the NE. Based on the above, the Mt Ochi HP units exhibit a common tectonometamorphic evolution since at least the early stages of the prograde path. The Ochi Unit/Styra Unit contact is a structure that formed prior to or during peak HP metamorphism and therefore it couldn't have served as the normal fault to an extrusion wedge.

  13. Formation and emplacement ages of the Masirah ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Smewing, J.D. ); Abbotts, I.L. ); Dunne, L.A. ); Rex, D.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Hornblende separates from gabbros and biotite separates from crosscutting potassic granites of the Masirah ophiolite have been analyzed by conventional K-Ar techniques. The gabbros have Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ages (126-158 Ma), and the granites have broadly similar ages (124-146 Ma). Because the gabbros are likely to give ophiolite formation ages and the granites ophiolite emplacement ages, it can be concluded that the Masirah ophiolite was emplaced very soon after formation. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ages contrast with the middle Cretaceous ages (90-95 Ma) of the Semail ophiolite, confirming earlier suggestions that the Masirah ophiolite cannot simply be a right-laterally displaced fragment of the Semail ophiolite, but is instead an uplifted block of Indian Ocean crust. The formation and emplacement of the Masirah ophiolite are discussed in the context of the late Mesozoic evolution of the western Indian Ocean.

  14. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  15. Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in western American and Caribbean orogenic development. Direct contact between the Kula/Farallon plates and North America may not have occurred until late Cretaceous time.

  16. Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the oman ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Hacker, B R

    1994-09-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of emplacement-related metamorphic rocks beneath the Samail ophiolite in Oman show that cooling to <525 degrees C occurred within approximately 1 million years of igneous crystallization of the ophiolite. This unexpectedly short time span and rapid cooling means that old, cold continental or oceanic lithosphere must have been adjacent to the ophiolite during spreading and then been thrust beneath the ophiolite almost immediately afterward. PMID:17801534

  17. Fluid-rock reactions in an evaporitic melange, Permian Haselgebirge, Austrian Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, C.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Kunk, M.J.; Wiesheu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonically isolated blocks of carbonate rocks present within the anhydritic Haselgebirge melange of the Northern Calcareous Alps record a complex history of deformation and associated deep-burial diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphic reactions. Fluids were hot (up to ~ 250 ??C) and reducing brines charged with carbon dioxide. Individual carbonate outcrops within the melange record different regimes of brine-rock reactions, ranging from pervasive dolomite recrystallization to dedolomitization. Early diagenetic features in these carbonates were almost entirely obliterated. Matrix dolomite alteration was related to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) recognized by the replacement of anhydrite by calcite + pyrite ?? native sulphur. Pyrite associated with TSR is coarsely crystalline and characterized by a small sulphur isotope fractionation relative to the precursor Permian anhydrite. Carbonates associated with TSR show low Fe/Mn ratios reflecting rapid reaction of ferrous iron during sulphide precipitation. As a result, TSR-related dolomite and calcite typically show bright Mn(II)-activated cathodoluminescence in contrast to the dull cathodoluminescence of many (ferroan) carbonate cements in other deep-burial settings. In addition to carbonates and sulphides, silicates formed closely related to TSR, including quartz, K-feldspar, albite and K-mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic K-feldspar yielded mostly disturbed step-heating spectra which suggest variable cooling through the argon retention interval for microcline during the Late Jurassic. This timing coincides with the recently recognized subduction and closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean to the south of the Northern Calcareous Alps and strongly suggests that the observed deep-burial fluid-rock reactions were related to Jurassic deformation and melange formation of these Permian evaporites.

  18. Evolution of a Permo-Triassic sedimentary melange, Grindstone terrane, east-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Nestell, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Perceives the Grindstone rocks to be a sedimentary melange composed of Paleozoic limestone slide and slump blocks that became detached from a carbonate shelf fringing a volcanic knoll or edifice in Late Permian to Middle Triassic time and were intermixed with Permian and Triassic slope to basinal clastic and volcaniclastic rocks in a forearc basin setting. Paleogeographic affinities of the Grindstone limestone faunas and volcaniclastic debris in the limestone and clastic rocks all indicate deposition in promixity to an island-arc system near the North American craton. -from Authors

  19. Magnetism of the oceanic crust: Evidence from ophiolite complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.

    1980-07-10

    The magnetic properties of six ophiolite complexes from around the world, ranging in age from Jurassic to Miocene, are presented. An emphasis is placed in our study on the petrologic and isotopic data from these ophiolite complexes in order to determine first whether the rock samples presently available represent the pristine ocean crust or whether they have been altered subaerially since their formation. Five of the ophiolites are found to be acceptable, and the conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of a marine magnetic source layer that includes not only the pillow lavas but also the underlying dikes and gabbro. At the moment, however, our observations do not suggest that the magnetic contributions of the basaltic dikes should be overlooked in favor of gabbro. A second important conclusion is that nearly pure magnetite could indeed be a magnetic carrier which contributes to marine magnetic anomanies. It only awaits discovery by deeper ocean crustal penetration by future Deep Sea Drilling Project legs.

  20. Ophiolitic association of Cape Fiolent area, southwestern Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promyslova, M. Yu.; Demina, L. I.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Gushchin, A. I.; Koronovsky, N. V.; Tsarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    An ophiolitic association consisting of serpentinized ultramafic rocks and serpentinite, layered mafic-ultramafic complex, gabbro and gabbrodolerite, fragments of parallel dike complex, pillow lava, black bedded chert, and jasper has been identified for the first time by authors in the Cape Fiolent area. The chemistry of pillow lavas and dolerites, including REE patterns and a wide set of other microelements, indicates suprasubduction nature of the ophiolites and their belonging to a backarc basin that has reached the stage of spreading in its evolution.

  1. Comment on "A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite".

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Warren B

    2007-11-01

    The claim by Furnes et al. (Reports, 23 March 2007, p. 1704) that Greenland metavolcanic rocks require Paleoarchean sea-floor spreading is incompatible with their own data. The purported sheeted dikes have the composition of pyroxenitic komatiite and could not have fed the adjacent ferroandesitic pillow lavas. Neither type has ophiolitic analogs, and both are likely ensialic. PMID:17975050

  2. Dismembered Archean ophiolite in the SE. Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ophiolitic rocks occur as wall rocks of the 2.7 Ga Louis Lake batholith near Atlantic City, Wyoming. All of the Archean rocks are strongly deformed and metamorphosed to a greenschist and amphibolite facies, but relict structures and textures are commonly preserved. These include the following, from west to east: (1) metadiabase with rare coarse-grained metagabbro; (2) ultramafic rocks and metagabbro; (3) amphibolite, locally pillowed, overlain(.) by pelitic schist, banded iron formation, and quartzite; and (4) pillow lavas, massive sills or flows, and minor metasedimentary rocks. Slice 1 locally contains parallel dike margins and rare metagabbro screens; these features suggest that it may represent a sheeted dike complex. Slice 2 locally contains ultramafic rocks having relict cumulus textures and igneous layering, corresponding to the cumulus portion of an ophiolite. The pillow lavas of slice 4 and possibly slice 3 are interpreted as comprising the extrusive portion of the ophiolite. The immobile trace element chemistry (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Cr, Ni) of slice 1 and 4 is very similar and supports a cogenetic origin, whereas pillow lavas of slice 3 are somewhat distinct. The metadiabases and lavas of slices 1 and 4 are similar to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, whereas lavas of slice 3 are more similar to island-arc tholeiites. Rare high-Ti basaltic komatiites occur in slices 1 and 4, but have very distinct trace element chemistry and probably represent later off-axis dikes. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted to represent the remains of Archean oceanic crust.

  3. The Oman Ophiolite as a Record of Subduction Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is the largest and best-known ophiolite in the world. It formed in the Cretaceous (~95 Ma) in the Neotethyan ocean, but its geodynamic setting of formation has been heavily debated for over three decades. Many workers have assumed that it formed in an open ocean setting, consequently utilising the ophiolite as a direct analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust, whereas others argue that the complex formed in a subduction setting. Here, we make the case that the Oman ophiolite records the evolution of the upper plate of a newly initiated subduction zone. Using a database of >1200 lava and dyke analyses ('OmanDB'), we show that the earliest lava sequence (the Geotimes unit) is systematically different to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, and that these differences can be explained by the presence of elevated water contents. This rules out a mid-ocean ridge origin, pointing instead to a subduction-related setting. The lavas evolved from the Geotimes 'moist MORB' to island-arc tholeiite and boninite (the Lasail and Alley units); hence, we conclude that the entire ophiolite formed in a subduction zone. The data suggest a progressive addition of water and concomitant depletion of the mantle source. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates that this fundamental change in magmatic source occurred within ~2 million years. The spreading structure of the ophiolite is characterized by a series of NW-SE trending propagating rifts that crosscut earlier N-S trending ridge segments. Together with palaeomagnetic evidence, which calls for 30° clockwise rotation between Geotimes and Lasail/Alley, and 120° between Lasail/Alley and the later Salahi lavas, it suggests that construction of the lithosphere was accompanied by significant plate rotation. Combined, the available evidence suggests that the rapid change in magmatic signature to increasingly arc-like compositions was coeval with large-scale rotational disaggregation of young ocean lithosphere and consequent reorganisation of the spreading system. This is consistent with the formation of the ophiolite above a newly initiated subduction zone, where a rapidly sinking slab changes the mantle melting regime and induces rotational stress due to differential rollback.

  4. The Ophiolite Problem, Is It Really a Problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. F.; Dewey, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Ophiolites and ophiolite complexes have been recognized as having an oceanic affinity or origin since the classic work of Ian Gass in the 1950s on the Troodos Complex. A problem has been that the term ophiolite has included a very diverse range of meanings from obscure slivers of mafic and ultramafic rocks of doubtful origin in orogenic belts to large obducted slabs with the full range (Coleman, 1972), from base to top, of lherzolite/ariegite, harzburgite, dunite, gabbro, sheeted dyke complex, pillow basalts, and sediments, commonly with a two-pyroxene mafic granulite as a thin aureole attached to the base of the complex. Large obducted ophiolite slabs are mainly early Ordovician and mid-Cretaceous. The principal enigma of these obducted slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which suggest a forearc origin. Our model hinges on the PT conditions under which boninites form. Many ophiolites have complexly-deformed associated assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform geology, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones/transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that split arcs). We propose a new model with syn-arc boninites that involves a stable ridge/trench/trench triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite complex is generated that ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous boninite/arc volcanic stratigraphy develops. Dikes in the ophiolite are oblique to the trench as are magnetic anomalies in the back-arc basin. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the dehydrating slab or where a ridge subducts beneath the forearc. The mafic protolith, garnet/two pyroxene, aureole is generated in and sliced from the subducting slab and attached to the base of the overriding lithosphere at about 1000C, ten to twelve million years from the ridge axis, where the SSZ ophiolite is about ten to twelve kilometers thick, at which thickness of the ophiolite is buffered by the subducting slab. Obduction of the SSZ ophiolite with its subjacent aureole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable continental margin.

  5. Emplacement of the Western Tethyan Ophiolites and Atlantic Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    This contribution shows that the cessation of emplacement of the 'Tethyan' supra-suduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites of the circum-Mediterranean region, and Oman, is contemporaneous with a marked drop in the relative velocities between Africa and Eurasia. It is argued that this contemporaneity is to be expected from plate theory. The Hellenic-Dinaric SSZ ophiolites in Greece, Albania and former Yugoslavia, range in age from ~173-168 Ma (mid-Jurassic). They were emplaced, eroded and covered by younger sediments by ~140 Ma, or possibly earlier, on the plate margin between northwest Gondwana and southwest Laurasia (=Africa/Eurasia). During emplacement, a passive continental margin was partially subducted, but because large-scale subduction of a continent appears to be precluded by the low density of continental crust, the subduction zone eventually ceased to exist and moved elsewhere. The SSZ ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Iran and Oman are of mid-Cretaceous age. The initial setting of the mid-Cretaceous ophiolites is clearest in Oman. The Oman ophiolite appears to have formed during roll-back of Triassic (or possibly Permian) ocean-floor from the Iranian margin at ~95 Ma and to have been emplaced by early Maastrichtian time, ~70 Ma, after which the Arabian passive margin could not undergo further subduction. Despite the complexities and uncertainties in the Atlantic spreading data, the relative motion of Africa to stable Europe in the region of the Tethyan ophiolites is quite simple. A major slowing of the relative motion from ~40-50 mm yr-1 to less than 5 mm yr--1 took place at ~140 Ma, broadly synchronous with the cessation of Hellenic-Dinaric ophiolite emplacement. Slow motion lasted from ~140-125 Ma and is attributed to the failure to subduct the passive continental margin; to the destruction of the Africa-Eurasian margin of that time; and to its eventual reestablishment elsewhere, ~15 m.y. later, after which the relative motion speeded up to ~20 mm yr-1. A second phase of very slow motion to ~4 mm yr-1, from 75 Ma to 55 Ma, is broadly synchronous with the cessation of emplacement of the mid-Cretaceous ophiolites. Like the first phase, the slowing down is attributed to the failure to subduct a continental margin (in the case of Oman, the NE Arabian margin) and the requirement to re-position the margin; processes that took some 20 m.y. to complete. Thus both slow phases of Africa to Europe motions are dictated by the tectonic setting of ophiolite emplacement. In this setting, subduction zone processes influence the spreading history of the parts of the Atlantic, rather than the other way round. There is no evidence that any large igneous provinces (LIPs) played a role in the emplacement of these western Tethyan ophiolites.

  6. Tectonic setting of the 1. 73 Ga Payson ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    The Early Proterozoic orogenic belt of central Arizona is divided by north- to northeast-trending shear zones into a collage of crustal blocks assembled during three periods of convergent tectonism. Whether any of the crustal blocks are allochthonous with respect to one another is an outstanding question. The sheeted dike complex of the Payson ophiolite forms a pseudostratigraphic layer that connects underlying gabbro to an overlying sequence of submarine volcanic rocks. The ophiolite intruded and erupted upon an older basement complex that includes 1.75 Ga granitoids, the oldest rocks known in central Arizona. The 1.73 Ga ophiolite is overlain by dacitic and andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and a sequence of turbidites with 1.72 Ga ash beds and is intruded by 1.71 Ga granodiorite. In addition to a distinct arc geochemical signature, the fact that the Payson ophiolite intrudes older arc crust, is intruded by arc plutons, and is overlain by arc-derived rocks in consistent with in situ development within an arc. The northwest boundary of the Mazatzal block, the Moore Gulch fault, separates the Mazatzal block from the 1.74--1.735 Ga arc volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Ash Creek block. If the northeast-trending 1.70 Ga deformational structures are parallel to the paleo-convergent plate boundary, then the northwest-trending dikes of the ophiolite suggest arc-parallel extension. This geometry is more consistent with an intra-arc basin formed as a pull-apart structure along an arc-parallel, strike-slip fault than with a back-arc basin.

  7. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. . Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. . Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  8. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  9. Crustal Zircons from the Podiform Chromitites in Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Komiya, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2004-12-01

    For the past decade, diamonds and unusual mineral asemblages were reported in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, China (Bai 1993, Bai 2000, Yan 2001) by heavy mineral separation. These include (1) native elements, (2) alloys, (3) carbide, (4) platinium group elements (PGE) and arsenides, (5) silicates (6) oxide, (7) carbonates, (8) minerals with unusual compositons. Despite many questions as to these minerals above still remain open, these mineral inclusions would provide us the important infomation on the formation of the podiform chromitites. In this study, over 100 zircons were discovered by heavy mineral separation of podiform chromitite in Luobusa ophiolite. The discovery of accessory zircons in chromitites allowed us to date the formation of the chromitite and history of tectonic evolutions. Here we report the U-Pb age and mineral inclusions of zircons and discuss with unusually old age zircons. 20 zircon grains in chromitites from No. 1 site were analyzed. Zircons from the chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite are usually euhedral-subhedral and some are rounded. Cathodoluminescence images of these zircons indicate that some zircons have clear oscillatory zoning, whereas other zircons show apparent homogeneous overgrowth. U-Pb dating of these zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded two different ages. One group has relatively younger age, 107-534Ma, which plots nearly on a concordia line. Another group has older age 1460-1822Ma, which plots off the concordia line. There is insignificant difference of apparent ages within a single zircon grain. For example, a zircon has 1650 Ma in the core, whereas does 1654 Ma in the rim. We identified several mineral inclusions, quartz, feldspar, mica, apatite, within both yonger and older zircons using laser-Raman spectrometry and EPMA. No high-pressure minerals or mantle minerals were identified. This means that these unusually old zircons were formed in low-pressure crustal emvironment. Where did the zircons in chromitites come from? It has been recognized that this ophiolite was formed at 110-120 Ma based on radiolaria in cherts overlying the pillow lavas (ALLEGRE et al., 1984; ZIABREV et al., 2003). In this study, the minimum age of 107 Ma, which we obtained from zircon in chromitites, is consistent to the age of the ophiolite. But, all other ages of zircons are much older than that of ophiolite. Yang et al. (2001) also reported U-Pb zircon ages of 450-910 Ma and Re-Os iridosmine age of 400 Ma from chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite. Mineral inclusions within zircons are crustal materials, which means that these zircons were crystallized in the low pressure crustal condition. Thus these zircons within chromitites are interpreted as xenocrysts from old crustal materials. Recently, old-age zircons (330 to 1600 Ma) were also reported from the Mid Atlantic Ridge MORBs (PILOT et al., 1998). They suggest one possibility that these old-age zircons may have derived from old continental crustal material, which have assimilated with the MORB magma during ascent. Moreover, Archean zircons were reported from pyroxenite dikes in Jormua ophiolite (PETRI et al., 2003). YU et al. (2001) reported that zircons from chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite have shorter inter-atomic distances of Zr-O and Si-O bonds. As a result, they concluded that Tibetan-zircons were derived from the high-pressure mantle environment. Judging from the line of evidence mentioned above, it is highly possible that these zircons captured by chromitites were originated from recycled crustal materials, convecting through upper mantle.

  10. Alteration of mélange-hosted chromitites from Korydallos, Pindos ophiolite complex, Greece: evidence for modification by a residual high-T post-magmatic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsiotis, Argyrios N.

    2014-12-01

    The peridotites from the area of Korydallos, in the Pindos ophiolitic massif, crop out as deformed slices of a rather dismembered sub-oceanic, lithospheric mantle section and are tectonically enclosed within the Avdella melange. The most sizeable block is a chromitite-bearing serpentinite showing a mesh texture. Accessory, subhedral to euhedral Cr-spinels in the serpentinite display Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al)] values that range from 0.36 to 0.42 and Mg# [Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ )] values that vary between 0.57 and 0.62, whereas the TiO2 content may be up to 0.47 wt.%. The serpentinite fragment is characterized by low abundances of magmaphile elements (Al2 O3 : 0.66 wt.%, CaO: 0.12 wt.%, Na2 O: 0.08 wt.%, TiO2 : 0.007 wt.%, Sc: 4 ppm) and enrichment in compatible elements (Cr: 2780 ppm and Ni: 2110 ppm). Overall data are in accordance with derivation of the serpentinite exotic block from a dunite that was formed in the mantle region underneath a back-arc basin before tectonic incorporation in the Korydallos melange. Two compositionally different chromitite pods are recognized in the studied serpentinite fragment, a Cr-rich chromitite and a high-Al chromitite, which have been ascribed to crystallization from a single, progressively differentiating MORB/IAT melt. Although both pods are fully serpentinized only the Al-rich one shows signs of limited Cr-spinel replacement by an opaque spinel phase and clinochlore across grain boundaries and fractures. Modification of the ore-making Cr-spinel is uneven among the Al-rich chromitite specimens. Textural features such as olivine replacement by clinochlore and clinochlore disruption by serpentine indicate that Cr-spinel alteration is not apparently related to serpentinization. From the unaltered Cr-spinel cores to their reworked boundaries the Al2 O3 and MgO abundances decrease, being mainly compensated by FeOt and Cr2 O3 increases. Such compositional variations are suggestive of restricted ferrian chromite (and minor magnetite) substitution for Cr-spinel during a short-lived but relatively intense, low amphibolite facies metamorphic episode (temperature: 400-700 °C). The presence of tremolite and clinochlore in the interstitial groundmass of the high-Al chromitite and their absence from the Cr-rich chromitite matrix imply that after chromitite formation a small volume of a high temperature, post-magmatic fluid reacted with Cr-spinel, triggering its alteration.

  11. Foliated breccias in the active Portuguese Bend landslide complex, California: bearing on melange genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Hudleston, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    The active portion of the Portuguese Bend landslide complex is approximately 3 km/sup 2/ in area and 30-50 m thick. Measured displacement rates range from less than one to greater than 30 mm/day on different parts of the landslide, with total displacements over the last 30 yrs ranging from about 10 to greater than 150 m. Six types of breccia, each locally with a foliated matrix, were recognized in the active landslide complex and are absent outside the landslide complex. Slide-body breccias are of two types, the first formed by extensional fracturing during bulk pure shear at the top of the landslide (slide-top breccia) and the second by flow of tuffaceous shales and fracture of embedded siliceous shales during simple shear deep in the landslide to the basal decollement (slide-bottom breccias). Slide-margin breccias, also in simple shear, are produced on the lateral margins of individual slide blocks accompanying wrench-fault motion. Other breccias (fault-ramp breccias) are formed during motion over ramps. Colluvial deposits within tension gashes (crack-fill breccias) and at the toe of the slide (slide-toe breccias) represent a fifth breccia type. Diapirs originating from over-pressured zones at the slide base also contain breccia. Recognition of different breccia types in ancient rocks would be difficult, because fabrics in the different types are similar. Foliations are defined by: scaly cleavage, compositional banding and color banding (in shear zones), stretched mud clasts, and aligned hard grains. Foliated breccias are synonymous with melanges. The authors regard the six breccia types described herein as representing the principal types of melange that occur in ancient accretionary settings.

  12. Obduction initiation: evidence from the base of New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, Philippe; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Soret, Mathieu; Chauvet, Alain; Dubacq, Benoit; Monié, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Obduction, whereby fragments of dense, oceanic lithosphere (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light continental ones, remains a poorly understood geodynamic process, in particular with respect to 1) obduction initiation and 2) effective ophiolite emplacement. Most of our knowledge on obduction initiation comes from the amphibolite to granulite facies high-temperature metamorphic soles welded to the base of non-metamorphic large-scale ophiolite thrusts (e.g., Oman, N.Caledonia, Balkans,...), which are interpreted as witnesses of the subduction inception stages preluding to obduction. We herein report for the first time the existence of deformed amphibolites near the base of the ophiolite (~ 50-100 m above), yet within the mantle peridotites proper, from the classic New Caledonia ophiolite (Plum beach, SE of Noumea). These amphibolites correspond to several cm thick thin bands of sheared mafic rocks showing highly deformed to mylonitic textures, which are embedded within well-preserved to strongly serpentinized peridotites. Large-scale shear bands (>100m long in places) show impressive, very consistent deformation patterns and shear senses on the outcrop scale in favor of reverse displacements. Amphibolites and peridotites are both strongly sheared with the common observation of strongly boudinaged peridotites in the core of the largest shear bands. Some gabbroic pods and plagioclase-rich veinlets are spatially associated to the amphibolites, but appear to have formed slightly later based on cross-cutting relationships. Preliminary mineralogical observations indicate complex, successive recrystallisations stages, with olivine-bearing clasts, at least three generations of amphiboles and late stage talc-chlorite associations. Although still preliminary, several interpretations can be proposed for the origin of such structures. They could correspond to (1) very-high temperature sole "amphibolites" deformed (tectonically mixed with the mantle; and possibly partly melted) during strong shearing at the base of the obduction thrust, (2) mafic melts intruding (and later sheared; possibly almost coevally) at the base of the ophiolite sequence, (3) ingression of hydrous fluids producing local melting of the peridotite. Based on several field observations, and on the need for unrealistically high temperature for hydrous peridotite melting (i.e., > ~1100°C), the last hypothesis seems less likely. Whatever the hypothesis, we stress that it is yet unclear if this deformation relates to subduction processes accompanying early obduction stages or to structures inherited from oceanic stages (e.g., deformation structures at the vicinity of major transforms and/or oceanic detachments). In the latter case, this discovery would indicate that the localisation of deformation during subduction/obduction initiation reworks ancient zones of deformation.

  13. Temperatures and cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in ophiolitic and abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Liang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Mantle peridotites from ophiolites are commonly interpreted as having mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or supra-subduction zone (SSZ) affinity. Recently, an REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed (Liang et al., 2013) that has higher closure temperatures (designated as TREE) than major element based two-pyroxene thermometers for mafic and ultramafic rocks that experienced cooling. The REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer has the potential to extract meaningful cooling rates from ophiolitic peridotites and thus shed new light on the thermal history of the different tectonic regimes. We calculated TREE for available literature data from abyssal peridotites, subcontinental (SC) peridotites, and ophiolites around the world (Alps, Coast Range, Corsica, New Caledonia, Oman, Othris, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Turkey), and augmented the data with new measurements for peridotites from the Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and the Mariana trench. TREE are compared to major element based thermometers, including the two-pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler (1990) (TBKN). Samples with SC affinity have TREE and TBKN in good agreement. Samples with MOR and SSZ affinity have near-solidus TREE but TBKN hundreds of degrees lower. Closure temperatures for REE and Fe-Mg in pyroxenes were calculated to compare cooling rates among abyssal peridotites, MOR ophiolites, and SSZ ophiolites. Abyssal peridotites appear to cool more rapidly than peridotites from most ophiolites. On average, SSZ ophiolites have lower closure temperatures than abyssal peridotites and many ophiolites with MOR affinity. We propose that these lower temperatures can be attributed to the residence time in the cooling oceanic lithosphere prior to obduction. MOR ophiolites define a continuum spanning cooling rates from SSZ ophiolites to abyssal peridotites. Consistent high closure temperatures for abyssal peridotites and the Oman and Corsica ophiolites suggests hydrothermal circulation and/or rapid cooling events (e.g., normal faulting, unroofing) control the late thermal histories of peridotites from transform faults and slow and fast spreading centers with or without a crustal section.

  14. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Pallister, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb are determined for samples from massive sulfides and lithologic units of the Samail ophiolite. It is shown that the magma that formed the ophiolite was probably derived from a depleted mantle, similar in Pb isotopic composition to the source area of mid-ocean ridge basalt. The gross geochemical characteristics of the mantle sources have remained almost unchanged for the last 100 million years. It is also shown that the U-Th-Pb systematics of the Samail formation indicate that local vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can result from crystal fractionation and metasomatism at, and near, an oceanic spreading center.

  15. Kinematic analysis of melange fabrics: Examples and applications from the McHugh Complex, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusky, T.M.; Bradley, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Permian to Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex on the Kenai Peninsula, south-central Alaska includes blocks and belts of graywacke, argillite, limestone, chert, basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks, intruded by a variety of igneous rocks. An oceanic plate stratigraphy is repeated hundreds of times across the map area, but most structures at the outcrop scale extend lithological layering. Strong rheological units occur as blocks within a matrix that flowed around the competent blocks during deformation, forming broken formation and melange. Deformation was noncoaxial, and disruption of primary layering was a consequence of general strain driven by plate convergence in a relatively narrow zone between the overriding accretionary wedge and the downgoing, generally thinly sedimented oceanic plate. Soft-sediment deformation processes do not appear to have played a major role in the formation of the melange. A model for deformation at the toe of the wedge is proposed in which layers oriented at low angles to ??1 are contracted in both the brittle and ductile regimes, layers at 30-45??to ??1 are extended in the brittle regime and contracted in the ductile regime, and layers at angles greater than 45??to ??1 are extended in both the brittle and ductile regimes. Imbrication in thrust duplexes occurs at deeper levels within the wedge. Many structures within melange of the McHugh Complex are asymmetric and record kinematic information consistent with the inferred structural setting in an accretionary wedge. A displacement field for the McHugh Complex on the lower Kenai Peninsula includes three belts: an inboard belt of Late Triassic rocks records west-to-east-directed slip of hanging walls, a central belt of predominantly Early Jurassic rocks records north-south directed displacements, and Early Cretaceous rocks in an outboard belt preserve southwest-northeast directed slip vectors. Although precise ages of accretion are unknown, slip directions are compatible with inferred plate motions during the general time frame of accretion of the McHugh Complex. The slip vectors are interpreted to preserve the convergence directions between the overriding and underriding plates, which became more oblique with time. They are not considered indicative of strain partitioning into belts of orogen-parallel and orogen-perpendicular displacements, because the kinematic data are derived from the earliest preserved structures, whereas fabrics related to strain partitioning would be expected to be superimposed on earlier accretion-related fabrics.Permian to Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex on the Kenai Peninsula, south-central Alaska includes blocks and belts of graywacke, argillite, limestone, chert, basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks, intruded by a variety of igneous rocks. An oceanic plate stratigraphy is repeated hundreds of times across the map area, but most structures at the outcrop scale extend lithological layering. Strong rheological units occur as blocks within a matrix that flowed around the competent blocks during deformation, forming broken formation and melange. Deformation was noncoaxial, and disruption of primary layering was a consequence of general strain driven by plate convergence in a relatively narrow zone between the overriding accretionary wedge and the downgoing, generally thinly sedimented oceanic plate. Soft-sediment deformation processes do not appear to have played a major role in the formation of the melange. A model for deformation at the toe of the wedge is proposed in which layers oriented at low angles to ??1 are contracted in both the brittle and ductile regimes, layers at 30-45?? to ??1 are extended in the brittle regime and contracted in the ductile regime, and layers at angles greater than 45?? to ??1 are extended in both the brittle and ductile regimes. Imbrication in thrust duplexes occurs at deeper levels within the wedge. Many structures within melange of the McHugh Complex are asymmetric and record

  16. Formation and tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Jurassic Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex, Pakistan: Implications for the composite tectonic setting of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mehrab; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2007-10-01

    The Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex Balochistan, Pakistan is comprised of an upper and lower nappe and represents one of a number of ophiolites in this region which mark the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. These ophiolites were obducted onto the Indian continental margin around the Late Cretaceous, prior to the main collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The upper nappe contains mantle sequence rocks with numerous isolated gabbro plutons which we show are fed by dolerite dykes. Each pluton has a transitional dunite-rich zone at its base, and new geochemical data suggest a similar mantle source region for both the plutons and dykes. In contrast, the lower nappe consists of pillow basalts, deep-marine sediments and a mélange of ophiolitic rocks. The rocks of the upper nappe have a geochemical signature consistent with formation in an island arc environment whereas the basalts of the lower nappe contain no subduction component and are most likely to have formed at a mid-ocean ridge. The basalts and sediments of the lower nappe have been intruded by oceanic alkaline igneous rocks during the northward drift of the Indian plate. The two nappes of the Muslim Bagh ophiolitic complex are thus distinctively different in terms of their age, lithology and tectonic setting. The recognition of composite ophiolites such as this has an important bearing on the identification and interpretation of ophiolites where the plate tectonic setting is less well resolved.

  17. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB dikes) to represent the collision of an active spreading ridge. Subsequent reorganization of relative plate motions led to sinistral transpression, along with renewed subduction and accretion of the Franciscan Complex. The latter event resulted in uplift and exhumation of the ophiolite by the process of accretionary uplift. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Jocotán Ophiolite: A new ophiolite along the Jocotán fault, eastern Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Flores-Reyes, K.; Sisson, V. B.; Nelson, C.; Cacao, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North American - Caribbean plate boundary traverses central Guatemala and northern Honduras, dispersed along three left lateral faults systems, which from north to south are the Chixoy-Polochic, the Motagua, and the Jocotán-Camelecón faults, with the Motagua as the present active strand. The Motagua Suture Zone (MSZ), which encompasses this area, consists of multiple paleo-convergent boundaries. It includes slices of ultramafic-mafic complexes including both antigorite (Atg) serpentinite mélanges containing high-pressure / low-temperature (HP/LT) blocks, and lizardite-chrysotile (Lzd-Ctl) serpentinites with associated pillow lavas, radiolarian chert, and marine sediments, typically labeled as ophiolites. Guatemala Suture Zone would be a preferable term to MSZ because the area extends over all three faults, not just the Motagua. The MSZ includes the Sierra de Santa Cruz ophiolite north of the east end of the Polochic fault, the Baja Verapaz ultramafic complex (considered an ophiolite in most of the literature) lies just south of the western portion of the Polochic fault and a series of Atg-serpentinite-dominant mélanges (with HP/LT blocks) that decorate both sides of the Motagua fault. In addition, there is the El Tambor Formation, south of the Motagua fault (but west of the known limit of the Jocotán fault), which contains mafic & sedimentary units and has been called an ophiolite. However, no mafic-ultramafic bodies appear on maps that cover the Jocotán fault in eastern Guatemala. Geologic mapping by one of the co-authors located a small suite of ultramafic rocks sandwiched between the Jocotán and Camotán faults in eastern Guatemala, a short distance from the town of Camotán. Outcrops exposed for 3 km along a road and in a small river consist of sheared Lzd-Ctl serpentinite, metagabbro, overturned altered pillow lavas, listwaenite and rodingite dikes, cherts and pelagic metasediments. These units represent fault slivers subparallel to the steeply dipping local faults sandwiched between mostly phyllites, schists, limestones and metabasites. The latter are similar to the Las Ovejas Complex and/or the San Diego Phyllite which bound the El Tambor Formation and mélanges further west. The newly observed lithologic package, although small in areal extent, has clear affinities with an ophiolite. No HP/LT metamorphic blocks, or even true amphibolites were observed, so consistent with the presence of Lzd-Ctl in the serpentinite, the unit is not a subduction related mélange. The potential relationship with the El Tambor Formation to the west requires further analysis and comparison.

  19. Indo-Burma Range: a belt of accreted microcontinents, ophiolites and Mesozoic-Paleogene flyschoid sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    This study provides an insight into the lithotectonic evolution of the N-S trending Indo-Burma Range (IBR), constituting the southern flank of the Himalayan syntaxis. Paleogene flyschoid sediments (Disang-Barail) that represent a shallow marine to deltaic environment mainly comprise the west-central sector of IBR, possibly resting upon a continental base. On the east, these sequences are tectonically flanked by the Eocene olistostromal facies of the Disang, which developed through accretion of trench sediments during the subduction. The shelf and trench facies sequences of the Disang underwent overthrusting from the east, giving rise to two ophiolite suites ( Naga Hills Lower Ophiolite ( NHLO) and Victoria Hills Upper Ophiolite ( VHUO), but with different accretion history. The ophiolite and ophiolite cover rock package were subsequently overthrusted by the Proterozoic metamorphic sequence, originated from the Burmese continent. The NHLO suite of Late Jurassic to Early Eocene age is unconformably overlain by mid-Eocene shallow marine ophiolite-derived clastics. On the south, the VHUO of Mesozoic age is structurally underlain by continental metamorphic rocks. The entire package in Victoria Hills is unconformably overlain by shallow marine Late Albian sediments. Both the ophiolite suites and the sandwiched continental metamorphic rocks are thrust westward over the Paleogene shelf sediments. These dismembered ophiolites and continental metamorphic rocks suggest thin-skinned tectonic detachment processes in IBR, as reflected from the presence of klippe of continental metamorphic rocks over the NHLO and the flyschoid Disang floor sediments and half windows exposing the Disang beneath the NHLO.

  20. Chronology of ophiolite crystallization, detachment, and emplacement: Evidence from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, K.R.; Bird, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data from early Middle Jurassic ophiolites (187-184 Ma) in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, indicate that detachment - related metamorphism occurred {approximately}20 m.y. after crystallization and {approximately}20 m.y. before emplacement onto the Arctic Alaska margin. High-temperature metamorphic rocks along the basal surfaces of many ophiolites have ages that are contemporaneous with ophiolite crystallization, suggesting that detachment and thrust faulting occur while the lithosphere is young ({lt}10 Ma) and relatively hot. From these relations it has been generally assumed that detachment and initial overthrusting of oceanic lithosphere occur near the site of generation, such as a marginal basin or mid-ocean ridge. The new data from the Brooks Range ophiolites confirm previous indications that some ophiolites have much longer intervals between crystallization, thrust-related metamorphism, and emplacement. On the basis of these new results and data from other ophiolites, the authors propose that ophiolites originating within large ocean basins will generally have longer crystallization-to-emplacement intervals than the more commonly recognized marginal basin-type ophiolites.

  1. The `subduction initiation rule': a key for linking ophiolites, intra-oceanic forearcs, and subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Stern, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    We establish the `subduction initiation rule' (SIR) which predicts that most ophiolites form during subduction initiation (SI) and that the diagnostic magmatic chemostratigraphic progression for SIR ophiolites is from less to more HFSE-depleted and LILE-enriched compositions. This chemostratigraphic evolution reflects formation of what ultimately becomes forearc lithosphere as a result of mantle melting that is progressively influenced by subduction zone enrichment during SI. The magmatic chemostratigraphic progression for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) forearc and most Tethyan ophiolites is specifically from MORB-like to arc-like (volcanic arc basalts or VAB ± boninites or BON) because SI progressed until establishment of a mature subduction zone. MORB-like lavas result from decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere and are the first magmatic expression of SI. The contribution of fluids from dehydrating oceanic crust and sediments on the sinking slab is negligible in early SI, but continued melting results in a depleted, harzburgitic residue that is progressively metasomatized by fluids from the sinking slab; subsequent partial melting of this residue yields `typical' SSZ-like lavas in the latter stages of SI. If SI is arrested early, e.g., as a result of collision, `MORB-only' ophiolites might be expected. Consequently, MORB- and SSZ-only ophiolites may represent end-members of the SI ophiolite spectrum. The chemostratigraphic similarity of the Mariana forearc with that of ophiolites that follow the SIR intimates that a model linking such ophiolites, oceanic forearcs, and SI is globally applicable.

  2. Fully carbonated peridotite (listvenite) from the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite--fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz--occur along the basal thrust of the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. The presence of these listvenites demonstrates that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on a large scale under natural conditions. Thus, understanding the conditions of listvenite formation can provide insights into the feasibility of achieving complete carbonation of peridotite through engineered approaches for carbon capture and storage. The Oman listvenites likely formed during emplacement of the ophiolite, as CO2-bearing fluids derived from underlying metasediments reacted with peridotite in the hanging wall. Listvenite outcrops occur within 500 meters of the basal thrust, where peridotite overlies carbonate-bearing metasediments. 87Sr/86Sr values in listvenite are higher than seawater values and consistent with values in these underlying metasediments. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are also consistent with values in some of the metasediments. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 × 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in listvenites yields temperatures around 100°C, and thermodynamically stable coexistence of antigorite, talc, and quartz in serpentinite along the margins of the listvenite would require reaction temperatures around 80°C, as calculated in THERMOCALC. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, these moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites probably formed at relatively shallow depths, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals more probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid than deeper metamorphic reactions without significant transport of fluids along the slab interface. Through EQ3/6 geochemical reaction path models of these processes over a range of pressures, temperatures, and water-rock ratios we explore the conditions under which listvenite could have formed.

  3. Supersilicic clinopyroxene from Nidar Ophiolite ultramafics, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Mukherjee, B. K.

    2011-12-01

    We discovered silica exsolution lamellae in clinopyroxenes from pyroxenites of Nidar ophiolite ultramafics, Indus Suture Zone in Eastern Ladakh, India. These signify former existence of supersilicic clinopyroxene, an indicator of deep mantle condition. The ophiolite ultramafic suit consists of varieties of peridotites (dunite, chromite, harzburgite etc.) and intrusive pyroxenites. The pyroxenites are heterogeneously altered and dominated in clinopyroxene (>70%) with minor carbonates. Recently numerous silica inclusions and lamellas are found in clinopyroxenes of pyroxenites. The lamellas have been classified on the basis of their various modes of occurrences, size and shape from different clinopyroxenes - (1) rectilinear, strongly oriented rods (2) straight needles of greater size and weaker orientation with respect to type 1 (3) curved lamellas with wider middle part and tapering ends restricted in outer margin of clinopyroxene. All the lamellas display diffused grain boundaries with the host clinopyroxenes. On the basis of higher silica content of the host clinopyroxene compared to the silica free matrix it is interpreted that silica lamellas are exsolution products from break down of primary supersilicic Ca - Eskola end member. The exsolved silica bearing clinopyroxenes are showing increase in concentration of Si along with K which is potential function of pressure in clinopyroxene (Shimizu 1971). Besides these, a quartz inclusion in clinopyroxene show palisade texture with radiating fractures in rim and a polycrystalline core, which may indicate phase transition of higher silica polymorphs during decompression. With the given line of evidences, the Himalayan Ophiolite may become a potential window for deep mantle study and could be equivocal for ultra-high pressure origin. Reference: Shimizu N, EPSL, 11, 374-380; 1971.

  4. The proterozoic ophiolite problem, continental emergence, and the venus connection.

    PubMed

    Moores, E M

    1986-10-01

    To account for the lack of preservation of ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust and mantle) in old orogenic belts (age 1000 to 2500 million years), a hypothesis proposes that the magmatic oceanic crust formed during sea-floor spreading was thicker during the cited time interval. This thickening led to reduced contrast between the elevation of continental and oceanic regions and to greater average flooding of the continents. The resultant distribution of elevation may have resembled modern Venus more than modern Earth. PMID:17742635

  5. Etude des melanges co-continus d'acide polylactique et d'amidon thermoplastique (PLA/TPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Garcia, Maria Graciela

    Les melanges co-continus sont des melanges polymeriques ou chaque composant se trouve dans une phase continue. Pour cette raison, les caracteristiques de chacun des composants se combinent et il en resulte un materiau avec une morphologie et des proprietes particulieres. L'acide polylactique (PLA) et l'amidon thermoplastique (TPS) sont des biopolymeres qui proviennent de ressources renouvelables et qui sont biodegradables. Dans ce projet, differents melanges de PLA et TPS a une haute concentration de TPS ont ete prepares dans une extrudeuse bi-vis afin de generer des structures co-continues. Grace a la technique de lixiviation selective, le TPS est enleve pour creer une structure poreuse de PLA qui a pu etre analysee au moyen de la microtomographie R-X et de la microscopie electronique a balayage MEB. L'analyse des images 2D et 3D confirme la presence de la structure co-continue dans les melanges dont la concentration en TPS. se situe entre 66% et 80%. L'effet de deux plastifiants, le glycerol seul et le melange de glycerol et de sorbitol, dans la formulation de TPS est etudie dans ce travail. De plus, nous avons evalue l'effet du PLA greffe a l'anhydride maleique (PLAg) en tant que compatibilisant. On a trouve que la phase de TPS obtenue avec le glycerol est plus grande. L'effet de recuit sur la taille de phases est aussi analyse. Grace aux memes techniques d'analyse, on a etudie l'effet du procede de moulage par injection sur la morphologie. On a constate que les pieces injectees presentent une microstructure heterogene et differente entre la surface et le centre de la piece. Pres de la surface, une peau plus riche en PLA est presente et les phases de TPS y sont allongees sous forme de lamelles. Plus au centre de la piece, une morphologie plus cellulaire est observee pour chaque phase continue. L'effet des formulations sur les proprietes mecaniques a aussi ete etudie. Les pieces injectees dont la concentration de TPS est plus grande presentent une moindre resistance a la traction. La presence du compatibilisant dans la region co-continue affecte negativement cette resistance. En considerant que l'amidon est un biomateriau abondant, moins cher et plus rapidement biodegradable, son ajout dans le PLA presente l'avantage de reduire le cout tout en augmentant la vitesse de degradation du PLA. De plus, une structure continue poreuse de PLA produit par la technique de lixiviation selective a des applications potentielles soit comme materiau a degradation rapide ou encore, une fois la phase TPS retiree, comme substrat a porosite ouverte pour la fabrication de membranes, de supports cellulaires ou de filtres. Mots-cles : melanges immiscibles, acide polylactique, amidon thermoplastique, morphologie cocontinue, lixiviation selective, microtomographie R-X, materiau rigide poreux biodegradable.

  6. Methane-Hydrogen Generation in the Zambales Ophiolite (Philippines) Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, J.; Telling, J.; Sherwood-Lollar, B.; Villiones, R.

    2006-05-01

    The so-called Zambales Ophiolite Methane (ZOM) is one of the earliest reported occurrences of reduced gas in ultramafic terranes. The ZOM also holds the distinction of having the most 13C-enriched carbon of naturally occurring methane seeps on Earth. This attribute, along with evidence that shows strong "mantle-like" noble gas components, led to the general acknowledgement that ZOM represents abiotically generated methane. In this presentation, the geologic setting, host rocks, apparent gas flux and composition and other field attributes of ZOM will be described, based on a fieldwork and sampling that we recently conducted. In addition to the original gas occurrence in Los Fuegos Eternos, LFE (e.g., Abrajano et al., 1988), a newly discovered major gas seep occurrence on Nagsaza, San Antonio, Zambales will also be described. It is noteworthy that the new site occurs in a separate ophiolitic block, and is over 70 km away from the LFE site. Analyses of molecular composition and compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope composition of methane and minor hydrocarbons are currently on-going. We will conclude this presentation with a re-assessment of the generation mechanism(s) previously considered for the ZOM and other similar occurrences worldwide.

  7. Analysis of Environmental Forcing and Melange Fluctuation in Asynchronous Retreat of Ocean Terminating Glaciers in Greenland's Sermilik Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, F.; Galey, C. E.; Bassis, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread near synchronous retreat of marine terminating outlet glaciers has been observed across wide swaths of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, despite large-scale patterns of retreat, there is considerable variability in the timing and retreat patterns of individual glaciers with geographically adjacent glaciers that experience similar climate and meteorological forcing displaying markedly different behavior. Here we applied an automated identification algorithm that we developed to track the terminus and melange in order better understand the complex dynamics and varying drivers of glacier retreat. The algorithm was applied to three major glaciers (Helheim Glacier, Fenris Glacier and Midgard Glacier) that terminate in Greenland's Sermilik Fjord over the period of 2000- 2014. The terminus position and the percentage of the fjord filled with melange or sea ice from 2001 to present was determined. Since these glaciers exist within the same fjord system, they should experience comparable environmental forcing conditions, but appear to respond to these conditions differently causing them to have varying patterns of retreat. Helheim Glacier and Fenris Glacier have terminus locations closely spaced in the fjord but Helheim Glacier's terminus retreated over 7 km before advancing to stabilize at a 5 km retreat over the observation period and Fenris Glacier's terminus has stayed in roughly the same place. Midgard Glacier is located across the fjord from Helheim Glacier and its terminus has continuously retreated with a retreat of approximately 8 km. This asynchronous retreat shows that proximity alone cannot determine retreat behavior, and a more complex interaction between internal variability and external forcing must be taking place. To better understand the variability within the system and the cause of asynchronous retreat, ocean and air temperature datasets, in conjunction with the fjord geometry, were compared with our derived melange/sea ice and terminus position data.

  8. Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Agard, Philippe; Ulrich, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia. Whitechurch H.(1) Agard P.(2), Ulrich M.(1) (1) EOST - University of Strasbourg (France) (2) ISTeP - University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France) Ophiolites are considered as pieces of oceanic lithosphere that escaped subduction to be obducted on continental margins. After the Penrose Conference in 1972, they have all been regarded as issued from mid-ocean ridges of large oceans. Subsequently, most of ophiolites have been considered as generated in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment, mainly on the basis of geochemical arguments. However, this characterization encompasses very different geological situations, somewhat in contradiction with a univocal geochemical interpretation, both in terms of where ophiolite formed (i.e., ocean-continent transition zones, ocean ridges, marginal basins) and were obducted (contrasting nature of the margins). Examples from eastern Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolites (Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Oman) and tertiary New Caledonia ophiolites all show this diversity, both in their internal structures and geological setting of obduction. Several questions will be addressed in this debate: the relationships and paradoxes between the nature of ophiolites, their geodynamic environment of formation, their geochemistry, their modality of obduction and ultimately the mountain range style where they are found.

  9. The sub-ophiolitic metamorphic rocks of the Québec Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, James; Reynolds, Peter H.; Spray, John G.

    1995-07-01

    Amphibolitic metamorphic rocks are associated with the Thetford, Asbestos and Orford ophiolites as well as the Mont Albert and Pennington Sheet peridotites of the Québec Appalachians. An augmented compilation of the existing data on their field relations, mineralogy, geochronology, structural features and geothermobarometry is presented in order to help reconstruct the timing and processes of marginal basin closure and ophiolite emplacement during the Ordovician. A new, refined {40Ar }/{39Ar } incremental release spectrum and isochron age is presented for the Thetford Mines ophiolite dynamothermal sole. The new 477 ± 5 Ma age resolves the existing disparity between the crustal (plagiogranite) and sole ages. The sole was formed shortly after crustal formation, suggesting that the ophiolite was decoupled at or near a spreading centre. A hitherto undescribed ultramafic-mafic amphibolitic sole beneath the Asbestos ophiolite was decoupled and rotated during the continental emplacement of the overlying ophiolite. Dating of the sole at Asbestos was hampered by presence of low K 2O amphiboles, but an Acadian (377 Ma) age was obtained from orthoclase. The Orford sole was dismembered and incorporated within a serpentinitic mélange that contains other ophiolitic lithologies. Sheared amphibolites from alongside the Pennington Sheet in the Flintkote Mine are reinterpreted as a dynamothermal sole, rather than a metasomatically generated amphibole-bearing metasediment.

  10. Using Zircon Geochronology to Unravel the History of the Naga Hills Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, T.; Aitchison, J. C.; Clarke, G. L.; Ireland, T. R.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Outcrops of the Naga Hills Ophiolite (NHO), a possible eastern extension of the ophiolitic belt running along the India-Asia suture, in Northeast India include a full suite of ophiolitic rocks. The ophiolite has been dated Upper Jurassic based on radiolarian studies of the unit (Baxter et al., 2011) but details of its emplacement onto the Indian margin have not been the subject of detailed investigation. Conglomerates of the Phokphur Formation unconformably overlie an eroded surface on top of dismembered ophiolite fragments and include sediments sourced from both the ophiolite and the margin of the Indian subcontinent. Notably no Asian margin-derived detritus is recognised (similar to the Liuqu conglomerates of Tibet (Davis et al., 2002)). Thus, a detailed study of the Phokphur sediments can produce valuable details of the NHO history, including constraining the timing of ophiolite emplacement. Studies of detrital sandstone petrography confirm a recycled orogen provenance for the Phokphur Formation and thus serve as validation of the methods of Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Garzanti et al. (2007). Detrital zircon data provides further insight as to the age of source rocks of Phokphur sediments and help to further constrain the timing of ophiolite emplacement. We present results of sedimentary and detrital zircon geochronology analyses of Phokphur sediments from outcrops near the villages of Salumi and Wazeho as a contribution to furthering research on aspects of the India-Asia collision. Baxter, A.T., et al. 2011. Upper Jurassic radiolarians from the Naga Ophiolite, Nagaland, northeast India. Gondwana Research, 20: 638-644. Davis, A.M., et al. 2002. Paleogene island arc collision-related conglomerates, Yarlung-Tsangpo suture zone, Tibet. Sedimentary Geology, 150: 247-273. Dickinson, W.R. and Suczek, C.A., 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone compositions. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 63, 2164-2182, (1979). Garzanti, E., et al., 2007. Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenance. The Journal of Geology, 115: 315-334.

  11. Dynamics of convergent plate boundaries: Insights from subduction-related serpentinite melanges from the northern edge of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Casco, A.

    2012-04-01

    Subduction-related rock complexes, many of them tectonic melanges, occur in the Central America-Caribbean-Andean belt. I review the lithology and P-T-t paths of HP rocks and offer interpretations and generalizations on the thermal estate of the subducting plate(s), the melange forming events, and the exhumation history of rock complexes formed in the northern branch of the Caribbean subduction zone (Cuba and nearby Guatemala and Dominican Republic; ca. 3000 km apart). These complexes contain high pressure rocks formed and exhumed at the convergent (Pacific-Atlantic) leading edge of the Caribbean plate during ca. 100 Ma (early Cretaceous-Oligocene), attesting for long lasting oceanic -followed by continental- subduction/accretion in the region. Lithologic data indicate a complex melange-forming process. In most cases, the HP rocks represent subducted MOR-related lithologies occurring as tectonic blocks within serpentinite-matrix melanges interpreted as exhumed fragments of the subduction channel(s). Most of these melanges, however, contain fragments of arc/forearc-related non metamorphic and metamorphic (low-P and high-P) sedimentary and igneous rocks. While the HP blocks of arc/forearc material indicate subduction erosion at depth, the interpretation of the LP and non-metamorphic blocks is not straight forward. Indeed, tectonic blocks of HP metamafic rocks are surrounded by antigorite-serpentinite which, in turn, is surrounded by a low-P, low-T (chrysotile-lizardite) serpentinite that makes much of the mélange. These relations indicate that the melanges represent, in fact, tectonic stacks of shallow low-T forearc serpentinite that incorporate tectonic blocks/slices of the subduction-channel (high-P, high-T serpentinite and HP metamafic blocks) and of the arc/forearc crust (low-P and non-metamorphic blocks). This picture is similar to that of HP continental margin-derived tectonic stacks containing exotic slices of antigoritite-serpentine melanges (with blocks of MORB-derived eclogite) incorporated late in the convergent history when oceanic subduction was completed. Hence, incorporation of tectonic slices of the subduction channel into the shallow (low-P, low-T) melanges and subducted/accreted continental margins occur when collision-related dynamics imposed by subduction of buoyant continental or oceanic lithosphere affected the plate margin. Aqueous fluid, sourced from both subducted sediment and metamafic/ultramafic material, was available in large quantity in the subduction environment, as indicated by massive antigoritite, rinds of metasomatic rocks around included HP metamafic rocks, retrogressed eclogite, jadeitite and hydrothermal veins within antigoritite. Such a vigorous hydrology (fluid-flow) deep in the subduction environment point to the development of wide subduction channels and explain the abundance of accreted blocks. It can also explain the scarcity of large scale (>km) slices of the subducted oceanic lithosphere in the belt, for these are likely the result of focalized distribution of deformation occurring when forearc peridotite is barely hydrated (Agard et al., Long-term coupling along the subduction plate interface: Insights from exhumed rocks and models. This session, EGU 2012). Alternatively, these large tectonic slices may have been formed by the collision dynamics caused by late-stage subduction/accretion of the continental margin (or buoyant -thick- oceanic crust). Except maturation (cooling) of the subduction zone with time at orogenic belt-scale, no other simple generalization can be reached on the thermal state of the subducting plate and the exhumation process of the subduction channel. P-T-t paths of HP rocks indicate that slab fragments ranging from cold to hot coexisted during relatively short time intervals (ca. 10 Myr), and some fragments of the subduction channel were exhumed shortly after formation while others lasted several tens of Myr to arrive to the near-surface forearc/accretionary environment. A rather variable thermal state and dynamic history of the subduction environment(s) in space and time suggests that along strike (local/occasional) geodynamic complexities (e.g., age of lithosphere, angle of subduction, convergence rate,... more than one subduction zone) characterized the plate margin and controlled its evolution.

  12. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  13. The P-T-t history of blocks in serpentinite-matrix melange, west-central Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, S.L.; Harrison, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermochronologic, petrologic, and geochemical analyses of epidote-amphibolite-, amphilbolite-, eclogite-, and blueschist-facies blocks in serpentinite-matrix melanges from East San Benito Island and Cedros Island, west-central Baja California, provide constraints on the P-T-t history of this disrupted terrane. Results of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar step heating experiments on minerals separated from these blocks vary according to metamorphic grade and indicate different P-T-t histories. Mid-Jurassic (160-170 Ma) epidote-amphibolite- and amphibolite-facies blocks were probably derived from oceanic crust and associated sediments that were metamorphosed during limitation of subduction. Coarse-grained blueschist blocks were likely metamorphosed during continued subduction in late Early Cretaceous time (that is, 115-100 Ma). Some epidote-amphibolite blocks are partially overprinted by blueschist-facies mineral assemblages and apparently record both metamorphic events. Fission-track analyses of apatites indicate that the blocks underwent significantly different post-metamorphic cooling histories. Epidote-amphilbolite and amphibolite blocks cooled below {approximately}100 {degrees}C form mid-Jurassic to Paleocene time; blueschist blocks cooled below {approximately}100 {degrees}C in Oligocene-Miocene time. In general, mafic blocks have trace-element concentrations and REE patterns characteristic of ocean-flood basalts. This study demonstrates that samples with very different P-T-t histories can evidently occur over relatively small length scales (<<1 km) in serpentinite-matrix melanges. 67 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Petrology of plagiogranite from Sjenica, Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt (southwestern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, Dragan; Srećković-Batoćanin, Danica; Savić, Marija; Popovic, Dana

    2012-04-01

    The Sjenica plagiogranite occurs in the southern part of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt, 5 km northwest of Sjenica. The main minerals are albite with strongly altered biotite (replaced with chlorite), with occasional amphibole (magnesio hornblende to tschermakite) and quartz. An enclave of fine-grained granitic rocks with garnet grains was noted too. Secondary minerals are calcite and chlorite (daphnite). Major, trace and REE geochemistry coupled with field observations support a model by which the Sjenica plagiogranite could be formed by fractional crystallization of mantle origin mafic magma in a supra-subduction zone setting. Occurrences of calcite and chlorite nests in the Sjenica plagiogranites revealed that these rocks underwent hydrothermal alteration due to intensive sea water circulation in a sub-sea-floor environment.

  15. Submarine hydrothermal metamorphism of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, R.C.; Schiffman, P.

    1983-01-01

    Metamorphic zonation overprinted on the volcanic member and overlying volcanogenic sediments of the ophiolite complex increases downward in grade and is characterized by the sequential appearance with depth of zeolites, ferric pumpellyite and pistacitic epidote. Metamorphic assemblages of the plutonic member of the complex are characterized by the presence of calcic amphibole. The overprinting represents the effects of hydrothermal metamorphism resulting from the massive interaction between hot igneous rocks and convecting sea-water in a submarine environment. A thermal gradient of 100oC/km is postulated to account for the zonal recrystallization effects in the volcanic member. The diversity and sporadic distribution of mineral assemblages in the amphibole zone are considered due to the limited availability of H2O in the deeper part of the complex. Details of the zonation and representative microprobe analyses are tabulated.-M.S.

  16. Ophiolites of the deep-sea trenches of the western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chudaev, O.

    1990-06-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks of ophiolites are widespread in the basement of the Izu-Bonin, Volcano, Mariana, Philippine, Yap, Palau, New Hebrides, West Melanesian, Tonga, and Mussau trenches. Ophiolite in the trenches includes (1) metamorphic rocks ranging from low-T and low P to high-T and moderate P; (2) serpentinites after harzburgite; (3) ultramafic-mafic layered series; (4) tholeiitic basalts, dolerites, and their metamorphosed varieties; and (5) rocks of the boninitic series. Two geodynamic stages could be distinguished in the formation of the ophiolites of the Western Pacific. At the rifting stage, mantle diapir ascended during rifting and magmatic series were formed. In this period, rocks underwent intense low-temperature metasomatic alterations in the zones of heated seawater circulation. At the compression stage (subduction zone) regional pressure metamorphism of the ophiolites superimposed on the low-temperature metasomatic processes.

  17. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect the environment. PMID:9726791

  18. Geochemistry and petrology of listvenite in the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman: Complete carbonation of peridotite during ophiolite emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Elisabeth S.; Kelemen, Peter B.

    2015-07-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite-fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz-occur along the basal thrust of the Samail ophiolite in Oman. These rocks can provide insight into processes including (a) carbon fluxes at the "leading edge of the mantle wedge" in subduction zones and (b) enhanced mineral carbonation of peridotite as a means of carbon storage. Here we examine mineralogical, chemical and isotopic evidence on the temperatures, timing, and fluid compositions involved in the formation of this listvenite. The listvenites are composed primarily of magnesite and/or dolomite + quartz + relict Cr-spinel. In some instances the conversion of peridotite to listvenite is nearly isochemical except for the addition of CO2, while other samples have also seen significant calcium addition and/or variable, minor addition of K and Mn. Along margins where listvenite bodies are in contact with serpentinized peridotite, talc and antigorite are present in addition to carbonate and quartz. The presence of antigorite + quartz + talc in these samples implies temperatures of 80-130 °C. This range of temperature is consistent with dolomite and magnesite clumped isotope thermometry in listvenite (average T = 90 ± 15 °C) and with conventional mineral-water oxygen isotope exchange thermometry (assuming fluid δ18O near zero). CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the formation of listvenite were likely derived from underlying calcite-bearing metasediment during emplacement of the ophiolite. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 ± 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite over allochthonous sediments of the Hawasina group, and autochthonous sediments of the Arabian continental margin. Most of the initial 87Sr/86Sr values in the listvenite, ranging from 0.7085 to 0.7135, are significantly higher than seawater values and consistent with values measured in the underlying metasediments. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, the moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites formed at relatively shallow depths in the subduction zone, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals, such as clays, probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid. Carbonate dissolution from subducted sediments and transfer of CO2 to the mantle wedge to form listvenites may be an important process in forearc hydrothermal systems. Additionally, the presence of listvenites demonstrate that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on large scales, suggesting that in situ mineral carbonation of peridotite may offer a viable solution for carbon storage.

  19. Age of amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Dinaride ophiolite zone, Yugoslavia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Karamata, S.; Pamic, J.

    1975-01-01

    Amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Central Ophiolite zone in Yugoslavia have K-Ar ages of 160-170 m.y. These amphibolites and associated peridotites underwent deep-seated metamorphism prior to tectonic emplacement into the sedimentary-volcanic assemblage of the Dinarides. The alpine peridotites and associated local rocks of the ophiolite suite are interpreted as Jurassic oceanic crust and upper mantle. ?? 1975.

  20. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  1. Tectonics of formation, translation, and dispersal of the Coast Range ophiolite of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Blake, M.C., Jr.; Griscom, A.; Blome, C.D.; Murchey, B.

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Coast Range ophiolite and its tectonic outliers in the northern California Coast Ranges suggest that the lower part of the ophiolite formed 169 to 163 Ma in a forearc or back arc setting at equatorial latitudes. Beginning about 156 Ma and continuing until 145 Ma, arc magmatism was superimposed on the ophiolite, and concurrently, a transform developed along the arc axis or in the back arc area. Rapid northward translation of this rifted active magmatic arc to middle latitudes culminated in its accretion to the California margin of North America at about 145 Ma. This Late Jurassic episode of translation, arc magmatism, and accretion coincided with the Nevadan orogeny and a proposed major plate reorganization in the eastern Pacific basin. Displacement occurred between about 60 and 52 Ma. Ophiolitic rocks in the Decatur terrane of western Washington that have recently been correlated with the Coast Range ophiolite and the Great Valley sequence of California were apparently displaced at least 950 to 1200 km from the west side of the Great Valley between early Tertiary and Early Cretaceous time. Derived rates of northward translation for the ophiolite outliers in California are in the range of 1 to 4 cm/yr. -from Authors

  2. Numerical model of ice melange expansion during abrupt ice-shelf collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, N.; Abbot, D. S.; Amundson, J. M.; Burton, J. C.; Cathles, L. M.; Macayeal, D. R.; Zhang, W.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite imagery of the February 2008 Wilkins Ice-Shelf Collapse event reveals that a large percentage of the involved ice shelf was converted to capsized icebergs and broken fragments of icebergs over a relatively short period of time, possibly less than 24 hours. The extreme violence and short time scale of the event, and the considerable reduction of gravitational potential energy between upright and capsized icebergs, suggests that iceberg capsize might be an important driving mechanism controlling both the rate and spatial extent of ice shelf collapse. To investigate this suggestion, we have constructed an idealized, 2-dimensional model of a disintegrating ice shelf composed of a large number (N~100 to >1000) of initially well-packed icebergs of rectangular cross section. The model geometry consists of a longitudinal cross section of the idealized ice shelf from grounding line (or the upstream extent of ice-shelf fragmentation) to seaward ice front, and includes the region beyond the initial ice front to cover the open, ice-free water into which the collapsing ice shelf expands. The seawater in which the icebergs float is treated as a hydrostatic fluid in the computation of iceberg orientation (e.g., the evaluation of buoyancy forces and torques), thereby eliminating the complexities of free-surface waves, but net horizontal drift of the icebergs is resisted by a linear drag law designed to energy dissipation by viscous forces and surface-gravity-wave radiation. Icebergs interact via both elastic and inelastic contacts (typically a corner of one iceberg will scrape along the face of its neighbor). Ice-shelf collapse in the model is embodied by the mass capsize of a large proportion of the initially packed icebergs and the consequent advancement of the ice front (leading edge). Model simulations are conducted to examine (a) the threshold of stability (e.g., what density of initially capsizable icebergs is needed to allow a small perturbation to the system evolve into full-blown collapse of the ice shelf? What proportion of uncapsizable icebergs prevent a collapse?), (b) the rates of mobilization and their dependence on iceberg geometry (e.g., what determines the speed at which the expanding ice melange moves into the open, ice-free water?), and (c) the factors that promote the arrest of the system (e.g., are there circumstances where only partial collapses can occur?). Results of simulations are compared with observational parameters derived from satellite imagery, seismic analysis and laboratory experiment to determine what aspects of the numerical model's physical formulation may have most relevance to the disappearance of ice shelves.

  3. Characteristics of ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks in the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange (Central Taurides, Turkey), deduced from whole rock and mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Delaloye, Michel F.

    2006-04-01

    Small outcrops of the metamorphic rocks of the Beysehir ophiolite appear to the west of Gencek and to the south of Durak (South of Beysehir Lake) in the Central Tauride Belt in Turkey. Amphibolitic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange have an igneous origin. Protoliths of these rocks were probably alkali basalts, gabbros or some ultramafic cumulates, such as pyroxenite. The amphibolites of the Beysehir Ophiolite can be divided into four groups: (1) amphibole+garnet+plagioclase±epidote (as secondary minerals)±opaque such as ilmenite±accessory minerals such as sphene and apatite; (2) amphibole+pyroxene+plagioclase±epidote±accessory minerals such as sphene, apatite±chlorite, calcite (as secondary mineral); (3) amphibole±plagioclase±opaque±accessory minerals; (4) amphibole+plagioclase±epidote±biotite and muscovite±opaque±accessory minerals. These metamorphic rocks show mainly granoblastic, grano-nematoblastic, porphyroblastic and/or poikiloblastic textures. All amphiboles in the amphibolites are calcic and cluster in the range from magnesio-hastingsite, pargasite to actinolite. Amphibole compositions are characterized by SiO 2=(38.02-54.3%), Al 2O 3=(1.5-12.8), FeO=(10.03-14.67%), K 2O=(0.2-1.8%), MgO=(5.5-15.7), Mg*=(0.3-0.8). The amphibolites show an alkaline to subalkaline character. However, the primitive mantle normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with the typical ocean island basalt (OIB) pattern. The Rock/Chondrite normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also confirms their OIB signature. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams based on the immobile trace elements suggest a mostly within-plate alkali basalt (WPB) environment. Beysehir ophiolitic mélange contains amphibolites from ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks, but the matrix of the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange is not metamorphosed. Blocks of metamorphic rocks and the ophiolitic rocks may have been incorporated into the ophiolitic mélange in an oceanic environment during the Late Cretaceous by tectonic forces.

  4. Obduction of Tethyan-type ophiolites-A case-study from the Thetford-Mines ophiolitic Complex, Quebec Appalachians, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Alain; Ruffet, Gilles; Bédard, Jean H.

    2011-07-01

    Oceanic plagiogranites and peridotite-hosted granites (PHG) of the Thetford-Mines ophiolite (TMO) yield mean U-Pb zircon ages of 479.2 ± 1.6 Ma and 469.5 ± 2.8 Ma, and are interpreted to be the products of fractionation of basaltic magma and melting of the Laurentian margin, respectively. The existing 40Ar/39Ar age for the ophiolitic metamorphic sole of the TMO is a hornblende isochron age of 477 ± 5 Ma for amphibolite facies rocks. Sites previously sampled for U-Pb and 39Ar-40Ar analyses were resampled for more accurate 39Ar-40Ar dating, in order to better constrain the thermo-tectonic evolution of the ophiolite and underlying Laurentian margin rocks on which they were overthrust, and quantify the time required for obduction of Tethyan-type ophiolites in the Canadian Appalachians. Amphiboles from TMO gabbro and plagiogranite yield 39Ar-40Ar plateau ages of 477-475 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from PHG yield cooling ages of 466-465 Ma, and show evidence for thermal resetting at ca. 460 Ma for both a granitic mylonite and a crosscutting pegmatite facies. The amphibolitic metamorphic sole yields 39Ar-40Ar ages of ca. 471 Ma in amphibole, and high-temperature ages of ca. 466 Ma in muscovite, with evidence for recrystallization to ages as young as 457 Ma. Muscovites from the sub-ophiolitic Laurentian metasedimentary basement, and micaschist clasts in supraophiolitic debris flows of the TMO, yield similar pseudo-plateau and high-temperature ages of ca. 463-464 Ma. The U-Pb and 39Ar-40Ar data suggest that the obduction of peri-Laurentian oceanic crust lasted approximately 5 to 10 m.y. Since both facies formed approximately m.y. after the ophiolitic crust, this supports models whereby the still-hot ophiolitic mantle provided the heat needed to generate the PHG and the metamorphic sole between ca. 475 and 470 Ma. Muscovite ages of PHG record cooling below ca. 450-500 °C by ca. 465 Ma, but 39Ar-40Ar ages from both a mylonitized PHG facies and micaschist clasts suggest that the emplacement of the oceanic lithosphere on the Laurentia margin had nearly ended by ca. 460 Ma, likely due to foreland-directed downward thrust propagation and related exhumation of the collisional wedge. The new age data imply that the southern Quebec ophiolites were thrust 100s of km over the Laurentian margin, which has major implications for the location of the subduction suture and the early stages of the Taconic orogeny in the Northern Appalachians.

  5. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlick, Hans-Jürgen; Aubrecht, Roman; Schlagintweit, Felix; Missoni, Sigrid; Plašienka, Dušan

    2015-12-01

    The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated "Jurassic gravitational tectonics". Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+-Cr3+-Al3+ diagram). In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+) vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al) diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite provenance of the analysed spinels as known from the Jurassic suprasubduction ophiolites well preserved in the Dinarides/Albanides. These data clearly indicate Late Jurassic erosion of obducted ophiolites before their final sealing by the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous carbonate platform pattern.

  6. Upper Palaeozoic subduction/accretion processes in the closure of Palaeotethys: Evidence from the Chios Melange (E Greece), the Karaburun Melange (W Turkey) and the Teke Dere Unit (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ustaömer, Timur

    2009-09-01

    During Late Palaeozoic time a wide ocean, known as Palaeotethys, separated the future Eurasian and African continents. This ocean closed in Europe in the west during the Variscan orogeny, whereas in Asia further east it remained open and evolved into the Mesozoic Tethys, only finally closing during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic. Three Upper Palaeozoic lithological assemblages, the Chios Melange (on the Aegean Greek island), the Karaburun Melange (westernmost Aegean Turkey) and the Teke Dere Unit (Lycian Nappes, SW Turkey) provide critical information concerning sedimentary and tectonic processes during closure of Palaeotethys. The Chios and Karaburun melanges in the west are mainly terrigenous turbidites with blocks and dismembered sheets of Silurian-Upper Carboniferous platform carbonate rocks (shallow-water and slope facies) and poorly dated volcanic rocks. The Teke Dere Unit to the southeast begins with alkaline, within-plate-type volcanics, depositionally overlain by Upper Carboniferous shallow-water carbonates. This intact succession is overlain by a tectonic slice complex comprising sandstone turbidites that are intersliced with shallow-water, slope and deep-sea sediments (locally dated as Early Carboniferous). Sandstone petrography and published detrital mineral dating imply derivation from units affected by the Panafrican (Cadomian) and Variscan orogenies. All three units are interpreted as parts of subduction complexes in which pervasive shear zones separate component parts. Silurian-Lower Carboniferous black cherts (lydites) and slope carbonates accreted in a subduction trench where sandstone turbidites accumulated. Some blocks retain primary depositional contacts, showing that gravitational processes contributed to formation of the melange. Detached blocks of Upper Palaeozoic shallow-water carbonates (e.g. Chios) are commonly mantled by conglomerates, which include water-worn clasts of black chert. The carbonate blocks are restored as one, or several, carbonate platforms that collided with an active margin, fragmenting into elongate blocks that slid into a subduction trench. This material was tectonically accreted at shallow levels within a subduction complex, resulting in layer-parallel extension, shearing and slicing. The accretion mainly took place during Late Carboniferous time. Alternative sedimentary-tectonic models are considered in which the timing and extent of closure of Palaeotethys differ, and in which subduction was either northwards towards Eurasia, or southwards towards Gondwana (or both). Terrane displacement is also an option. A similar (but metamorphosed) accretionary unit, the Konya Complex, occurs hundreds of kilometres further east. All of these units appear to have been assembled along the northern margin of Gondwana by Permian time, followed by deposition of overlying Tauride-type carbonate platforms. Northward subduction of Palaeotethys beneath Eurasia is commonly proposed. However, the accretionary units studied here are more easily explained by southward subduction towards Gondwana. Palaeotethys was possibly consumed by long-lived (Late Palaeozoic) northward subduction beneath Eurasia, coupled with more short-lived (Late Carboniferous) southward subduction near Gondwana, during or soon after closure of Palaeotethys in the Balkan region to the west.

  7. Tectonics of formation, translation, and dispersal of the Copast Range ophiolite of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. J.; Blake, M. C., Jr.; Griscom, A.; Blome, C. D.; Murchey, B.

    1988-10-01

    Data from the Coast Range ophiolite and its tectonic outliers in the northern California Coast Ranges suggest that the lower part of the ophiolite formed 169 to 163 Ma in a forearc or back arc setting at equatorial latitudes. Beginning about 156 Ma and continuing until 145 Ma, arc magmatism was superimposed on the ophiolite, and concurrently, a transform developed along the arc axis or in the back arc area. Rapid northward translation of this rifted active magmatic arc to middle latitudes culminated in its accretion to the California margin of North America at about 145 Ma. This Late Jurassic episode of translation, arc magmatism, and accretion coincided with the Nevadan orogeny and a proposed major plate reorganization in the eastern Pacific basin. The high rate of poleward motion necessary to translate the Coast Range ophiolite to middle latitudes during this time implies that the ophiolite traveled north on a fast-moving plate of the eastern Pacific basin, here termed plate X. Plate X probably was driven by a cryptic ridge east-northeast of the Pacific-Farallon-Izanagi ridge triple junction. Structural relations indicate that following Late Jurassic time, parts of the Coast Range ophiolite were displaced from the west side of the Great Valley province and incorporated into the Central belt of the Franciscan Complex along steep-dipping to low-angle reverse faults having dominant components of dextral shear. A northwest trending eastern zone of these right-laterally displaced outliers shows strong affinities to the main Coast Range ophiolite of the northwestern Sacramento Valley (the Elder Creek terrane), in that the outliers include ophiolitic breccias of Oxfordian to Kimmeridgian age. A southwestern zone of outliers lacks ophiolitic breccia and instead includes latest Oxfordian or Kimmeridgian to Tithonian, arc-derived volcanic rocks like those found in the Del Puerto and Stanley Mountain terranes of the main ophiolite. Whereas outliers of the northeastern outlier zone are right-laterally displaced no more than 260 km from the western side of the Sacramento Valley, outliers of the southwestern zone are displaced a minimum of 169 to 249 km. This displacement occurred between about 60 and 52 Ma. Ophiolitic rocks in the Decatur terrane of western Washington that have recently been correlated with the Coast Range ophiolite and the Great Valley sequence of California were apparently displaced at least 950 to 1200 km from the west side of the Great Valley between early Tertiary and Early Cretaceous time. Derived rates of northward translation for the ophiolite outliers in California are in the range of 1 to 4 cm/yr. Rates for the Decatur terrane are in the range of 2.5 to 4 cm/yr if translation was initiated 90 Ma, but as much as 11.9 to 15 cm/yr if it was not initiated until 60 Ma. The lower rates for the Decatur terrane are consistent with the rates derived for the California outliers and with the northward component of relative motion between the Farallon and North American plates from 90 to 50 Ma. The higher rates require northward transport on the Kula plate or on a fast-moving microplate. The higher translation rates derived for the Decatur terrane are also consistent with paleomagnetically determined rates for some limestones of the Central belt. This may indicate that outliers of the Coast Range ophiolite dispersed in the Central belt of the Franciscan Complex record only part of the total displacement which occurred along the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary western margin of North America.

  8. The Maliac Ocean: the origin of the Tethyan Hellenic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, Jacky; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Chanier, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The Hellenides, part of the Alpine orogeny in Greece, are rich in ophiolitic units. These ophiolites and associated units emplaced during Jurassic obduction, testify for the existence of one, or several, Tethyan oceanic realms. The paleogeography of these oceanic areas has not been precisely described. However, all the authors now agree on the presence of a main Triassic-Jurassic ocean on the eastern side of the Pelagonian zone (Vardar Domain). We consider that this Maliac Ocean is the most important ocean in Greece and Albania. Here, we limit the detailed description of the Maliac Ocean to the pre-convergence period of approximately 70 Ma between the Middle Triassic rifting to the Middle Jurassic convergence period. A quick overview on the destiny of the different parts of the Maliac Ocean during the convergence period is also proposed. The studied exposures allow to reconstruct: (1) the Middle to Late Triassic Maliac oceanic lithosphere, corresponding to the early spreading activity at a Mid-Oceanic Ridge; (2) the Western Maliac Margin, widely exposed in the Othris and Argolis areas; (3) the Eastern-Maliac Margin in the eastern Vardar domain (Peonias and Paikon zones). We established the following main characteristics of the Maliac Ocean: (1) the Middle Triassic rifting marked by a rapid subsidence and volcanism seems to be short-lived (few My); (2) the Maliac Lithosphere is only represented by Middle to Late Triassic units, especially the Fourka unit, composed of WPB-OIB and MORB pillow-lavas, locally covered by a pelagic Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentary cover; (3) the Western Margin is the most complete and our data allow to distinguish a proximal and a deeper distal margin; (4) the evolution of the Eastern Margin (Peonias and Paikon series) is similar to that of the W-Margin, except for its Jurassic terrigenous sediments, while the proximal W-Margin was dominated by calcarenites; (5) we show that the W- and E-margins are not Volcanic Passive Margins; and (6) during the Middle Jurassic convergence period, the Eastern Margin became an active margin and both margins were affected by obduction processes.

  9. Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolite: Mineralogical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augé, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chromite deposits in the northern Oman ophiolitic complex occur in three structural contexts, i.e., (1) at the base of the cumulate series, (2) in the top kilometer of the mantle sequence, and (3) in the deeper parts of the mantle. Types 1 and 2 are characterized by the diversity of interstitial silicates where in decreasing order of abundance olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and amphibole occur, as opposed to type 3 which contains only olivine. They differ however in ore texture. Similar silicates also occur as euhedral inclusions in chromite crystals, but their proportions are reversed. The composition of the interstitial silicates is comparable to that found in early cumulates. Type-1 and type-2 chromite deposits crystallized from a magma similar to that from which the basal cumulates formed (Al2O3, 15.1 16.1 wt%; FeO/MgO, 0.55 0.60). The type-3 chromites were derived from a magma of much lower Al2O3 content (12.5 wt%). It is considered that they belong to an older episode in the magmatic evolution of the complex.

  10. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-04-10

    We have measured Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic compositions in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite diabase dikes, and gabbro and websterite dikes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cummulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have mean /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and standard deviations of 0.70314 +- 0.00030 and 0.70306 +- 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern midocean ridge basalt. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dikes range from 0.7034 to 0.7047, 0.7038 to 0.7046, and 0.7037 to 0.7061, respectively. These higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with seawater. Mineral separates from dikes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dikes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.

  11. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr-isotopic compositions were measured in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite, diabase dykes, and gabbro and websterite dykes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cumulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70314 + or - 0.00030 and 0.70306 + or - 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr- isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr-isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern MORB. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dykes range 0.7034-0.7047, 0.7038-0.7046 and 0.7037- 0.7061, respectively. These higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with sea-water. Mineral separates from dykes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr-isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dykes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.-T.R.

  12. Igneous Petrology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Dongcaohe Ophiolite From the Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C.; Yang, H.; Liu, D.; Hsieh, C.; Wu, H.; Zuo, G.

    2003-12-01

    The Dongcaohe ophiolite, a nappe-type ophiolite, occurs as a fault-bounded block within a volcanic belt in the Tuo-Lai Mountains, southern margin of the north Qilian fold belt. Field works show that the Dongcaohe ophiolite is composed of an intrusive sequence and an extrusive sequence. The intrusive sequence in turn consists of a layered cumulate dunite-troctolite-anorthosite-gabbro series and an isotropic gabbro-norite-hornblende gabbro series. The extrusive sequence consists of hornblende diabase and hornblende basalt. The lithological and structural features show that the Dongacohe ophiolite is analogous to the lherzolitic ophiolite type (LOT) and to the present-day slow-spreading oceanic ridge. Petrographic textures show that the sequence of mineral crystallization of the plutonic mafic-ultramafic sequence of the Dongcaohe ophiolite is olivine-Cr-spinel-plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide minerals, similar to that of tholeiitic magma crystallizing in an anhydrous and low-pressure chamber. The Cr-spinels which occur commonly in the layered dunite-troctolite-anorthosite-gabbro cumulate series frequently carry solid inclusions of anhydrous silicate minerals such as clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, hydrous high-temperature silicate minerals such as Na-phlogopite and pargasite, hydrous low-temperature silicate minerals such as chlorite, serpentine, hydrogarnet, and analcite, Fe-Ti oxide minerals, and base-metal sulfides. The compositions of the hydroxyl-sodic phases (pargasite and Na-phlogopite), similar to those of the Oman ophiolite, suggest a subduction-related origin. The REE patterns of basaltic lavas show slightly depleted LREEs, identical to that of typical normal-type mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB). Also the tectonomagmatic discriminating diagrams of Ti/V, Zr/Y-Y, Zr-Ti-Y, Nb-Zr-Y, and Hf-Th-Nb suggest that they have both N-MORB and IAT (island arc tholeiite) geochemical characteristics simultaneously, similar to the BABB (backarc basin basalt). Separated zircons from the isotropic gabbro were studied with SHRIMP, and a 15-points concordant age of 497.3+/-5.5 Ma was obtained. The Dongcaohe ophiolite is associated with the island arc tholeiite, boninite, and ocean island basalts which crop out nearby, implying that the volcanic belt of the Tuo-Lai Mountain is part of an oceanic lithosphere in a supra-subduction zone. The geological significance of the Dongcaohe ophiolite is that the southward subduction of the paleo-Qilian oceanic lithosphere did occur in lower Ordovician period and gave rise to a backarc oceanic lithosphere.

  13. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  14. The age and origin of felsic intrusions of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, Quebec.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frankel, C.S.; Eaby, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This ophiolite was obducted in the early Ordovician during the closing of the proto-Atlantic. The tectonized peridotite of the lower unit of the ophiolite is intruded by felsic dykes and pods, including isolated lenses of massive rodingite, small bodies of strongly deformed diorite, and younger, less deformed monzonite. These intrusions are found only near the base of the ophiolite, and are considered to have been emplaced before the ophiolite reached its present position. The young group of intrusions consists of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite and leuco-quartz monzonite. Analysed samples have high K2O, high (K2O X 100)/Na2O + K2O) ratios, and high initial Sr ratios, indicating that the magma source was continental and that these felsic rocks formed by partial melting of continental sediments. Whole-rock and mineral isochron ages suggest that the felsic intrusions are approx 456 + or - 4 m.y. old and that they were metamorphosed approx 418 + or - 7 m.y. ago. The detachment of the ophiolite occurred approx 491 + or - 3 m.y. ago. The felsic dykes were intruded approx 35 m.y. later, during the Taconic orogeny. The lengthy time between detachment and final nappe emplacement recorded by the felsic dykes may be a requirement for formation of abundant asbestiform chrysotile. Whole-rock analyses (16) and Rb, Sr and 87Sr/86Sr data from the Colline de Granite, King Mts., Vimy Ridge and Black Lake samples are presented.-P.Br.

  15. K-Ar ages of metamorphic rocks at the base of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.

    1981-04-10

    Hornblendes from amphiobolities in the sheet of metamorphic rocks beneath the peridotite member of the Samail ophiolite and phyllites farther from the peridotite contact have weighted mean /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar total fusion ages of 90.0 +- 3.0 m.y. and 79.5 +- 3.0 m.y., respectively. The amphibolities represent the first tectonic slice welded to the base of the Samail ophiolite after it was detached from the Tethyan oceanic crust. Formation of the amphiobolities occurred no more than 3 to 7 m.y. after crystallization of plagiogranite in the ophiolite. The phyllites represent another tectonic slice of ocean floor sediments welded to the ophiolite as it was transported further from the Tethyan spreading axis. The K-Ar ages suggest, assuming a half-spreading rate of 2 to 5 cm/yr, that detachment of the Samail ophiolite and formation of amphibolite facies rocks occurred no more than 60 to 350 km from spreading center. Using the same spreading rate, one can calculate a minimum half width of 300 to 750 km for the Tethyan Ocean during the Late Cretaceous.

  16. Mapping of Muslim Bagh ophiolite complex (Pakistan) using new remote sensing, and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid; Casey, John F.

    2007-04-01

    TETHYS is a relational GIS database that combines geophysical, remote sensing, geochemical, and geochronological data, developed as a flexible resource for studying magmatic and geodynamic responses to continental collisions. In this paper, we demonstrate utility of our database by integrating field, remote sensing, and structural data, for detailed mapping and tectonic emplacement of Muslim Bagh ophiolite of western Pakistan. This ophiolite forms the uppermost part of a nappe pile which accreted onto the Indian continental margin during the closure of the Neo-Tethys during a pre-terminal collision that predated the final closure of Tethys during the major collision between India and Eurasia. Utilizing the TETHYS, Landsat, ASTER imagery, and a digital elevation model developed from the ASTER data are used to characterize the lithology and structure of the area. Use of image processing techniques improved the geologic map of the area, for a better understanding of the tectonic emplacement of the Muslim Bagh ophiolite. For the first time we report that the dikes in the Muslim Bagh ophiolite are cutting the metamorphic sole. Our preliminary geochemical data for sheeted dike complex suggest chemical affinities with arc-related rocks. This observation suggests that dikes were intruded in an island arc environment soon after the ophiolite was formed.

  17. Oxygen isotope evidence for submarine hydrothermal alteration of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.; Evarts, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions and metamorphic mineral assemblages of hydrothermally altered rocks from the Del Puerto ophiolite and overlying volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks at the base of the Great Valley sequence indicate that their alteration occurred in a submarine hydrothermal system. Whole rock ??18O compositions decrease progressively down section (with increasing metamorphic grade): +22.4??? (SMOW) to +13.8 for zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks overlying the ophiolite; +19.6 to +11.6 for pumpellyite-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the upper part of the ophiolite's volcanic member; +12.3 to +8.1 for epidote-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the lower part of the volcanic member; +8.5 to +5.7 for greenschist facies rocks from the ophiolite's plutonic member; +7.6 to +5.8 for amphibolite facies or unmetamorphosed rocks from the plutonic member. Modelling of fluid-rock interaction in the Del Puerto ophiolite indicates that the observed pattern of upward enrichment in whole rock ??18O can be best explained by isotopic exchange with discharging 18O-shifted seawater at fluid/rock mass ratios near 2 and temperatures below 500??C. 18O-depleted plutonic rocks necessarily produced during hydrothermal circulation were later removed as a result of tectonism. Submarine weathering and later burial metamorphism at the base of the Great Valley sequence cannot by itself have produced the zonation of hydrothermal minerals and the corresponding variations in oxygen isotope compositions. The pervasive zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies mineral assemblages found in the Del Puerto ophiolite may reflect its origin near an island arc rather than deep ocean spreading center. ?? 1984.

  18. The emplacement time of the Hegenshan ophiolite: Constraints from the unconformably overlying Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Han, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Xing-Zhou; Cao, Jia-Lin; Wang, Bin; Pei, Sheng-Hui

    2015-11-01

    Controversy has long surrounded the emplacement time of the Hegenshan ophiolite that is considered to mark a suture zone, called the Hegenshan-Heihe suture, resulting from the closure of a back-arc basin in the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Hegenshan ophiolite in the Xiaobaliang area is unconformably overlain by a sequence of Paleozoic strata, called the Zhesi Formation that consists of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone and limestone, some of which contain Permian marine fossils of Brachiopods. Therefore, the ages of these Paleozoic strata can be used to constrain the emplacement time of the Hegenshan ophiolite. Four samples of the Zhesi Formation collected in the Xiaobaliang area yield the detrital zircon U-Pb ages of 285-272 Ma (with the peak at 279 Ma), 315-288 Ma (with a peak at 300 Ma), 320-358 Ma (with a peak at 336 Ma), and 406 ± 3 Ma, of which the ~ 280 and ~ 300 Ma age groups are remarkably similar to the ages of latest Carboniferous-Early Permian Gegenaobao/Dashizai Formation, or A-type granites, which formed under a post-collisional setting. However, the age groups of 320 to 358 Ma with a peak at 336 Ma, show the features of mafic-ultramafic zircons in CL image, most likely derived from local mafic-ultramafic rocks of the Hegenshan ophiolite in the Xiaobaliang area, which is supported by the fact of the ophiolite unconformably overlain by the Middle Permian Zhesi Formation. Therefore, we propose that the emplacement time of the Hegenshan ophiolite must have happened at some time before the Middle Permian (~ 280 Ma), most likely between 300 and 335 Ma, not in the Silurian, Devonian or Mesozoic as previously considered.

  19. Subduction Initiation and Forearc Magmatism as Recorded in Suprasubduction Zone Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure-stratigraphy and geochemical signatures of most suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites indicate a seafloor spreading origin in forearc-incipient arc settings during the early stages of subduction. In general, there is a well developed magmatic stratigraphy in the extrusive sequences of these ophiolites from older MORB-like lavas at the bottom towards younger island arc tholeiite (IAT) and boninitic lavas in the upper parts. A similar progression of the lava chemistry also occurs in crosscutting dike swarms and sheeted dikes, indicating increased subduction influence in the evolution of ophiolitic magmas through time. Lherzolitic peridotites in structurally lower parts of the upper mantle sequences of these ophiolites represent the residue after MORB melt extraction. Harzburgite and harzburgite-dunite associations higher up in the mantle sequences and below the mafic-ultramafic cumulates (transitional Moho) are crosscut by networks of orthopyroxenite (opxt) veins, which include hydrous minerals (amphibole). These orthopyroxenite veins represent a reaction product between the host harzburgite (depleted, residual peridotite) and the migrating Si-rich (boninitic) melt. The harzburgite-dunite-opxt suites characterize melt-residue relationships and melt migration patterns in the mantle wedge during the initial stages of subduction and incipient arc construction. Thus, the SSZ ophiolites that we have examined display a lateral and vertical progression of melt evolution in their crustal and upper mantle components that traces different stages of subduction initiation-related magmatism, reminiscent of the forearc magmatism in some of the modern arc-trench rollback systems as in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec subduction factories. The along-strike continuity for more than 1500 km of this well-documented chemostratigraphy and geochemical progression in different ophiolite belts is strong evidence for contemporaneous subduction initiation followed by rapid slab rollback in ancient ocean basins.

  20. Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites formed in the Gangdese forearc: Evidence from paleomagnetism, sediment provenance, and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Orme, Devon A.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guilmette, Carl; Ding, Lin; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The India-Asia suture zone of southern Tibet exposes Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites and radiolarian cherts, and time-equivalent Asian-derived clastic forearc sedimentary rocks (Xigaze Group). These ophiolites have been interpreted to have formed in the forearc of the north-dipping subduction zone below Tibet that produced the Gangdese magmatic arc around 15-20°N, or in the forearc of a sub-equatorial intra-oceanic subduction zone. To better constrain the latitude of the ophiolites, we carried out an integrated paleomagnetic, geochronologic and stratigraphical study on epi-ophiolitic radiolarites (Chongdui and Bainang sections), and Xigaze Group turbiditic sandstones unconformably overlying the ophiolite's mantle units (Sangsang section). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of tuffaceous layers from the Chongdui section and sandstones of the Xigaze Group at the Sangsang section provides maximum depositional ages of 116.5 ± 3.1 Ma and 128.8 ± 3.4 Ma, respectively, for the Chongdui section and an Asian provenance signature for the Xigaze Group. Paleomagnetic analyses, integrated with rock magnetic experiments, indicate significant compaction-related inclination 'shallowing' of the remanence within the studied rocks. Two independent methods are applied for the inclination shallowing correction of the paleomagnetic directions from the Sangsang section, yielding consistent mean paleolatitudes of 16.2°N [13°N, 20.9°N] and 16.8°N [11.1°N, 23.3°N], respectively. These results are indistinguishable from recent paleolatitude estimates for the Gangdese arc in southern Tibet. Radiolarites from the Chongdui and Bainang sections yield low paleomagnetic inclinations that would suggest a sub-equatorial paleolatitude, but the distribution of the paleomagnetic directions in these rocks strongly suggests a low inclination bias by compaction. Our data indicate that spreading of the Xigaze ophiolite occurred in the Gangdese forearc, and formed the basement of the forearc strata.

  1. Significance of xenocrystic Precambrian zircon contained within the southern continuation of the Josephine ophiolite: Devils Elbow ophiolite remnant, Klamath Mountains, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James E.; Wyld, Sandra J.

    1986-08-01

    The Josephine ophiolite of the western Jurassic belt, Klamath Mountain province of California and Oregon, is the expression of a well-documented Late Jurassic suprasubduction zone rift basin that formed between an active Late Jurassic arc to the west and a remnant Middle Jurassic arc to the east. The Devils Elbow ophiolite remnant (DEO) exposed along the South Fork of the Trinity River represents the southernmost continuation of the Josephine ophiolite and provides important new constraints on the early history of this rift basin. The DEO consists of pillow lavas and breccias and a well-developed sheeted dike complex that are depositionally overlain by a clast-supported breccia derived almost exclusively from ophiolitic detritus. Dikes and irregular pods of plagiogranite are conspicuous elements of the DEO and exhibit mutually crosscutting relations with mafic dikes; thus, they are interpreted as genetically related elements of the dike complex. Zircon separates from two widely separated plagiogranite dike localities yielded two distinct zircon populations: a clear, euhedral, magmatic population and a reddish, rounded xenocrystic population. The isotopic systematics of four zircon fractions from these two dike localities indicate a crystallization age for the DEO of 164 ±1 Ma and an age of ˜1.7 Ga for the xenocrystic zircon component. The occurrence of a xenocrystic Precambrian zircon component within the plagiogranites of the DEO provides unequivocal evidence that rifting occurred within preexisting zircon-bearing crustal rocks of the Klamath Mountains. As there is no Precambrian crust within the Klamath Mountains, the xenocrystic zircon population must have been derived from supracrustal sedimentary sequences. The most likely source for the older zircon component is a terrigenous metasedimentary sequence contained within the Rattlesnake Creek terrane, which formed part of the structural basement of the rifted Middle Jurassic arc. The incorporation of xenocrystic Precambrian zircon from the rifted basement of the Middle Jurassic arc could only have occurred during the earliest stages of rifting. Thus, the DEO must represent a fragment of an initial rift that ultimately formed the Late Jurassic basin now floored by the Josephine ophiolite. In support of the zircon data, dikes and lavas of the DEO have geochemical characteristics transitional between island arc and mid-ocean ridge magma series, as would be expected within an initial rift setting of a suprasubduction zone ophiolite.

  2. Melt Migration in the Mantle Lithosphere: Evidence From Ophiolitic Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, G.; Piccardo, G. B.; Poggi, E.

    2006-12-01

    Records of diffuse porous flow migration of asthenospheric melts through the lithospheric mantle are evident in mantle peridotites deriving from the oceanic lithosphere of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys, exposed in the Alpine- Apennine orogenic system of Northern Italy. The migrating melts caused structural and chemical modifications, as a consequence of melt/peridotite interaction. Microstructures indicating pyroxene(Px)-dissolving/olivine(Ol)-forming reactions suggest that early percolating melts were Px(-silica)-undersaturated and their intergranular flow through the peridotite enhanced melt/peridotite interaction. Px dissolution modified: 1) the peridotite composition: in fact, the reacted peridotites changed their bulk rock characteristics to significantly SiO2-depleted, MgO-enriched compositions, and their mineral modal contents to significantly Ol-enriched compositions, with respect to any refractory residua after any kink of mantle partial melting; 2) the melt composition: in fact, the melt composition progressively attained Px(-silica)-saturation at the end of the reactive percolation, as evidenced by late Px interstitial crystallization. Depending on the degree of Px dissolution, the reacted peridotites from the same peridotite body have highly variable Px contents but their clinopyroxenes(Cpx) have closely similar trace element contents. This decoupling between mineral modal content and geochemical composition strongly suggests that these peridotites cannot have been originated by partial melting but it supports the evidence of melt/peridotite interaction. Thus, Cpx trace element composition depends on the geochemical equilibration with the percolating melt; it indicates, moreover, the MORB affinity of the percolating melt. Significant evidences of melt migration through lithospheric peridotites are represented by the plagioclase(Plg)- enriched peridotites, which are frequently present within the ophiolitic peridotites and particularly abundant in those from the Ligurian Tethys. Microstructural and compositional, both mineral modal and bulk rock mineral, features suggest that, in most cases, melt/peridotite interaction and addition of basaltic components are the main causes of formation of these Plg peridotites. The most evident microstructural feature is the interstitial crystallization of mm-size unstrained Plg crystals and microgabbroic aggregated between and within deformed and kinked mantle minerals. Frequently, these microtextures are coupled to replacements of new unstrained orthopyroxene(Opx) on kinked mantle Ol. This evidence suggests that the percolating/impregnating melt was Px(-silica)-saturated. Cpx trace element compositions indicate the MORB affinity of the percolating melt. In the studied peridotite massifs, m- to decametre-wide elongated bodies of spinel(Sp) dunites cut both reacted Sp peridotites and impregnated Plg peridotites, showing clear replacive textures and microstructures. This suggests that melt migration occurred along focused zones, most probably following previous compositional and structural discontinuities, and completely dissolved Px, transforming the pre-existing peridotite in high permeability, high porosity channels. Small interstitial and large megacrystic Cpx crystallized in these dunite channels: Cpx trace element composition clearly indicates that these channels were exploited by aggregate MORB melts to reach shallow crustal levels. Our data from the Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites illustrate a composite scenario of MORB-type melt migration during inception and opening of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean.

  3. Faulting and Serpentinisation of Peridotites in the Leka Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Drivdal, Kerstin; Austrheim, Håkon; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The ocean floor is strongly affected by seismic activity along mid ocean ridges and transform faults, where the upper mantle may undergo extensive alteration and serpentinisation. While the spatial link between faulting and serpentinisation is generally accepted, the causal connection between these two processes is not well understood. The cumulate section of the Leka Ophiolite, north-central Norway, is transected by kilometre long sets of parallel faults and shear zones with a dextral shear. The discrete faults have spacings from centimetres to decimetres and displacements in the same range. They alternate with breccia zones and metre thick shear zones with displacements up to 30 m. The extent of the faulted areas and the consistent dextral displacements indicate a regional deformation process, possibly related to a transform. The observation of progressive peridotite alteration in the Leka Ophiolite gives new insights into the interplay between serpentinisation and deformation. In the least altered peridotite, propagating fractures produce a texture reminiscent of cleaved olivine. Serpentinisation initiates along the cleavage planes. In more deformed samples, the centres of the discrete faults contain relatively large coherent olivine fragments alternating with trails of small spinel grains parallel to the fault. Most of the spinel is ferrichromite or magnetite, but some contain cores of primary chromite. Towards the margins of the faults, the amount of (fibrous) serpentine and fracturing of olivine increases significantly. The fault margins appear dark in hand specimens, which is due to finely dispersed magnetite grains in olivine and serpentine. The surrounding damage zones contain moderately serpentinised olivine grains exhibiting different deformation indicators such as undulous extinction, deformation lamellae and subgrain boundaries. In the breccia zones, where peridotite clasts are enclosed by deformation zones with the same buildup as the faults, this texture is, to different degrees, overprinted by late-stage antigorite serpentinisation. The faults themselves appear unaffected by this last stage of alteration. This challenges the common assumption that fractures enhance the progress of serpentinisation by providing fluid pathways. During the first stage of serpentinisation, the faults have been preferential reaction sites, as suggested by the abundance of magnetite along these zones and the serpentine along the cleavage planes in olivine. During the later antigorite formation, however, they remained unchanged. We envisage a process similar to the permeability reduction caused by deformation bands in sandstones: The grain size reduction and compaction during shearing apparently resulted in impermeable bands in the peridotites. Nevertheless, there must have been a significant mass flow from the antigorite domains, as they hardly contain any magnetite and brucite, both of which should have formed during serpentinisation. Consequently, the permeability of the deformed peridotite complex as a whole persisted despite the sealing of the fault cores. It remains to explore if the fault barriers played a role in seismic pumping and to couple the tectonic deformation to possible volume changes due to reaction.

  4. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  5. Mantle Wedge formation during Subduction Initiation: evidence from the refertilized base of the Oman ophiolitic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite

    2015-04-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. The latter one is supported by studies on volcanic sequences, whereas all studies dealing on the mantle section have recognized a first stage of oceanic accretion before subduction initiation. We herein focus on basal peridotites from all along the ophiolite strike in order to decipher and characterize potential fluid/melt transfers due to subduction processes. Samples were taken along hm- to km-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical (major, trace elements and boron isotopes) study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Results were then interpreted using thermal modelling of the ophiolitic mantle evolution during subduction initiation. Our results show that basal peridotites range from lherzolites to highly depleted harzburgites in composition. The clinopyroxenes (cpx) display melt impregnation textures and co-crystallized with HT/HP amphiboles (amph). The major and trace elements of the constitutive minerals indicate that the different basal lithologies only result from varying degrees of melt extraction. Combined with isotopic data, we demonstrate that the initial melt reacting with these peridotites derives from the mixing of asthenospheric melt and metamorphic sole-derived fluids, and was later extracted in variable proportions. From these observations and thermal modelling of the Fizh ophiolitic mantle evolution after subduction initiation, we interpret the occurrence of these basal lherzolites as representing a freezing front developed by thermal re-equilibration (cooling) of the subduction: the asthenospheric melt mixed with subduction-related fluids was extracted at different degrees until getting ultimately trapped, and crystallized cpx, amph and other associated minerals. The young and still very hot mantle section of today's northern Fizh massif thus contrasted, during subduction initiation, with the colder southernmost massifs of the ophiolite. These different thermal structures reflect different maturity of the oceanic lithosphere at the onset of subduction, which is hardly reconcilable with the ophiolite being formed in an entire supra-subduction zone system. We therefore favor a model in which a preexisting marginal basin acquired its arc-signature during subsequent subduction processes. If our interpretation is correct, the base of the Oman ophiolite could provide the best proxy for the composition of a frozen-in, incipiently forming mantle wedge.

  6. Half a Century of Oman Ophiolite Studies: SSZ or MOR, the Arc Disposal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, R. T.; Gray, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite, one of the largest and best exposed ophiolite complexes, is a Tethyan ophiolite obducted in the Late Cretaceous onto the formerly passive Arabian platform as Arabia began its most recent >1000 km northward migration towards a Miocene collision with Eurasia. The Oman Mountains, northeastern Arabian Peninsula have yet to collide with Eurasia; present uplift and form of the mountains also date to the Miocene. In addition to the scientific scrutiny of the ophiolite complex, the geologic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the ophiolite are abundant with no consensus on the obduction mechanism or its original tectonic setting. The crustal thickness of the ophiolite is comparable to thicknesses observed for "normal" mid-ocean ridges. Largely on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic arguments, some workers have attributed its origin to Pacific-type fast spreading ridges and complex micro plate geometries. Indeed the lower pillow lava sequences and much of the gabbroic crust have isotope and geochemical signatures consistent with a MORB source. However, because of the geochemistry of the upper pillow lavas, the ophiolite is most often characterized as a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite, i.e. it sits in the hanging wall of some large tectonic structure for part of its history. In the absence of a preserved arc, the SSZ designation has little explanatory power only being a declaration of allochthony or about chemical properties of the mantle source. That associated continental shelf and oceanic crustal sections have suffered either clockwise or counterclockwise PT time trajectories requires some type of nascent subduction and hanging wall thrust transport of the young ridge crest. The widespread Late Cretaceous obduction of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle over thousands of kilometers strike length is a problem for SSZ models (arc, forearc, back arc etc.) because arc initiation results in thick crust on short time scales, none of which is preserved. Similarly, fast spreading models require the subduction of >106 km2 without the initiation and preservation of a magmatic arc. Some Late Cretaceous major plate boundary reorganization that resulted in the current plate motion regime with NNE convergence between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia will be part of any final solution to the Oman problem.

  7. New Ar-Ar age, isotopic, and geochemical data for basalts in the Neyriz ophiolite, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H.; Ghazi, A.; Babaei, A.; Duncan, R.; Mahony, J.; Hassanipak, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Neyriz ophiolite of Iran occurs along the Zagros suture zone where the Arabian and Eurasian plates have collided. The principal crustal rock units of the Neyriz ophiolite complex include an intrusive sequence that comprises low- and high-level cumulate gabbros, a late intrusive sequence that consists of diorite and plagiogranite, and a volcanic sequence that includes basalt and rhyo-dacite. These rocks are enveloped by extensive exposures of mantle rocks. Geochemical data including REE, indicate the presence of two distinct types of basalt, which formed either in an island arc or a mid ocean ridge environment. Basalt with calc-alkaline island arc composition has LREE-enriched patterns, and is intercalated with arc-related volcaniclastic rocks that are deposited unconformably above the ophiolite (Babaie et al., 2001). The second group of basalt has distinct MORB affinity, and is compositionally related, through differentiation, with underlying gabbro and plagiogranite, and overlying rhyo-dacite. The MORB-like basalt in Neyriz ophiolite is chemically similar to the tholeiite of the Khoy ophiolite in northwestern Iran [Ghazi and Hassanipak (1997)]. Rare earth element (REE) whole-rock data clearly differentiate the classic ophiolitic lithologies for the crustal rocks in this complex. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating plateau ages from two hornblende gabbros, in the crustal sequence in Tang-e Hana, are 92.07±1.69 Ma and 93.19±2.48 Ma, which are compatible with the previously dated samples by conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages (Lanphere and Pamic, 1983). Preliminary isotopic data for five MORB-type basalts yield ɛ{Nd} values of +7.8 and +7.9, and 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70403-70475. These new results show very distinct similarities, both in terms of age and isotopic composition, between the MORB-type basalt samples from Neyriz and the Samail ophiolite in Oman. The correlation of the isotopic, geochemical, and age data across Neyriz and Oman indicates that the two ophiolites share the same paleogeographic and tectonic history during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

  8. Subduction-related oceanic crust in the Khantaishir ophiolite (western Mongolia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianola, O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Jagoutz, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the oceanic crust is generated at mid oceanic ridges and only a minor portion results from magmatism related to subduction zones (i.e. back-arc basins or in incipient arcs). However it has been observed that several ophiolites preserve an oceanic crust displaying a subduction zone signature. Such a signature is also found in the Khantaishir ophiolite located in western Mongolia. This ~570 m.y. old ophiolite is ~480 km2 in size and displays a complete sequence, tectonically slightly dismembered during the emplacement process. The ophiolite exposes ~130 km2 of highly refractory harzburgitic mantle with local dunite channels and lenses. Towards its top the mantle is replaced by sub-horizontal km-wide discrete zones of pyroxenites situated either in the mantle or forming a crust-mantle transition zone overlain by gabbros. The crust is then composed of various gabbros and minor gabbronorite (both in part replaced by pyroxenites and/or cut by intermediate dykes), by a dyke/sill-complex and by pillow lavas. The entire ophiolite is re-equilibrated at lower greenschist facies conditions. Major and trace elements of the crustal rocks of the Khantaishir ophiolite show trends similar to those observed for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Mafic dykes/sills and pillow lavas of the Khantaishir ophiolite have overall basaltic-andesite compositions, resembling high-Mg andesites with an average SiO2 of 57 wt%. Their low TiO2 (<1.2 wt%) and Ti/V ratios of ~10 contrast with MOR suites, which are basaltic (average SiO2 ~50 wt%) with TiO2 values usually higher than 1.2 wt% and a Ti/V ratio between 20 and 50. This difference is prominent in Th/Yb and Nb/Yb, where the lavas from the Khantaishir ophiolite plot at higher Th/Yb than the typical MORB-OIB array. Moreover, some volcanics with nearly primitive compositions (XMg = 0.69, SiO2 = 56.5 wt%) have trace element patterns comparable with those displayed in high-Mg andesites and boninites from modern island arcs. This evidence suggests that the Kantaishir crust might represent the submarine initial stage of an incipient arc, probably when the preexisting oceanic crust is spread and incipient island arc crust is formed.

  9. First pressure- and temperature estimates of the metamorphic sole of the Pinarbasi ophiolite, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje; Drury, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    Ophiolites are interpreted as remnants of oceanic lithosphere. Many have a so-called supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signature, suggestive of formation at a spreading ridge overlying a subduction zone. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites frequently have a several-hundred-meter thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: the metamorphic sole. These dominantly mafic and generally heavily sheared metamorphic rocks have been shown to preserve an inverted metamorphic gradient with the highest pressures and temperatures at the top of the sole, decreasing downwards. Pressure estimates from rocks found at the top of metamorphic soles may be as much as 10-15 kbar with temperature estimates up to 875°C. The metamorphic grade varies from greenschist near the base, up to granulite facies at the top, with the bulk comprising of amphibolite facies rocks. At some locations a blueschist overprint of the amphibolite facies mineral assemblages has been described. The relative high pressures preserved in the metamorphic sole cannot simply result from overburden pressure of the currently overlying ophiolite, which is a long-standing problem. This raises the question of what process(es) can explain pressures up to 10-15 kbar in the top of metamorphic soles, in relation to the approximately synchronous formation of the SSZ oceanic lithosphere above the sole. One of the places to study the formation of SSZ ophiolites and their metamorphic soles is the Neotethyan Suture zone. Remnants of Neotethyan lithosphere are preserved as ophiolites that are discontinuously exposed from the Mediterranean region through the Himalaya to SE Asia. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites are particularly widespread in Turkey. The Pinarbaşi ophiolite is located in the SE of Central Anatolia, and overlies the Tauride fold-and-thrust belt that formed since the Late Cretaceous. It comprises mantle tectonites consisting of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite with remnants of gabbro to the top, cross-cut by felsic dikes. The mantle tectonites are highly brecciated at the bottom, near the contact with the metamorphic sole. The ophiolite is less than 3 km thick. A well-preserved metamorphic sole structurally underlies the mantle tectonites and consists in ascending order of non-metamorphic rocks, sheared and foliated greenschists, amphibolites, and garnet-amphibolites. The greenschist facies rocks are foliated and folded. The amphibolite is well foliated and has asymmetric isoclinal folds and a lineation defined by amphibole crystals. It is fine-grained at the bottom and coarser at structurally higher levels with up to 8 mm garnet porphyroblasts near the contact with the mantle tectonite. The lower-grade rocks at the base of the sole are predominantly metasediments, whilst the (garnet-) amphibolites mostly appear to be of magmatic origin. The sole is between 200 and 300 meters thick and is laterally discontinuous, at least in part due to late brittle faulting. The metamorphic sole overlies a tectonic mélange that separates the ophiolite and the sole from Tauride carbonate platform rocks. In this presentation we will show preliminary results constraining the PT-conditions for the different levels in the metamorphic sole underneath the Pinarbaşi ophiolite to define the formation mechanism of the sole in relation to the overlying SSZ ophiolite.

  10. Bimodal stable isotope signatures of Zildat Ophiolitic Mélange, Indus Suture Zone, Himalaya: implications for emplacement of an ophiolitic mélange in a convergent setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Koushick; Das, Souvik; Mukherjee, Barun K.; Sen, Koushik

    2013-06-01

    Zildat Ophiolitic Mélange (ZOM) of the Indus Suture Zone, Himalaya, represents tectonic blocks of the fragmented oceanic metasediments and ophiolite remnants. The ZOM is sandwiched between the Zildat fault adjacent to a gneissic dome known as Tso Morari Crystalline (TMC) and thin sliver of an ophiolite called as the Nidar Ophiolitic Complex. The ZOM contain chaotic low-density lithologies of metamorphosed oceanic sediments and hydrated mantle rocks, in which carbonates are present as mega-clasts ranging from 100 meters to few centimeters in size. In this work, calcite microstructures, fluid inclusion petrography and stable isotope analyses of carbonates were carried out to envisage the emplacement history of the ZOM. Calcite microstructure varies with decreasing temperature and increasing intensity of deformation. Intense shearing is seen at the marginal part of the mélange near Zildat fault. These observations are consistent with the mélange as a tectonically dismembered block, formed at a plate boundary in convergent setup. The δ18O and δ13C isotope values of carbonates show bimodal nature from deeper (interior) to the shallower (marginal, near the Zildat fault) part of the mélange. Carbonate blocks from deeper part of the mélange reflect marine isotopic signature with limited fluid-rock interaction, which later on provide a mixing zone of oceanic metasediments and/or hydrated ultramafic rocks. Carbonates at shallower depths of the mélange show dominance of syn-deformation hydrous fluids, and this has later been modified by metamorphism of the adjacent TMC gneisses. Above observations reveal that the mélange was emplaced over the subducting Indian plate and later on synchronously deformed with the TMC gneissic dome.

  11. Carbonate-orthopyroxenite lenses from the Neoproterozoic Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: The first record in the Arabian Nubian Shield ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Arai, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate-orthopyroxenites (classic sagvandites) are reported in the Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: the first finding from the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) ophiolites. They form massive lenses at the southern tip of the Gerf ophiolite, along the contact between the Shinai granite and Gerf serpentinized peridotites. The lenses show structural concordance with the neighboring country rocks and the granite contact. They consist mainly of metamorphic orthopyroxene + magnesite, among other metamorphic, relict primary and retrograde secondary minerals. Based only on chemistry, two types of carbonate-orthopyroxenites can be recognized, Types I (higher-Mg) and II (lower-Mg and higher-Fe). Field constraints, petrography and mineral chemistry indicate a metamorphic origin for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites. The euhedral form of relict primary chromian spinels combined with their high Cr#/low-TiO 2 character, and absence of clinopyroxene suggest that the protolith for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites is a highly depleted mantle peridotite derived from a sub-arc setting. Contact metamorphism accompanied by CO 2-metasomatism resulted in formation of the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites during intrusion of the Shinai granite. The source of CO 2-rich fluids is most likely the neighboring impure carbonate layers. Correlation of the carbonate-orthopyroxenite mineral assemblages with experimental data for the system MgO-SiO 2-H 2O-CO 2 suggests metamorphic/metasomatic conditions of 520-560 °C, Pfluid = 2 kbar and extremely high X values (0.87-1).

  12. Paleomagnetism of the Samar Ophiolite: Implications for the Cretaceous sub-equatorial position of the Philippine island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmater, Hertz G.; Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Guotana, Juan Miguel R.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Payot, Betchaida D.; Yumul, Graciano P.

    2015-11-01

    Samar island in the eastern part of Central Philippines is underlain by a complete ophiolite suite, the Samar Ophiolite. We present the first geochronological and paleomagnetic data for the Samar Ophiolite. Whole rock K-Ar dating of two basalt samples yielded an age of 100.2 ± 2.7 Ma and 97.9 ± 2.8 Ma. Thirteen sites in four localities yielded characteristic remanent magnetization with in situ direction of D = 340°, I = - 24°, k = 15, α95 = 11° and tilt-corrected direction of D = 342°, I = - 27°, k = 15, α95 = 11°. These values suggest that the ophiolitic basement rocks of Samar formed in the Late Cretaceous at a paleolatitude of 14°S ± 6°. The paleolatitude is several degrees south of the sub-equatorial positions calculated for the three other Mesozoic ophiolites of the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) whose paleomagnetism had been previously studied. The PMB ophiolites in eastern and central Philippines share a common age, geochemistry and paleolatitude with the Halmahera Ophiolite, suggesting that they originated from a Mesozoic supra-subduction zone that spanned a few degrees north of the equator to around 15°S.

  13. Crustal Accretion at Fast Spreading Ridges, Insight from Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. J.; Boudier, F. I.; Jousselin, D.

    2011-12-01

    Based on recent high definition field studies in the Oman ophiolite, the level of the perched melt lens (AMC for marine geophysicists) has been identified. Results on AMC internal activity and subsidence from its floor are now published. The dunitic Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) covers mantle diapirs that in Oman were active to the time of oceanic detachment. MTZ is possibly equated with the melt bodies near Moho documented at the EPR. New data on MTZ activity illustrate a remarkable coupling between MTZ and AMC with important consequences on accretion processes in the gabbro magma chamber located between these two levels. MTZs in Oman reach 400 m in diapiric areas, thinning abruptly to <100 m outside these areas. When melt fractures in the mantle reach the MTZ, they are blocked by an horizon of compacted, "dry" dunites. Thus, melt ponds underneath these dunites and generates melt-impregnated dunites and gabbro sills that contribute to the thickening of the MTZ. There, melt composition evolves, its liquidus shifting from olivine to anorthite. This melt accumulates below "dry", impermeable dunites as an under-compacted level, now recorded in the field as dunite-gabbro breccias. Expelled upwards, melt reaches the AMC as powerful intrusions, now recorded as anorthosite-rich layers within subsided gabbros. The spacing in the field of these layers point to an average centennial tempo of melt intrusions from the MTZ to the AMC. As MTZ is very thin at the very ridge axis, melt freely ascent from the very shallow underlying mantle and percolates as porous flow through the gabbro magma chamber. Continuously reaching the AMC, it contributes to its replenishment. In turn, the magma chamber is dominantly fed by the mush subsiding from the AMC floor. In addition, another type of melt instability can develop in the MTZ impregnated dunites. These dunites can disaggregate into a mush that intrudes the lower part of the magma chamber as wehrlite sills, where they are interlayered with the gabbros issued from the subsidence. When injected outside the magma chamber, the wehrlites form massive intrusions folding the solidifying gabbros. The volume of such wehrlite intrusions explains the rapid thinning of the MTZ at the outskirt of diapirs.

  14. Mantle petrology and mineralogy of the Thetford Mines Ophiolite Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagé, Philippe; Bédard, Jean H.; Schroetter, Jean-Michel; Tremblay, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The Ordovician Thetford Mines ophiolite complex (TMOC) formed by boninite-fed seafloor-spreading, probably in a fore-arc environment. The mantle section is dominated by foliated harzburgite (≤ 5-6% clinopyroxene), cut by dunitic (± chromitite cores) and orthopyroxenitic veins and dykes. Contrasting structures, textures and mineral compositions allow us to subdivide the mantle. The granular-textured rocks of the Duck Lake Block (DLB) have two steeply-dipping foliations. The older foliation strikes NW, is sub-perpendicular to the Moho, and is interpreted to have resulted from upflow of the asthenosphere beneath the spreading ridge. This fabric is overprinted by a 2nd ductile foliation striking ENE, oriented sub-parallel to the Moho, which we interpreted as having formed by crust-mantle shear as the lithosphere migrated away from the spreading ridge. The DLB mantle has a limited range of spinel Cr# (100Cr / (Cr + Al) = 51-71). Comparison with experimentally determined residual spinel compositions (equilibrium melting) implies a maximum loss of 27-38% melt if the protolith had a fertile MORB mantle composition. However, interstitial-textured clinopyroxene may have high TiO 2 (< 0.04wt.%) and Na 2O (< 0.27wt.%), and some interstitial spinel has higher TiO 2 (< 0.09wt.%), suggesting interaction with (or crystallization from) an "impregnating" melt. Interstitial tremolitic amphibole also indicates the passage of late hydrous fluids. The harzburgite in the Caribou Mountain Block (CMB) has a porphyroclastic texture, with a strong, locally mylonitic foliation striking roughly N-S, parallel to the orientation of seafloor-spreading related paleo-normal faults in the crust. These fabrics and textures imply a colder, lithospheric deformation, possibly related to tectonic denudation (oceanic core complex). This would explain problematic lava/mantle contacts, favour infiltration of seawater, serpentinization, and reduced fO 2 conditions. The CMB mantle shows a wider range of mineral compositions than the DLB, with spinel Cr# (28-86) implying ≤ 15-45% of equilibrium melting. Locally higher TiO 2 in spinel (< 0.05wt.%) and clinopyroxene (< 0.11wt.%), a local rimward decrease in spinel Cr#, clinopyroxene Cr#, and olivine Fo-content, and traces of interstitial amphibole, are attributed to the circulation of an evolved hydrous melt during peridotite deformation. This suggests that the lower limit to the extent of melting inferred for the CMB (15%), established on the basis of Al-rich spinel rims and neoblasts, is probably too low. On the other hand, the higher inferred degree of depletion of the CMB is probably unaffected by the metasomatic overprint and is a more robust conclusion.

  15. Diamonds in ophiolites: Contamination or a new diamond growth environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, J.; Gain, S.; Stern, R. A.; Huang, J.-X.; Jacob, D. E.; Xu, X.; Stokes, A. J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    For more than 20 years, the reported occurrence of diamonds in the chromites and peridotites of the Luobusa massif in Tibet (a complex described as an ophiolite) has been widely ignored by the diamond research community. This skepticism has persisted because the diamonds are similar in many respects to high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic/industrial diamonds (grown from metal solvents), and the finding previously has not been independently replicated. We present a detailed examination of the Luobusa diamonds (recovered from both peridotites and chromitites), including morphology, size, color, impurity characteristics (by infrared spectroscopy), internal growth structures, trace-element patterns, and C and N isotopes. A detailed comparison with synthetic industrial diamonds shows many similarities. Cubo-octahedral morphology, yellow color due to unaggregated nitrogen (C centres only, Type Ib), metal-alloy inclusions and highly negative δ13C values are present in both sets of diamonds. The Tibetan diamonds (n = 3) show an exceptionally large range in δ15N (-5.6 to + 28.7 ‰) within individual crystals, and inconsistent fractionation between {111} and {100} growth sectors. This in contrast to large synthetic HPHT diamonds grown by the temperature gradient method, which have with δ15N = 0 ‰ in {111} sectors and + 30 ‰ in {100} sectors, as reported in the literature. This comparison is limited by the small sample set combined with the fact the diamonds probably grew by different processes. However, the Tibetan diamonds do have generally higher concentrations and different ratios of trace elements; most inclusions are a NiMnCo alloy, but there are also some small REE-rich phases never seen in HPHT synthetics. These characteristics indicate that the Tibetan diamonds grew in contact with a C-saturated Ni-Mn-Co-rich melt in a highly reduced environment. The stable isotopes indicate a major subduction-related contribution to the chemical environment. The unaggregated nitrogen, combined with the lack of evidence for resorption or plastic deformation, suggests a short (geologically speaking) residence in the mantle. Previously published models to explain the occurrence of the diamonds, and other phases indicative of highly reduced conditions and very high pressures, have failed to take into account the characteristics of the diamonds and the implications for their formation. For these diamonds to be seriously considered as the result of a natural growth environment requires a new understanding of mantle conditions that could produce them.

  16. Microbiology of Ultrabasic Groundwaters of the Coast Range Ophiolite, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Upon exposure to water, ultramafic rocks characteristic of the Earth's mantle undergo a process known as serpentinization. These water-rock reactions lead to highly reducing conditions and some of the highest pH values reported in nature. In contrast to alkaline soda lakes, actively serpentinizing environments exposed on land are commonly associated with low salinity freshwaters, imparting unique challenges upon their resident microbial communities. These environments are especially prevalent along continental margins, and cover extensive portions of the west coast of North America. Most studies of serpentinizing environments have focused upon springs that emanate from fractures in the subsurface. Here, we present microbiological data from a series of groundwater wells associated with active serpentinization in the California Coast Range, an ophiolite complex near Lower Lake, California. Waters from ultrabasic wells had lower microbial cell concentrations and diversity than were found in moderate pH wells in the same area. Bacteria consistently made up a higher proportion of the microbial communities compared to Archaea as determined by qPCR. High pH wells were dominated by taxa within the Betaproteobacteria and Clostridia, whereas moderate pH wells predominantly contained common soil taxa related to Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Multivariate statistical analyses incorporating key environmental parameters supported these observations and also highlighted correlations between the high-pH taxa and the abundance of hydrogen and methane gas. Similarly, colony forming units of alkaliphilic microorganisms were consistently 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in the ultrabasic wells and were taxonomically distinct from the moderate pH groundwaters. Together, these results show that distinct populations inhabit subsurface environments associated with active serpentinization, consistent with previous observations, and suggest that Betaproteobacteria and Clostridia probably play significant roles in the microbiology of these ecosystems. The low diversity microbial communities of serpentinizing subsurface habitats are likely sustained by the high hydrogen and methane fluxes that emanate from such systems and further investigations will directly test their roles in mediating biogeochemical cycles in these environments.

  17. Age of Alpine Corsica ophiolites revisited: Insights from in situ zircon U-Pb age and O-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Faure, Michel; Rossi, Philippe; Lin, Wei; Lahondère, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the age and timing of ophiolite sequences is essential for understanding the mechanisms of plate tectonics. The ophiolites in the Schistes Lustrés and the Upper nappes of Alpine Corsica represent remnants of the Liguria-Piemonte ocean basin that formed as a branch of the Central Atlantic basin during the opening of the Mesozoic Western Alpine Tethys. Despite numerous isotopic and paleontological studies, the age and timing of the ophiolites in the Schistes Lustrés nappe are still controversial. This study presents integrated in situ analyses of zircon U-Pb age and O-Hf isotopic data for ophiolitic gabbros and plagiogranites from three localities in the Schistes Lustrés nappe of Eastern Corsica. Our new results demonstrate that these rocks crystallized synchronously at ~ 159 Ma, approximately 10 m.y. younger than the ophiolites in the Balagne Upper nappe. Zircons from the gabbros and plagiogranites are characterized by highly positive εHf(t) (+ 15.0 to + 15.9) and mantle-like δ18O (5.2-5.4‰) values. Thus, these ophiolitic rocks were cogenetic, and crystallized from magmas produced by partial melting of a depleted, N-MORB type mantle. By contrast, in the Balagne Upper nappe, the ~ 169 Ma ophiolites contain numerous xenocrystic zircons inherited from a continental crust. Our current knowledge of isotopic geochronology and geochemistry supports a paleogeographic reconstruction, in which the earliest ophiolites in the Balagne nappe were emplaced close to a continental margin at ~ 169 Ma, while the N-MORB type ophiolites in the Schistes Lustrés nappe were likely formed approximately 10 m.y. later in the central part of the Liguria-Piemonte oceanic basin. The relative location of the Schistes Lustrés and Balagne Upper nappes with respect to continental margins is discussed.

  18. Forearc hyperextension by detachment faulting and ophiolite dismemberment: examples from the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture Zone (Southern Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, M.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Huang, W.; Koornneef, L.; Guilmette, C.; Borneman, N.; Hodges, K. V.; Kapp, P. A.; Lin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The broad deformation zone of the Himalayan belt and Tibetan plateau is largely the product of continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia plates since the Early Eocene. Ophiolites exposed along the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture Zone (southern Tibet) demonstrate that a long-lasting intra-oceanic subduction zone must have played a significant role in accommodating closure of the >7500 km wide Neotethyan Ocean before continental collision. Their study can provide key constraints on the initial history of the Neotethyan subduction systems, and the following formation and emplacement of the ophiolite. Paleomagnetic analyses of the sheeted dykes complex of ophiolites have been successfully applied in the past to reconstruct the initial geometry of the spreading system associated to the ophiolite formation. Furthermore, oceanic detachment faults, structures widely occurring in modern magma-poor (slow-spreading) mid-ocean ridges, have been recently recognized also in ophiolites (i.e., Mirdita ophiolite of Albania), and (if present) their study may provide unique insights into the geodynamics and geometry of the associated spreading system. The YZSZ ophiolites form a 2500 km long belt mainly composed of dismembered ultramafic massifs locally covered by a crustal sequence and oceanic sediments, underlying a regionally continuous clastic Xigaze sedimentary basin interpreted as the Tibetan forearc. Our study focused along a ~250 km transect within the eastern sector of the YZSZ between the Sangsang and Xigatze ophiolite. Paleomagnetic, structural geological, and geochemical analyses evidenced the presence of fossil oceanic detachment faults that locally (Sangsang) exposed the lowermost units (mantle) directly at the seafloor. Based on this evidence, and the reconstructed rotation pattern of the region we propose a tectonic evolutionary model characterized by the interplay between magmatic crustal accretion and trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular tectonic extension, which resulted in thinning and dismemberment of the ophiolite.

  19. Exploring the deep biosphere through ophiolite-associated surface springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Vallalar, B.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The process of serpentinization in the subsurface produces highly reduced, high pH fluids that provide habitats for microbial communities. At depth, these fluids likely contain appreciable hydrogen and methane gas, very little inorganic carbon, and limited electron acceptors. As fluids affected by serpentinization reach the oxygenated surface environment, microbial biomes may shift to include organisms capable of metabolizing oxygen. Our study of serpentinizing and hydrothermal fluids in the Zambales and Palawan regions of the Philippines includes a suite of geochemical analyses to define microbial habitats, targeted culturing efforts, and community analysis (the latter presented in a companion abstract). We measured temperature, pH, conductivity, ORP, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ammonia, iron, sulfide, and silica in the fluids on site, and have analyzed dissolved gases, major ions, and trace elements. These analyses provide a description of the near subsurface and surface ecosystems of the study areas. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in solid biofilm and biominerals from the springs allow inference of metabolic cycling. Fluids expressed from the Zambales and Palawan ophiolites range from pH 9-11.5, 0.06-2 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 0-3.7 mg/L sulfide, and 30-800 mg/L silica in the source pools. Temperatures vary from 34-50C. Analysis of dissolved gases reveal concentrations of H2 and CH4 > 10uM, CO2 > 1 mM, and trace amounts of CO. This variability in fluid and gas composition indicates the potential for different mixing ratios with local meteoric water, local hydrothermal fluids, and deep-seated sediments. Results will be compared with other serpentinizing fluids to place these habitats in context of the ecology of serpentinizing springs globally. Anaerobic and aerobic growth media were designed to target heterotrophy, sulfate reduction, and iron reduction (the latter two with, and without organic carbon input). We have calculated that these processes have potential to yield energy for metabolism in these ecosystems. Media were diluted with filtered spring fluid to the desired concentration on location, and inoculated immediately. We found positive growth in cultures from all sample locations (seven in all), at temperatures ranging from 28-48C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Growth on complex organic media was successful in five samples, and media including sugars or organic acids in two and four samples, respectively. Heterotrophic sulfate reduction was seen in six samples, and autotrophic sulfate reduction in only three samples. Four locations yielded heterotrophic iron reducers, and five locations host organisms capable of autotrophic iron reduction. This variety of positive growth indicates a metabolically flexible community, complementing data obtained from previously reported communities in serpentinizing systems. We begin to obtain a picture of community dynamics and functional diversity in these ecosystems that bridge the subsurface and surface biospheres.

  20. Mechanisms of formation of mantle section pyroxenites of Voykar Ophiolite, Polar Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Ivan; Batanova, Valentina; Sobolev, Alexander; Savelieva, Galina

    2010-05-01

    Ural Mountains mark a major mid Paleozoic collision event, which resulted in the closure of an ocean basin separating the Siberian and European plates. Voykar Ophiolite is located in the Northern part of Uralian Ophiolite Belt. Ophiolitic sequence rocks of Polar Urals are usually considered as giant fragments of mantle and MORB-type crust formed in back-arc settings (e.g. Savelieva et al., 1987). Mantle section of Voykar Ophiolite comprises most of the ophiolitic sequence. It is up to 8 km thick and consists mostly of spinel harzburgites with multiple dunitic bodies and pyroxenitic veins representing pathways for different melts/fluids. While it is generally accepted that dunites in mantle sections are formed by melt-rock reaction and mark melt pathways (e.g. Kelemen et al., 1995), formation of pyroxenites is a subject of debate. Often pyroxenites from mantle sections of ophiolites (Varfalvy et al., 1997), as well as pyroxenites from mantle wedge xenoliths (Arai et al., 2006, Bali et al., 2007, Gregoire et al., 2008) are interpreted as interaction products between high-SiO2 melts and mantle peridotites. Such melts are believed to be widespread in SSZ mantle: boninites, high-MgO andesites and adakites. However, some researchers (e.g. Berly et al., 2006, Halama et al., 2009) propose pyroxenite formation in metasomatic reaction with fluid from subducting plate. Moreover, some pyroxenites could be formed by the melt crystallization in hydrous conditions (Muntener et al., 2001). We present comprehensive study of mineral major and trace element compositions from the mantle section rocks of Voykar Ophiolite in order to determine mechanism of formation of pyroxenites in ophiolitic mantle sections. Compositions of clinopyroxene and olivine from pyroxenites were compared to their compositions in harzburgites and dunites. Furthermore, compositions of clinopyroxene and magmatic amphibole from mantle section pyroxenites were used to calculate equilibrium melts. Geochemical data (enrichment of clinopyroxenes and amphiboles in LREE and LILE (Rb, Ba, Sr) relative to HFSE (Nb, Zr)) together with structural data suggests that pyroxenites display clear suprasubduction signatures and refer to the last stage of Voykar Ophiolite mantle section formation. All minerals from pyroxenites tend to have lower Mg-numbers and, therefore, high-Si meltsfluids have played major role in their formation. Depletion of clinopyroxenes in HREE and enrichment in Sr and LREE across the harzburgite-pyroxenite contacts suggests that this high-Si melts most probably refer to depleted SSZ melts, such as boninites. One group of magmatic amphibole in pyroxenites refers to such melts. However, another group of magmatic amphiboles probably refers to high-Si fluid depleted in REE and enriched in LILE (Rb, Ba, Sr) and Pb. Therefore, the variety of pyroxenite segregations, veins, and dikes reflects progressive stages of melt/fluid migration through harzburgite and dunite at various P-T conditions. For some pyroxenites (such as zoned websterite dikes) formation by fractional crystallization of hydrous magmas couldn't be excluded.

  1. Platinum-group elements in rocks from the voikar-syninsky ophiolite complex, Polar Urals, U.S.S.R.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Haffty, J.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of platinum-group elements (PGE) in rocks collected from the Voikar-Syninsky ophiolite in the Polar Urals suggest that the distribution and geochemistry of PGE in this Paleozoic ophiolite are similar to those in Mesozoic ophiolites from elsewhere. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns for chromitite, the tectonite unit, and ultramafic and mafic cumulate unit have negative slopes. These results are similar to those found for chromitites from other ophiolites; stratiform chromities show positive slopes. If the magmas that form both types of chromitite originate from similar mantle source material with respect to PGE content, the processes involved must be quite different. However, the distinct chondrite-normalized PGE patterns may reflect differing source materials. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Emplacement of the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite in the southern Alaska forearc during a ridge-trench encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Young, Charles P.

    1999-12-01

    The 57±1 Ma Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite of southern Alaska's Chugach terrane formed in a near-trench environment as the Kula-Farallon ridge was being subducted beneath North America. The magmatic sequence includes pillow lavas, sheeted dikes, gabbros, trondhjemites, and a poorly-exposed ultramafic section. The lavas show mid-ocean ridge basalt and arc-like geochemical signatures, interpreted to reflect compositionally diverse melts derived from near-fractional melting of a variably depleted mantle source, mixed with variable amounts of assimilated continentally-derived flysch. A sedimentary sequence overlying the ophiolite, here named the Humpy Cove Formation of the Orca Group, preserves a continuous 3.6 plusmn;1.4 Ma record of turbidite sediments that were deposited on the ophiolite as it was transported to North America and emplaced in the Chugach accretionary prism. A transition from thinly bedded turbidites at the base of the section to thickly bedded turbidites is interpreted as a distal to proximal facies change recording the migration of the ophiolite toward the continent. Chemical trends vertically through the sedimentary sequence show an increasing biogenic component diluting terrigenous matter 950 m above ophiolitic basalt, signaling a change to more favorable biologic conditions or increased preservation of biogenic matter with proximity to the continent. Hydrothermal metals are not resolvable in sediments interbedded with pillow lavas or in sediments above the ophiolite, suggesting that they were diluted by turbidite sedimentation. The top of the section is truncated by the Fox Island shear zone, a 1 km thick, greenschist-facies, west-over-east thrust related to the emplacement of the ophiolite into the accretionary wedge. The Fox Island shear zone is intruded by a 53.4±0.9 Ma granite, showing that the ophiolite formed, was transported to the North American continent, overthrust by a major accretionary prism-related thrust, and intruded by granite all within 3.6±1.4 Ma. Using these estimates for the timing of formation and emplacement of the ophiolite, with palinspastic reconstructions and plate motion vector triangles, we suggest that the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite was transported up to 500 km (461±79 km) relative to North America from the place of its formation at the Kula-Farallon ridge prior to its emplacement into the North American margin. Since the best estimates of the amount of translation of the Chugach terrane come from paleomagnetism of the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite, current estimates of margin-parallel strike slip need to be reduced considerably.

  3. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.

    2015-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees of partial melting (up to 35 %) and originated in a fore-arc setting. Such interpretation contributes to the body of evidence suggesting that tectonomagmatic processes of the Neoproterozoic were largely similar to those of the Phanerozoic, implying little, or no significant, change in the geothermal regime of Earth since the Neoproterozoic.

  4. Microbial Community Diversity in Fault-Associated and Ophiolite-Hosted Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Gulecal, Y.; Yargicoglu, E. N.; Carbone, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Deep biosphere habitats and hydrothermal systems are ideal candidates for analog ecosystems to life on Early Earth and Astrobiological targets. They also likely harbor vast repositories of novel biological and genetic diversity. This study compares the biological and genetic diversity of microbial communities in terrestrial hydrothermal and cool fluid seeps and springs, occuring in both ophiolite-hosted and non-ophiolite sequences. Fluids and solids (biofilms and sediment) with variable fractions of ultramafic-sourced and serpentinizing reaction fluids and mineral fragments were collected from surface seeps and deeply-sourced springs associated with the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ, Turkey) and the Anita Shear Zone (ASZ, New Zealand). Comparisons are drawn between three regimes: 1) cool fluid systems in ophiolite-hosted sequences in NAFZ vs. ASZ, 2) cool fluid vs. hydrothermal fluid systems in the NAFZ, and 3) hydrothermal systems in NAFZ ophiolite-hosted vs. non-ophiolite sequences. These comparisons help differentiate microbial community structure and metabolic strategies between hydrothermal and serpentinizing input to these ecosystems. The integration of geobiological data from these sites clarifies how microbial systems respond to even subtle shifts in geochemistry of the water-rock system, and our consideration of mafic/ultramafic rocks as habitable formations brings new astrobiological relevance to this work. Microbial communities were examined using a suite of culture-dependant and independent methods, co-registered with a network of geochemical contextual samples. Geochemical datasets allow prediction of available sources of energy in these nutrient-limited ecosystems. Sample locations varied in temperature 30-90C and pH 6.5-9.0 Potential sources of energy and carbon include dissolved organic carbon, CO2, sulfide, sulfate, and ferrous iron, depending on the sample location. Enrichments were obtained using a variety of carbon and energy sources, in growth media that are designed to mimick each natural system. Heterotrophic cultures, in both aerobic and anaerobic media, were obtained for all cool and hydrothermal fluid locations. In addition, evidence for microbial sulfate reduction and iron oxidation were seen in the NAFZ hydrothermal ophiolite-hosted samples. Nucleic acid-based analysis of sediments and biofilms revealed wide variation in diversity of 16S rRNA and nitrogen cycle related genes in each system. We present field observations and interpret new data, establishing a geobiological baseline for previously undescribed sites of active serpentinization.

  5. Obduction of western Anatolian ophiolites: from birth to steady state of a subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Whitechurch, Hubert; Okay, Aral

    2015-04-01

    During Cretaceous times, the convergence between the Anatolide Tauride block (following the movement of Africa) and Eurasia lead to the closure of a branch of the Neotethyan ocean and to ophiolite obduction. Obducted ophiolite and their sub-ophiolitic units can be found along a 400 kilometre-long north to south transect in western Anatolia. The aim of this contribution is twofold: (1) (re)-appraise the metamorphic pressure-temperature (PT) conditions and evolution of the sub-ophiolitic units of western Anatolia, by constraining the formation of the metamorphic sole during the first stages of subduction and the unusual accretion of ocean-derived units along a subduction interface in an evolving, cooling thermal regime, and (2) understand the dynamics of a large-scale and long-lived obduction. Directly below the ophiolite (mostly made of mantle-derived rocks) lies a metamorphic sole. The upper part is this sole is made of garnet and garnet clinopyroxene amphibolites, the lower part consisting in amphibolite or green-schist facies metapelites and metabasite suggestive of discrete accretion steps. In the northern part of the section the metamorphic sole is characterised by an important blueschist-facies overprint destabilizing the amphibolite paragenesis. This high-pressure overprint is lacking in the southern area. Using field and petrological observations, three units (namely and from top to bottom, OC1, OC2 and OC3) were distinguished in the accretionary complex with PT conditions ranging from incipient metamorphism to blueschist facies conditions. OC1 represents most of the outcropping unit, is found all along the section and shows only low-grade metamorphism. Metamorphic conditions remains hard to establish in this unit made of a stack of hm-thick tectonic slices showing subtle differences in their metamorphic grade (from pristine pillow basalts and hydrothermalized lavas to lawsonite pumpellyite-lawsonite bearing basalts). In OC2, Fe-Mg carpholite-bearing layers were found and attest to high-pressure and low-temperature conditions. As OC2, OC3 exhibit a clear blueschist facies metamorphism, but slightly higher PT conditions. Both OC2 and 3 were only found in the northern area close to the suture zone. Combining these data, available radiometric and palaeogeographic data and recent themomechanical modelling a tentative reconstruction of the subduction-zone evolution through time during the emplacement of a large-scale ophiolite is presented. We show that the cooling of the subduction must occur very quickly (~<15 My) after subduction inception and investigate the implications for early subduction and obduction dynamics.

  6. The oldest island arc and ophiolite complexes of the Russian Arctic (Taimyr Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitriy V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Y.; Romanova, Irina V.

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the age of indicator complexes such as island arc, ophiolite, collisional, subductional etc. is extremely important for paleogeodynamic reconstructions. The age along with other geological and geophysical data enables the reestablishing of the positions of terranes of various origins in relation to continental margins and to each other. When studying the issues concerning the ancient Arctida paleocontinent, the nature of terranes and continental plates that compose the present day arctic shelf and submerged ridges it is important to determine the main stages of tectonic events. At the same time it is particularly important to establish the earliest stages of tectonic transformations. The Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya orogenic belt is one of the large accretionary-collisional key structures in the Arctic. The Central Taimyr accretionary belt includes two granite-metamorphic terranes: Faddey and Mamont-Shrenk that include the oldest igneous formations of Taimyr. Those are granitoids with U/Pb zircons age of 850-830 Ma (Faddey) and 940-885 Ma (Mamont-Shrenk). Presently we have determined fragments of paleo-island arcs and ophiolites in the framing of these terranes. Moreover, in addition to already identified Neoproterozoic (755-730 Ma) ophiolites and island arc rocks (plagiogranites, gabbro, volcanics) we found more ancient rock complexes in the framings of both terranes closer in age to the Meso-Neoproterozoic boundary. In the region of the Tree Sisters Lake a paleo-island arc complex was found including plagiogranites and plagiorhyodacites with U-Pb isotopic zircon age of 969-961 Ma. Sm-Nd isotopic data for these rocks showed a Mesoproterozoic model age: TNd(DM) varies from 1170 to 1219 Ma. These data as well as Rb-Sr isotopic investigations indicate a predominance of a mantle component in the magmatic sources of these rocks: ɛNd (967-961) = 5.1-5.2 and (87Sr/86Sr)0 =0.70258-0.70391. In the framing of the Mamont-Shrenk terrane we determined ophiolite fragments in the mouths of Krasnaya River and Kabachkovaya Hill. The Kabachkovaya ophiolites form near E-W elongated narrow zones of ultramafic rocks and small plutons of fine and medium grained gabbros and diabases among flows of tholeitic basalts forming pillow lavas and tuffs. Ar/Ar dating of amphiboles from metagabbros in the Krasnaya R. mouth yielded an age of 1029 Ma. In conclusion, these data indicate the existence of Meso-Neoproterozoic ophiolites and island arcs in the Russian Arctic, which, with available paleomagnetic data, allows composing more correct plate tectonic reconstructions for the early stages of the evolution of this region.

  7. 40Ar 39Ar Ages and tectonic setting of ophiolite from the Neyriz area, southeast Zagros Range, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Pamic, J.

    1983-01-01

    An ophiolite, considered to be an allochthonous fragment of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle, crops out near Neyriz in the Zagros Range, Iran. 40Ar 39Ar ages ranging from 76.8 ?? 23.8 Ma to 105 ?? 23.3 Ma were measured on hornblende from five samples of plagiogranite and diabase from the ophiolite. The most precise ages are 85.9 ?? 3.8 Ma for a diabase and 83.6 ?? 8.4 Ma for a plagiogranite. The weighted mean age of hornblende from the five samples is 87.5 ?? 7.2 Ma which indicates that the igneous part of the Neyriz ophiolite formed during the early part of the Late Cretaceous. Pargasite from amphibolite below peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite has a 40Ar 39Ar age of 94.9 ?? 7.6 Ma. The pargasite age agrees within analytical uncertainty with the ages measured on diabase and plagiogranite. Comparable ages have been measured on igneous rocks from the Samail ophiolite of Oman and on amphibolite below peridotite of the Samail ophiolite. ?? 1983.

  8. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10°N paleolatitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    1992-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11° ±3°) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6° ±5°) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite at low paleo-latitudes. Uniform-polarity directions for other remnants of ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10°N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  9. Gridino melange zone of the Belomorian eclogite province: Succession of tectonic events and structural position of mafic dyke swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babarina, I. I.; Sibelev, O. S.; Stepanova, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    Based on relationships between Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes, lithotectonic complexes, and tectonic structures of the Gridino Zone in the Belomorian eclogite province of the Fennoscandian Shield, deformations have been divided into groups differing in age and the succession of tectonic events has been reconstructed. The formation of Neoarchean eclogite-bearing melange was related to disintegration of large eclogite sheets in the course of near-horizontal ductile flow accompanied by syntectonic granitoid magmatism, multiple migmatization, and granulite-to amphibolite-facies metamorphism. The exotic blocks, including eclogites, were incorporated into TTG gneisses as sheets and lenses up to a few hundreds of meters in thickness and oriented conformably with gneissic banding. As a result of ductile flow, the lithotectonic complexes were transported at the level of discrete brittle-ductile deformations expressed as strike-slip faults and associated folds. Under conditions of a relatively rigid medium, individual structural elements underwent rotation approximately through 90° in plan view. Under the extension regime in the Early Paleoproterozoic, several swarms of mafic dykes were injected into the already cold framework rocks, as is evident from dyke morphology. The dykes crosscut all predated structures, included turned blocks, and are therefore important reference points for subdivision of Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic processes. The Svecofennian postdyke tectonic activity was accompanied by local shearing and boudinage of metabasic rocks, development of quartz and pegmatite veins along tension cracks, disharmonic folding, and discrete retrograde metamorphism up to amphibolite-facies conditions. The postdyke deformations did not exert a substantial effect on the previously formed regional structure.

  10. Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Le Mée, Laurent; Girardeau, Jacques; Monnier, Christophe

    2004-11-11

    It has been difficult to relate the segmentation of mid-ocean ridges to processes occurring in the Earth's underlying mantle, as the mantle is rarely sampled directly and chemical variations observed in lavas at the surface are heavily influenced by details of their production as melt extracted from the mantle. Our understanding of such mantle processes has therefore relied on the analysis of pieces of fossil oceanic lithosphere now exposed at the Earth's surface, known as ophiolites. Here we present the phase chemistry and whole-rock major- and trace-element contents of 174 samples of the mantle collected along over 400 km of the Oman Sultanate ophiolite. We show that, when analysed along the fossil ridge, variations of elemental ratios sensitive to the melting process define a three-dimensional geometry of mantle upwellings, which can be related to the segmentation observed in modern mid-ocean ridge environments. PMID:15538358

  11. Geochemistry of reduced gas related to serpentinization of the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrajano, T.A.; Sturchio, N.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Lyon, G.L.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Methane-hydrogen gas seeps with mantle-like C and noble gas isotopic characteristics issue from partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks in the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines. New measurements of noble gas and 14C isotope abundances, rock/mixed-volatile equilibrium calculations, and previous chemical and isotopic data suggest that these reduced gases are products of periodotite hydration. The gas seeps are produced in rock-dominated zones of serpentinization, and similar gases may be ubiquitous in ultramafic terranes undergoing serpentinization. ?? 1990.

  12. Iron and magnesium isotope fractionation in oceanic lithosphere and sub-arc mantle: Perspectives from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Hu, Yan; Shi, Ren-Deng; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Fan; Gong, Xiao-Han; Huang, Qi-Shuai; Xiao, Yan; Chen, Chen; He, Yong-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    We present high-precision Fe and Mg isotopic data for the Purang ophiolite, southwestern Tibet, representing the first combined Fe and Mg isotopic study of the oceanic lithosphere hitherto. The δ56Fe and δ26Mg values of the ophiolitic peridotite, dunite and gabbro vary from -0.209 to 0.187‰ and from -0.28 to - 0.14 ‰, respectively. The average δ56Fe of the peridotites is - 0.030 ± 0.143 ‰ (2SD, n = 17), a value indistinguishable from abyssal peridotites and chondrites, and lower than oceanic basalts. The average δ26Mg value of the peridotites is - 0.20 ± 0.10 ‰, a value slightly higher than both chondrites and oceanic basalts. Correlations between δ56Fe and indices of partial melting indicate fractionation of 0.323‰ in δ56Fe between the oceanic lithospheric mantle and the overlying mafic crust during an early episode of partial melting, presumably beneath a spreading centre. Subsequent metasomatism in a supra-subduction zone caused elevated oxygen fugacity and heavy Fe isotopic compositions in the oceanic lithospheric mantle. The dunite with high Ba/La, a proxy for oxygen fugacity, and high δ56Fe values was likely formed during this process of sub-arc mantle-melt interaction. The negatively coupled Fe-Mg isotopic variations of the Purang ophiolite indicate that Mg isotope fractionation may also occur during high-temperature mantle processes. The observed isotopic variations among different lithologies in the ophiolite may satisfactorily account for the isotopic differences between arc lavas and mantle peridotites with respect to oceanic basalts, thus providing implications for crust-mantle differentiation.

  13. Platinum group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghorfi, M.; Melcher, F.; Oberthür, T.; Boukhari, A. E.; Maacha, L.; Maddi, A.; Mhaili, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite complex hosts numerous, small lenticular bodies of massive and disseminated chromite. Metallurgical-grade high-Mg and high-Cr spinels (cores with 48-62 wt% Cr2O3) reveal complex alteration patterns of successive Cr and Mn enrichment and loss of Al towards the rims, while the Mg# ratios [(Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] remain almost constant. Concentration patterns of platinum-group elements are typical for ophiolitic chromitite poor in sulfides, with predominance of the IPGE, variable Rh, and low Pt and Pd. The most abundant platinum-group mineral is Rh-bearing laurite that occurs either included in spinel or in silicate matrix, whereas Os-Ir-Ru alloy is always included in spinel. Laurite inclusions reveal complex intergrowth textures with Rh-Ru-Pt rich alloy, and with Rh-rich sulfide. Most laurites display trends to sulfur-poor compositions leading to local formation of very fine-grained Ru-Os-Ir alloy phases. Ni-Co-Fe sulfides, arsenides and sulfarsenides devoid of PGE are associated with the alteration of chromite. Textural position and chemical composition of the base metal inclusions, as well as comparison of alteration features between chromite and accessory chromian spinel in the Co-Ni-As ores of the Bou Azzer ophiolite indicate a close connection. It is suggested that hydrothermal fluids percolated through the marginal zones of the ophiolite belt during greenschist facies metamorphism and deposited Ni-Co-Fe arsenides, sulfarsenides and minor sulfides as accessories within altered chromitites, and also in structurally favourable zones as Ni-Co-As ores.

  14. Constraints on the magmatic evolution of the oceanic crust from plagiogranite intrusions in the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Karsten M.; Freund, Sarah; Beier, Christoph; Koepke, Jürgen; Erdmann, Martin; Hauff, Folkmar

    2016-05-01

    We present major and trace element as well as Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope data on a suite of 87 plutonic rock samples from 27 felsic crustal intrusions in seven blocks of the Oman ophiolite. The rock compositions of the sample suite including associated more mafic rocks range from 48 to 79 wt% SiO2, i.e. from gabbros to tonalites. The samples are grouped into a Ti-rich and relatively light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched P1 group [(Ce/Yb) N > 0.7] resembling the early V1 lavas, and a Ti-poor and LREE-depleted P2 group [(Ce/Yb) N < 0.7] resembling the late-stage V2 lavas. Based on the geochemical differences and in agreement with previous structural and petrographic models, we define phase 1 (P1) and phase 2 (P2) plutonic rocks. Felsic magmas in both groups formed by extensive fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, apatite, and Ti-magnetite from mafic melts. The incompatible element compositions of P1 rocks overlap with those from mid-ocean ridges but have higher Ba/Nb and Th/Nb trending towards the P2 rock compositions and indicating an influence of a subducting slab. The P2 rocks formed from a more depleted mantle source but show a more pronounced slab signature. These rocks also occur in the southern blocks (with the exception of the Tayin block) of the Oman ophiolite implying that the entire ophiolite formed above a subducting slab. Initial Nd and Hf isotope compositions suggest an Indian-MORB-type mantle source for the Oman ophiolite magmas. Isotope compositions and high Th/Nb in some P2 rocks indicate mixing of a melt from subducted sediment into this mantle.

  15. Metamorphic sole genesis at the base of ophiolite nappes: Insights from numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Agard, Philippe; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Obduction emplaces oceanic lithosphere on top of continental lithosphere. Although a number of studies have focused on this enigmatic process, the initial stages of obduction remain poorly understood. Field, petrological, and geochronological data reveal that during the first stages of the obduction (i.e., during the first 1-2 Myrs) a HT-LP metamorphic sole (~700-800 ° C and ~1 GPa) is systematically welded at the base of ophiolite nappes. However, the reason why such welding of the ophiolite soles occurs at these particular P-T conditions, and only at the onset of obduction, is still an open issue. The aim of this study is to explore the conditions required to explain the genesis of metamorphic soles. For this, we employ two-dimensional numerical modelling, constrained by the wealth of available data from the Oman ophiolite. We first present a thermo-kinematic model in which the velocity field is prescribed in order to simulate obduction initiation. The heat advection-diffusion equation is solved at each time step. The model is intentionally kept simple in order to control each parameter (e.g., convergence rate, dip angle, thermal age) and to test its influence on the resulting P-T conditions obtained through time along the obduction interface. Results show that the key factor allowing the formation of metamorphic soles is the age of the oceanic lithosphere involved. Moreover, we speculate that the reason why metamorphic soles are always welded at the same P-T conditions is due to the fact that, at these particular conditions, strength jumps occur within the oceanic lithosphere. These jumps lead to changes in strain localisation and allow the spalling of oceanic crust and its juxtaposition to the ophiolite nappe. This hypothesis is further tested using thermo-mechanical models in which the obduction initiates dynamically (only initial and boundary conditions are prescribed). The interplay between the temperature evolution and the mechanical behaviour is then discussed.

  16. Precambrian ophiolites of Arabia; a summary of geologic settings, U-Pb geochronology, lead isotope characteristics, and implications for microplate accretion, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, John S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Feldspar lead-isotope data are of three types: 1) lead from the ophiolitic rocks and arc tonalites of the northwestern Arabian Shield and ophiolitic rocks of the Nabitah suture zone is similar to lead in present midocean ridge basalt, 2) anomalous radiogenic data from the Thurwah ophiolite are from rocks that contain zircons from pre-late Proterozoic continental crust, and 3) feldspar from the Urd ophiolite shows retarded uranogenic lead growth and is related either to an anomalous oceanic mantle source, or in an unknown manner to ancient continental mantle or lower crust of the eastern Arabian Shield.

  17. Geological features of a collision zone marker: The Antique Ophiolite Complex (Western Panay, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Tamayo, Rodolfo A.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.

    2013-03-01

    The Antique Ophiolite Complex exposed along the western side of Panay Island, central Philippines was derived from the Jurassic to Cretaceous proto-South China Sea oceanic leading edge of the Palawan microcontinental block. The subduction and ultimate closure of this ocean basin resulted in the emplacement and exposure of this lithospheric fragment along the collisional boundary of the microcontinental block and the oceanic- to island arc-affiliated Philippine mobile belt. The ophiolite complex has volcanic rocks having normal- to transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to island arc tholeiitic (IAT) geochemistry consistent with the transitional MORB-IAT characteristics of its peridotites. The chromitites manifest subduction signature suggestive of the involvement of water in its generation. All of these would be consistent with generation in a supra-subduction zone environment, specifically in a subduction-related marginal ocean basin. The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt along western Panay resulted, aside from ophiolite emplacement, into arc curvature, island rotation, serpentinite diapirism and thrusting along the forearc side. The offshore bathymetric expression of the microcontinental block along the collision zone shows the leading edge of this oceanic bathymetric high to have spread laterally. This is indicative of its being buoyant resulting to non-subduction as supported by available earthquake hypocenter data.

  18. Structural features of ophiolitic chromitites in the Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, M.; Friedrich, G.

    1985-10-01

    The chromitite-bearing peridotites of the Zambales mafic-ultramafic complex form the lowermost level of the Zambales ophiolite, which exposes a complete ophiolitic sequence. The chromitites occur close to the peridotite/gabbro transition zone. The chromite orebodies are structurally classified into three major types: (1) concordant tabular deposits, (2) strings of pods and (3) pocketlike deposits. Concordant tabular deposits show a gradational transition from chromitite to host rock (modal grading) and are characterized by the parallelism of ore and host-rock structures. Primary magmatic features like inch-scale layering, size grading, glomeroporphyric chromite aggregates, skeletal chromite growth and adcumulus growth (cumulus textures) are common. The concordant chromite bodies are often tectonically disrupted and boudined forming strings of pods or fault-controlled pocketlike deposits. With increasing tectonization chromite shows pull-apart textures and lineations (plastic deformation), shearing, prismatic jointing, brecciation and mylonitization (brittle deformation). Recrystallization of cataclastic chromite occurs on a microscopic scale. Plastic deformation is caused by mantle flow and/or the volume increase of the peridotites during serpentinization. The influence of mantle flow is indicated by the orientation of the pod strings and lineations in chromitite perpendicular to the ridge axis. Brittle deformation of chromite (cataclasis) and disruption by faults is related to the emplacement of the ophiolite.

  19. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the emplacement of the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Boudier, Françoise; Gnos, Edwin; Monié, Patrick; Nicolas, Adolphe

    1995-11-01

    The obduction-related basal part of the Muslim Bagh ophiolite (Baluchistan, Pakistan) and the underlying metamorphic sequence were studied structurally which demonstrated a WSW-ENE-trending thrusting sequence for the initial obduction. 40Ar/ 39Ar measurements on amphiboles and plagioclase from the subophiolitic metamorphic rocks, and on plastically deformed and recrystallized dolerite samples from the base of the sheeted dyke complex give apparent ages between 70.7 ± 5.0 and 65.1 ± 4.1 Ma interpreted as cooling ages dating approximately the formation of the plastic deformation and obduction. The results indicate that the Muslim Bagh ophiolite represents a segment of ocean floor from the small and slow-spreading ocean branch of the Neo-Tethys located between the Indo-Pakistani and the Afro-Arabian plates. The WSW-ENE-oriented obduction of the Muslim Bagh ophiolite onto the Indo-Pakistani continental margin occurred with the convergence of the Neo-Tethys branch during the Late Cretaceous and before the Tertiary collision of the Indo-Pakistani plate with the Eurasian plate.

  20. Subduction initiation at oceanic detachment faults: a mechanism to generate extensive ophiolite belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Morris, Antony; Plumper, oliver; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    One of the least understood processes of plate tectonics is the nucleation of new subduction zones and the formation of ophiolites by subsequent upper plate extension. Subduction initiation within ocean basins is thought to occur along weakness zones such as transform faults, fracture zones, and mid-ocean ridges. Detachment faults, which cut across oceanic lithosphere immediately adjacent to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges may yields ideal rheological conditions for subduction initiation due to their pervasive serpentinization. We numerically test this hypothesis by modeling the inversion of an ocean basin cut by a serpentinized detachment fault adjacent to an active spreading center. The results of our models consistently show that the serpentinized fault effectively localizes deformation, assisting subduction initiation upon compression. Subsequent reactivation of the pre-existing spreading center preserved in the forearc above the nascent subduction zone provides an efficient mechanism for the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Application of our model of subduction initiation to the ~700 km-long ophiolite belt spanning from Albania to Greece is then discussed.

  1. Geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Wadi Ghadir ophiolite, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rahman, Yasser Abd; Polat, Ali; Dilek, Yildirim; Fryer, Brian; El-Sharkawy, Mohamed; Sakran, Shawki

    2009-11-01

    We report new geochemical data from the Neoproterozoic ophiolite in the Wadi Ghadir area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The Wadi Ghadir ophiolite (WGO) is composed of layered and isotropic gabbros and amygdaloidal to porphyritic pillow lavas. Both the gabbroic rocks and the pillow lavas are intruded by dike swarms with different chemical affinities and spatial orientations. The WGO occurs in an ophiolitic mélange (Wadi Ghadir mélange, WGM), and both the WGO and WGM are intruded by granitic rocks to the west. On the basis of Zr and Y variations, units of the WGO are classified as tholeiites (e.g., gabbros, amygdaloidal pillow lavas, D1, and D3 dikes). The late-stage D4 dikes show a calc-alkaline affinity, whereas porphyritic pillow lavas and D2 dikes have a transitional character. All ophiolitic units display subduction zone trace element signatures characterized by the enrichment of LILE over HFSE and negative Nb-Ta anomalies. Tholeiitic rocks are further divided into LREE-depleted (gabbros, D3 dikes) and LREE-enriched (amygdaloidal pillow lavas, D1 dikes) groups. Light REE-depleted tholeiitic rocks were derived from melting of a slightly depleted mantle source, whereas the LREE-enriched tholeiitic rocks were derived from a fertile N-MORB source. Calc-alkaline D4 dikes are characterized by steep REE patterns and have low Zr/Nb ratios (23-29), indicating melt contribution from an enriched mantle source, such as sub-continental lithospheric mantle and/or garnet peridotite. The transitional group has LREE-enriched patterns, but its degree of REE enrichment and Zr/Nb ratios are intermediate between the tholeiitic and calc-alkaline groups. The WGO is interpreted to have formed in a back-arc setting behind the Nugrus volcanic arc developed above a NE-dipping subduction zone. The collision of this arc-back-arc system with the passive margin of the Nubian shield (Hafafit dome) resulted in the accretion of the Nugrus arc and the WGO onto the Nubian continental margin and in the initiation of a new subduction zone dipping SW beneath the newly accreted arc-back-arc crust and Hafafit dome. The establishment of this new Andean-type continental margin produced the calc-alkaline D4 dikes, leucogabbros and granitoid plutons intrude the Hafafit dome, the WGO, and the ophiolitic mélange.

  2. Deep origin of the Luobusa ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Robinson, P. T.; Li, J.; Xu, X.; Xiong, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Luobusa ophiolite in the 1400-km-long Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, marking the boundary between India and Asia, hosts significant podiform chromitites. Abundant diamonds have been recovered from peridotites and podiform chromitites by heavy mineral separation and in-situ grains in the chromitites confirm that the diamonds are natural. The diamonds are associated with other ultrahigh pressure (UHP) and highly reduced minerals, such as coesite, kyanite, moissanite, base-metal alloys and native elements. In-situ grains of diamond and moissanite occur in both podiform chromitite and mantle peridotite of the Luobusa ophiolite. SIMS analysis shows that the diamonds have delta13CPDB = -18 to -28, distinctly different from kimberlitic diamonds (delta13C near -5‰). It is suggested that the diamonds formed from C-rich fluids with highly reduced phases and low delta13CPDB values derived from previously subducted slabs. A 1400-km-deep borehole was recently drilled by Luobusa Scientific Drilling Project (LSD) to investigate the distribution and conditions of formation of the podiform chromitites. Borehole LSD-1 penetrated 1100 m of mantle peridotite separated from a lower 300-m-thick sequence of dunite and pyroxenite by a fault. Detailed mineralogical studies indicate at least two stages of mineral formation of Cpx, Opx, Ol and Sp, suggesting late-stage modification of a MORB-type ophiolite in a SSZ environment. We propose here a new model for the formation of ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites. Previously subducted slabs of continental and oceanic lithosphere, lying in the lower part of the mantle transition zone, undergo partial melting at high temperatures in a highly reduced environment. H2O, CO2 and other fluids are released from the rocks and some of them are reduced to single element material, such as C and H. The melts then rise through the mantle to the top of, or above, the transition zone (> 300 km depth), where diamond, moissanite, ultrahigh-pressure chromite (with dissolved Si) and stishovite may crystallize from the melts or fluids. With continued upwelling, coesite exsolution lamellae form in the chromite grains and stishovite is replaced by coesite, but the diamonds are preserved as inclusions in chromite grains. This new model challenges the prevailing view that ophiolites and their podiform chromitites originated at shallow depths in the mantle.

  3. Slab and Sediment Melting during Subduction Initiation: Mantle Plagiogranites from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Granitoid dykes up to several hundred metres wide and 2 km long are found in depleted harzburgites in the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite. They vary in composition from tonalite to potassic granite and are generally more potassic than the crustal plagiogranites found within the sheeted dyke complex higher up within the ophiolite stratigraphy. Some granites are strongly peraluminous and contain garnet and andalusite. They are geochemically variable, some with REE that are relatively unfractionated ((La/Yb)n= 3.5-6.0, flat middle to heavy REE, steep light REE) to those which are highly fractionated ((La/Yb)n= 28-220). On primitive-mantle normalised plots some have very high concentrations of fluid-mobile elements - Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb. Few have significant Ta-Nb anomalies. On the Ca-Fe-Mg-Ti discrimination diagram of Patino Douce (J. Petrol., 1999) whole-rock compositions define a spectrum between felsic-pelite derived melts and amphibolite-derived melts. There is a chemical similarity between the least REE fractionated plagiogranites (generally tonalites and granodiorites) and melts of an amphibolitic parent. This is supported by the occurrence of mafic xenoliths in some dykes, the presence of hornblende and highly calcic cores (up to An85) in some plagioclase grains. Trace element modelling using Oman Geotimes lavas as the starting composition indicates that melting took place in the garnet stability field, although enrichment in the melt in Cs, Rb, Ba and Pb suggests that there was another component present in addition to the mafic parent. Other plagiogranites (trondhjemites and granites) have a strongly peraluminous chemistry and mineralogy and geochemical similarities with the Himalayan leucogranites implying that they were derived from a sedimentary protolith. These mantle plagiogranites are more prevalent in the northern outcrops of the ophiolite. The volume of granitoid melt and the depth of melting preclude their derivation from the sole of the ophiolite, rather they were derived during subduction by the partial melting of the slab and associated sediment and emplaced into the overlying mantle wedge. Current subduction-initiation models for supra-subduction ophiolites should integrate this process into their thinking.

  4. Exhumation and Coupling at the Plate Interface: Large Tectonic Slices V. Melange Formation? Key Contexts and Possible Controlling Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, P.; Angiboust, S.; Guillot, S.; Garcia-Casco, A.

    2011-12-01

    Fragments of subducted oceanic lithosphere returned along the plate interface convey crucial information regarding the thermal and rheological conditions of convergent plate boundaries. Geological evidence indicate that, unlike subduction, exhumation is non-steady (Agard et al., Earth Sci. Rev. 2009). We herein focus on deep processes along the plate interface (40-80 km depth), for which there is no counterflow (unlike in accretionary prisms) and no other known mechanisms to return eclogites than interplate friction or buoyancy. These eclogites are of two major types: large scale (>km) slices with coherent PT estimates (W. Alps) versus isolated fragments (frequently m-hm) in a serpentinite- or sedimentary-rich matrix showing contrasting equilibration depths (with hints of punctuated exhumation and even reburial; Franciscan, Cuba, Sistan; e.g., Garcia-Casco et al., Geol. Acta 2006). This latter type tends to show warmer equilibration paths, whereas the larger tectonic slices from the former type remain systematically cold. Serpentinites are crucial for both in permitting decoupling and acting as a buoy, and fluid budget is important too in enhancing floatability and allowing large slices to survive (Angiboust and Agard, Lithos 2010). Numerical models implementing free migration of fluids in the subduction zone also show that the plate interface is strongly localized in the absence of fluids: mechanical decoupling efficiently occurs along the sediment veneer and/or at the top of the highly hydrothermalized crust. Whenever fluids are released in greater amounts (depending on initial fluid content and/or thermal structure), deformation becomes much more distributed and affects both the mantle wedge and the top of the downgoing lithosphere (crust and hydrated mantle top), thereby increasing mechanical coupling between the two plates. Based on natural data and numerical modelling we herein propose that rheological contrast chiefly controls mechanical decoupling. On a steady-state basis the subduction interface is apparently efficiently decoupled. In this context, we hypothetize that the liberation of fluid through pulses (or a somewhat increased amount of fluids) is required to locally modify mechanical coupling and induce the slicing of large pieces of oceanic material along the subduction interface (type 1). By contrast, an extreme hydration of the subduction interface and mantle wedge will result in the formation of serpentinite melanges and extensive material mixing (e.g., cold plumes, mafic pods and localized melting; type 2). This latter situation may be promoted by young/fast/wet subduction, such as subduction initiation and/or subduction of young lithosphere or subduction of a particularly hydrated lithosphere section (e.g., at the ridge and/or prior to entering the trench), whereas cold, slow subduction (type 1) will result in irregular hydration and localized coupling able to detach large slices.

  5. Spectral transformation of ASTER and Landsat TM bands for lithological mapping of Soghan ophiolite complex, south Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournamdari, Mohsen; Hashim, Mazlan; Pour, Amin Beiranvand

    2014-08-01

    Spectral transformation methods, including correlation coefficient (CC) and Optimum Index Factor (OIF), band ratio (BR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to ASTER and Landsat TM bands for lithological mapping of Soghan ophiolitic complex in south of Iran. The results indicated that the methods used evidently showed superior outputs for detecting lithological units in ophiolitic complexes. CC and OIF methods were used to establish enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination bands for discriminating lithological units. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 in RGB) was developed using ASTER bands to differentiate lithological units in ophiolitic complexes. The band ratio effectively detected serpentinite dunite as host rock of chromite ore deposits from surrounding lithological units in the study area. Principal component images derived from first three bands of ASTER and Landsat TM produced well results for lithological mapping applications. ASTER bands contain improved spectral characteristics and higher spatial resolution for detecting serpentinite dunite in ophiolitic complexes. The developed approach used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping using ASTER and Landsat TM bands, which contributes in economic geology for prospecting chromite ore deposits associated with ophiolitic complexes.

  6. Collisional emplacement history of the Naga-Andaman ophiolites and the position of the eastern Indian suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, S. K.

    2007-02-01

    Dismembered late Mesozoic ophiolites occur in two parallel belts along the eastern margin of the Indian Plate. The Eastern Belt, closely following the magmatic arc of the Central Burma Basin, coincides with a zone of high gravity. It is considered to mark a zone of steeply dipping mafic-ultramafic rocks and continental metamorphic rocks, which are the locus of two closely juxtaposed sutures. In contrast, the Western Belt, which follows the eastern margin of the Indo-Burma Range and the Andaman outer-island-arc, broadly follows a zone of negative gravity anomalies. Here the ophiolites occur mainly as rootless subhorizontal bodies overlying Eocene-Oligocene flyschoid sediments. Two sets of ophiolites that were accreted during the Early Cretaceous and mid-Eocene are juxtaposed in this belt. These are inferred to be westward propagated nappes from the Eastern Belt, emplaced during the late Oligocene collision between the Burmese and Indo-Burma-Andaman microcontinents. Ophiolite occurrences in the Andaman Islands belong to the Western Belt and are generally interpreted as upthrust oceanic crust, accreted due to prolonged subduction activity to the west of the island arc. This phase of subduction began only in the late Miocene and thus could not have produced the ophiolitic rocks, which were accreted in the late Early Eocene.

  7. Samarium-neodymium data on two late Proterozoic ophiolites of Saudi Arabia and implications for crustal and mantle evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claesson, S.; Pallister, J.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Whole-rock and mineral samples from the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites, northwestern Saudi Arabia, yield Sm-Nd isochron ages of 743+24 Ma and 782??38 Ma, respectively. These formation ages, which provide maximum limits for possible obduction ages, are in broad but not precise agreement with the previously known geologic history of the Arabian Shield. They indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are roughly coeval with nearby volcanic and plutonic rocks, supporting a back-arc origin for the two ophiolites. We suggest that the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites were parts of the same northeast-southwest trending ophiolite belt, now offset along the Najd fault system. Initial e{open}Nd values range from +6.6 to+ 7.6, indicating derivation from a mantle source that has been LIL-depleted for at least 2 Ga. Reported e{open}Nd values from the Arabian Shield that are lower than this suggest the presence of older, reworked continental crust. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Geochemistry and Ar-Ar muscovite ages of the Daraban Leucogranite, Mawat Ophiolite, northeastern Iraq: Implications for Arabia-Eurasia continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Yousif O.; Cornell, David H.; Qaradaghi, Jabbar H.; Mohammad, Fahmy O.

    2014-06-01

    Daraban Leucogranite dykes intruded discordantly into the basal serpentinized harzburgite of the Mawat Ophiolite, Kurdistan region, NE Iraq. These coarse grained muscovite-tourmaline leucogranites are the first leucogranite dykes identified within the Mawat Ophiolite. They are mainly composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, tourmaline, muscovite, and secondary phologopite, while zircon, xenotime, corundum, mangano-ilemnite and cassiterite occur as accessories.

  9. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  10. Precambrian ophiolites of arabia: geologic settings, UPb geochronology, Pb-isotope characteristics, and implications for continental accretion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Disrupted ophiolites occur in linear belts up to 900 km long between microplates that collided during the late Proterozoic to form the Arabian Shield. UPb zircon ages and Pb-isotope data from these ophiolitic rocks help constrain the history of accretion of the Arabian Shield and thereby contribute to the definition of its microplates and terranes. Terranes of the central and western Arabian Shield are generally thought to represent intraoceanic island arcs that range in age from about 900 to 640 Ma; however, a region of the eastern Arabian Shield contains rocks of Early Proterozoic age and may represent an exotic continental fragment entrained between the arc complexes. Ophiolites of the Yanbu suture (northwestern shield), dated by UPb (zircon) and SmNd (mineral isochron) methods, yield model ages of 740-780 Ma. These are among the oldest well-dated rocks in the northwestern Arabian Shield. Ages from the Jabal al Wask complex overlap with ages of adjacent arc rocks. This overlap in age supports geologic and geochemical evidence that the Wask complex represents a fragment of back-arc oceanic lithosphere formed during arc magmatism. Older ages of about 780 Ma for gabbro from the Jabal Ess ophiolite suggest that the ophiolite is either a fragment of fore-arc oceanic crust or oceanic basement on which an arc was built. Gabbro samples from ophiolites of the Bir Umq suture (west-central Arabian Shield) yield zircons with ages of 820-870 Ma and $ ??1250 Ma. The 820-870 Ma dates overlap with ages of the oldest nearby arc rocks; this favors an intra-arc or near-arc paleotectonic setting. The older zircons suggest that middle or early Proterozoic crustal material, possibly derived from the Mozambique belt of Africa, was present during back- or intra-arc magmatism. Plagiogranite from the Bir Tuluhah ophiolitic complex at the nothern end of the 900 km-long Nabitah mobile belt was dated by the zircon UPb method at ??? 830 Ma. This date is in the range of the oldest dated arc rocks along the northern and central parts of the Nabitah suture, but is ??? 100 Ma older than the oldest arc plutons (tonalites) associated with the southern part of the belt. These age relations suggest that the northern part of the Nabitah belt contains an extension of the Bir Umq suture that was transposed parallel to the Nabitah trend during collision of the arc terranes of the northwest Arabian Shield with the Afif plate to the east. Feldspar lead-isotope data from the ophiolites are of three types: (1) lead from the ophiolitic rocks and arc tonalites of the northwestern Shield and ophiolitic rocks of the Nabitah suture is similar to lead in modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, (2) anomalous radiogenic data from the Thurwah ophiolite are from rocks that contain zircons from pre-late Proterozoic continental crust, and (3) feldspar from the Urd ophiolite shows retarded uranogenic lead growth and is related either to an anomalous and perhaps primitive oceanic mantle source, or in an unknown manner to ancient continental mantle or lower crust of the eastern Arabian Shield. ?? 1988.

  11. Petrogenetic implications from ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites in ophiolitic occurrences of East Othris, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, P.; Magganas, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites in east Othris are included within ophiolitic units near the villages of Vrinena, Karavomilos, Pelasgia, Eretria, Agios Georgios, Aerino and Velestino. The first five ophiolitic occurrences are estimated to have been emplaced between the Oxfordian and Tithonian-Berriasian[1,2,3], while the latter two have been emplaced during the Eocene[4]. Ultramafic rocks include variably serpentinized harzburgites and lherzolites. Pyroxenites are usually found in the form of crosscutting veins within the harzburgites. Ultramafic rocks include depleted lherzolites, with Al2O3 ranging from 1.12 to 1.80 wt% and Cr from 3250 to 3290 ppm, as well as moderate to highly depleted serpentinized harzburgites, with Al2O3 ranging from 0.69 to 1.98 wt% and Cr from 2663 to 5582 ppm. Pyroxenites have generally higher Al2O3 ranging from 1.91 to 3.08 wt% and variable Cr ranging from 1798 to 3611 ppm. Lherzolites mostly include olivines (Fo=87.07-89.23) and clinopyroxenes (Mg#=85.71-90.12). Spinels from Eretria lherzolite (TiO2=0.02-0.08 wt%, Al2O3=36.06-42.45 wt%, Cr#=31.67-36.33) are compositionally similar with those of MORB peridotites[5], while those from Vrinena lherzolite (TiO2=0.16-0.43 wt%, Al2O3=6.90-22.12 wt%, Cr#=57.69-76.88) are similar to SSZ peridotites[5]. Serpentinized harzburgites include few olivines (Fo=90.51-91.15), enstatite porphyroclasts (Mg#=87.42-88.91), as well as fine grained enstatites of similar composition. Harzburgites from Pelasgia, Eretria and Agios Georgios include spinels (TiO2=0.03-0.08 wt%, Al2O3=23.21-31.58 wt%, Cr#=45.21-56.85) which do not clearly show if they are related with MORB or SSZ peridotites[5]. Spinels from Karavomilos harzburgite (TiO2=0.02-0.05 wt%, Al2O3=45.71-50.85 wt%, Cr#=16.84-22.32) are compositionally similar with MORB peridotites[5], whereas spinels from Vrinena harzburgite (TiO2=0.15-0.19 wt%, Al2O3=1.42-1.86 wt% Cr#=91.64-93.47) with SSZ peridotites[5]. Pyroxenites include clinopyroxenes (Mg#=84.25-91.78) but also enstatites (Mg#=88.37-91.47). Spinels have been analysed in pyroxenites from Aerino and Velestino (TiO2=0.79-1.07 wt%, Al2O3=10.88-18.46 wt% Cr#=60.74-70.78), indicating SSZ settings. Application of the olivine-spinel[6], olivine-augite[7], Cpx-Opx[8,9] geothermometers, yield equilibration temperatures of 961-1075 oC for lherzolites, 895-1084 oC for harzburgites and 990-1011 oC for pyroxenites. Our data indicate that the ophiolitic occurrences of Vrinena, Aerino and Velestino include ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites related to SSZ processes, while the other ophiolitic occurrences embrace ultramafic rocks which originated from a MORB-like setting, similar to west Othris ophiolites. It should be noted that even lherzolites have Cr and Y values similar to those of a highly depleted mantle source. A supra-subduction zone origin of the east Othris ophiolites, possibly with a slab rollback in the Pindos oceanic basin, may explain the different geotectonic environment affinities of the studied rocks.

  12. FROM THE EARLY SIMS TO RECENT LAM DATA: THE ALPINE-APENNINE OPHIOLITIC PERIDOTITES REVISITED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.; Vannucci, R.; Tribuzio, R.; Guarnieri, L.

    2009-12-01

    Early ion-microprobe data on minerals of the Alpine-Apennine (AA) mantle peridotites from the ophiolite sequences exposed in the Central and Western Alps, Ligurian Alps, Northern Apennine and Corsica were obtained about twenty years ago. These data provided basic chemical information that highlighted their evolution, with special emphasis to melt extraction processes and sub-solidus re-equilibration that preceded and accompanied the exposure of mantle peridotites at the sea-floor of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmontese (or Western Tethys) oceanic basin. In more recent years a wealth of field, structural-petrographic, petrological and geochemical studies allowed to track a more comprehensive petrogenetic scenario of the Ligurian-Piedmontese upper mantle, in the frame of the geodynamic evolution of the Europe-Adria lithosphere during Mesozoic continental extension and rifting. These investigations evidenced that sectors of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle were exposed on the sea-floor at marginal settings of the basin (e.g. North Lanzo and External Ligurides ophiolites) Isotope data and related model ages revealed that they became isolated by the convective mantle and accreted to the sub-continental lithosphere long time before Mesozoic extension. Conversely, peridotites exposed at more distal settings show extreme compositional heterogeneity recognized as effects of melt-peridotite interaction during reactive percolation of melt though the lithospheric mantle during continental extension and rifting. Isotope data pointed to MORB-type signatures and Jurassic ages for gabbroic intrusions and melt percolated peridotites from both marginal and distal settings. Structural and compositional characteristics suggested that peridotite-melt reactions had a crucial role in modifying texture, mode and chemistry of mantle assemblages and highlighted the need of a re-consideration of the evolutionary processes recorded by the ophiolitic peridotites from the Alpine-Apennine orogenic belt. With this aim, in the last ten years early ion-microprobe data were progressively integrated by extensive texture-related LA-ICPMS studies that provided a huge dataset for a complete series of trace elements in AA ophiolitic peridotite minerals and, particularly, clinopyroxene. The whole dataset confirm that clinopyroxenes from most AA ophiolitic peridotites have REE signatures resulting from other processes than batch or fractional melting. These features result from a complex history of depletion and melt-peridotite reaction events, with the latter largely overprinting pristine signatures recorded by the lithospheric sub-continental mantle before melt percolation. Although old melting episodes under garnet-facies conditions are recorded in places, most REE signatures of AA clinopyroxenes can be explained by reaction of variously depleted melting residua with MORB-like infiltrating melts (either single fractional increments or aggregate melts) and, eventually, later chemical modification due to interaction with trapped melts. The whole dataset is re-considered here with the aim of providing an updated scenario for the evolution of the AA ophiolitic mantle peridotites.

  13. Prospects for Enhancing In Situ CO2 Mineralization in the Peridotite Aquifer of the Samail Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Shock, E.; Havig, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The mantle peridotite section of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman is a site of exceptionally well-developed, naturally occurring in situ CO2 mineralization and serves as a natural analog to an enhanced process. The evolution of groundwater along the CO2 mineralization pathway in ultramafic rocks is generally thought to follow a progression from surface water to shallow Mg-HCO3 groundwater to deep, alkaline Ca-OH groundwater [e.g., 1-3], but the timescale for this evolution is not known. In order to assess the prospects for an enhanced CO2 mineralization process, we must first have a better understanding of the time necessary to attain natural CO2 mineralization, as well as the rate-limiting factors for the natural process. To that end, a reactive transport model was developed to simulate water-rock interaction during the natural CO2 mineralization process in the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite aquifer. The model was created using the geochemical code EQ3/6 v.8.0 4, and it tracks a two stage process in which surface water first interacts with peridotite in a shallow aquifer open to atmosphere, and then progresses to a closed system in which the water interacts with peridotite isolated from the atmosphere. The incorporation of dissolution kinetics for the primary minerals in peridotite allowed for an estimate of the time required for water to evolve to the extent seen in the field. Model results suggest that it may take less than 50 years to develop the shallow Mg-HCO3 water, but up to 5,600 years to form the deeper, alkaline Ca-OH water. Rock and water chemistry collected from the Samail Ophiolite and its aquifer were used to calibrate the model. The modeled water chemistry is in agreement with that seen in the field, suggesting that the model offers a fair representation of the natural CO2 mineralization process. The natural system model indicates that CO2 availability is the limiting factor for mineralization in the subsurface, so the model was expanded to include CO2 injection scenarios to determine if increasing the supply could enhance the rate of CO2 mineralization. Model results show that CO2 injection at 100 bar pCO2 and ambient temperature (30oC) would result in a 40x increase in CO2 mineralization over a 30 year period, while injection at 90oC would result in a 3,600x increase in mineralization. Thus far, these model results do not include hydrogeological parameters for the system. Porosity and permeability, and their change with secondary mineralization, may affect the injectivity of CO2 into the aquifer, so they should be included when modeling CO2 injection. However, permeability and porosity in fractured rock aquifers are notoriously complex and remain poorly constrained for the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite; these parameters warrant further study prior to their inclusion in a model. Results from permeability tests on peridotite cores from the Samail Ophiolite will be presented, with emphasis on how these measurements contribute to our understanding of the potential for enhanced CO2 mineralization in the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite aquifer. 1Barnes and O'Neil, 1969; 2Stanger, 1986; 3Bruni et al., 2002; 4Wolery and Jarek, 2003

  14. Quantifying Strain Across a Paleotransform Fault in the Mantle Section of an Ophiolite, New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, S. J.; Davis, J. R.; Ferre, E. C.; Tikoff, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Massif du Sud in New Caledonia exposes the mantle section of a Cretaceous-age ophiolite generated by spreading in a small basin northeast of the island. Most of the ophiolite has shallow SW-dipping foliations and subhorizontal NS lineations interpreted as reflecting fabric formed at a mid-ocean spreading ridge. Fabric intensity increases and foliation steepens to NS-striking and subvertical in the Bogota Peninsula shear zone while lineations remain shallowly S-plunging. The rotation of field foliation and pyroxenite dike orientations across a 50-km wide region is symmetric about a central high-strain zone and shear sense indicators suggest that relative displacement was dextral. The symmetry of fabrics is consistent with formation in the mantle section of a true paleotransform fault zone as opposed to a fracture zone, where fabric rotation would only be expected on one side of the shear zone. Thus, the New Caledonia ophiolite includes rocks that record both ridge- and transform-related deformation. To better understand the evolution of the transform fault, the fabrics within the Bogota Peninsula shear zone were subdivided into three regions (farfield, nearfield, and central high strain zone) of approximately homogeneous deformation. We used fabrics from these regions together with those from the Massif du Sud to model how kinematics change from ridge-dominated deformation outside the shear zone to transform- dominated inside the shear zone. Shear zone localization was modeled as superimposed increments of deformation using a grid search method that varied parameters including the orientation of the shear plane, shear sense, and transpressional versus transtensional kinematics. The best models were determined by comparing (1) the orientation of the strain ellipse with field foliation and lineation, and (2) the predicted and observed rotations of pyroxenite dikes across the shear zone. This approach allows quantitative estimation of the total deformation accumulated across this ridge-transform system.

  15. Equilibrium state of diopside-bearing harzburgites from ophiolites: Geobarometric and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Jean-Claude C.; Benoit, Vincent; Girardeau, Jacques

    1984-12-01

    The bulk compositions of coexisting enstatite and diopside in basal lherzolites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites from ophiolitic complexes are typical of solidus/subsolidus equilibria, but for a few texturally distinct “magmatic” diopsides. They would presumably reflect the state of equilibrium at the time they last coexisted with liquid as the rocks reentered subsolidus conditions. The total lack of correlation between Al and Ca concentrations shows that the compositional scatter observed for any given massif, results from analytical errors related to extensive exsolution and serpentinization, rather than from differences in equilibrium conditions. However, significant differences are found between the residual ophiolitic lherzolites from Hare Bay, Newfoundland, and from Xigaze, Tibet, two massifs selected for their distinct structural and textural features. As for thermobarometry techniques relevant to these rocks, the best barometer found is an empirical relation for the expression of pressure as a virtually temperature-independent function of the ratio K f=(X{Di/opx})/(1 - X {Di/cpx}), in agreement with semi-quantitative models based on natural solid solutions. Temperatures are then simply derived from a surface-fitting expression relating pressure, temperature and diopside-solvus compositions, according to a regular X {En/cpx} solution model (CMS) corrected for the effect of Al in the spinel facies. Application of these techniques yield pressures of 0.4 and 1.4 GPa, i.e. depths from sea-bottom of about 13 and 43 km, for temperatures of 1,170 and 1,300° C for the ophiolitic lherzolites of Tibet and New-foundland, respectively, in good agreement with dry-solidus data by radioactive tracing and with geothermal-model estimates for ridges.

  16. The Olivos Ophiolite (Chihuahua, Mexico) Marks the Suture Zone Along the Southwestern Margin of Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Rubio, M.; Comaduran-Ahumada, O.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2006-05-01

    We report on the finding of obducted fragments of oceanic crust of Late Permian age within Jurassic sediments (Upper Bajocian-Middle Callovian) on the southwestern margin of the North American craton (Laurentia). Pangea paleoreconstructions for the Gulf of Mexico and Central Atlantic Ocean result in a significant overlap of Mexico, Central America and South America, implying relative motion and different paleopositions for most of Mexico and nuclear Central America. Studies of the basement and major tectonic features have identified several terranes with distinct tectonostratigraphic records, but their origin, nature and evolution are not yet fully understood. This is partly due to the scarcity of Precambrian and Paleozoic basement outcrops. Largest Paleozoic outcrops occur in northern Mexico in the Chihuahua, Caborca and Cortez terranes. Study of the Sierra de Olivos in Chihuahua, northern Mexico offers key elements to decipher the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic evolution of the southern North American craton. The obducted oceanic crust sequence of Los Olivos ophiolite lies at the southern margin of the North American craton and south of the inferred trace of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. The ophiolitic sequence was tectonically emplaced within the Middle Jurassic sedimentary sequence, which is covered by Cretaceous sedimentary facies and volcanic rocks of the Sierra Madre Occidental magmatic arc. Our study provides evidence on the existence of the Mezcalera oceanic plate, which was subducted during plate interactions and collision of the Guerrero superterrane with Laurentia. The characteristics of the markedly epiclastic units of Middle Jurassic age that host the ophiolite supports the assumption of an active margin setting for the sedimentary deposition at this southern extreme of the Laurentia craton.

  17. Hydrogen Gas from Serpentinite, Ophiolites and the Modern Ocean Floor as a Source of Green Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coveney, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen gas is emitted by springs associated with serpentinites and extensive carbonate deposits in Oman, The Philippines, the USA and other continental locations. The hydrogen springs contain unusually alkaline fluids with pH values between 11 and 12.5. Other workers have described off-ridge submarine springs with comparably alkaline fluid compositions, serpentinite, abundant free hydrogen gas, and associated carbonate edifices such as Lost City on the Atlantis Massif 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D.S. Kelley and associates, Science 2005). The association of hydrogen gas with ultramafites is a consistent one that has been attributed to a redox couple involving oxidation of divalent iron to the trivalent state during serpentinization, although other possibilities exist. Some of the hydrogen springs on land are widespread. For example in Oman dozens of alkaline springs (Neal and Stanger, EPSL 1983) can be found over thousands of sq km of outcropping ophiolite. While the deposits in Oman and the Philippines are well-known to much of the geochemical community, little interest seems to have been displayed toward either the ophiolitic occurrences or the submarine deposits for energy production. This may be a mistake as the showings because they could lead to an important source of green energy. Widespread skepticism currently exists about hydrogen as a primary energy source. It is commonly said that free hydrogen does not occur on earth and that it is therefore necessary to use other sources of energy to produce hydrogen, obviating the general environmental benefit. However the existence of numerous occurrences of hydrogen gas associated with ophiolites and submarine occurrences of hydrogen suggests the likelihood that natural hydrogen gas may be an important source of clean energy for modern society remaining to be tapped. Calculations in progress should establish whether or not this is likely to be the case.

  18. Mineral and whole rock geochemistry of the spinel peridotites from the East Taiwan Ophiolite, Southeast Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, R. B.; Shellnutt, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    The East Taiwan Ophiolite (ETO) is hosted within Miocene and Pliocene turbidites and agglomerates of southeast Taiwan. The ophiolite suite of rocks is dismembered and appears as coherent ';blocks' within the Lichi mélange distributed around the southern Coastal Range. The original stratigraphy of the ETO, as exposed in the larger blocks, consists of a sequence of incompletely metamorphosed gabbro, diabase and peridotite capped by pelagic red shale and an overlying sequence of originally glassy basaltic pillow lavas and volcanic breccias with intercalated red shale. The spinel peridotites consist mostly of serpentinized harzburgite with minor amounts of lherzolite. The peridotites have bulk rock Al2O3 content between 5.5 wt% and 8.9 wt% and Mg-numbers between 90.1 and 91.3 whereas the Cr-numbers of the spinel range between 40 and 55. The initial results indicate the peridotites were formed at an ocean-ridge setting as they are similar to other peridotites dredged at ocean-ridge settings and collected from ophiolites interpreted to be ocean-ridge settings. A previous interpretation suggests that the ETO represents the western terminus of the Philippine Sea plate and was analogous to mature, marginal oceanic crust however recent work based on geochemistry of the basaltic rocks suggests that the ETO formed in a mid-ocean ridge environment related to the opening of the South China Sea during the middle Miocene. The new geochemical data from this study are consistent with a mid-ocean ridge setting and that the ETO likely represents new oceanic crust formed during the opening of the South China Sea.

  19. Emplacement of Bela and Muslim Bagh Ophiolites and Significance of India-Asia Collision in Western Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yingqian

    The collision of India with Asia is an important geologic event preceded by the formation of now obducted ophiolites of Western Pakistan. Ophiolites along the suture zone between India and Asia can help elucidate the pre-terminal and terminal collisional history of the Himalaya orogen. Along the western boundary of the Indian plate, the Bela Ophiolite (BO) and associated allochthonous Sub-Ophiolitic Volcanic Complexes (BSOVC) represent the largest composite exposures of mafic and ultramafic rocks. The Muslim Bagh Ophiolite (MBO) is another well-known ophiolite. Collectively, they have not been extensively studied because of their remote location. A detailed geological map for the BO-BSOVC was created using remote sensing and field data. False-color images (Landsat ETM+ bands 7-4-2 in RGB), color band-ratio composite images of Landsat ETM+ data (5/7-5/1-5/4 in RGB), ASTER data (4/5-6/7-3/4 in RGB), and Mafic Index images along with reflectance spectroscopy data were used to discriminate different lithologies. Based on the geochemistry, age, and tectonic contact relationships of the samples analyzed, the BO most likely formed in an oceanic supra-subduction forearc environment ˜65 Ma on the upper plate of a westward-dipping subduction zone that consumed Indian plate oceanic crust. The alkali basalts trace elements signatures from the BSOVC show OIB signatures. They are likely to be from seamount complexes that were part of the subducting Indian plate. Analyzed dike samples from the MBO show typical subduction-related trace element signatures on a chondrite-normalized diagram and in a Th-Hf/3-Ta ternary diagram. The island arc affinity for the diabase dikes cutting the mantle section and sheeted dikes indicates that their origin could be analogous to some segments of the Chile ridge. An island arc affinity for dikes cutting the metamorphic sole indicates that emplacement of the MBO was followed by island arc-type magmatism.

  20. A mechanism for decoupling within the oceanic lithosphere revealed in the Troodos ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agar, S.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasting kinematic histories recorded in the sheeted dykes and underlying plutonic rocks of the Troodos ophiolite provide a new perspective on the mechanical evolution of oceanic spreading centres. The kinematic framework of the decoupling zone that partitions deformation between the sheeted dykes and plutonics contrasts with low-angle detachment models for slow-spreading ridges based on continental-rift analogues. A model for the generation of multiple, horizontal decoupling horizons, linked by planar normal faults, demonstrates new possibilities for the kinematic and rheological significance of seismic reflectors in oceanic lithosphere.

  1. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-01-01

    The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

  2. Metsovo lung outside Metsovo. Endemic pleural calcifications in the ophiolite belts of Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Constantopoulos, S.H.; Theodoracopoulos, P.; Dascalopoulos, G.; Saratzis, N.; Sideris, K. )

    1991-05-01

    Endemic PCs and high incidence of malignant mesothelioma from household use of asbestos have been reported in Metsovo in northwestern Greece ('Metsovo lung'). In the present study, we present similar findings in six more areas of Greece. Like Metsovo, all these areas are located within ophiolite belts. Like Metsovo, material similar to 'Metsovo whitewash' has been used for various domestic uses. Asbestos fibers (chrysotile, antigorite and tremolite) were found in three of the six areas. Also, in two, MPM has been diagnosed. These findings suggest that 'Metsovo lung' occurs in several areas of Greece and has similar etiology and epidemiology.

  3. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  4. Mont Albert to Buck Mountain: Provenance of Appalachian Ophiolite Chromites Using Osmium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Gale, A.; Booker, C.

    2003-12-01

    Osmium 187Os/188Os isotopic ratios have been determined for chrome-rich spinels from a suite of Appalachian ophiolites thought to represent Iapetus margin mantle formed and emplaced during the Ordovician. Because Re is incompatible during mantle melting while Os is compatible, non-radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os can constrain the average source and the timing of melt extraction, especially as Os is concentrated in chromite. Radiogenic ratios indicate contamination from aged sources with high Re/Os, such as mafic or continental crust. In rocks where spinel is the only remaining primary mineral, these properties can constrain the tectonic environment of formation as well as active-margin Os transport. There is little correction for 187Os in-growth since the Ordovician due to very low sample Re. Each ultramafic unit (from Mont Albert on the Gaspé Peninsula of Québec down to the Blue Ridge of North Carolina) forms a unique cluster of 187Os/188Os ratios, spanning 1 to 3%, but the whole range is about 10%. This corresponds to a range of initial γ Os of -1 to +9, where γ Os is the percent deviation from a chondritic source at the age of formation (roughly 500 Ma). Within ophiolites where detailed mapping and other geochemical information are available, there is a correlation between mantle-like Os and tholeiitic basalts; radiogenic Os and boninites (Thetford Mines). Continental arc-related mantle chromites (Baltimore Mafic Complex; γ Os +4 to +7) are the most radiogenic. The least radiogenic are chromites from the Staten Island serpentinite and Mont Albert (γ Os -1 and 0, respectively), either indicating formation from a previously depleted source or that they predate the other Taconic ophiolites. The restricted range of each ophiolite, compared to the whole of the data set, allow provenance links to be made between isolated bodies. For example, the Buck Creek, NC ultramafic complex, which has undergone granulite facies metamorphism, (Tenthorey et al., 1996) has a similar 187Os/188Os to other Ordovician NC Blue Ridge dunites (γ Os = +6.5 to +8.5), but distinctly different from a NC Piedmont chromitite (γ Os = +2, Falls Lake mélange, Stoddard et al, 1989) that is inferred to be Neoproterozoic in age.

  5. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  6. Magmatic Diversity of the Wehrlitic Intrusions in the Oceanic Lower Crust of the Northern Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, R.; Adachi, Y.; Miyashita, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite extends along the east coast of Oman, and is the world's largest and best-preserved slice of obducted oceanic lithosphere. The magmatic history of this ophiolite is complex and is generally regarded as having occurred in three stages (MOR magmatism, subduction magmatism and intraplate magmatism). Wehrlitic intrusions constitute an important element of oceanic lower crust of the ophiolite, and numerous intrusions cut gabbro units in the northern Salahi block of this ophiolite. In this study area, we identified two different types of wehrlitic intrusions. One type of the intrusions mainly consists of dunite, plagioclase (Pl) wehrlite and mela-olivine (Ol) gabbro, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol followed by the contemporaneous crystallization of Pl and clinopyroxene (Cpx). This type is called "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and has similar mineral compositions to host gabbros (Adachi and Miyashita 2003; Kaneko et al. 2014). Another type of the intrusions is a single intrusion that crops out in an area 250 m × 150 m along Wadi Salahi. This intrusion consists of Pl-free "true" wehrlite, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol and then Cpx. The forsterite contents (Fo%) of Ol from the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and "true" wehrlitic intrusions have ranges of 90.8-87.0 (NiO = 0.36-0.13 wt%) and 84.7 (NiO = 0.31 wt%), respectively. Cr numbers (Cr#) of Cr-spinel from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions show higher Cr# value of 0.85 than those of the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions (0.48-0.64). But the former is characterized by very high Fe3+ values (YFe3+ = 0.49-0.68). Kaneko et al. (2014) showed that the "ordinary" ubiquitous type has similar features to MOR magmatism and the depleted type in the Fizh block (Adachi and Miyashita 2003) links to subduction magmatism. These types are distinguished by their mineral chemistries (TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx). The TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions have 0.38 wt% and 0.26 wt%, respectively, and plot on the field of MOR magmatism. The most-evolved Ol (Fo% = 84.7) from the wehrlitic intrusions has high NiO (0.31 wt%) and plots on the olivine mantle array (Takahashi 1986). It is suggested that heterogeneity of source mantle influences the magmatic diversity of the wehrlitic intrusions.

  7. Sabzevar Ophiolite, NE Iran: Progress from embryonic oceanic lithosphere into magmatic arc constrained by new isotopic and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Corfu, Fernando; Chiaradia, Massimo; Stern, Robert J.; Ghorbani, Ghasem

    2014-12-01

    The poorly known Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolite belt (STOB) covers a large region in NE Iran, over 400 km E-W and almost 200 km N-S. The Sabzevar mantle sequence includes harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite and chromitite. Spinel Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) in harzburgites and lherzolites ranges from 44 to 47 and 24 to 26 respectively. The crustal sequence of the Sabzevar ophiolite is dominated by supra-subduction zone (SSZ)-type volcanic as well as plutonic rocks with minor Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB)-like pillowed and massive lavas. The ophiolite is covered by Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian (~ 75-68 Ma) pelagic sediments and four plagiogranites yield zircon U-Pb ages of 99.9, 98.4, 90.2 and 77.8 Ma, indicating that the sequence evolved over a considerable period of time. Most Sabzevar ophiolitic magmatic rocks are enriched in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) and depleted in High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs), similar to SSZ-type magmatic rocks. They (except OIB-type lavas) have higher Th/Yb and plot far away from mantle array and are similar to arc-related rocks. Subordinate OIB-type lavas show Nb-Ta enrichment with high Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)/Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) ratio, suggesting a plume or subcontinental lithosphere signature in their source. The ophiolitic rocks have positive εNd (t) values (+ 5.4 to + 8.3) and most have high 207Pb/204Pb, indicating a significant contribution of subducted sediments to their mantle source. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope characteristics suggest that the Sabzevar magmatic rocks originated from a Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB)-type mantle source metasomatized by fluids or melts from subducted sediments, implying an SSZ environment. We suggest that the Sabzevar ophiolites formed in an embryonic oceanic arc basin between the Lut Block to the south and east and the Binalud mountains (Turan block) to the north, and that this small oceanic arc basin existed from at least mid-Cretaceous times. Intraoceanic subduction began before the Albian (100-113 Ma) and was responsible for generating Sabzevar SSZ-related magmas, ultimately forming a magmatic arc between the Sabzevar ophiolites to the north and the Cheshmeshir and Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites to the south-southeast.

  8. Post-emplacement history of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex: Insights from petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of Neogene clastic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimalanta, C. B.; Salapare, R. C.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Ramos, N. T.; Queaño, K. L.; Yumul, G. P.; Yang, T. F.

    2015-05-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex in Luzon, Philippines is made up of two blocks with differing geochemical signatures and ages - the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Acoje Block-San Antonio Massif that is of island arc tholeiite composition and the Eocene Coto Block-Cabangan Massif which is of transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt-island arc tholeiite affinity. These ophiolitic bodies are overlain by Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary units whose petrochemistry are reported here for the first time. Varying degrees of influences from ophiolitic detritus and from arc volcanic materials, as shown by petrography and indicator elements including Cr, Co and Ni, are observed in these sedimentary formations from north to south and from the oldest to the youngest. The Early to Middle Miocene Cabaluan Formation, whose outcrops are found to overlie only the Acoje Block, registers a more dominant ophiolitic signature as compared to the Late Miocene to Pliocene Santa Cruz Formation. The Santa Cruz Formation is generally characterized by fewer ophiolitic clasts and higher amounts of felsic components. Additionally, within this formation itself, a pronounced compositional change is observed relative to its spatial distribution. From the south to the north, an increase in ophiolitic components and a relative decrease in felsic signature is noted in units of the Santa Cruz Formation. It is therefore inferred that changes in the petrochemistry of rocks from the older Cabaluan to the younger Santa Cruz sedimentary formations record a decline in the influx of ophiolitic detritus or, conversely, the introduction of more diverse sediment sources as the deposition progressed. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from the Santa Cruz Formation, with peaks at 46.73 ± 0.94 and 5.78 ± 0.13 Ma, reflects this change in provenance from the unroofing of an Early Eocene oceanic crust to fresh contributions from an active volcanic arc during the Late Miocene. The contrast in compositions of the southern and northern Santa Cruz Formation also indicates a closer proximity of the southern units to the source of these non-ophiolitic sources, which most likely corresponds to the Pliocene volcanoes of the West Luzon Arc.

  9. New constraints for the tectonic development of the western Pacific margin since the Mesozoic: comprehensive SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the Philippine ophiolite belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, K.; Gabo, J. A. S.; Horie, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Padrones, J.; Payot, B. D.; Tejada, M. L. G.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Imai, A.; Arai, S.; Yumul, G. P., Jr.; Dimalanta, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    The post-Mesozoic tectonic history of the western Pacific margin is critical in understanding the major global tectonic events that occurred in the Eocene, such as the westward change in Pacific Plate motion and the simultaneous subduction initiation of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc (Ishizuka et al., 2011 EPSL). The present location of the Philippine Islands continuously serves as a major tectonic boundary between the southeastern Eurasian and the Pacific Plates, accommodating the large left-lateral movement associated with the clockwise rotation of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from Eocene to Miocene and now the subduction of the PSP from the east at the Philippine Trench - East Luzon Trough. The basement rocks of the Philippine Islands are characterized by the presence of ophiolitic complexes exposed among the islands. Yumul (2007, Island Arc) defined four belts in the Philippine ophiolites and proposed that they progressively become younger towards west, from Early - Late Cretaceous at the easternmost belt to Eocene - Oligocene in the west. However, most of the ophiolitic complexes have been dated by radiolarians and foraminifera in the overlying sediments. To precisely determine the igneous ages of the Philippine ophiolites, we have conducted SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the gabbroic and leucocratic rocks collected from the ophiolitic complexes in the Philippine Islands, including those from Luzon (Zambales and Isabela ophiolites), Masbate (Balud ophiolite), Tablas (Sibuyan Ophiolite), and Cebu. New zircon ages show that all of the ages obtained so far from the eastern ophiolite belts are Eocene in age, from 52 Ma to 41 Ma. These ages coincide well with the opening of the West Philippine Basin (49 - 33 Ma, Taylor and Goodliffe, 2004 JGR), which is a backarc basin formed behind the incipient IBM Arc. Furthermore, geochemical data available from the igneous rocks in the eastern ophiolite belts show backarc basin basalt-like geochemical affinities (e.g. Yumul, 2007), suggesting that these ophiolites are genetically associated with the West Philippine Basin. On the contrary, gabbroic and leucocratic rocks that are associated with the ophiolitic complex in Cebu are Late Cretaceous (~90 Ma) in age, significantly older than those in the eastern ophiolite belts, suggesting a different origin.

  10. Kinematic evolution of the Yarlung Zangpo Suture Zone ophiolites (Southern Tibet): Early Cretaceous saloon-door spreading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Huang, Wentao; Koornneef, Louise; Guilmette, Carl; Borneman, Nathaniel; Hodges, Kip; Li, Shun; Kapp, Paul; Ding, Lin

    2014-05-01

    The broad deformation zone of the Himalayan belt and Tibetan plateau is largely the product of continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia plates since the Early Eocene. Continental collision, however, is only the ultimate effect of long-lasting plate convergence and subduction below the Lhasa block since at least early Cretaceous times. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) between Himalayan (Indian) and Tibetan (Eurasiatic) terranes demonstrate that a long-lasting intra-oceanic subduction zone, close to Lhasa or far outboard, must have played a significant role in accommodating closure of the >7500 km wide Neotethyan Ocean. These ophiolites are the best-preserved, yet still highly incomplete record of the vast Neotethys. However, their study can provide key constraints on the plate kinematic history of the Neotethyan subduction systems, in particular their early stages. Paleomagnetic analyses of the upper crustal sequence (pillow basalt and sheeted dykes, sills) of ophiolites have been successfully applied in the past to reconstruct the initial geometry of the spreading system associated to the ophiolite formation. Furthermore, oceanic detachment faults, structures widely occurring in modern magma-poor (slow-spreading) mid-ocean ridges, have been recently recognized also in ophiolites (i.e., Mirdita ophiolite of Albania), and (if present) their study may provide unique insights into the geodynamics of the associated spreading system. The YZSZ ophiolites form a 2500 km long belt mainly composed of dismembered ultramafic massifs locally covered by a crustal sequence and oceanic sediments, underlying a regionally continuous clastic Xigaze sedimentary basin interpreted as the Tibetan forearc. Our study focused along a ~250 km transect within the eastern sector of the YZSZ between the Sangsang and Xigatze ophiolite. More than 500 cores were paleomagnetically sampled at 22 localities within sheeted dykes/sills, pillow lavas, mantle peridotites and mantle-hosted gabbros. Paleomagnetic sampling was coupled with a structural geological analysis in the field. The geochemistry of the crustal units, and its geodynamic setting inferred from that (back-arc vs. forearc) was constrained through specific geochemical analyses. Since the YZSZ ophiolite likely suffered of multiple stages of vertical axis rotation and tilt associated to (i) the Mesozoic ocean spreading and subduction dynamics, (ii) the Eocene thrusting of the ophiolites over the Greater Indian continental margin, and (iii) the subsequent continent-continent collision, we adopted a Net Tectonic Rotation (NTR) approach for our kinematic analysis based on paleomagnetic data. This technique, already tested in other ophiolitic belts, describes the total deformation through inclined axes that can then be decomposed into simple vertical and horizontal axis components of rotation. Relying on the calculated rotation and paleo-spreading direction pattern, and the possible occurrence of oceanic detachment faults, we propose a tectonic evolutionary model characterized by the interplay between subduction-related back-arc spreading generating magmatic ocean floor, and detachment faulting associated to trench-parallel stretching upon saloon-door back arc basin opening.

  11. K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of celadonites from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Gillis, K.; Duncan, R.

    1986-01-01

    K/Ar dating and Rb/Sr isochrons of two celadonite veins from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, consistently yield precipitation ages of 77-80 and 87-92 Ma, respectively. Their K/Ar bulk-rock age data (84.7 +/- 2.3 Ma), combined with the oldest celadonite age and recently published radiolarian ages, suggest that the Troodos ophiolite was formed between 85 and 92 Ma, providing an estimate for the duration of celadonite formation of at least 7 m.y., but possibly up to 15 m.y. These data are consistent with data from Deep Sea Drilling Project holes, suggesting that precipitation of the most significant portion of vein minerals in the oceanic crust occurs within about 12 m.y., but possibly up to 19 m.y. after crustal formation. Leaching experiments suggest that K, Ar, Rb, and Sr in exchangeable and nonexchangeable sites of the structure of stoichiometric celadonite maintain their isotope characteristics and are resistant to change from diagenetic processes or surface alteration.

  12. A Deep Seismic Study of the United Arab Emirates: Implications for Collision Tectonics and Ophiolite Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    We recently carried out the first integrated deep seismic experiment in the United Arabic Emirates (UAE) from the Arabian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman. Reflection data were acquired along 925 line km in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman using a large-volume airgun source (7060 cubic inches) and up to 5 km long streamer. Refraction data were acquired along selected reflection lines using 25 land recording stations in the UAE. In addition, gravity and magnetic anomaly data were acquired along all the seismic lines. The objective of the seismic experiment is to determine the crust and mantle structure associated with UAE orogenic belt, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. In addition, the experiment aims to determine mechanisms of ophiolite emplacement and the velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the orogenic belt and the flanking UAE foreland basin and offshore Furairah/Sharjah. Preliminary results of the experiment will be presented including initial findings of seismic reflection, refraction and potential field data. Seismic reflection data in the Gulf of Oman, for example, show evidence for post-rift and syn-rift sedimentation, tilted fault blocks and re-activated faults that appear to have offset the seafloor. Other findings include delineation, using gravity and magnetic data, of the offshore extent of the ophiolite, its thickness and the nature of its bounding faults.

  13. Petrology of the Hegenshan ophiolite and its implication for the tectonic evolution of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, Toshio; Liu, Yan

    2002-08-01

    Petrographic observations, and mineralogical and geochemical analyses, have revealed that the Hegenshan ophiolite is of mid-ocean ridge origin and has been subjected to dynamothermal metamorphism at medium P/T conditions. The metamorphism is characterized by a prograde change in paragenesis from the greenschist to epidote-amphibolite facies, with peak temperature conditions of 570-640°C at pressures of 4-10 kbar. The amphiboles formed by this metamorphism show K-Ar ages of 110-130 Ma. The metamorphic conditions and K-Ar ages suggest that the Hegenshan ophiolite is located at the suture between the Siberian and North China continental blocks, where the continental collision in this area took place in middle Mesozoic time. Given the temporal and spatial distribution of the igneous activity around the Da Hinggan Ling Mountains, it is suggested that the extensive Yanshanian magmatism in this region resulted predominantly from a southward subduction of an oceanic plate prior to collision. Alternatively, it may possibly have resulted from the collision itself, at the final stage.

  14. Discovery of New Methane-bearing Hyperalkaline Springs in the Serpentinized Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawson, J. F.; Oze, C.; Etiope, G.; Horton, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    The production of H2 and CH4 following serpentinization is considered a fundamental process for the origin/sustenance of microbial life, with several implications in astrobiology and petroleum geology. In recent years an increasing number of gas seeps or springs, with dominantly abiotic CH4, have been discovered in land-based serpentinized peridotites worldwide. We report the discovery of a new site in the Dun Mountain Ophiolite (DMO), New Zealand. This is the second gas-bearing peridotite discovered so far in NZ, after Poison Bay which was documented in the 1990s. The DMO area is characterized by active and present-day low temperature serpentinization driven by meteoric water, a common process in ophiolites. A localised area of hyperalkaline (pH >11.6) and reduced (-243.4 mV) waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved calcium (43.2 ppm) aiding in carbonate precipitation. Directly above these waters flux measurements by closed chamber methods reveal CH4 emission rates exceeding 2800 mg m-2day-1. The δ13C values of CH4 suggest the presence of a dominant abiotic gas component (e.g. -32.7 ‰ VPDB). Additionally, an unusual clear to black gel is released from less alkaline springs elsewhere in the DMO. The origin and nature of this gel-like material is currently unknown.

  15. Constraints on the formation of geochemically variable plagiogranite intrusions in the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Sarah; Haase, Karsten M.; Keith, Manuel; Beier, Christoph; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    The geochemistry and petrology of tonalitic to trondhjemitic samples ( n = 85) from eight different plagiogranite intrusions at the gabbro/sheeted dyke transition of the Troodos Ophiolite were studied in order to determine their petrogenetic relationship to the mafic plutonic section and the lava pile. The plagiogranitic rocks have higher SiO2 contents than the majority of the glasses of the Troodos lava pile, but lie on a continuation of the chemical trends defined by the extrusive rocks, indicating that the shallow intrusions generally represent crystallised magmas. We define three different groups of plagiogranites in the Troodos Ophiolite based on different incompatible element contents and ratios. The first and most common plagiogranite group has geochemical similarities to the tholeiitic lavas forming the lavas and sheeted dyke complex in the Troodos crust, implying that these magmas formed at a spreading axis. The second plagiogranite group occurs in one intrusion that is chemically related to late-stage and off-axis boninitic lavas and dykes. One intrusion next to the Arakapas fault zone consists of incompatible element-enriched plagiogranites which are unrelated to any known mafic crustal rocks. The similarities of incompatible element ratios between plagiogranites, lavas and mafic plutonic rocks, the continuous chemical trends defined by plagiogranites and mafic rocks, as well as incompatible element modelling results, all suggest that shallow fractional crystallisation is the dominant process responsible for formation of the felsic magmas.

  16. Melanges, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Ethnographie comparee de la salle de classe en France et en grande-Bretagne" (Comparative Ethnography of the Classroom Environment in France and Great Britain) (F. Carton); "Pour une approche micro et macro du francais parle dans la formation des enseignants de FLE" (Toward a Micro and…

  17. Chromitites in ophiolites: How, where, when, why? Part II. The crystallization of chromitites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, José María; Griffin, William L.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Gervilla, Fernando; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Akbulut, Mehmet; Pearson, Norman J.; Arai, Shoji

    2014-02-01

    A review of previous work relevant to the formation of concentrations of chromite in peridotites from ophiolitic (s.l.) sequences highlights some of the key problems in understanding the complex processes involved. This review forms the basis for chromitite-genesis models that integrate new geochemical data with petrologic, field and microstructural observations, and for a re-interpretation of previous data and concepts. The geochemical data include major- and trace-element contents of chromite and coexisting phases and especially the nature and Os-isotope compositions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and base-metal sulfides (BMS); the PGM data in particular provide new insights into chromitite formation. Differences in the morphology, structural relationships, and geochemical signatures of chromitites allow the recognition of three distinct types. Type I is the most abundant and is distinguished by bulk-rock enrichment in Os, Ir and Ru relative to Rh, Pt, and Pd; it shows no consistent spatial location within the ophiolite "stratigraphy". The second type (Type IIA) is generally confined to the shallower zones of the oceanic lithosphere (mainly as concordant layers, bands and seams, but also as discordant pods or irregular bodies), and is significantly enriched in the incompatible platinum-group elements (PGE) with generally higher total PGE contents than Type I. The third type (Type IIB) shows the same spatial distributions and PGE patterns as Type IIA but has a more limited range of Cr# and a wider range of Mg# that overlap with the compositional range of chromites from layered mafic intrusions. Reaction of melts with peridotite wall-rocks results in the extraction of pyroxene into the melts, forming anastomosing dunitic melt channels in the mantle sections of ophiolites. The Os-isotope heterogeneity in PGMs within single chromitite samples, as described in Part I, provides clear evidence that melt mingling take place on very small scales. This suggests that ophiolitic chromitites are generated through the disequilibrium precipitation of chromite, forced by small-scale mingling of melts that had different SiO2 contents, reflecting derivation from different source rocks, different degrees of partial melting and/or wall-rock reaction. Progressive reaction, crystallization and mixing of melts within the channel system assures the presence of a spectrum of melts at any one time, making the system self-sustaining; each new injection of mafic melt would find more evolved melts with which to react, producing more chromite. Chromite is carried to its final deposition by migration of the chromite-bearing melts, or fluids derived from them. This explains the general association of chromitite with the dunitic portions of ophiolitic mantle; dunite margins around chromite segregations represent the original host rock intruded by chromitite-forming fluids.

  18. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Ligurian ophiolites (Northern Apennine, Italy): Implications for continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Garzetti, Fabio; Corfu, Fernando; Tiepolo, Massimo; Renna, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Fragments of Jurassic oceanic crust exposed in the Northern Apennine (Italy) are either associated with continental lithosphere material (External Ligurian ophiolites), or bear structural and compositional resemblances to slow spreading ridge crust (Internal Ligurian ophiolites). To acquire new information about the transition from continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading, we carried out a U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from gabbro bodies of both External and Internal Ligurian ophiolites. Zircons were separated from seven samples and analyzed for U-Pb isotopes by laser ablation ICPMS and isotope dilution TIMS. The zircons were also investigated for morphology, internal structures, inclusions and chemistry. These characteristics reveal remarkable similarities to zircons collected from modern oceanic crust. Taken as a whole, the new U-Pb zircon dates obtained for the Ligurian ophiolites range from ~ 165 to ~ 161 Ma, thereby arguing against previous geochronological investigations suggesting a period of ~ 26 Ma for the formation of the Ligurian gabbroic crust. The time interval intervened from onset of gabbroic crust formation to configuration of a "slow spreading ridge type" crust was most likely ≤ 5 Ma. New insights into the opening mechanisms of the fossil, slow seafloor spreading basin are provided.

  19. New Perspectives on Ophiolite Formation: Evidence from Ultrahigh Pressure (UHP), Highly Reduced and Crustal-type Minerals in Podiform Chromitites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Separated and in situ ultrahigh pressure (UHP), highly reduced and crustal-type minerals are common in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa and Dongqiao ophiolites, Tibet and the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals, Russia. Highly reduced and crustal-type minerals have also been recovered from the Oman ophiolite. UHP minerals include diamond, coesite-stishovite and kyanite, whereas highly reduced minerals are mainly moissanite (SiC), native elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, W, Ta) and a wide variety of metallic alloys. Crustal-type minerals are represented by various combinations of zircon, corundum, almandine garnet, kyanite, andalusite, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, apatite, amphibole, rutile, and titanite. Most in-situ grains are hosted in small, circular to irregular patches of amorphous carbon within grains of magnesiochromite, indicating the former presence of a C-rich fluid, either during or after crystallization of the chromite. The recovered zircons are typically rounded to sub-rounded grains with complex internal structures indicating polyphase growth. Their trace element contents and low-pressure inclusion assemblages (quartz, muscovite, K-feldspar, apatite, ilmenite, rutile) indicate a continental crustal origin. The zircons have SIMS U-Pb ages that are generally much older than the host ophiolite (total range: 90 to 2500 Ma). The presence of numerous crustal minerals, particularly zircon, suggests derivation from metasedimentary rocks subducted into the mantle. The preservation of UHP, highly reduced and crustal-type minerals in chromitites implies effective isolation from the mafic melts that formed the ophiolites and chromitites. Clearly, the formation of ophiolites and podiform chromitites must be a complex, multistage process involving crystallization of magnesiochromite grains at depth in the upper mantle, upwelling of the host peridotites and chromitites, capture of mantle wedges above suprasubduction zones, further crystallization and modification of magnesiochromite grains, allowing incorporation of crustal-type minerals from the underlying subducting slab. Slab rollback and/or slab tear may facilitate uprise of mantle peridotites leading to concentration of podiform chromitites within individual ophiolitic blocks.

  20. On the limits and limitations of the ophiolite - mid-ocean ridge analogy: Oman vs the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Christopher J.; Lissenberg, C. Johan

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the near half century since Ian Gass proposed that ophiolite complexes formed by a process directly analogous to seafloor spreading, the study of ophiolites has been central to the development of our conceptual understanding of the mechanisms of formation of oceanic lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges. This role has been affected little by the recognition - on the basis of their geochemistry - that most ophiolites must have formed by spreading above subduction zones rather than at 'proper' open-ocean mid-ocean ridges. Why? - because we will never be able to gain access to the internal structure of modern ocean lithosphere to the extent we can by walking over the largest and best-preserved ophiolites (e.g. Cyprus, Oman, Newfoundland etc.). Ophiolites will always provide vital insights into the mechanisms of formation of lithosphere formed at submarine volcanic spreading centres. To what extent, however, can we be confident that what we learn from ophiolite studies is directly applicable to modern open-ocean mid-ocean ridges? Exactly how far can we press the analogy? To a first order it is reasonable to assume that the physical processes of crustal formation at an open-ocean mid-ocean ridge and at a supra-subduction zone spreading centre should be closely comparable: the presence of an organised sheeted dyke complex, representing 100% extension accompanied by magmatism, is convincing evidence for seafloor spreading. But does this mean the processes of crustal formation are identical in these different geodynamic environments? In this presentation we compare the 'crown jewel' of ophiolites, Oman, with the East Pacific Rise to explore the veracity of the widely-held belief that Oman represents a direct analogue for lithosphere formed at a fast-spreading (open-ocean) mid-ocean ridge. Whereas the mantle source of the axial volcanic suite in Oman is very similar to that of mid-ocean ridge basalt, we have recently shown (MacLeod et al. 2013, Geology v.41, p.459-462) that the magmas were generated in the presence of water, from which we deduce that the ophiolite was very probably formed by a short-lived spreading episode immediately following subduction initiation. We here compare and contrast more than 25 years of our own observations and data from Oman with a unique suite of samples we recently collected from the Hess Deep rift valley (the first ever complete crustal section recovered from a modern fast-spreading ridge), examining the extent to which the presence of water and the unstable geodynamic environment during the generation of the Oman ophiolite have had a material effect on the internal structure and composition of the crust thus produced. We here demonstrate that, although the physical processes of crustal generation at the Oman and East Pacific Rise spreading ridges are similar overall, systematic differences in crustal structure exist. We discuss the significant implications these have for our models of crustal accretion based solely on ophiolite observations.

  1. Geochemical and geological evidence bearing on the origin of the Bay of Islands and Coastal Complex ophiolites of western Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. F.; Elthon, D. L.; Siroky, F. X.; Karson, J. A.; Sullivan, J.

    1985-06-01

    Suggestions that ophiolitic rocks of the Bay of Islands Complex (BOIC) and Coastal Complex (CC) of southwestern Newfoundland were formed at a seafloor spreading center are supported by: (1) whole-rock trace and major element data from diabases and basalts, (2) spinel mineral chemistry from ultramafic rocks, (3) the internal geology of the ophiolite terranes, and (4) regional geologic and tectonic constraints in the western Newfoundland Appalachians. Diabase and basalt samples from the BOIC and the northern CC massifs are tholeiitic and geochemically indistinguishable from present-day mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). Many diabases from the Lewis Hills massif (the southernmost part of the CC) are also identical to MORBs, but there is also an unusual suite of diabases from the Lewis Hills that is unlike any other suite yet reported from a variety of tectonic settings including island arcs, ocean islands or spreading centers. This suite is interpreted to have been produced by unusual magma generation processes in the deep structural levels of an oceanic ridge-ridge transform fault. Approximately 90% of spinels from ultramafic rocks in the BOIC and CC have Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios that are less that 0.60, comparable to those values reported from ultramafic rocks of the present-day ocean basins. These geochemical constraints, in combination with previously-described geological relationships within the ophiolite terranes and regional tectonic relationships in the western Newfoundland Appalachians, suggest that the BOIC and CC ophiolites formed within a main ocean basin (i.e., the early Paleozoic Iapetus Ocean) along a seafloor spreading center and ridge-ridge transform fault, respectively. There is little evidence to suggest formation in either an island arc or back-arc basin tectonic setting. As such, the BOIC and CC ophiolites are probably well suited for detailed petrologic, structural and geophysical studies to determine the processes involved in the generation and evolution of contemporary oceanic crust and upper mantle.

  2. Ages and Nd, Sr isotopic systematics in the Sierran foothills ophiolite belt, CA: the Smartville and Feather River complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H.F.; Niemeyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd dating has shown the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite to be approx. 480 My old. Its Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions require an unusually old depleted mantle source. Samples from the Smartville and Feather River complexes have been analyzed in a search for similar highly depleted, early Paleozoic ophiolites in the northern foothills ophiolite belt. Six whole rocks from Smartville, encompassing representative lithologies, plus plagioclase and pyroxene mineral separates define a 183 +/- 22 My Sm-Nd isochron. This age, interpreted as the igneous age, is older than, but within error of, approx. 160 My U-Pb ages previously obtained from plagiogranite zircon analyses. One diabase with unusually high Rb/Sr yields a depleted mantle Sr model age of 200 +/- 25 My, consistent with the Sm-ND age. These compositions are clearly oceanic in character but do not discriminate among possible tectonic settings for the formation of the Smartville complex. Sm-Nd data for flaser gabbros and related rocks from Feather River scatter about an approx. 230 My errorchron with element of/sub Nd/(T) = +6.3 to +8.7. Initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ranges from 0.7028 to 0.7031. These results indicate a complex history with initial isotopic heterogeneities and/or disturbances of the isotopic systems. If primary, the element of/sub Nd/ (T) values are somewhat low, suggesting a possible arc origin for these rocks. Neither the Smartville nor Feather R. complexes appear to be related to the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite which, so far, is unique among foothill ophiolites in having an early Paleozoic age and a clear MORB, as opposed to arc or marginal basin, isotopic signature.

  3. New paleomagnetic data from the Wadi Abyad crustal section and their implications for the rotation history of the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Matthew; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark; MacLeod, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Oman ophiolite is an important natural laboratory for understanding the construction of oceanic crust at fast spreading axes and its subsequent tectonic evolution. Previous paleomagnetic research in lavas of the northern ophiolitic blocks (Perrin et al., 2000) has demonstrated substantial clockwise intraoceanic tectonic rotations. Paleomagnetic data from lower crustal sequences in the southern blocks, however, have been more equivocal due to complications arising from remagnetization, and have been used to infer that clockwise rotations seen in the north are internal to the ophiolite rather than regionally significant (Weiler, 2000). Here we demonstrate the importance and advantages of sampling crustal transects in the ophiolite in order to understand the nature and variability in magnetization directions. By systematically sampling the lower crustal sequence exposed in Wadi Abyad (Rustaq block) we resolve for the first time in a single section a pattern of remagnetized lowermost gabbros and retention of earlier magnetizations by uppermost gabbros and the overlying dyke-rooting zone. Results are supported by a positive fold test that shows that remagnetization of lower gabbros occurred prior to the Campanian structural disruption of the Moho. NW-directed remagnetized remanences in the lower units are consistent with those used by Weiler (2000) to infer lack of significant rotation of the southern blocks and to argue, therefore, that rotation of the northern blocks was internal to the ophiolite. In contrast, E/ENE-directed remanences in the uppermost levels of Wadi Abyad imply large, clockwise rotation of the Rustaq block, of a sense and magnitude consistent with intraoceanic rotations inferred from extrusive sections in the northern blocks. We conclude that without the control provided by systematic crustal sampling, the potential for different remanence directions being acquired at different times may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretation.

  4. Mantle Recycling of Crustal Materials through Study of Ultrahigh-Pressure Minerals in Collisional Orogens, Ophiolites, and Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J. G.; Tsujimori, T.; Yang, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Ernst, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Newly recognized ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mineral occurrences including diamonds in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) felsic granulites of orogenic belts, in chromitites associated with ophiolitic complexes, and in mafic/ultramafic xenoliths suggest the recycling of crustal materials through profound subduction, mantle upwelling, and return to the Earth's surface. Recycling is supported by unambiguously crust-derived mineral inclusions in deep-seated zircons, chromites, and diamonds from collision-type orogens, from eclogitic xenoliths, and from ultramafic bodies of several Alpine-Himalayan and Polar Ural ophiolites; some such phases contain low-atomic number elements typified by crustal isotopic signatures. Ophiolite-type diamonds in placer deposits and as inclusions in chromitites together with numerous highly reduced minerals and alloys appear to have formed near the mantle transition zone. In addition to ringwoodite and stishovite, a wide variety of nanometric minerals have been identified as inclusions employing state-of-the-art analysis. Reconstitution of now-exsolved precursor UHP phases and recognition of subtle decompression microstructures produced during exhumation reflect earlier UHP conditions. Some podiform chromitites and associated peridotites contain rare minerals of undoubted crustal origin, including Zrn, corundum, Fls, Grt, Ky, Sil, Qtz, and Rtl; the zircons possess much older U-Pb ages than the formation age of the host ophiolites. These UHP mineral-bearing chromitites had a deep-seated evolution prior to extensional mantle upwelling and its partial melting at shallow depths to form the overlying ophiolite complexes. These new findings plus stable isotopic and inclusion characteristics of diamonds provide compelling evidence for profound underflow of both oceanic and continental lithosphere, recycling of biogenic carbon into the lower mantle, and ascent to the Earth's surface through deep mantle ascent.

  5. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and location of ophiolites in NW India and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen basins formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between India and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen Basin may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante basins accommodated motion between India and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-India convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW India and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW India-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW India ophiolites have no relationship with India-Asia motion or collision but result from relative India-Africa/Arabia motions instead.

  6. Plume type ophiolites in Japan, East Russia and Mongolia: Peculiarity of the Late Jurassic examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Akira; Ichiyama, Yuji; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan

    2013-04-01

    Dilek and Furnes (2011; GSAB) provided a new comprehensive classification of ophiolites. In addition to the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) types that are known for decades, they introduced rift-zone (passive margin) type, volcanic arc (active margin) type, and plume type. The last type is thought to be originated in oceanic large igneous provinces (LIPs; oceanic plateaus), and is preserved in the subduction-accretion complexes in the Pacific margins. The LIP-origin greenstones occur in the Middle Paleozoic (Devonian) accretionary complex (AC) in central Mongolia (Ganbat et al. 2012; AGU abst.). The Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic plume-type ophiolites are abundant in Japan. They are Carboniferous greenstones covered by thick limestone in the Akiyoshi belt (Permian AC, SW Japan; Tatsumi et al., 2000; Geology), Permian greenstones in the Mino-Tamba belt (Jurassic AC, SW Japan; Ichiyama et al. 2008; Lithos), and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone in the Sorachi (Hokkaido; Ichiyama et al, 2012; Geology) and Mikabu (SW Japan; this study) belts. The LIP origin of these greenstones is indicated by abundance of picrite (partly komatiite and meimechite), geochemical features resembling HIMU basalts (e.g. high Nb/Y and Zr/Y) and Mg-rich (up to Fo93) picritic olivines following the "mantle array", suggesting very high (>1600oC) temperature of the source mantle plume. The Sorachi-Mikabu greenstones are characterized by the shorter time interval between magmatism and accretion than the previous ones, and are coeval with the meimechite lavas and Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions in the Jurassic AC in Sikhote-Alin Mountains of Primorye (E. Russia), that suggest a superplume activity in the subduction zone (Ishiwatari and Ichiyama, 2004; IGR). The Mikabu greenstones extend for 800 km along the Pacific coast of SW Japan, and are characterized by the fragmented "olistostrome" occurrence of the basalts, gabbros and ultramafic cumulate rocks (but no mantle peridotite), suggesting tectonism in a sediment-starved subduction zone or a transform fault zone that transected the thick oceanic LIP crust. The Sorachi greenstones are associated with depleted mantle peridotite, and are covered by the thick Cretaceous turbidite formation (Yezo Group), and Takashima et al. (2002; JAES) concluded the marginal basin origin for the "Sorachi ophiolite". We know that some oceanic LIPs were developed into marginal basins (e.g. Caribbean basin). The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone belts of Japan and eastern Russia may represent relics of a 2000 km-size superplume activity that hit the subduction zone and the adjacent ocean floor in NW Pacific.

  7. Talc-carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks within the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerga, A.; Konopásek, J.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of partly and completely serpentinized and carbonated peridotites within the ultramafic section of the Leka Ophiolite Complex have been used to elucidate the evolution of alterations and identify possible fluid sources. The alterations show no evidence for any major deformation and are located along low-angle structures that were formed in a late stage of the structural evolution of the ophiolite complex. Modeling of mineral equilibria in the SiO2-MgO-FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-H2O ± CO2 system has been utilized to constrain the conditions during serpentinization and carbonation. The partly altered peridotites consist of the mineral assemblage olivine-clinopyroxene-serpentine-magnetite-brucite and formed at temperatures < 410 °C by infiltration of aqueous fluids. Completely serpentinized rocks with the mineral assemblage serpentine-magnesite-magnetite-dolomite formed at temperatures < 500 °C and low XCO2 (≤ 0.05) by the breakdown of the minerals in the partly altered peridotites. Talc-carbonate rocks formed by the breakdown of the serpentine in the previously formed serpentinite rock at temperatures < 550 °C and elevated XCO2, which resulted in the stabilization of the assemblage talc-magnesite-magnetite-dolomite. Carbon isotope values determined for dolomite from crosscutting carbonate lenses within the talc-carbonate rock yield δ13C values of ~- 5 indicative of a mantle source for the carbon required for the carbonation. Oxygen isotope values δSMOW18O of ~ 10.8-11.3‰ together with initial 87Sr/86Sri = 400Ma values of 0.7029 and 0.7063, suggest dehydration of rocks with mantle affinity as a source for the fluids. Based on analytical results and field observations we propose that the formation of the talc- and carbonate-bearing alteration zones is caused by the focused infiltration of fluids that originated at the bottom of already partly serpentinized ophiolite complex during extension-driven burial at the late stage of the Caledonian orogeny.

  8. Genesis of Diamond-bearing and Diamond-free Podiform Chromitites in the Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Xiong, F.; Xu, X.; Robinson, P. T.; Dilek, Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Micro-diamonds, moissanite and many highly reduced minerals, such as native Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, Al, and metallic alloys, have been reported previously from podiform chromitites and peridotites of the Luobusa ophiolite in the eastern segment of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture of southern Tibet.. Similar mineral associations have now been confirmed in mantle peridotites or chromitites of 11 other ophiolites in 5 orogenic belts, in Tibet, Myanmar, North China and the Polar Urals. However, detailed studies of the Luobusa ophiolite show that not all chromitites contain these UHP and highly reduced minerals. Diamond-bearing chromitites are chiefly massive bodies composed of over 95 modal% magnesiochromite with Cr#s [100Cr/(Cr+Al)] of 77-83 and Mg#s [100Mg/(Mg+Fe)] of 71-82. Most of these bodies have sharp contacts with the host harzburgites and are only rarely enclosed in dunite envelopes. Many magnesiochromite grains in the massive chromitites contain inclusions of forsterite and pyroxene. Forsterite inclusions have Fo numbers of 97-99 and NiO contents of 1.11-1.29 wt%. Mg#s of clinopyroxene inclusions are 96-98 and those of orthopyroxene are 96-97. X-ray studies show that the olivine inclusions have very small unit cells and short cation-oxygen bond distances, suggesting crystallization at high pressure. In contrast, diamond-free chromitites typically occur as layers within thick dunite sequences or as irregular patches surrounded by dunite envelopes. They consist of variable proportions of magnesiochromite (Cr# = 76-78; Mg# = 58-61) and olivine, and have banded, nodular and disseminated textures. The dunite envelopes consist chiefly of granular olivine with a few relatively large, amoeboidal grains of magnesiochromite, and typically grade into the host peridotites with increasing pyroxene. Unlike those in the massive ores, magnesiochromite grains in nodular and disseminated chromitites lack pyroxene inclusions, and their olivine inclusions have relatively low Fo (94-96) and NiO (0.35-0.58 wt%). We propose that the diamond-bearing chromitite ores formed within the deeper parts of the upper mantle and were emplaced at an oceanic spreading ridge, whereas the diamond-free chromitites formed at shallow levels by melt/rock reaction, most likely in a SSZ environment.

  9. Biomarker insights into microbial activity in the serpentinite-hosted ecosystem of the Semail Ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. A.; Lincoln, S. A.; Shock, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Summons, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinization is a process in which ultramafic and mafic rocks undergo exothermic reactions when exposed to water. The products of these reactions, including methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide, can sustain microbially dominated ecosystems [1,2,3]. Here, we report the lipid biomarker record of microbial activity in carbonate veins of the Semail Ophiolite, a site currently undergoing serpentinization [4]. The ophiolite, located in the Oman Mountains in the Sultanate of Oman, was obducted onto the Arabian continental margin during the closure of the southern Tethys Ocean (~70 Ma) [5]. We detected bacterial and archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids in Semail carbonates. In addition to archaeal isoprenoidal GDGTs with 0-3 cyclopentane moieties, we detected crenarchaeol, an iGDGT containing 4 cyclopentane and 1 cyclohexane moiety. Crenarchaeol biosynthesis is currently understood to be limited to thaumarchaea, representatives of which have been found to fix inorganic carbon in culture. We also analyzed isoprenoidal diether lipids, potentially derived from methanogenic euryarchaea, as well as non-isoprenoidal diether and monoether lipids that may be indicative of methane cycling bacteria. The stable carbon isotopic composition of these compounds is potentially useful in determining both their origin and the origin of methane detected in ophiolite fluids. We compare our results to those found at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, a similar microbially-dominated ecosystem fueled by serpentinization processes [3]. Modern serpentinite-hosted ecosystems such as this can serve as analogs for environments in which ultramafic and mafic rocks were prevalent (e.g. early Earth and other early terrestrial planets). Additionally, an analysis of modern serpentinite systems can help assess conditions promoting active carbon sequestration in ultramafic rocks [6]. References [1] Russell et al. (2010). Geobiology 8: 355-371. [2] Kelley et al. (2005). Science 307: 1428-1434. [3] Bradley et al. (2009). Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (1): 102-118. [4] Barnes et al. (1978). Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 42: 144-145. [5] Nasir et al. (2007). Chemie Der Erde-Geochemistry 67(3): 213-228. [6] Kelemen et al. (2008). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 45: 17295-17300.

  10. Geochemistry and geochronology of mafic rocks from the Luobusa ophiolite, South Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Ji, Wei-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    This study presents geochemical compositions of mafic rocks outcropped in the Luobusa ophiolite that locates at the eastern part of the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ). The studied mafic rocks include gabbroic/diabase dykes cutting the peridotites and foliated amphibolites embedded within the subophiolitic mélange. The diabases have low K2O contents and display N-MORB-like geochemical characteristics, i.e., with flat REE patterns and weak enrichment in LILE (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th and U). The gabbros show LREE-depleted patterns and variable enrichment in Rb and Ba. Foliated amphibolites mainly consist of hornblendes and plagioclases, with minor titanites. They commonly show LREE-depleted patterns, with strong enrichment in LILE. Three diabases have depleted Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.703009-0.703502, εNd(t) of + 5.0 to + 8.5 and εHf (t) of ca + 14. Two gabbros have similar Nd-Hf isotopes with the diabases, but slightly higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (i.e., 0.704820 and 0.704550). Compared to both diabases and gabbros, the amphibolites have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (i.e., 0.705131-0.705825), but more depleted Nd-Hf isotope compositions, with εNd(t) of + 9.1 to + 11.6 and εHf(t) of + 18.2 to + 21.9. Geochemical compositions of the diabase dykes indicate that they were formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. Zircon SIMS U-Pb dating of the gabbroic dyke cutting the serpentinites yields an age of 128.4 ± 0.9 Ma, which is identical within uncertainty to the zircon U-Pb age of the amphibolite (i.e., 131.0 ± 1.2 Ma). Low U and Th contents of zircons in the amphibolite support their metamorphic origin. Titanites in the amphibolites have been dated by LA-ICPMS and give U-Pb ages of ~ 131-134 Ma, which are similar to the zircon U-Pb ages of the dated gabbro and amphibolite. Therefore, we suggest that the Luobusa ophiolite was generated at the Early Cretaceous and underwent the intra-oceanic emplacement immediately after its formation. This implies that ophiolites in the eastern segment of the YZSZ were formed roughly synchronously with those in both central and western segments of the YZSZ.

  11. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D., Brozzo, G., Canepa, M., Cipolli, F., Marini, L., Ottonello, G., Zuccolini, M., 2002. Natural hexavalent chromium in groundwaters interacting with ophiolitic rocks. Environmental Geology 42, 871-882. Lelli, M., Grassi, S., Amadori, M., Franceschini, F., 2013. Natural Cr(VI) contamination of groundwater in the Cecina coastal area and its inner sectors (Tuscany, Italy). Environmental Earth Sciences 71, 3907-3919. Oze, C., Fendorf, S., Bird, D.K., Coleman, R.G., 2004. Chromium geochemistry of serpentine soils. International Geology Review 46, 97-126. Stephen, M.T., James, A.J., 2004. Overview of chromium (VI) in the environment. Chromium (VI) Handbook. CRC Press, pp. 21.

  12. Broken formations, melanges and olistostromes in Puerto Plata area (Northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaiz Huerta, Pedro Pablo; Valera Fernando, Pérez; de Los Santos Manuel, Abad; Jacques, Monthel; de Neira Alberto, Díaz

    2010-05-01

    The Northern Cordillera of the Dominican Republic records the (oblique) subduction and collisional processes occurred between the Caribbean and North-American plates during Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleogene times. The boundary between these two plates can be traced within this range disrupted by an Upper Paleogene to present intense left-lateral strike-slip tectonism, onset after collision. In the western part of the range this boundary might be defined by the Camu fault. In the coastal area of Puerto Plata, located on the northern block of the Camu fault, basement rocks belonging to the subducting plate (the Puerto Plata Basement Complex) and several related units probably formed in an accretionary prism, preserve in a large (300 km2) outcrop of chaotic formations presumably formed (and exhumed) during collision. They include from broken formations and tectonic melanges to olistostromes and other coeval sedimentary deposits. The Puerto Plata Basement Complex (PPBC) consists of highly faulted and dismembered blocks formed by discontinuous but sometimes coherent outcrops of serpentinized or massive peridotite, pods of ultramafic cumulates, massive or banded gabbros and Los Caños Fm, a thick sequence of gross bedded volcaniclastic material with interbedded basaltic (sometimes pillowed) or andesitic flows. All these rocks bear low grade metamorphism and lack a general deformation fabric apart from occasional transformation to mylonites due to localized shearing. The PPBC has been interpreted as a fragment of oceanic crust, belonging to the subducting (North-American) slab that has been exhumed as a tectonic melange or a broken complex. The Imbert Fm, of Palaeocene-Eocene age, is formed by a well bedded succession of white very fine grained porcelaneous tuffs, with eventual intercalations of cherts, limestones and marls that, towards the lower part, is interbedded with volcanic-derived graywackes and limolites, and more occasionally, thick beds of conglomerates and debris. These last ones typically incorporate fragments of serpentized peridotites and blocks of the volcanic rocks identified in the PPBC. The Imbert Fm is also internally disrupted and although not a single clear contact can be observed in the field, it is considered to rest unconformably over the complex, so postdating its exhumation. A separate mappable unit of serpentinitic brecchias has recently been identified mainly distributed along the outer limits of the PPBC but also in several scattered outcrops inside it. The unit is dominantly made of fragments and blocks of serpentinized peridotites, embedded in an abundant matrix of the same composition and includes also blocks of Los Caños and Imbert Fm, as well as other exotic blocks of unknown origin. In the southeastern limit of the complex, close to the Camu fault, there is a particular high concentration of exotic blocks derived from metamorphic rocks (greenschists, anfibolites, marbles and even blueschists) not exposed in any neighbouring areas and thus suggesting a deep-sited, subduction-related, feeding. The basal contact of this unit with the rocks of the PPBC is usually faulted and difficult to observe in the field, but cartographic patterns suggest that it is an unconformity. Outcrops of serpentinitic breccias show a wide variety of internal chaotic organization, from pods of tectonic melanges to the most frequent block-in matrix fabric, but most of them also show evidences of sedimentary rework. In the easternmost part of the PPBC, the serpentinitic brecchias are, in turn, the base of an olistostromic complex widely represented in the region, the San Marcos Fm. The olistostrome includes similar exotic blocks than observed in the serpentinitic brecchias and blocks and olistolithes derived from the PPBC but, mainly, from the Imbert Fm. According to the described relationships, the serpentinitic breccias and San Marcos olistostrome are considered partially coeval and laterally equivalent to the Imbert Fm.

  13. Acadian remobilization of a Taconian ophiolite, Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwood, P.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The Hare Bay fault is a major subhorizontal detachment at the base of the ophiolitic St. Anthony Complex in the Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfounland. The fault is a postmetamorphic brittle detachment that truncates footwall structures related to both initial Ordovician (Taconian) assembly of the allochthon and subsequent Silurian-Devonian (Acadian) deformation. Although previously mapped as a thrust, the fault has an extensional rather than a contractional geometry; it cuts downsection to the west in the direction of transport, and it juxtaposes a hanging-wall sequence that contains little or no Acadian deformation against a footwall sequence that was pervasively deformed during the Acadian orogeny. The St. Anthony Complex lies on the western margin of the Acadian deformed zone. Its final emplacement, through movement on the Hare Bay fault, probably occurred through extensional faulting during gravitational collapse of the Acadian mountain front.

  14. Diamonds in ophiolitic mantle rocks and podiform chromitites: An unsolved mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, X.; Ba, D.; Bai, W.; Fabg, Q.; Meng, F.; Chen, S.; Robinson, P. T.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.

    2009-05-01

    In recent years ultrahigh pressure minerals, such as diamond and coesite, and other unusual minerals were discovered in chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite in Tibet, and 4 new minerals have been approved by the CNMMN. These results have raised many questionsWhat are the occurrences of the diamonds, what is the source of their carbon and how were they formed? What is the origin of the chromites hosting the diamonds and at what depth did they form? What is the genetic relationship between the diamonds and the host chromitites? In what geological, geophysical and geochemical environments can the diamonds be formed and how are they preserved? The UHP minerals from Luobusa are controversial because they have not been found in situ and because ophiolites are currently believed to form at shallow levels above oceanic spreading centers in suprasubduction zone environments. More detailed study and experimental work are needed to understand the origin and significance of these unusual minerals and investigations of other ophiolites are needed to determine if such minerals occur elsewhere To approach these problems, we have collected two one-ton samples of harzburgite hosting chromitite orebodies in the Luobusa ophiolite in Tibet. The harzburgite samples were taken close to chromitite orebody 31, from which the diamonds, coesite and other unusual minerals were recovered. We processed these two samples in the same manner as the chromitites and discovered numerous diamonds and more than 50 other mineral species. These preliminary results show that the minerals in the harzburgites are similar to those in the chromitites, suggesting a genetic relationship between them. To determine if such UHP and unusual minerals occur elsewhere, we collected about 1.5 t of chromitite from two orebodies in an ultramafic body in the Polar Urals. Thus far, more than 60 different mineral species have been separated from these ores. The most exciting discovery is the common occurrence of diamond, a typical UHP mineral in the Luobusa chromitites. Other minerals include: (1) native elements: Cr, W, Ni, Co, Si, Al and Ta; (2) carbides: SiC and WC; (3) alloys: Cr-Fe, Si-Al-Fe, Ni-Cu, Ag-Au, Ag-Sn, Fe-Si, Fe-P, and Ag-Zn-Sn; (4) oxides: NiCrFe, PbSn, REE, rutile and Si-bearing rutile, ilmenite, corundum, chromite, MgO, and SnO2; (5) silicates: kyanite, pseudomorphs of octahedral olivine, zircon, garnet, feldspar, and quartz,; (6) sulfides of Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Pb, Ab, AsFe, FeNi, CuZn, and CoFeNi; and (7) iron groups: native Fe, FeO, and Fe2O3. These minerals are very similar in composition and structure to those reported from the Luobusa chromitites.

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of listwanite occurrences from the Othris ophiolite, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Magganas, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Three small occurrences of extensively carbonate-altered serpentinite (listwanite) have been identified in East Othris at the ophiolitic formation of Vrinena, and in South Othris at the ophiolitic mélange formations of Agios Georgios and Paleokerasia. Their mineral assemblage includes calcite + quartz + chlorite + spinel ± clinopyroxene, as well as accessory Fe-oxides, titanite and apatite. Based upon their mineralogical composition they belong to the Type IB listwanite, characterized by the predominance of calcite and the presence of Mg-rich chlorite, mainly clinochlore and diabantite. In the ophiolitic mélange formation of Agios Georgios listwanite was found in proximity with serpentinite (former harzburgite), which could be considered as the precursor protolith. Changes of major and minor elements between the listwanite and the protolith have been calculated based on the method for mass-balance analyses[1]. Results show that this listwanite resulted after metasomatic processes dominated by Ca enrichment. Sr, Y and Pb contents were also significantly increased, whereas rather moderate enrichments of Al, Mn, Cr and Cu also took place. Small reductions were observed for Mg and Ni. Si, Ti and Fe remained relatively immobile. The chondrite normalized REE patterns reveal significant enrichment of all analysed REE, and especially of the LREE [(La/Yb)CN=20.4], and also with a negative Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu*=0.79). Spinel grains from the Agios Georgios listwanite and the adjacent serpentinite are in most elements compositionally similar. The listwanites from Agios Georgios, Paleokerasia and Vrinena all contain spinel grains. Their mineral chemistry is respectively: TiO2=0.18-0.25; 0.04-0.10; 0.22-0.54 wt%, Al2O3=23.13-25.03; 27.69-29.70; 5.69-7.35 wt%, FeO=18.24-22.98; 16.44-19.49; 21.47-24.61 wt%, CaO= 0.01-0.07; 0.03-0.15; 0.01-0.28 wt%, Cr#=52.28-54.93; 45.57-48.85; 83.58-87.59, Mg#=51.07-65.39; 56.68-65.62; 46.77-55.35. Their rims exhibit slightly higher FeO and CaO contents compared to cores. Relict clinopyroxenes have been found in listwanite from Vrinena, classified as augites (Mg#=84.55-85.91; Wo=42.50-44.34; TiO2=0.50-0.70 wt%). The abundance of calcite and of REE enrichment indicate that the listwanite-forming metasomatic event occurred with hydrothermal circulation of a CO2-rich fluid phase in a high water/rock ratio. REE mobilized mainly as REE-carbonate complexes under mildly alkaline conditions. Based upon the reciprocal slopes of the isocon method[2] the total mass gains are restricted, indicating that this hydrothermal alteration event occurred isochemically under mass preservation. Their formation is most likely associated with shallow level ocean-floor metasomatism, observed also in listwanites from the Iti ophiolitic mélange formation[3]. References: [1] Gresens 1967: Chemical Geol., 2, 47-65; [2] Grant 1986: Econ. Geol., 81, 1976-1982; [3] Tsikouras et al., 2006: Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 243-255.

  16. Gabbro-norite cumulates from strongly depleted MORB melts in the Alpine-Apennine ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.; Guarnieri, L.

    2011-06-01

    Hundred-meter wide cumulate bodies and decimetric dykelets of gabbro-norites are widespread within the distal ophiolitic peridotites from the Jurassic Ligure-Piemontese oceanic basin, now emplaced in the Alpine-Apennine orogenic system. These peridotites derived from the sub-continental mantle of the pre-Triassic Europe-Adria lithosphere and underwent profound modifications of their structural and compositional characteristics via melt-rock interaction during diffuse percolation by porous flow of upwelling asthenospheric melts. Gabbro-norite cumulates show the peculiar association of high forsteritic olivine, high-Mg# clinopyroxenes and orthopyroxenes and high anorthitic plagioclase with respect to mineral compositions in common ophiolitic and oceanic MORB gabbros. Abundance and early crystallization of magnesian orthopyroxene suggests that parental magmas of the gabbro-noritic cumulates were relatively silica-rich basaltic liquids. Clinopyroxenes and plagioclase have anomalously low Sr and LREE, resulting in highly fractionated C1-normalized LREE patterns in clinopyroxenes and negatively fractionated C1-normalized LREE patterns in plagioclases. Modal mineralogy and mineral major and trace element compositions indicate that these gabbro-norites crystallized from MORB-type basaltic liquids that were strongly depleted in Na, Ti, Zr, Sr and other incompatible trace elements relative to any erupted liquids of MORB-type ophiolites and modern oceanic lithosphere. Computed melt compositions in equilibrium with gabbro-norite clinopyroxenes are closely similar to depleted MORB-type single melt increments after 5-7% of fractional melting of a DM asthenospheric mantle source under spinel-facies conditions. Present knowledge on the ophiolitic peridotites of Monte Maggiore indicate that they were formed by interaction of lithospheric mantle protoliths with depleted, MORB-type single melt increments produced by the ascending asthenosphere. Their composition was progressively modified from olivine-saturated to orthopyroxene-saturated by the early reactive melt-peridotite interaction (i.e., pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation). Gabbro-norite cumulates marked the change from diffuse porous flow percolation to intrusion and crystallization when cooling by conducive heat loss became dominant on heating by melt percolation. Progressive upwelling and cooling of the host peridotite during rifting caused transition to more brittle conditions and to hydration and serpentinization. The Monte Maggiore peridotite body was then intruded along fractures by variably evolved, Mg-Al- to Fe-Ti-rich gabbroic dykes. Computed melt compositions in equilibrium with clinopyroxenes from less evolved gabbro dykes are closely similar to aggregated MORBs. The event of gabbro intrusion indicates that aggregated MORB-type liquids: i) migrated through and stagnated in the mantle lithosphere and ii) underwent evolution into shallow ephemeral magma chambers to form the parental magmas of the gabbroic dykes and the basaltic lava flows of the Ligurian oceanic crust.

  17. PALLADIUM, PLATINUM, RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM AND IRIDIUM IN PERIDOTITES AND CHROMITITES FROM OPHIOLITE COMPLEXES IN NEWFOUNDLAND.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Talkington, Raymond W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite, and chromitite from the Bay of Islands, Lewis Hills, Table Mountain, Advocate, North Arm Mountain, White Hills Periodite Point Rousse, Great Bend and Betts Cove ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and Ir. The ranges of concentration (in ppb) observed for all rocks are: less than 0. 5 to 77 (Pd), less than 1 to 120 (Pt), less than 0. 5 to 20 (Rh), less than 100 to 250 (Ru) and less than 20 to 83 (Ir). Chondrite-normalized PGE ratios suggest differences between rock types and between complexes. Samples of chromitite and dunite show relative enrichment in Ru and Ir and relative depletion in Pt and Pd.

  18. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  19. Platinum-group elemental geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Genwen; Xia, Bin

    2008-04-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite in the central part of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, southern Tibet, has a well-preserved sequence of sheeted dykes, basalts, cumulates and mantle peridotites at Jiding and Luqu. Both the basalts and diabases at Jiding have similar compositions with SiO 2 ranging from 45.9 to 53.5 wt%, MgO from 3.1 to 6.8 wt% and TiO 2 from 0.87 to 1.21 wt%. Their Mg #s [100Mg/(Mg + Fe)] range from 40 to 60, indicating crystallization from relatively evolved magmas. They have LREE-depleted, chondrite-normalized REE diagrams, suggesting a depleted mantle source. These basaltic rocks have slightly negative Nb- and Ti-anomalies, suggesting that the Xigaze ophiolite represents a fragment of mature MORB lithosphere modified in a suprasubduction zone environment. The mantle peridotites at Luqu are high depleted with low CaO (0.3-1.2 wt%) and Al 2O 3 (0.04-0.42 wt%). They display V-shaped, chondrite-normalized REE patterns with (La/Gd) N ratios ranging from 3.17 to 64.6 and (Gd/Yb) N from 0.02 to 0.20, features reflecting secondary metasomatism by melts derived from the underlying subducted slab. Thus, the geochemistry of both the basaltic rocks and mantle peridotites suggests that the Xigaze ophiolite formed in a suprasubduction zone. Both the diabases and basalts have Pd/Ir ratios ranging from 7 to 77, similar to MORB. However, they have very low PGE abundances, closely approximating the predicted concentration in a silicate melt that has fully equilibrated with a fractionated immiscible sulfide melt, indicating that the rocks originated from magmas that were S-saturated before eruption. Moderate degrees of partial melting and early precipitation of PGE alloys explain their high Pd/Ir ratios and negative Pt-anomalies. The mantle peridotites contain variable amounts of Pd (5.99-13.5 ppb) and Pt (7.92-20.5 ppb), and have a relatively narrow range of Ir (3.47-5.01 ppb). In the mantle-normalized Ni, PGE, Au and Cu diagram, they are relatively rich in Pd and depleted in Cu. There is a positive correlation between CaO and Pd. The Pd enrichment is possibly due to secondary enrichment by metasomatism. Al 2O 3 and Hf do not correlate with Ir, but show positive variations with Pt, Pd and Au, indicating that some noble metals can be enriched by metasomatic fluids or melts carrying a little Al and Hf. We propose a model in which the low PGE contents and high Pd/Ir ratios of the basaltic rocks reflect precipitation of sulfides and moderate degrees of partial melting. The high Pd mantle peridotites of Xigaze ophiolites were formed by secondary metasomatism by a boninitic melt above a subduction zone.

  20. Diamond and Coesite After Former Stishovite in Tibet Ophiolites: Is That Myth or Reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. F.; Bai, W.; Fang, Q.; Robinson, P. T.; Zhang, J.; Green, H. W.; Wirth, R.

    2006-12-01

    An extremely controversial theme in the Earth Sciences over the last 30 years has been the origin of chromitite deposits found worldwide within depleted peridotites (harzburgites) of the uppermost mantle in ¨C rock sequences representing former oceanic lithosphere. The majority of workers support a model in which massive chromitites containing Os- and Ir-rich platinum group element (PGE) alloys form by interaction of H2O-saturated boninite melt with harzburgites of the mantle wedge above a subduction zone at comparatively shallow levels in the mantle, from depths of 30-50 km to a maximum pressure of 4.5 GPa (ca.150 km). A second model suggests that the Os/Ir-rich PGE alloys associated with podiform chromitites formed in the very deep mantle, either before formation of Earth's core or, if later, at the core-mantle boundary, and that they have been transported to the surface as xenoliths in deep-rooted mantle plumes. We report the presence of diamond and prismatic coesite associated with metallic grains from chromitite of a Tibetan ophiolite, implying 4 GPa minimum pressure. The microstructure of coesite strongly suggests replacement of stishovite, implying P over10 GPa. This is the first confirmed observation of coesite or diamond in an ophiolite and the occurrence of coesite with the morphology of stishovite is unique. Diamonds have been recovered previously from the Luobusa chromitites, but only as individual grains. Here we describe a composite microdiamond-silicate inclusion in a grain of Os/Ir alloy. Our study also involves examination of grains of Os-Ir, Ni-Fe-Cr-C and CrC alloys, native Si, Fe, Ti and Cr, and chromite separated from massive chromitite ore. Two explanations appear possible: derivation from the deep mantle or meteorite impact, but no direct evidence of shock has been observed. However, at this stage the interpretation should leave open.

  1. Microbial life associated with low-temperature alteration of ultramafic rocks in the Leka ophiolite complex.

    PubMed

    Daae, F L; Økland, I; Dahle, H; Jørgensen, S L; Thorseth, I H; Pedersen, R B

    2013-07-01

    Water-rock interactions in ultramafic lithosphere generate reduced chemical species such as hydrogen that can fuel subsurface microbial communities. Sampling of this environment is expensive and technically demanding. However, highly accessible, uplifted oceanic lithospheres emplaced onto continental margins (ophiolites) are potential model systems for studies of the subsurface biosphere in ultramafic rocks. Here, we describe a microbiological investigation of partially serpentinized dunite from the Leka ophiolite (Norway). We analysed samples of mineral coatings on subsurface fracture surfaces from different depths (10-160 cm) and groundwater from a 50-m-deep borehole that penetrates several major fracture zones in the rock. The samples are suggested to represent subsurface habitats ranging from highly anaerobic to aerobic conditions. Water from a surface pond was analysed for comparison. To explore the microbial diversity and to make assessments about potential metabolisms, the samples were analysed by microscopy, construction of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries, culturing and quantitative-PCR. Different microbial communities were observed in the groundwater, the fracture-coating material and the surface water, indicating that distinct microbial ecosystems exist in the rock. Close relatives of hydrogen-oxidizing Hydrogenophaga dominated (30% of the bacterial clones) in the oxic groundwater, indicating that microbial communities in ultramafic rocks at Leka could partially be driven by H2 produced by low-temperature water-rock reactions. Heterotrophic organisms, including close relatives of hydrocarbon degraders possibly feeding on products from Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, dominated in the fracture-coating material. Putative hydrogen-, ammonia-, manganese- and iron-oxidizers were also detected in fracture coatings and the groundwater. The microbial communities reflect the existence of different subsurface redox conditions generated by differences in fracture size and distribution, and mixing of fluids. The particularly dense microbial communities in the shallow fracture coatings seem to be fuelled by both photosynthesis and oxidation of reduced chemical species produced by water-rock reactions. PMID:23551703

  2. Hidden tectonics beneath the seafloor at mid-ocean ridges: constraints from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ella; MacLeod, Christopher; Morris, Antony; Lissenberg, Johan

    2013-04-01

    Seafloor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (MOR) is accommodated by a combination of magmatism and tectonic stretching of the crust. Recent investigations of mid-ocean ridges show evidence for large offset normal faults or detachments that accommodate a significant fraction of the plate separation. Once thought of as rarities along the global spreading system, detachment faults are now considered to play an integral role in seafloor spreading at slow spreading ridges. Estimates of the proportion and extent of tectonic spreading however vary widely; some authors suggest as much as 50% of the Mid Atlantic Ridge is underlain by active detachment faults. The lack of consensus is in part a consequence of the difficulty in documenting the extent of tectonic stretching and detachment faulting, especially from surface morphology alone. On the modern seafloor tectonic activity may potentially be under-estimated if lava flows blanket and obscure the faulting below. In this contribution we present field observations from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, which is believed to be a slow-spreading ridge analogue. Our interdisciplinary approach utilises structural mapping, palaeomagnetism and geochemistry to investigate estimates of the extent and effects of detachment faulting within the ophiolite. We document significant extensional faulting and rotation within the crust above a detachment fault at the level of the sheeted dyke complex, yet show that the lavas at the surface are sub-horizontal and unaffected by the deformation beneath. Unconformities in the lava section demonstrate progressively greater rotations deeper in the extrusive pile. We show these rotations to be controlled by tectonic stretching and tilting of the underlying dykes rather than rotation by loading and/or subsidence within the lava pile. Our results show that syn-tectonic volcanism fills half-graben on the seafloor such that minimal tectonic stretching is evident at the surface, but blankets tens of per cent tectonic extension at depth. We discuss the implications of these findings for modern slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge systems.

  3. Mineral Relicts of the Earth's Mantle Transition Zone in Peridotites of the Nidar Ophiolite, Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Basu, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the discovery of mineral relicts of the Earth's Mantle Transition Zone recovered from the peridotite section of the Nidar Ophiolite Complex (NOC), Indus Suture Zone, NW Himalaya. Field relations indicate the Nidar ophiolite as a large, continuous body at least 300 sq. km in size with the basal section comprising of ~ 8 km thick ultramafics. Using mineral chemical data and mineral phase identification through Laser micro Raman spectroscopy, we have discovered high- pressure mineral assemblages in relict grains within orthopyroxenes of the peridotites. The peridotite, host of the high-pressure minerals occur as a 'xenolith' in a well-mapped dunite channel of NOC. Here we focus on a ~100 micron size mineral relict found within an orthopyroxene grain. The orthopyroxene has been characterized as mixed phases of ortho and clino-enstatite. Near the core of the orthopyroxene grain, the semi translucent relict exhibits fine infuse cracks sharp edges and complex mineralogy. We have identified high-pressure clinoenstatite, square shaped coesite, disordered α - hematite, carbonaceous matter and a mixture of pyroxene -akimotoite glass in this grain. Based on the above observations, and the high-pressure phase boundaries of the identified minerals, we have constructed a tentative P- T trajectory of the relict grain along the mantle adiabat starting from the base of the mantle transition zone at ~25 GPa and ~ 1500°C at the 660 km discontinuity at the top of the lower mantle. This study will have implications for constraints for the nature and extent of convective flow in the Earth's mantle and on the origin of MORB.

  4. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.

    2016-05-01

    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows that the composition of the inferred mantle source for the Elba Island basalts is similar to that of some Lower Schistes Lustrés metabasalts of Alpine Corsica ophiolites, and some basalts from the Internal Ligurian units of northern Apennine. In contrast, it slightly differs from those of other ophiolitic units of Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine. The chemical differences observed between basalts and metabasalts from different Ligurian-Piedmont ophiolitic units were likely associated with different partial melting degrees of either DMM source or garnet-pyroxenite relics and/or different mixing proportions of melts derived from them, as well as to different compositions of garnet-pyroxenite relics.

  5. Tectonic significance of the Dongqiao ophiolite in the north-central Tibetan plateau: Evidence from zircon dating, petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Zhai, Qing-guo; Wang, Jun; Bao, Pei-sheng; Qiangba, Zhaxi; Tang, Suo-han; Tang, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The Dongqiao ophiolite occurs in the central segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, in north-central Tibet, China. It is still debated on the tectonic setting of the Dongqiao ophiolite despite after more than 30 years' studies. The Dongqiao ophiolite has a complete section of a typical ophiolite, composed of harzburgite, dunite, layered and isotropic gabbros, pillow and massive basalts, as well as radiolarian chert. Whole-rock geochemical analyses show that harzburgite displays a broad U-shaped REE pattern and has a fore-arc affinity, whereas basalts show affinities of E-MORB, OIB and IAB. The basalts were probably formed in different tectonic settings, that is, mid-ocean ridge, oceanic island and island arc. The gabbros and basalts are characterized by positive εNd(t) (+1.6 to +6.7) and εHf(t) (+8.1 to +13.9) values. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded ages of 188 ± 1 Ma for the layered gabbro and 181 ± 1 Ma for the amphibole gabbro. The new ages and the published age data of the Dingqing and Dong Co ophiolites led us to conclude that the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean existed from the Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The new geochemical data also suggested that the Dongqiao ophiolite was a typical SSZ-type ophiolite formed in an initial fore-arc oceanic basin. Fore-arc ophiolites are probably widely distributed along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone. If so, the Tethys Ocean of the Bangong-Nujiang area probably existed as a fore-arc oceanic basin during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

  6. The bilateral and nearly simultaneous obduction of Gaize (central Tibet) ophiolites at the Late Jurassic: constraints on the closure of Bangong-Nujiang suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuxiu, Z.; Kaijun, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Systematic mapping of the Gaize area (central Tibet) across the middle-western Bangong-Nujiang suture and the Lhasa and Qiangtang blocks was conducted, during which ophiolite overthrust sheets in both northern Lhasa and southern South Qiangtang blocks were documented (Fig. 1A). Geochronological dating shows that these ophiolite sheets could have been transported bilaterally, both northward and southward, nearly simultaneously at the Late Jurassic (151~153 Ma). The Laguocuo ophiolite overthrust sheet is in northern Lhasa block south of Gaize county, and the electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) result shows that the newly-formed syntectonic minerals within the mica-quartz schist are phengites. Thermobaric conditions of those phengites are about 350±50 °C and 7~10 kb, and their 40Ar/39Ar plateau age is about 153 Ma. The counterpart ophiolite overthrust sheet in Cha’erkangcuo area is in southern South Qiangtang north of Gaize county and the EMPA result shows that the newly-formed syntectonic minerals within the mica-quartz schist are biotites with 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 151~153 Ma. Comprehensive analyses show that the Laguocuo and Cha’erkangcuo ophiolite mélanges are the north-to-south and south-to-norht obduction of the Early-Middle Jurassic Bangonghu-Nujiang ophiolites at the Late Jurassic respectively. The thermobaric conditions and age study of the Laguocuo and Cha’erkangcuo ophiolitie sheets show that there existed bilateral and nearly simultaneous obdution of Gaize ophiolites in middle-western Bangong-Nujiang ophiolitie belt and the north-to-south obduction remained dominant. The obduction could have been driven by external force, most probably by the flat-lying oceanic subduction of the Yarlung-Zangpo Neo-Tethys (Fig. 1B). Fig. 1. The simplified tectonic map of Tibetan Plateau (A) and schematic cross section showing the bilateral obdution of Gaize ophiolites (B)

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange, NW China: Implications for a Devonian mantle plume within the Junggar Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gaoxue; Li, Yongjun; Santosh, M.; Yang, Baokai; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Tong, Lili

    2012-10-01

    The West Junggar domain in NW China is a distinct tectonic unit of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It is composed of Paleozoic ophiolitic mélanges, arcs and accretionary complexes. The Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange in the eastern West Junggar forms the northeastern part of the Darbut ophiolitic mélange, which contains serpentinized harzburgite, pyroxenite, dunite, cumulate, pillow lava, abyssal radiolarian chert and podiform chromite, overlain by the Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks. In this paper we report new geochronological and geochemical data from basaltic and gabbroic blocks embedded within the Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange, to assess the possible presence of a Devonian mantle plume in the West Junggar, and evaluate the petrogenesis and implications for understanding of the Paleozoic continental accretion of CAOB. Zircon U-Pb analyses from the alkali basalt and gabbro by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry yielded weighted mean ages of 375 ± 2 Ma and 368 ± 11 Ma. Geochemically, the Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange includes at least two distinct magmatic units: (1) a Late Devonian fragmented ophiolite, which were produced by ca. 2-10% spinel lherzolite partial melting in arc-related setting, and (2) contemporary alkali lavas, which were derived from 5% to 10% garnet + minor spinel lherzolite partial melting in an oceanic plateau or a seamount. Based on detailed zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical data for basalts and gabbros from the Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange, in combination with previous work, indicate a complex evolution by subduction-accretion processes from the Devonian to the Carboniferous. Furthermore, the alkali basalts from the Sartuohai ophiolitic mélange might be correlated to a Devonian mantle plume-related magmatism within the Junggar Ocean. If the plume model as proposed here is correct, it would suggest that mantle plume activity significantly contributed to the crustal growth in the CAOB.

  8. Origin of gabbroic sequences from the Ligurian ophiolites: implications for lower crust generation at slow spreading settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzio, R.; Renna, M.; Sanfilippo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Ligurian Jurassic ophiolites (northern Apennines, Italy) are lithospheric remnants of an embryonic slow spreading basin that developed in conjunction with the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. These ophiolites are characterized by km-scale gabbroic sequences intruded into mantle peridotites and exposed at the seafloor. These gabbroic sequences mostly consist of troctolites, olivine-gabbros and clinopyroxene-rich gabbros and locally include olivine-rich troctolite bodies (Renna and Tribuzio, 2011). The large-scale gabbroic sequences from the Ligurian ophiolites also enclose a few mantle peridotite bodies and bear striking structural and compositional resemblances to the gabbroic sequences from modern slow spreading ridges (Sanfilippo and Tribuzio, 2011). Field observations and petrological and geochemical data are used to constrain a conceptual model for the formation of the gabbroic sequences from the Alpine ophiolites. The proposed model begins with a hot mantle evolution under plagioclase facies conditions, in which melt transport occurred mainly in the form of grain scale porous flow. In particular, reactive channeling of olivine-saturated melts formed replacive dunitic conduits, whereas residual orthopyroxene-saturated melts led to melt impregnation of the mantle section. The hot lithospheric evolution is followed by an evolution characterized by melt transport through fractures, which started with crystallization of melt into gabbroic dikes. This diking event is likely correlated with the formation of the olivine-rich troctolites. These rocks show a process of infiltration of MORB-type melts saturated in plagioclase + clinopyroxene into an olivine-spinel matrix that is inferred to have formed in mantle melt conduits of replacive origin. As the mantle section cooled significantly, the dip of the melt migration structures evolved from sub-vertical to sub-horizontal. This is shown by the occurrence of sill-shaped gabbroic intrusions, which locally crosscut the gabbroic dikes within the mantle section and the olivine-rich troctolites. The growth of the gabbroic sequences is attributed to series of sill-like separate intrusions. The olivine-rich troctolite and the mantle peridotite bodies present within the gabbroic sequences may be similarly considered as remnants of a mantle section that was dissected by the multiple sill intrusions. Renna M.R., Tribuzio R. (2011) Olivine-rich troctolites from Ligurian ophiolites (Italy): Evidence for impregnation of replacive mantle conduits by MORB-type melts. Journal of Petrology, doi:0.1093/petrology/egr029 Sanfilippo A., Tribuzio R. (2011) Melt transport and deformation history in an "non-volcanic" ophiolitic section (Northern Apennine, Italy): implications for crustal accretion at slow spreading settings. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 12, doi:10.1029/2010GC003429

  9. Recycling of crustal materials through study of ultrahigh-pressure minerals in collisional orogens, ophiolites, and mantle xenoliths: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Juhn G.; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Yang, Jingsui; Zhang, R. Y.; Ernst, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Newly recognized occurrences of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals including diamonds in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) felsic granulites of orogenic belts, in chromitites associated with ophiolitic complexes, and in mantle xenoliths suggest the recycling of crustal materials through deep subduction, mantle upwelling, and return to the Earth's surface. This circulation process is supported by crust-derived mineral inclusions in deep-seated zircons, chromites, and diamonds from collision-type orogens, from eclogitic xenoliths in kimberlites, and from chromitities of several Alpine-Himalayan and Polar Ural ophiolites; some of these minerals contain low-atomic number elements typified by crustal isotopic signatures. Ophiolite-type diamonds in placer deposits and as inclusions in chromitites together with numerous highly reduced minerals and alloys appear to have formed near the mantle transition zone. In addition to ringwoodite and inferred stishovite, a number of nanometric minerals have been identified as inclusions employing state-of-the-art analytical tools. Reconstitution of now-exsolved precursor UHP phases and recognition of subtle decompression microstructures produced during exhumation reflect earlier UHP conditions. For example, Tibetan chromites containing exsolution lamellae of coesite + diopside suggest that the original chromitites formed at P > 9-10 GPa at depths of >250-300 km. The precursor phase most likely had a Ca-ferrite or a Ca-titanite structure; both are polymorphs of chromite and (at 2000 °C) would have formed at minimum pressures of P > 12.5 or 20 GPa respectively. Some podiform chromitites and host peridotites contain rare minerals of undoubted crustal origin, including zircon, feldspars, garnet, kyanite, andalusite, quartz, and rutile; the zircons possess much older U-Pb ages than the time of ophiolite formation. These UHP mineral-bearing chromitite hosts evidently had a deep-seated evolution prior to extensional mantle upwelling and partial melting at shallow depths to form the overlying ophiolite complexes. These new findings together with stable isotopic and inclusion characteristics of diamonds provide compelling evidence for profound underflow of both oceanic and continental lithosphere, recycling of surface 'organic' carbon into the lower mantle, and ascent to the Earth's surface through mantle upwelling. Intensified study of UHP granulite-facies lower crustal basement and ophiolitic chromitites should allow a better understanding of the geodynamics of subduction and crustal cycling.

  10. Geochemical evidence for Late Cretaceous marginal arc-to-backarc transition in the Sabzevar ophiolitic extrusive sequence, northeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari Jafari, Morteza; Babaie, Hassan A.; Gani, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    The ophiolitic extrusive sequence, exposed in an area north of Sabzevar, has three major parts: a lower part, with abundant breccia, hyaloclastic tuff, and sheet flow, a middle part with vesicular, aphyric pillow lava, and an upper part with a sequence of lava and volcanic-sedimentary rocks. Pelagic limestone interlayers contain Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian-Late Maastrichtian) microfauna. The supra-ophiolitic series includes a sequence of turbidititic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks with lava flow, aphyric and phyric lava, and interlayers of pelagic limestone and radiolarian chert. Paleontological investigation of the pelagic limestone and radiolarite interlayers in this series gives a Late Cretaceous age, supporting the idea that the supra-ophiolitic series formed in a trough, synchronous with the Sabzevar oceanic crust during the Late Cretaceous. Geochemical data indicate a relationship between lava in the upper part of the extrusive sequence and lava in the supra-ophiolitic series. These lavas have a calc-alkaline to almost alkaline characteristic, and show a clear depletion in Nb and definite depletions in Zr and Ti in spider diagrams. Data from these rocks plot in the subduction zone field in tectonomagmatic diagrams. The concentration and position of the heavy rare earth elements in the spider diagrams, and their slight variation, can be attributed to partial melting of the depleted mantle wedge above the subducted slab, and enrichment in the LILE can be attributed to subduction components (fluid, melt) released from the subducting slab. In comparison, the sheet flow and pillow lava of the lower and middle parts of the extrusive sequence show OIB characteristics and high potassium magmatic and shoshonitic trends, and their spider diagram patterns show Nb, Zr, and Ti depletions. The enrichment in the LILE in the spider diagram patterns suggest a low rate of partial melting of an enriched, garnet-bearing mantle. It seems that the marginal arc basin, in which the Sabzevar ophiolite was forming, experienced lithospheric extension in response to slab rollback. This process, which formed a backarc basin, may have aborted the embryonic arc, stopped arc magmatism, and led to the rise of mantle diapirs. The extrusive ophiolite sequence, north of Sabzevar probably formed during the transition from a marginal arc basin to a backarc basin during the Late Cretaceous.

  11. MORB to supra-subduction geochemical transition in the extrusive sequences of major upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H. A.; Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Moslempour, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the geochemical patterns and tectonomagmatic setting of the extrusive sequences in the Khoy, Kermanshah, Fannuj, Nosratabad, Dehshir, south and north Fariman, and Sabzevar ophiolite massifs of Iran. These sequences include pillow lava, sheet flow, hyaloclastite, hyaloclastic breccia, and interbeds of chert and pelagic limestone with Late Cretaceous micro fauna. The Khoy, north Fariman, and Sabzevar massifs also include Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene supra-ophiolitic volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks that formed in a trough near the extrusive sequence. The Khoy pillow lava displays T-MORB characteristics but no chemical contribution from the components released from the subducted slab. On the other hand, the diabase dikes that cut the Khoy extrusive sequence show signatures of subduction zone magmatism and contribution from the melt released through the partial melting of the subducted slab. While lava in the Harsin (Kermanshah) extrusive sequence in west Iran displays E-MORB and P-MORB characteristics, the pillows in the Fannuj, north Fariman, Dehshir, and Sabzevar extrusive sequences indicate the contribution of both fluids and melt from the subducted slab. The Nosratabad and south Fariman ophiolites also show evidence for either melt or fluids, respectively. Partial melting of the subducted slab sedimentary cover may have formed the acidic pillow lava and sheet flow in the Fannuj and Nosratabad extrusive sequence, respectively. Some pillows in the Nosratabad, Sabzevar, north Fariman, and to a lesser extent, Dehshir extrusive sequence display the OIB geochemical characteristics. Mantle plumes or asthenospheric flow that probably moved up through weak zones of the subducted slab may have affected the partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab. The combined OIB and supra-subduction characteristics suggest the role of the roll-back of the subducted slab in the magmatism of the northeast Iranian ophiolites. The clear MORB-like geochemical characteristics in the extrusive sequence of the ophiolites in northwest and west Iran, and supra-subduction zone characteristics in the extrusive sequence of the ophiolites in southeast and east Iran, west of the Lut Block, and northeast Iran may represent a major Late Cretaceous transition from the MORB to a supra-subduction zone setting.

  12. The effects of partial melting, melt-mantle interaction and fractionation on ophiolite generation: Constraints from the late Cretaceous Pozantı-Karsantı ophiolite, southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Samet; Uysal, Ibrahim; Akmaz, Recep Melih; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Hochleitner, Rupert

    2014-08-01

    The Pozantı-Karsantı ophiolite consists of a mantle unit and overlying crustal rocks. The mantle peridotite is composed of harzburgitic to dunitic rocks that are depleted in Al2O3 and CaO compared to primitive mantle. The low whole-rock Al and Ca values are consistent with the high Cr# [= 100 × Cr/(Cr + Al)] values of spinel that range from 44 to 70. These spinels generally have low TiO2 (< 0.06 wt.%) concentrations, although spinels with high-Cr compositions in certain samples exhibit enrichments of up to 0.16 wt.% TiO2. The concentrations of chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) indicate depletion toward heavy to middle REEs. However, the entire mantle peridotite samples exhibit marked enrichment in light REEs and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) compared to middle REEs. The heavy REE patterns of some peridotite samples are comparable to the calculated melting curves representing various degrees of melting and are modeled by ~ 24% to 30% melting in the spinel stability field. However, some samples are more depleted in the middle REEs than heavy REEs. The patterns of heavy to middle REEs do not follow the melting lines produced by various degrees of melting in the spinel stability field. The heavy REE composition of these peridotite samples suggests that partial melting began in the garnet stability field and continued into the spinel stability field; they represent ~ 22% to 26% melting under various pressure conditions. High anorthite content of plagioclase as well as Nb-depleted composition of mafic cumulates and isotropic gabbros indicate that the crustal rocks of the Pozantı-Karsantı ophiolite formed from a melt that has been produced by melting of depleted source. This melt is thought to have enriched in light REE and fluid mobile elements that were released from the subducting slab during the subduction of Neotethyan ocean. The whole-rock light REE and LILE enrichments and the higher TiO2 concentrations of the high-Cr# spinels in some mantle peridotite samples cannot be explained by simple melt extraction in a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environment and require melting and enrichment processes in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting. However, these features of the peridotites can be explained by the interaction of light REEs and TiO2-rich melts and fluids with peridotites that were depleted during melting events in an MOR environment. This interaction, took place in a supra-subduction zone environment, may have increased the light REE concentrations in the peridotites and caused the re-equilibration of the Ti-depleted spinel to produce Ti-richer spinel and therefore explains the geochemical signatures of the Pozantı-Karsantı peridotites.

  13. Proprietes des melanges de poudres d'aciers inoxydables 316L/h-BN et 409L/h-BN frittes sous differentes atmospheres (hydrogen-nitrogen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Thierry

    L'influence de la composition d'atmospheres de frittage "hydrogene---azote" sur les proprietes de specimens produits par metallurgie des poudres a partir de melanges de poudres d'aciers inoxydables 316L et 409L et de poudre de nitrure de bore hexagonal (h-BN) a ete etudiee. Ces proprietes ont ete comparees a celles de specimens sans h-BN frittes simultanement dans la meme atmosphere. Une mince couche dense s'est formee a la surface des echantillons contenant du h-BN frittes dans une atmosphere contenant au moins 50% en volume d'hydrogene. Cette couche dense ameliore generalement les proprietes de l'alliage 316L. Les proprietes de l'alliage 409L montrent une amelioration beaucoup moins significative qui s'amenuise lorsque l'atmosphere s'appauvrit en azote. L'azote favorise la corrosion de specimens de 409L avec ou sans h-BN. Quant au 316L, il demeure resistant a la corrosion malgre la presence d'un peu d'azote au frittage et l'addition de h-BN lui est benefique particulierement lorsque fritte en presence d'une teneur elevee d'azote (jusqu'a 50%vol. N2) qui permet tout de meme la formation d'une couche dense en surface.

  14. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  15. A melt-focusing zone in the lithospheric mantle preserved in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, Pilar; Gazel, Esteban; Denyer, Percy; Smith, Ian; Jicha, Brian; Flores, Kennet E.; Coleman, Drew; Snow, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    The Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica is composed of a well-preserved fragment of the lithospheric mantle that formed along a paleo-spreading center. Within its exposed architecture, this ophiolite records a deep section of the melt transport system of a slow/ultra-slow spreading environment, featuring a well-developed melt-focusing system of coalescent diabase dikes that intrude the peridotite in a sub-vertical and sub-parallel arrangement. Here we present an integrated analysis of new structural data, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, major and trace element geochemistry and radiogenic isotope data from the diabase dikes in order to elucidate the tectonic setting of the Santa Elena Ophiolite. The dikes are basaltic and tholeiitic in composition. Petrological models of fractional crystallization suggest deep pressures of crystallization of > 0.4 GPa for most of the samples, which is in good agreement with similar calculations from slow/ultra-slow spreading ridges and require a relatively hydrated (~ 0.5 wt.% H2O) MORB-like source composition. The diabase dikes share geochemical and isotope signatures with both slow/ultra-slow spreading ridges and back-arc basins and indicate mixing of a DMM source and an enriched mantle end-member like EMII. The 40Ar/39Ar geochronology yielded an age of ~ 131 Ma for a previous pegmatitic gabbroic magmatic event that intruded the peridotite when it was hot and plastic and an age of ~ 121 Ma for the diabase intrusions, constraining the cooling from near asthenospheric conditions to lithospheric mantle conditions to ~ 10 Ma. Our findings suggest a complex interplay between oceanic basin and back-arc extension environments during the Santa Elena Ophiolite formation. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the origin of Santa Elena as an obducted fragment of an oceanic core complex (OCC).

  16. Upper crustal structure beneath the Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Luzon, Philippines inferred from integrated gravity, magnetic and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salapare, Ricky C.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Yumul, Graciano P.

    2015-06-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in the western portion of Luzon Island, Philippines represents a typical exposure of an emplaced crust-upper mantle section of an ancient lithosphere. The ZOC is divided into the Acoje and Coto Blocks based on petrological, geochemical and age disparities, thus implying diverse and complex origins for the archipelago's lithospheric sources. We used gravity and magnetic data to reveal differences in the subsurface characteristics of the two ophiolite blocks for the first time. Low Bouguer gravity (<135 mGal) and magnetic (<69 nT) anomalies characterize the ophiolitic units in the Acoje Block whereas high Bouguer gravity (>150 mGal) and magnetic (>110 nT) anomalies typify the Coto Block. Such contrasting signatures further extend at greater depths which reflect the disparities in the crustal density, the basement structure, and the depth to Moho. Petrophysical characteristics such as density, magnetic susceptibility and natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities correlate well with the interpreted Bouguer gravity and magnetic anomalies. Densities of gabbros and peridotites from the Acoje and Coto Blocks reveal mean values ranging from 2640 to 2810 kg m-3 and 2570 to 2690 kg m-3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility (>4.43 × 10-3 SI) and NRM (>0.69 A m-1) data are also generally higher over the Coto Block. Both Bouguer gravity and magnetic anomaly maps reveal a prominent steep gradient that potentially marks the structural contact between Acoje and Coto Blocks. We further infer that the steep anomaly gradient validates the presence of the Lawis Fault Zone which separates the two ophiolite blocks in the Masinloc Massif. Recent field evidence from rock exposures in Coto reveals both right lateral and vertical displacements along the fault zone.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of the Saga and Sangsang ophiolitic massifs, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet: Evidence for an arc-back-arc origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, É.; Hébert, R.; Guilmette, C.; Lesage, G.; Wang, C. S.; Dostal, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Saga and Sangsang ophiolites are located about 600 and 450 km west of Lhasa and represent a western extention of the central portion of the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) ophiolite belt. The Saga massif comprises fresh mantle lherzolite and cpx-harzburgite, an ophiolite mélange (± amphibolite), metamorphosed mafic crustal rocks (meta-gabbro, meta-basalts and amphibolites) and a sequence of uppermost crustal rocks (chert, basaltic lavas, diabase sills and dikes). The Sangsang ophiolite consists of an ophiolite mélange (harzburgite) and upper mantle harzburgite with minor lavas and gabbro. Peridotites from both massifs show variable degrees of serpentinization. Their Mg# varies between 0.89 and 0.91. All peridotites show distinct flat REE (rare earth elements) patterns with La/Yb N ratios close to 1, probably indicative of a refertilized mantle. The Olivine-Spinel equilibrium and the spinel chemistry for the Saga (Cr# ~ 0.10-0.22) and Sangsang (Cr# ~ 0.30-0.55) peridotites suggest that the Saga peridotites have a deeper mantle provenance (> 20 kbar) and have undergone lower degrees of partial melting (5-12%) than the Sangsang peridotites (< 15 kbar; 17-30%). The composition of the Saga peridotites is similar to the composition of pre-oceanic peridotites while peridotites from the Sangsang massif resemble abyssal and subduction-related peridotites. Mafic rocks from both ophiolites have basalt and basaltic andesite compositions. They are slightly depleted in light REE with respect to the heavy REE, with La/Yb N between 0.5 and 0.8 and with a small negative Ta-Nb anomaly suggesting the presence of a subduction component. The abundances of incompatible elements in these mafic rocks are similar to N-MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt) or back-arc-basin basalts (BABB). Our data suggest that the Saga and Sangsang ophiolites belong to an intraoceanic suprasubduction zone segment as postulated for other ophiolitic massifs in the eastern portion of the YZSZ. However, the geochemistry of mantle rocks from these two massifs is different compared to each other (fertile vs. refractory) and compared to other YZSZ ophiolites suggesting different petrogenetic histories. Field relationships and geochemical data furthermore suggest that the Saga and Sangsang ophiolites were formed in a complex arc-back-arc setting where at least two subducting slabs must have been active. This study places one more piece in the YZSZ puzzle and lead to a better understanding of the morphology of the convergence zone before the final stage of collision which led to the present configuration of the suture zone.

  18. Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Abelson, M; Baer, G; Agnon, A

    2001-01-01

    The lateral flow of magma and ductile deformation of the lower crust along oceanic spreading axes has been thought to play a significant role in suppressing both mid-ocean ridge segmentation and variations in crustal thickness. Direct investigation of such flow patterns is hampered by the kilometres of water that cover the oceanic crust, but such studies can be made on ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust accreted to a continent). In the Oman ophiolite, small-scale radial patterns of flow have been mapped along what is thought to be the relict of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we present evidence for broad-scale along-axis flow that has been frozen into the gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus (thought to be representative of a slow-spreading ridge axis). The gabbro suite of Troodos spans nearly 20 km of a segment of a fossil spreading axis, near a ridge-transform intersection. We mapped the pattern of magma flow by analysing the rocks' magnetic fabric at 20 sites widely distributed in the gabbro suite, and by examining the petrographic fabric at 9 sites. We infer an along-axis magma flow for much of the gabbro suite, which indicates that redistribution of melt occurred towards the segment edge in a large depth range of the oceanic crust. Our results support the magma plumbing structure that has been inferred indirectly from a seismic tomography experiment on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. PMID:11343114

  19. The Central Sudetes Rheic Ocean Ophiolites: Quantifying the spatial and temporal extent of the Indian Ocean-Dupal mantle signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    band, Ade R.; Barry, Tiffany; Murphy, Brendan; Saunders, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The Indian Ocean-Dupal (Dupal herein) mantle signature is documented to be an integral component in the formation of the Carboniferous Palaeo-Tethys ophiolites. Spatially associated with the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, the Rheic Ocean separated Laurussia and Gondwana after its conception during the latest Cambrian until closure during the Devonian-Carboniferous Variscan-Alleghanian orogeny. The age and location of Rheic Ocean ophiolites preserved within the Variscide belt offers an insight into the spatial and temporal extent, and also the origin of the Dupal mantle signature. The Central Sudetes Ophiolites consist of the low metamorphic grade, partially dismembered Nowa Ruda, Braszowice and Ślęża mafic/ultramafic bodies of Lower Silesia, Poland. Geochemical analysis of extrusive and hypabyssal lithologies indicate that despite the majority of samples exhibiting characteristics compatible with formation within a SSZ setting (Th and LILE enrichment, Ta and Nb depletion), a significant MORB suite is also present. MORB offer an opportunity to isotopically fingerprint the underlying mantle source region, thus offering an insight into the chemistry of the southern hemisphere mantle at c. 420-400 Ma. Utilising the robust Hf-Nd systematics this study has succeeded in documenting the mantle domain from which the eastern Rheic Ocean was sourced whilst simultaneously constraining the timing and nature of a previous melt extraction event.

  20. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 2. Suprasubduction zone ophiolite formation and metamorphic sole exhumation in context of absolute plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Peters, Kalijn; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim; Guilmette, Carl; Thieulot, Cedric; Plümper, Oliver; Gürer, Derya; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Aldanmaz, Ercan; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2015-06-01

    Analyzing subduction initiation is key for understanding the coupling between plate tectonics and the underlying mantle. Here we focus on suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites and how their formation links to intraoceanic subduction initiation in an absolute plate motion frame. SSZ ophiolites form the majority of exposed oceanic lithosphere fragments and are widely recognized to have formed during intraoceanic subduction initiation. Structural, petrological, geochemical, and plate kinematic constraints on their kinematic evolution show that SSZ crust forms at fore-arc spreading centers at the expense of a mantle wedge, thereby flattening the nascent slab. This leads to the typical inverted pressure gradients found in metamorphic soles that form at the subduction plate contact below and during SSZ crust crystallization. Former spreading centers are preserved in forearcs when subduction initiates along transform faults or off-ridge oceanic detachments. We show how these are reactivated when subduction initiates in the absolute plate motion direction of the inverting weakness zone. Upon inception of slab pull due to, e.g., eclogitization, the sole is separated from the slab, remains welded to the thinned overriding plate lithosphere, and can become intruded by mafic dikes upon asthenospheric influx into the mantle wedge. We propound that most ophiolites thus formed under special geodynamic circumstances and may not be representative of normal oceanic crust. Our study highlights how far-field geodynamic processes and absolute plate motions may force intraoceanic subduction initiation as key toward advancing our understanding of the entire plate tectonic cycle.

  1. Moho transition zone in the Cretaceous Andaman ophiolite, India: A passage from the mantle to the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Morishita, Tomoaki; Gupta, Bidisa Sen; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Bandyopadhyay, Debaditya

    2014-06-01

    We examined the composition and lithological variability from a road section in south-Andaman which represents a pathway to the crustal section of the Cretaceous Andaman ophiolite. Like other well-studied ophiolites worldwide this transition zone is marked by association of olivine-rich troctolite, wehrlite, pyroxenite and gabbroic rocks. The mineral chemical variations document the evolution of this zone by melt-mantle interaction and fractional crystallization. Petrographic evidence suggests that water was introduced during the evolution of this transition zone. The olivine-rich troctolites record impregnation of MORB melt into a residual olivine-rich lithology (replacive dunite) that formed by an earlier episode of melt-peridotite interaction at a slow spreading ridge. The clinopyroxenites indicate formation from an extreme clinopyroxene saturated melt that might be genetically linked with the formation of olivine-rich protolith of the troctolitic rocks prior to melt impregnation. The wehrlite crystallized from the melt residual after the formation of clinopyroxenite. The composition of the impregnating melt that transformed the replacive dunite to olivine-rich troctolite is identical to the gabbroic rocks. We conclude that the association of these rock types from south-Andaman provides us with a snapshot of the switch over of geodynamic setting of the Andaman ophiolite (MOR to arc) as preserved presently between north-Andaman in the north and Rutland Island in the south.

  2. Origin and serpentinization of ultramafic rocks of Manipur Ophiolite Complex in the Indo-Myanmar subduction zone, Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningthoujam, P. S.; Dubey, C. S.; Guillot, S.; Fagion, A.-S.; Shukla, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    The Manipur Ophiolite Complex (MOC) is part of the Manipur-Nagaland ophiolite belt (MNOB). The belt is exposed in the eastern margin of the Indo-Myanmar Ranges (IMRs), which formed by the collision between the India and Myanmar continental plates. Several contrasting views were put forward concerning the origin of the MNOB. The complex represents a dismembered ophiolite sequence with serpentinite as the largest litho-unit formed. Petrography and Raman spectroscopy of the serpentinite suggest that they are serpentinized ultramafic cumulate and peridotite. The serpentinization may have occurred at a condition of low pressure and low temperature metamorphism. Geochemical signatures of the rocks and spinel grains revealed that the protolith be an abyssal peridotite, derived from a less depleted fertile mantle melt at a MORB setting after low degree (10-15%) partial melting. The study concluded that the serpentinite may have been created at a slow-spreading ridge, rather than a supra-subduction-zone setting. These rocks were later obducted and incorporated into the IMR of Indo-Myanmar suture zone.

  3. The Upper Cretaceous ophiolite of North Kozara - remnants of an anomalous mid-ocean ridge segment of the Neotethys?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Vladica; Šarić, Kristina; Grubić, Aleksandar; Cvijić, Ranko; Milošević, Aleksej

    2014-04-01

    This study sheds new light on the origin and evolution of the north Kozara ophiolite, a part of the Sava-Vardar Zone. The Sava-Vardar Zone is regarded as a relict of the youngest Tethyan realm in the present-day Balkan Peninsula. The north Kozara ophiolite consists of a bimodal igneous association comprising isotropic to layered gabbros, diabase dykes and basaltic pillow lavas (basic suite), as well as relicts of predominantly rhyodacite lava flows and analogous shallow intrusions (acid suite). The rocks of the basic suite show relatively flat to moderately light-REE enriched patterns with no or weak negative Eu-anomaly, whereas those of the acid suite exhibit steeper patterns and have distinctively more pronounced Eu- and Sr- negative anomalies. Compared to the known intra-ophiolitic granitoids from the Eastern Vardar Zone, the acid suite rocks are most similar to those considered to be oceanic plagiogranites. The new geochemical data suggest that the basic suite rocks are similar to enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts. The geochemical characteristics of the acid suite rocks indicate that their primary magmas most probably originated via partial melting of gabbros from the lower oceanic crust. Our study confirms the oceanic nature of the north Kozara Mts rock assemblage, and suggests that it may have formed within an anomalous ridge setting similar to present-day Iceland.

  4. Modeling Enhanced In Situ CO2 Mineralization in the Samail Ophiolite Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Shock, E.; Streit, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite aquifer in the Sultanate of Oman is a site of exceptionally well-developed naturally occurring in situ CO2 mineralization, and serves as a natural analog for an engineered CO2 sequestration process. Natural processes within the aquifer can be described by the following reactions [e.g.1,2]: near the surface, infiltrating rainwater dissolves peridotite, increasing dissolved Mg, Ca, and Si; interaction with soil CO2 and carbonate rocks and dust further increases Ca and dissolved C. At deeper levels, groundwater is cut off from the atmosphere-and hence its CO2 source- but continues to dissolve peridotite, and precipitates serpentine, magnesite, and dolomite. The resulting water has a high Ca-OH concentration, essentially no Mg or dissolved C, and ultrabasic pH. When this alkaline water reaches the shallow subsurface or surface, it mixes with CO2-saturated shallow groundwater or absorbs CO2 directly from the atmosphere. Dissolved C reacts with Ca to precipitate calcite on the surface, lowering the pH to basic. This process forms abundant carbonate minerals, both in the subsurface and in surficial travertine terraces. Water chemistry data can be used to determine the amount of CO2 sequestered. The quantity of CO2 mineralized at the surface as CaCO3 can be calculated from the removal of Ca from alkaline water once it discharges at springs, assuming CaCO3 precipitation is the only surficial Ca sink. Water samples from 22 alkaline spring outlets and 16 surface water bodies were used to calculate the average decrease in Ca and increase in TIC as alkaline spring water discharges and flows along the surface, losing its high pH and converting to basic surface water; the values are 1.26 mmol/L Ca and 3.13 mmol/L TIC, respectively. The increase in TIC can be attributed to absorption of atmospheric CO2. In regions with known flow rates, it is possible to determine the total amount of CO2 mineralized annually. For example, near Masibt where the flow rate of a single spring is 3x107 L/yr, the annual loss of Ca is 3.8x104 moles/yr and the amount of CO2 mineralized as CaCO3 by that spring is 0.85 kg/yr. Over 70 alkaline springs have been mapped throughout the Samail Ophiolite3, and doubtless many more exist. At the surface, Ca availability limits carbonate mineral formation; however, in the subsurface, dissolved CO2 must be the limiting species. TIC decreases from 3.24 mmol/L in shallow groundwater to 0.27 mmol/L in alkaline springs. The loss of 2.96 mmol/L TIC likely occurs by magnesite precipitation, meaning that this amount of CO2 is mineralized in the subsurface. If the availability of dissolved CO2 is the limiting factor in mineralization by the Samail Ophiolite aquifer, it may be possible to engineer the system to increase the rate of sequestration by injecting CO2 into the aquifer. To simulate the outcome of such an engineered system, data from the natural system have been incorporated into a reactive transport model. Results of this simulation will be presented. 1Barnes and O’Neil, 1969; 2Bruni et al., 2002; 3Stanger, 1986

  5. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.

    2010-12-01

    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.5-7.7 km/s for the gabbros and 6.3-7.9 km/s for the peridotites. Although the two results are broadly comparable to each other for plagiogranites and gabbros, the calculated velocities are considerably higher than the experimental ones for pillow lavas, dolerites and peridotites. The discrepancy for the pillow lavas and dolerites can be attributed to the presence of pore-spaces in the experimental samples. On the other hand, serpentinization of peridotite samples likely resulted in lower velocities in experiments than in calculation. We compared our results with Vp structure of the oceanic crust and mantle (White et al. 1992, JGR). The calculated Vp of peridotites and gabbros are comparable to those of mantle and layer-3, respectively. The calculated Vp of dolerites is comparable to layer-3 and considerably higher than layer-2 velocities. However, recent deep drilling results (Holes 504B and 1256D) indicate the seismic layer-2 of oceanic crust mainly composed of dolerites, which is consistent with the experimental P-wave velocities of dolerites (Christensen & Smewing, 1981, JGR). These results imply that the velocity structure of seismic layer-2 reflects the distribution of pore-spaces in the upper oceanic crust.

  6. Melt transport and compositional heterogeneities of oceanic mantle: evidence from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanova, Valentina; Savelieva, Galina

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies of ophiolitic and abyssal peridotites published in last two decades convincingly demonstrate that compositional heterogeneities observed in mantle rocks have been largely produced by two main processes: partial melting and melt migration (e.g. [1]). While the effects and degrees of partial melting are more or less easy to decipher by use of petrologic indicators, the compositional changes of mantle peridotites resulting from the magma migration are highly variable and depend on various factors, among which the more important are the mechanisms of melt transport and composition of migrating magmas. Thermo-mechanical modeling suggests that porous flow of melt is the dominant mode of melt migration in the mantle (e.g. [2]). On the other hand, it is widely accepted that melt extraction from the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges occurs as a focused flow via chemically isolated channels. In their pioneering works P. Kelemen and co-authors have shown, that mantle dunites mark such highly permeable channels and were formed by complete dissolution of pyroxene in peridotite during reactive melt flow (e.g. [3]). It is assumed that focusing of diffuse porous melt flow into the channel flow may occur as a result of reactive infiltration instability or/and under the influence of stress (e.g. [3, 4]). Focused magma ascent does not rule out a diffuse porous flow of small amount of melts in shallow mantle, resulted in refertilization of mantle peridotites [5]. For the spreading in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings (fore-arc, immature island arc or back-arc setting), where many of ophiolites were formed [6] one should consider that melt transport processes should have specific features due to thermal structures of SSZ and influence of fluid and/or melt flux derived from the subducted slab and induced the melting in the wedge. We illustrate the current state of issues discussed above by the examples of the mantle section of Voykar ophiolite, Polar Urals, where several stages of plastic deformation and melt migration event are documented [7]. Numerous dunite channels were formed as a result of focused melt flow driven by stress. The latest stage of melt migration is marked by pyroxenite veins formed by SiO2- rich slab-derived melts or fluids, which predominantly moved by cracks under conductive cooling in lithospheric mantle. Following from mineral chemistry, these melts also migrated by diffuse porous flow around crack-channels, impregnating and refertilizing harzburgites. References: 1. Bodinier & Godard, 2003,Treatise Geochem., Elsevier, 2, 103-107; 2. McKenzie, 1984, J. Petrol., 25, 713-765; 3. Kelemen et al., 1997, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London; 355, 283-318; 4. Batanova & Savelieva, 2009, Rus. Geol. Geoph, 50, 763-778; 5. Brunelli et al, 2006, J. Petrol., 47, 745-771 6. Dilek, 2003, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. paper, 373, 1-16; 7. Savelieva et al, 2008, Geotectonics,42, 430-447.

  7. Ophiolites and Continental Margins of the Mesozoic Western U.S. Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Y.

    2001-12-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic history of the western U.S. Cordillera records evidence for multiple episodes of accretionary and collisional orogenic events and orogen-parallel strike-slip faulting. Paleozoic-Jurassic volcanic arc complexes and subduction zone assemblages extending from Mexico to Canada represent an East-Pacific magmatic arc system and an accretionary-type orogen evolved along the North American continental margin. Discontinuous exposures of Paleozoic upper mantle rocks and ophiolitic units structurally beneath this magmatic arc system are remnants of the Panthalassan oceanic lithosphere, which was consumed beneath the North American continent. Pieces of this subducted Panthalassan oceanic lithosphere that underwent high-P metamorphism are locally exposed in the Sierra Nevada foothills (e.g. Feather River Peridotite) indicating that they were subsequently (during the Jurassic) educted in an oblique convergent zone along the continental margin. This west-facing continental margin arc evolved in a broad graben system during much of the Jurassic as a result of extension in the upper plate, keeping pace with slab rollback of the east-dipping subduction zone. Lower to Middle Jurassic volcanoplutonic complexes underlain by an Upper Paleozoic-Lower Mesozoic polygenetic ophiolitic basement currently extend from Baja California-western Mexico through the Sierra-Klamath terranes to Stikinia-Intermontane Superterranes in Canada and represent an archipelago of an east-facing ensimatic arc terrane that developed west and outboard of the North American continental margin arc. The Smartville, Great Valley, and Coast Range ophiolites (S-GV-CR) in northern California are part of this ensimatic terrane and represent the island arc, arc basement, and back-arc tectonic settings, respectively. The oceanic Josephine-Rogue-Chetco-Rattlesnake-Hayfork tectonostratigraphic units in the Klamath Mountains constitute a west-facing island arc system in this ensimatic terrane as a counterpart of the east-facing S-GV-CR system to the south. The Guerrero intra-oceanic island arc system in Mexico was also part of the ensimatic arc terrane. Incorporation of this super arc terrane into the North American continent occurred diachronously along the irregular continental margin in the Middle Jurassic (in the north) through Early Cretaceous (in the south) during an arc-continent collision, marking a collisional orogenic episode in the North American Cordilleran history. Rifting of this accreted arc in the Late Jurassic (155-148 Ma) might have resulted from a sinistral transtensional deformation associated with the rapid NW motion of North America. Magmas generated during this rifting event probably migrated through the accreted arc crust and the continental margin units in the tectonic lower plate. The Franciscan subduction zone dipping eastwards beneath the continent was established in the latest Jurassic, following the collisional event and restoring the North American Cordillera back into an accretionary-type, Andean-style orogen. Different episodes of orogen-parallel intra-continental strike-slip faulting facilitated lateral dispersion of accreted terranes and continental margin units during the Early Cretaceous and transpressional deformation and batholithic magmatism in the Sierra Nevada magmatic arc in the Late Cretaceous. A Jurassic-Cretaceous island arc system (Wrangellia-Insular Superterrane) that had developed west of the Jurassic archipelago collapsed into the edge of North America during Late Cretaceous-Tertiary time and underwent northward lateral translation along the continental margin. These observations and interpretations have strong implications for the tectonic evolution of Central America and the Caribbean region.

  8. Nitrogen cycling in Ophiolite-hosted and Fault-associated Hydrothermal Systems; Spacial and Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Gulecal, Y.; Loiacono, S. T.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Temel, M.

    2011-12-01

    Gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, or community shifts over time or with seasons. Previous work has shown that nitrogen cycling in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring, "Bison Pool", and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of nitrogen isotopes and sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at "Bison Pool" revealed that nitrogen fixation and denitrification varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1-3], and high temperature activity of nifH genes has been shown for another nearby feature [4]. Other recent studies have explored the diversity of nifH and archaeal amoA genes in various terrestrial hydrothermal systems [5-8]. Despite these advances, we are still ignorant of changes in N-cycling over time in the same sample location, and in particular during seasonal climate changes. Further, the role of N-cycling in deeply-sourced fluids associated with ophiolites, which represent deep biosphere processes, is unknown. This study will compare evidence of N-cycling in terrestrial hydrothermal and ophiolite-hosted springs, focusing on the role of microbes as environmental conditions vary over space and time. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], amoA [ammonia oxidation], narG, nirKS, and nosZ [denitrification] genes in a variety of hydrothermal environments in Yellowstone and Turkey, representing fault-associated and deeply-sourced fluids. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for N-cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Fault-associated and ophiolite-hosted springs in Turkey were sampled over several seasons, and the presence and diversity of N-cycle related genes appears to shift temporally. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in these ecosystems. [1]Havig et al., 2010. JGR-Biogeo (in press). [2]Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3]Swingley et al., submitted to PLoS One. [4]Loiacono et al., submitted. FEMS Microbiol Ecol [5]Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74:4910-4922. [6]Steunou et al., 2006. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [7]Hamilton et al., 2011. Env. Micro. DOI 10.1007/s00248-011-9824-9. [8]Zhang et al. 2008, AEM 74:6417-6426.

  9. Jurassic plume-origin ophiolites in Japan: accreted fragments of oceanic plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ishiwatari, Akira; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Senda, Ryoko; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Mikabu and Sorachi-Yezo belts comprise Jurassic ophiolitic complexes in Japan, where abundant basaltic to picritic rocks occur as lavas and hyaloclastite blocks. In the studied northern Hamamatsu and Dodaira areas of the Mikabu belt, these rocks are divided into two geochemical types, namely depleted (D-) and enriched (E-) types. In addition, highly enriched (HE-) type has been reported from other areas in literature. The D-type picrites contain highly magnesian relic olivine phenocrysts up to Fo93.5, and their Fo-NiO trend indicates fractional crystallization from a high-MgO primary magma. The MgO content is calculated as high as 25 wt%, indicating mantle melting at unusually high potential temperature ( T p) up to 1,650 °C. The E-type rocks represent the enrichment in Fe and LREE and the depletion in Mg, Al and HREE relative to the D-type rocks. These chemical characteristics are in good accordance with those of melts from garnet pyroxenite melting. Volcanics in the Sorachi-Yezo belts can be divided into the same types as the Mikabu belt, and the D-type picrites with magnesian olivines also show lines of evidence for production from high T p mantle. Evidence for the high T p mantle and geochemical similarities with high-Mg picrites and komatiites from oceanic and continental large igneous provinces (LIPs) indicate that the Mikabu and Sorachi-Yezo belts are accreted oceanic LIPs that were formed from hot large mantle plumes in the Late Jurassic Pacific Ocean. The E- and D-type rocks were formed as magmas generated by garnet pyroxenite melting at an early stage of LIP magmatism and by depleted peridotite melting at the later stage, respectively. The Mikabu belt characteristically bears abundant ultramafic cumulates, which could have been formed by crystal accumulation from a primary magma generated from Fe-rich peridotite mantle source, and the HE-type magma were produced by low degrees partial melting of garnet pyroxenite source. They should have been formed later and in lower temperatures than the E- and D-type rocks. The Mikabu and Sorachi Plateaus were formed in a low-latitude region of the Late Jurassic Pacific Ocean possibly near a subduction zone, partially experienced high P/ T metamorphism during subduction, and then uplifted in association with (or without, in case of Mikabu) the supra-subduction zone ophiolite. The Mikabu and Sorachi Plateaus may be the Late Jurassic oceanic LIPs that could have been formed in brotherhood with the Shatsky Rise.

  10. Alteration and mineralization of an oceanic forearc and the ophiolite-ocean crust analogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Brewer, T.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Halliday, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic (O, C, S, and Sr) analyses were performed on minerals and bulk rocks from a forearc basement section to understand alteration processes and compare with mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and ophiolites. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B in the Izu-Bonin forearc penetrates 103 m of sediment and 725 m into volcanic flows, breccias, and basal dikes. The rocks comprise boninites and andesites to rhyolites. Most of the section was affected by low-temperature (<100??C) seawater alteration, with temperatures increasing downward. The rocks are partly (5-25%) altered to smectite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite, and phillipsite, and exhibit gains of K, Rb, and P, loss of Ca, variable changes in Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Sr, and Y, and elevated ??18O and 87Sr/86Sr. Higher temperatures (???150??C) in the basal dikes below 750 m led to more intense alteration and formation of chlorite-smectite, corrensite, albite, K-feldspar, and quartz (??chlorite). A 5 m thick hydrothermally altered and pyritized zone at 815 m in the basal dikes reacted with mixtures of seawater and hydrothermal fluids to Mg-chlorite, albite, and pyrite, and gained Mg and S and lost Si and Ca. Focused flow of hydrothermal fluids produced sericitization halos (Na-K sericite, quartz, pyrophyllite, K-feldspar, and pyrite) along quartz veins at temperatures of 200??-250??C. High 87Sr/86Sr ratios of chloritized (???0.7055) and sericitized (???0.7065) rocks indicate involvement of seawater via mixing with hydrothermal fluids. Low ??34S of sulfide (???2 to -5.5???) and sulfate (12.5???) are consistent with input of magmatic SO2 into hydrothermal fluids and disproportionation to sulfide and sulfate. Alteration processes were generally similar to those at MORs, but the arc section is more intensively altered, in part because of the presence of abundant glassy rocks and mafic phases. The increase in alteration grade below 750 m and the mineralization in the basal dikes are analogous to changes that occur near the base of the volcanic section in MOR and the Troodos ophiolite.

  11. Compositional heterogeneities in upper mantle peridotites from the Zambales Range Ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Cynthia; Hawkins, James W.

    1989-10-01

    The Zambales Range of western Luzon, Philippines, is formed largely of mafic and ultramafic rocks that constitute a classic ophiolite assemblage. We recognize two distinct blocks, Acoje and Coto, on the basis of mineralogy, chemistry and the thickness of crustal sections. We interpret these ophiolite units as remnants of crust and mantle from supra-subduction zone settings—the Coto block from a backarc basin and the Acoje block from a nascent island arc (Hawkins and Evans, 1983; Evans, 1983). We present data to contrast the peridotite sections of the two different blocks and discuss their origin. Both peridotite units are primarily harzburgite with minor dunite; in both units there are large concentrations of chromite that form ore deposits. There are subtle changes in lithology and mineralogy in each unit that are correlated with depth below the crustal section. Dunite, orthopyroxene-poor harzburgite and chromite increase in abundance upward toward the "geological Moho" and the base of cumulate ultramafic rocks of the lower crustal section. The upward changes in lithology are matched by changes in modal abundance and composition of the minerals that document increasing (upward) depletion of the peridotite units in "basaltic" components. Mineral show an increase in Mg and Cr and a decrease in Fe, Ca and Al. These changes are best developed in the uppermost 1000 m of each peridotite unit. We attribute these compositional changes mainly to different extents of partial melting. To a lesser extent the changes reflect local exchange between mafic melts, in transit to the surface, and depleted mantle, and exchanges during metamorphic recrystallization. The crustal rocks of the Coto block resemble rocks from backarc basins; the uppermost levels of the peridotite comprise rocks similar to many abyssal peridotites. The Acoje block crustal rocks are best explained as remnants of a nascent island arc; the upper mantle peridotite from Acoje is more depleted than that from Coto having higher {Mg}/{(Mg + Fe)} in silicates, higher {Cr}/{(Cr + Al)} in chromites, a greater proportion of dunite and less clinopyroxene in the harzburgite. The more extensive depletion of the Acoje block (island arc) peridotite probably is due to the multiple melting events that were imposed on these rocks during their evolution in, first, generation of ocean crust and then, later, the generation of island arc crust.

  12. Mapping Microbial Populations Relative to Sites of Ongoing Serpentinization: Results from the Tablelands Ophiolite Complex, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Brazelton, W. J.; Woodruff, Q.; Szponar, N.; Morrill, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    The aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks (serpentinization) has been suggested to be a favorable process for the habitability of astrobodies in our solar system including subsurface environments of Mars and Europa. Serpentinization produces copious quantities of hydrogen and small organic molecules, and leads to highly reducing, highly alkaline conditions (up to pH 12) and a lack of dissolved inorganic carbon, which both stimulates and challenges microbial activities. Several environments on Earth provide insight into the relationships between serpentinization and microbial life including slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, and ophiolite materials emplaced along continental margins. The Tablelands, an ophiolite in western Newfoundland, Canada provides an opportunity to carefully document and map the relationships between geochemical energy, microbial growth, and physiology. Alkaline fluids at the Tablelands originate from 500-million year old oceanic crust and accumulate in shallow pools or seep from beneath serpentinized talus. Fluids, rocks, and gases were collected from the Tablelands during a series of field excursions in 2009 and 2010, and geochemical, microscopic, molecular, and cultivation-based approaches were used to study the serpentinite microbial ecosystem. These samples provide an opportunity to generate a comprehensive map of microbial communities and their activities in space and time. Data indicate that a low but detectable stock of microorganisms inhabit high pH pools associated with end-member serpentinite fluids. Enrichment cultures yielded brightly pigmented colonies related to Alphaproteobacteria, presumably carrying out anoxygenic photosynthesis, and Firmicutes, presumably catalyzing the fermentation of organic matter. Culture-independent analyses of SSU rRNA using T-RFLP indicated low diversity communities of Firmicutes and Archaea in standing alkaline pools, communities of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria at high pH seeps, and assemblages consisting of diverse taxa at neutral pH background sites. Terrestrial serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystems with their accessibility, their low phylogenetic diversity, and limited range of energetic resources provide an excellent opportunity to explore the interplay between geochemical energy and life and to elucidate the native serpentinite subsurface biosphere. From the perspective of Mars exploration, studies of serpentinite ecosystems provide the opportunity to pinpoint the organisms and physiological adaptations specifically associated with serpentinization and to directly measure their geochemical impacts. Both of these results will inform modeling and life detection efforts of the Martian subsurface environment.

  13. Informing geobiology through GIS site suitability analysis: locating springs in mantle units of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, A.; Cardace, D.; August, P.

    2012-12-01

    Springs sourced in the mantle units of ophiolites serve as windows to the deep biosphere, and thus hold promise in elucidating survival strategies of extremophiles, and may also inform discourse on the origin of life on Earth. Understanding how organisms can survive in extreme environments provides clues to how microbial life responds to gradients in pH, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential. Spring locations associated with serpentinites have traditionally been located using a variety of field techniques. The aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks to serpentinites is accompanied by the production of very unusual formation fluids, accessed by drilling into subsurface flow regimes or by sampling at related surface springs. The chemical properties of these springs are unique to water associated with actively serpentinizing rocks; they reflect a reducing subsurface environment reacting at low temperatures producing high pH, Ca-rich formation fluids with high dissolved hydrogen and methane. This study applies GIS site suitability analysis to locate high pH springs upwelling from Coast Range Ophiolite serpentinites in Northern California. We used available geospatial data (e.g., geologic maps, topography, fault locations, known spring locations, etc.) and ArcGIS software to predict new spring localities. Important variables in the suitability model were: (a) bedrock geology (i.e., unit boundaries and contacts for peridotite, serpentinite, possibly pyroxenite, or chromite), (b) fault locations, (c) regional data for groundwater characteristics such as pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+, and (d) slope-aspect ratio. The GIS model derived from these geological and environmental data sets predicts the latitude/longitude points for novel and known high pH springs sourced in serpentinite outcrops in California. Field work confirms the success of the model, and map output can be merged with published environmental microbiology data (e.g., occurrence of hydrogen-oxidizers) to showcase patterns in microbial community structure. Discrepancies between predicted and actual spring locations are then used to tune GIS suitability analysis, re-running the model with corrected geo-referenced data. This presentation highlights a powerful GIS-based technique for accelerating field exploration in this area of ongoing research.

  14. Serpentinization Of The Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway: Geochemical And Physical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, K.; Austrheim, H.; John, T.; Jamtveit, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC) contains all the principle components of an ophiolite and is a part of the Upper Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides. The ultramafic lithologies (harzburgites, dunites, wehrlites and orthopyroxenite dykes) of the LOC undergo hydration dependent on the constituent primary mineral assemblages thus preserving the hydration history over a wide range of temperatures, where the orthopyroxenite dykes record high temperature reactions (~650°C) while the dunites and harzburgites undergo serpentinization reactions at lower temperatures (<400°C). The ubiquity of bastites and mesh textures in the lithologies suggests that hydration occurred under static conditions. One of the important implications of hydration of ultramafic rocks is the effect on element mobility during the process. Although concentrations of some major elements (Mg and Si) in the lithologies of the LOC do not change with hydration, there is ample evidence for transfer of Fe, Mn and Ca within the rocks at the grain- scale. Fe and Mn are mobilized during the alteration of orthopyroxene and results in the formation of secondary olivine with high Fe and Mn contents which later forms serpentine and ferroan-brucite with high Fe and Mn contents. However, Mn is lost during the subsequent oxidation of ferroan-brucite to magnetite. Ca is also mobilized during the serpentinization of primary clinopyroxene, some of which forms secondary diopside after olivine. The release and uptake of elements during hydration processes in ultramafic rocks, therefore, plays an important role in modifying fluid properties and may have a significant impact on vent-fluid chemistry. Another point of interest is the density change occurring during serpentinization and its impact on deformation. Observations suggest that hydration of the orthopyroxenite dykes took place at temperatures higher than serpentinization of the surrounding dunites. The serpentinization of dunites results in a volume change of 25% which 'squeezes' the embedded orthopyroxenite dykes resulting in fracturing. The geometrical and statistical characteristics of the 2-D fracture networks in the dykes are typical of patterns generated during hierarchical fracturing where the layer is progressively broken up into smaller domains. The mechanism of fluid-migration, stress-inducing reactions and fracturing is an important process which creates fresh, reactive surfaces and new pathways for fluid infiltration.

  15. The Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet: a fossil oceanic forearc generated during subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J.; Wang, C.; Zhu, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite is located at the central Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, southern Tibet representing the remnants of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. It displays well preserved sections from mantle to crustal rocks, together with overlying marine sediments. The Xigaze peridotites have low CaO and Al2O3 contents and U-shaped REE patterns, suggesting that they are residues after moderate to high degrees of partial melting and were modified by infiltration of LREE-enriched boninitic melts. Two of five massifs from the Xigaze pillow lavas display tholeiitic affinity, while other three massifs show calcalkalic characteristics. The latter lavas show more HFSE-depleted and LILE-enriched compositions than those of the former. The latest diabase dikes possess high SiO2 and low TiO2 contents and show flat to LREE enrichment patterns, indicating they are analogue with boninitic rocks. Tholeiitic lavas were formed via decompression melting of a fertile lherzolitic source, whereas calcalkalic lavas and latest stage dikes were generated by melting of residual harzburgite and were influenced by slab-derived fluids. Both mantle and crustal rocks were invaded by plagiogranite dikes. The first plagiogranite group invaded into the crustal rocks lies on a continuation of the chemical trends defined by the mafic rocks and show similar REE patterns with the lavas, indicating they were generated by shallow fractional crystallisation. The second plagiogranite group invaded into the mantle displays different trends on Harker and REE patterns with diabase dike and enclave, but show uniform LREE depletion similar with mafic rocks, suggesting that they might be the product of subducted mafic slabs melting. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses from the second plagiogranites reveal that they were generated between 125-122 Ma, indistinguishable from those of mafic rocks. The zircons possess positive ɛHf(t) values ranging from +12.3 to +16.4, suggesting they were derived from depleted source. Taking into account the geological and geochronological characteristics of the Xigaze ophiolite, we propose they were formed in a forearc setting through rapid slab rollback during subduction initiation between 127-122 Ma.

  16. Zircon ages and geochemical compositions of the Manlay ophiolite and coeval island arc: Implications for the tectonic evolution of South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Miao, Laicheng; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Zhang, Fochin; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Yueming

    2014-12-01

    Numerous small dismembered ophiolite fragments occur in South Mongolia, but they are very poorly studied. The lack of age data and geochemical analysis hampers our understanding of the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the region. We conducted detailed studies on the Manlay ophiolitic complex and Huree volcanic rocks south of the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML) to provide some constraints on these rocks. The Manlay ophiolite consists of dunite, harzburgite, pyroxenite, gabbro, plagiogranite, basalt and chert, locally with chromite mineralization in dunite. The gabbro and plagiogranite yielded SHRIMP zircon weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 509 ± 5 Ma and 482 ± 4 Ma, respectively. The basalt and dolerite samples of this complex show enrichment in LREE and LILE and negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, and the chrome spinel from the chromitite lens in the dunite is characterized by high Cr# and low TiO2 contents. These features suggest a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) origin for the ophiolitic complex. The Huree volcanic rocks, ranging from basalt to dacite, display enrichment in LREE and LILE, weak Eu anomalies and distinctly negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, consistent with those of typical magmas in a subduction environment. An andesite sample from this arc yielded a SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon age of 487 ± 5 Ma, which is the oldest reliable age for an island arc in South Mongolia. Recognition of an Early Paleozoic ophiolitic complex and a coeval island arc indicates that South Mongolia underwent a period of active volcanism during Late Cambrian to Ordovician. Additionally, the tuff overlying the ophiolitic complex and a granite intruding the ophiolite have SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 391 ± 5 Ma and 304 ± 4 Ma, respectively. Combining the available data, we propose that the Early Paleozoic subduction-accretionary complexes likely constitute the basement of the Late-Paleozoic arc formations and correlate with the Lake Zone in western Mongolia.

  17. Paleozoic ophiolitic mélanges from the South Tianshan Orogen, NW China: Geological, geochemical and geochronological implications for the geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tuo; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; Qian, Qing; Zhang, Xi; Xiong, Xianming; Wang, Xinshui; Tan, Zhou; Chen, Bangxue

    2014-02-01

    Two ophiolitic mélange belts, the South Central Tianshan Ophiolite Belt (SCTOB) and the South Tianshan Ophiolite Belt (STOB), extend almost parallel to the Chinese South Tianshan Orogen - the southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The SCTOB occurs interlayered in the South Central Tianshan Suture Zone, the STOB as exotic blocks in Palaeozoic sedimentary strata. However, their tectonic settings and ages, which are crucial for understanding the formation of the CAOB, are still controversially discussed. In order to better understand these geological problems, geological, geochemical and geochronological investigations were conducted on the Guluogou (SCTOB) as well as on the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi ophiolitic mélanges (STOB). The ophiolitic suites are composed of basalts, gabbros and mantle peridotites. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon ages of 334 ± 5 Ma and 332 ± 7 Ma were obtained for the Guluogou gabbros, while SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of 423 ± 10 Ma and 423 ± 4 Ma were determined for the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi gabbros. The mineral composition of the mantle peridotites and the geochemical characteristics of the basalts suggest a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) type affinity for the Guluogou ophiolite and a SSZ type affinity for the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi ophiolites. The present data, combined with previously published results, indicate that the STOB may have been derived from a forearc rifting setting that existed during the early Silurian to the early Carboniferous (ca. 439-356 Ma), whereas the SCTOB may represent fragments of a normal wide ocean that lasted to the early Carboniferous (ca. 332 Ma).

  18. The southern margin of the Caribbean Plate in Venezuela: tectono-magmatic setting of the ophiolitic units and kinematic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Beccaluva, Luigi; Coltorti, Massimo; Siena, Franca; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2002-07-01

    The southern Caribbean Plate margin in Venezuela consists of a W-E elongated deformed belt, composed of several tectonic units dismembered along the northern part of the South America continental Plate since the Late Cretaceous. The present review, based on petrology and tectono-magmatic significance of each unit, makes it possible to define the main geotectonic elements and to reconstruct the paleogeographic domains from Late Jurassic to Tertiary: (a) Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) proto-Caribbean oceanic basin (Loma de Hierro Unit); (b) oceanic plateau (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands basement); (c) rifted continental margin (Cordillera de La Costa and Caucagua-El Tinaco Units) with Within Plate Tholeiitic (WPTh) magmatism; (d) an intra-oceanic subduction zone represented by Island Arc Tholeiitic (IAT) magmatism (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units) of Early Cretaceous age; (e) an Early Cretaceous ocean-continent subduction trench filled by melange (Franja Costera); (f) a new intra-oceanic subduction zone, represented by the tonalitic arc magmatism of Late Cretaceous age (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands). Regional tectonic constraints and coherent kinematic reconstruction suggest an original "near-Mid America" location of the Jurassic-Cretaceous "proto-Caribbean" oceanic realm. From Early to Late Cretaceous one sub-continental subduction with melanges (Franja Costera Unit) and two main stages of intra-oceanic arc magmatism are recorded in the so-called "eo-Caribbean" phases. The first consists of generally metamorphosed and deformed volcano-plutonic sequences with IAT affinity (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units), probably in relation to a southeastward-dipping subduction. The second is mainly represented by generally unmetamorphosed tonalitic intrusives cutting the oceanic plateau in the Dutch and Venezuelan Islands, and related to the new intra-oceanic subduction with reverse lithospheric sinking. The latter probably marked the onset of the Aves/Lesser Antilles arc system in the Late Cretaceous.

  19. Trace Element Geochemical Signature of Basalts and Diabases from the Bay of Islands Ophiolite in Western Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Casey, J. F.; Gao, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The Bay of Islands Ophiolite in western Newfoundland lies along the Appalachian Orogenic Belt and records the generation and destruction of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean from the Late-Precambrian to the middle Ordovician Taconic Orogeny. In previous geochemical studies, Jenner et al. (1991) analyzed mainly andesites and trondhjemites dominantly from Coastal Complex, which is not considered part of the Bay of Islands Ophiolite proper. He showed that these fractionated rocks mainly contained negative Nb anomalies on multi-element variations diagrams and attributed the petrogenesis of the Coastal Complex and by extension the Bay of Islands Complex to formation within arc or supra-subduction zone environment. Likewise Elthon's (1991) analyses of diabase from the North Arm Mountain Massif of the Bay of Islands Complex showed similar, but more moderately negative Ta anomalies. In this study, 50 diabases and basalts from the \\label{OLE_LINK1}North Arm Mountain and Blow Me Down Mountain massifs in the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex (proper)were analyzed for trace elements via ICP-MS. When our existing XRF major and trace element geochemical data were supplemented by a more complete ICP-MS trace element data set from the Bay of Islands Complex (proper), it is quite clear that the Blow Me Down samples appear more MORB-like with very small negative Nb-Ta anomalies when compared to the North Arm samples, which have somewhat more negative Nb and Ta anomalies, relative to La and Th. The mafic assemblages from the ophiolite most likely include a mixture of what are referred to as MORB-like and arc-like (or suprasubduction zone) signatures. However, the North Arm and Blow Me Down Massif basalts and diabases signatures may be similar to some MORB with arc-like signatures. We review the ambiguities created by the use of Nb-Ta anomalies in interpreting tectonic setting and classifying ophiolites. We also review the validity of using Nb-Ta anomalies in highly fractionated andesites and plagiogranites as descriminators of tectonic environment.

  20. KAr and {40Ar }/{39}Ar study of metamorphic rocks associated with the Oman ophiolite: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montigny, R.; Le Mer, O.; Thuizat, R.; Whitechurch, H.

    1988-09-01

    K-Ar analyses on extracted minerals are reported for a variety of metamorphic rocks associated with the Sumail ophiolite. Amphibolites lying at the sole of the ophiolite yield ages of 95-100 Ma, which are viewed as reflecting times of crystallization. High-pressure metamorphics of the Saih Hatat reveal complex results: white micas range in age from 80 to 131 Ma whereas blue amphiboles indicate ages that are systematically lower than those of coexisting white micas. Investigation of a few white micas by the {40Ar }/{39Ar } step heating method yields rather intricate age spectra, featuring low apparent ages in the first and the last stages of gas release and high apparent ages in between. Two explanations can be equally envisaged for these convex-upward age spectra. The first is the mixing of two generations of micas, corresponding to two main metamorphisms. The first one ( M1) is a low- to medium-temperature, high-pressure event which conceivably occurred between 130 and 114 m.y. ago. The second ( M2) overprints M1 and has produced rocks typical of the greenschist facies. It took place 80 m.y. ago and also affected the sole of the ophiolites. The second is the presence of excess argon in mica mixtures with complex degassing properties. Thus, the two metamorphic phases identified by microscopic inspection are not significantly different in age. They occurred in the 70-80 Ma interval. Moreover, K-Ar dates on amphibole from gabbroic dikes intersecting the peridotites suggest that they are genetically linked to the mafic part of the ophiolites. Assuming that metamorphism is a tracer of tectonic events, we view the infraophiolitic amphibolites as the result of an intraoceanic thrusting which took place near a spreading center. Nevertheless, the uncertainty as to the age of the blueschist metamorphism precludes the possibility of indicating a timetable, based on metamorphic ages, for the motion shift of Africa relative to Eurasia during the Late Cretaceous. A tentative model of the obduction of the Sumail ophiolite is proposed assuming an age of about 130 Ma for M1. We stress differences with respect to earlier reconstructions which advocated an 80 m.y. old blueschist metamorphism.

  1. Crustal Accretion at Subduction Initiation Along Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc and the Link to SSZ Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Tani, K.; Reagan, M. K.; Kanayama, K.; Umino, S.; Harigane, Y.; Sakamoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) forearc preserves the earliest arc magmatic history from subduction initiation to the establishment of the arc. Recent investigations have established a bottom to top igneous stratigraphy of: 1) mantle peridotite, 2) gabbroic rocks, 3) a sheeted dyke complex, 4) basaltic pillow lavas (forearc basalts: FAB), 5) boninites and magnesian andesites, 6) tholeiites and calcalkaline arc lavas. This stratigraphy has many similarities to supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites. One of the most important common characteristics between the SSZ ophiolites and the forearc crust is the occurrence of MORB-like basaltic lavas underlying or accompanying boninites and early arc volcanic suites. A key observation from the IBM forearc is that FAB differs from nearby back-arc lavas in chemical characteristics, including a depletion in moderately incompatible elements. This indicates that FAB is not a pre-existing oceanic basement of the arc, but the first magmatic product after subduction initiation. Sheeted dikes of FAB composition imply that this magmatism was associated with seafloor spreading, possibly triggered by onset of slab sinking. Recognition of lavas with transitional geochemical characteristics between the FAB and the boninites strongly implies genetic linkage between these two magma types. The close similarity of the igneous stratigraphy of SSZ ophiolites to the IBM forearc section strongly implies a common magmatic evolutionary path, i.e., decompressional melting of a depleted MORB-type mantle is followed by melting of an even more depleted mantle with the addition of slab-derived fluid/melt to produce boninite magma. Similarity of magmatic process between IBM forearc and Tethyan ophiolites appears to be reflected on common characteristics of upper mantle section. Peridotite from both sections show more depleted characteristics compared to upper mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges. Age determinations reveal that first magmatism at the IBM arc occurred at c. 52 Ma, and transition from forearc basalt to normal arc magmatism took 7-8 million years. Combined with the age information from SSZ-ophiolites, significant constraints on time scale of subduction initiation and associated crustal accretion might be obtained.

  2. Supra-subduction zone tectonic setting of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, northwestern Pakistan: Insights from geochemistry and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakar, Mohammad Ishaq; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid; Collins, Alan S.; Khan, Mehrab; McDonald, Iain

    2014-08-01

    The geology of the Muslim Bagh area comprises the Indian passive continental margin and suture zone, which is overlain by the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, Bagh Complex and a Flysch Zone of marine-fluvial successions. The Muslim Bagh Ophiolite has a nearly-complete ophiolite stratigraphy. The mantle sequence of foliated peridotite is mainly harzburgite with minor dunite and contains podiform chromite deposits that grade upwards into transition zone dunite. The mantle rocks (harzburgite/dunite) resulted from large degrees of partial melting of lherzolite and have also been affected by melt-peridotite reaction. The Muslim Bagh crustal section has a cyclic succession of ultramafic-mafic cumulate with dunite at the base, that grades into wehrlite/pyroxenite with gabbros (olivine gabbro, norite and hornblende gabbro) at the top. The sheeted dykes are immature in nature and are rooted in crustal gabbros. The dykes are mainly metamorphosed dolerites, with minor intrusions of plagiogranites. The configuration of the crustal section indicates that the crustal rocks were formed over variable time periods, in pulses, by a low magma supply rate. The whole rock geochemistry of the gabbros, sheeted dykes and the mafic dyke swarm suggests that they formed in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting in Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous. The dykes of the mafic swarm crosscut both the ophiolite and the metamorphic sole rocks and have a less-marked subduction signature than the other mafic rocks. These dykes were possibly emplaced off-axis and can be interpreted to have been generated in the spinel peridotite stability zone i.e., < 50-60 km, and to have risen through a slab window. The Bagh Complex is an assemblage of Triassic-Cretaceous igneous and sedimentary rocks, containing tholeiitic, N-MORB-like basalts and alkali basalts with OIB-type signatures. Nb-Ta depletion in both basalt types suggests possible contamination from continental fragments incorporated into the opening Tethyan oceanic basin during break-up of Gondwana. The lithologies and ages of the Bagh Complex imply that these rocks formed in an area extending from the continental margin over the Neo-Tethyan ocean floor. The Bagh Complex was then juxtaposed with the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite in the final stage of tectonic emplacement.

  3. Geochemical consequences of flow differentiation in a multiple injection dike (Trinity ophiolite, N. California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinopyroxene-rich dike of the Trinity ophiolite sheeted-dike complex shows three different magmatic pulses, probably injected in a short period of time (no well developed chilled margin) and important variations of the clinopyroxene and plagioclase percentages between its core (highly porphyritic) and margins (aphyric). This variation, interpreted as related to a flow differentiation phenomenon (mechanical phenocryst redistribution), has important geochemical consequences. It produces increases in the FeO, MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents from the margin to the core, together with increases in the clinopyroxene percentage, and decreases in the SiO2, Zr, Y, Nb and REE contents together with a decrease in the percentage of the fine-grained groundmass toward the core of the dike. This mineralogical redistribution, which also affects the incompatible trace element ratios because of the difference in plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral/liquid partition coefficients, illustrate the importance of fractionation processes outside of a magma chamber. ?? 1991.

  4. Oman Ophiolite Structural Constraints Complement Models of Crustal Accretion at the EAST Pacific RISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Jousselin, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    This review documents significant similarities between East Pacific Rise (EPR), especially EPR at 9-10N and the Oman ophiolites. Both share comparable fast spreading rates, size and their dominant source of information that is mainly geophysical in EPR and structural in Oman. In these respects, they are remarkably complementary. Mantle upwelling zones at the EPR and mantle diapirs in Oman have a similar size and spacing. They punctually introduce basaltic melt and heat in the accreting crust, thus controlling elementary segments structure and activity. A tent-shaped magma chamber fits onto the diapir head, the top of which is a Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) that stores, modifies, and injects the modified melt into the upper Axial Melt Lens (AML) beneath the lid. This MTZ-AML connection is central in crustal accretion, as documented in Oman. Heat from the diapir is captured above the Moho by the magma chamber and escapes through its walls, into a thin thermal boundary layer that bounds the chamber. Beyond, seawater at lower temperatures feeds smokers on the seafloor.

  5. Geochemistry and origin of the ophiolite hosted magnesite deposit at Derakht-Senjed, NE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnejad, Hassan; Aminzadeh, Mahrokh; Ebner, Fritz; Unterweissacher, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Derakht-Senjed magnesite deposit, hosted by Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolite in NE Iran, is developed as veins, veinlets and stockwork type mineralization. While the veins and veinlets only contain magnesite, the stockwork mineralization in addition contains sparry dolomite interlayered with magnesite. Magnesite and dolomite are both poor in FeO and SiO2. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of magnesite (δ13CV-PDB = -3.9 ± 0.1 to -5.0 ± 0.1‰; δ18OV-SMOW = +25.2 ± 0.1 to +26.5 ± 0.1 ‰) can be explained by contribution of atmospheric CO2 and/or an involvement by organic carbon. Dolomite typically shows slightly lower values of δ13C V-PDB -5.2 ± 0.1 to -5.5 ± 0.1‰ and δ18OV-SMOW + 23.8 ± 0.1 to +24.8 ± 0.1‰ compared to the magnesite. The formation of magnesite at Derakht-Senjed was structurally controlled by a fracture network in the ultramafic host rocks, which provided suitable fluid pathways for leaching of Mg from the host rocks and subsequent precipitation of magnesite from carbonated solutions. It is likely that dolomite formed due to precipitation from a fluid having lower XCO2 and higher Ca2+/Mg2+ activity ratio, rather than by replacement of magnesite.

  6. Paleomagnetic Properties of Volcanic and Ophiolitic Units From Northeastern Cuba: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, J. A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Blanco, J.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    We sampled 19 sites (135 oriented cores) in Upper Jurassic to Eocene ophiolitic and volcanic units from northeastern Cuba. NRM vectorial composition and magnetic stability of samples were analyzed by stepwise thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization. AF demagnetization worked generally better than thermal demagnetization in isolating magnetization components, except in the gabbros that are characterized by one to two magnetization components with mean unblocking temperatures around 350°C. Strong viscous magnetizations appear between 10-30 mT and 500-550°C and are destroyed between 35-80 mT or 575°C, suggesting magnetite as major carrier of remanence. 'Pot bellied' and 'wasp waisted' behavior curves of hysteresis experiments suggests ferromagnetic phases. Saturation magnetization and coercivity have, in general, medium to high values. Characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was defined in 102 samples, and site mean directions and associated Fisher statistics were calculated. Coercivity and unblocking spectra and magnetic property experiments indicate magnetite, titanomagnetite and pyrrotite as main magnetic carriers, with dominantly pseudo-single-domain magnetic states. ChRM mean directions of 14 sites were well defined and stable, showing NE to NW directions, valuable for tectonic and geologic analyses. Mean paleodirections and pole positions are calculated for the different age intervals and compared with reference pole positions, which provide initial insight on possible tectonic and stratigraphic implications, and permit planning of following phase of the project.

  7. Refractory- and metallurgical-type chromite ores, Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, M.; Friedrich, G.; Plüger, W. L.; Wichowski, A.

    1986-07-01

    The Zambales ophiolite is the major source of chromite ore in the Philippines. The chromitites are concordant cumulates and are associated with distinct chromitite-bearing sequences within the mantle peridotites. Refractory and metallurgical chromite deposits are spatially separated and related to different lithologic associations, which crystallized from different parental magmas. — Refractory chromite ores (30 44 wt% Cr2O3; 20 30 wt% Al2O3) are linked with the peridotite-troctolite-olivine gabbro lineage. Two main types were found: (1) Al-rich refractory ores associated with harzburgites and feldspathic periodotites and (2) more Cr-rich varieties associated with lherzolites. — Metallurgical chromite ores (45 53 wt% Cr2O3; 12 18 wt% Al2O3) are linked with the peridotite-pyroxenite-norite lineage. Two main types were also found: (1) Cr-rich metallurgical ores associated with orthopyroxenites and (2) more Al-rich varieties related to clinopyroxenites. — The chemical composition of chromite within the deposits varies depending on the chromite/silicate ratios of the ore types and grades continuously into accessory chrome spinels in the wall-rock peridotites. — The geochemistry of accessory chrome spinels in various peridotites and mafic cumulates depends on the mineralogical composition and the stratigraphic position of their host rocks.

  8. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  9. Concordant paleolatitudes for Neoproterozoic ophiolitic rocks of the Trinity Complex, Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.; Griffin, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    New paleomagnetic results from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California show that Neoproterozoic rocks of the Trinity ophiolitic complex and overlying Middle Devonian volcanic rocks are latitudinally concordant with cratonal North America. Combining paleomagnetic data with regional geologic and faunal evidence suggests that the Trinity Complex and related terranes of the eastern Klamath plate were linked in some fashion to the North American craton throughout that time, but that distance between them may have varied considerably. A possible model that is consistent with our paleomagnetic results and the geologic evidence is that the Trinity Complex formed and migrated parallel to paleolatitude in the basin between Laurasia and Australia-East Antarctica as the Rodinian supercontinent began to break up. It then continued to move parallel to paleolatitude at least through Middle Devonian time. Although the eastern Klamath plate served as a nucleus against which more western components of the Klamath Mountains province amalgamated, the Klamath superterrane was not accreted to North America until Early Cretaceous time.

  10. The role of ophiolite in metallogeny of the Sikhote-Alin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachenko, V. T.; Perevoznikova, E. V.; Lavrik, S. N.; Skosareva, N. V.

    2012-06-01

    Metalliferous sediments of the Triassic siliceous formation of the Sikhote-Alin (manganese-silicate rocks and cherts with dispersed rhodochrosite, silicate-magnetite ores, and jasper) and skarns of the Dalnegorsk and Olginsk ore districts were initially the wash away products (Late Anisian-end of the Triassic) of the lateritic weathering crust on ophiolite in the islands. Manganese, iron, and other metals were deposited in the sediments of both lagoons (present-day, skarns) and island water areas (manganese-silicate and siliceousrhodochrosite rocks, silicate-magnetite ores, and jasper). Skarns contain boric and polymetallic ores thus indicating the occurrence of both shallow (periodically drying up) and quite deep (with hydrogen sulfide contamination zones) lagoons. Lead was deposited in protoliths of the skarn deposits in lagoons from the beginning of the Carboniferous to the beginning of the Late Anisian (initial island submergence). Tin, tin-leadzinc (with Ag), and silver-lead-zinc (with Sn and Au) vein deposits (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) of the Taukha and Zhuravlevka Terrains contain lead deposited in the sediments flanking the islands of water areas with the hydrogen sulfide contamination zones, in the Carboniferous-Permian and Triassic metalliferous sediments.

  11. Reintrusion of silicic magma chambers by mafic dike complex: evidence from the northern Semail ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Stakes, D.S.; Shervais, J.; Ressetar, R.

    1985-01-01

    Late plagiogranite bodies in the Semail ophiolite have been previously suggested to represent late stage fractionates within an episodic spreading center magma chamber or the roots of seamount chains. Field and lab observations suggest that these late silicic magma chambers represent zones of repeated injection by dikes of intermediate to mafic composition. Multiple generations of intrusion, partial resorption and reintrusion are preserved in the plagiogranite as 1) relict phantom xenoliths, 2) angular xenoliths with quartz-rich margins, 3) deformed fine-grained dikes with distinct chilled margins, and 4) planes of rectangular blocks with cuspate margins or ellipsoids of similar fine grained mafic materials. The blocks and ellipsoids are actually dismembered mafic dikes that chilled by intruding a cooler silicic liquid and were either thermally fractured or pinched out. All of the dikes are hydrothermally altered to assemblages including amph., qtz., epi., preh., and chl. and are enriched in delta/sup 18/O. Extremely altered diabase from a copper sulfide-bearing normal fault is isotopically depleted (delta/sup 18/0=2.0 per mil) suggesting that such deep faults are high temperature hydrothermal conduits. Malachite and amphibole bearing veins along the margins of the plagiogranite suggest a genetic relationship between the silicic intrusions, the multiple diking events and copper sulfide deposition.

  12. Hydrothermal discharge zones beneath massive sulfide deposits mapped in the Oman ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Haymon, R.M. ); Koski, R.A. ); Abrams, )

    1989-06-01

    The area in the Oman ophiolite containing the volcanic-hosted Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide deposits exposes a cross section of ocean crust and reveals to an unprecedented extent the fossil zones of hydrothermal upwelling that fed these sea-floor deposits. The fossil discharge zones are elongate areas of alteration and mineralization characterized by numerous small (meters to tens of meters in length), linear, discontinuous gossans. The gossans result from oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite replacing primary igneous phases and filling voids and fractures in the altered host rocks. The two deposits have separate discharge zones that appear to be sub-sea-floor extensions of their stockworks. The Bayda zone extends through the volcanic section into the upper sheeted dike complex and is interpreted as having formed on the ridge crest above an axial magma chamber; the Aarja zone terminates against a plagiogranite pluton that intrudes the lower volcanic section and is thought to have formed after Bayda in an off-axis environment. Structural, stratigraphic, and compositional characteristics of the Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide bodies are consistent with this interpretation. The geometry of the discharge zones suggests that in both cases upflow occurred in broad zones (at least 400-600 m wide) that were elongated along strike (i.e., parallel to the spreading axis).

  13. High-pressure highly reduced nitrides and oxides from chromitite of a Tibetan ophiolite

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F.; Wirth, Richard; Yang, Jingsui; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Green, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest rocks known from within Earth are fragments of normal mantle (≈400 km) and metamorphosed sediments (≈350 km), both found exhumed in continental collision terranes. Here, we report fragments of a highly reduced deep mantle environment from at least 300 km, perhaps very much more, extracted from chromite of a Tibetan ophiolite. The sample consists, in part, of diamond, coesite-after-stishovite, the high-pressure form of TiO2, native iron, high-pressure nitrides with a deep mantle isotopic signature, and associated SiC. This appears to be a natural example of the recently discovered disproportionation of Fe2+ at very high pressure and consequent low oxygen fugacity (fO2) in deep Earth. Encapsulation within chromitite enclosed within upwelling solid mantle rock appears to be the only vehicle capable of transporting these phases and preserving their low-fO2 environment at the very high temperatures of oceanic spreading centers. PMID:19880742

  14. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium in chromite- rich rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Pallister, J.S.; Brown, M.A.; Smewing, J.D.; Haffty, J.

    1982-01-01

    30 samples of chromitite and chromite-rich rocks from two stratigraphic sections, 250 km apart, through the basal ultramafic member of the Samail ophiolite were spectrographically analysed for platinum-group elements (PGE) and for Co, Cu, Ni and V. These data are reported as are Cr/(Cr + Al), Mg/(Mg + Fe) and wt.% TiO2 for most samples. The chromitite occurs as pods or lenses in rocks of mantle origin or as discontinuous layers at the base of the overlying cumulus sequence. PGE abundances in both sections are similar, with average contents in chromite-rich rocks: Pd 8 ppb, Pt 14 ppb, Rh 6 ppb, Ir 48 ppb and Ru 135 ppb. The PGE data, combined with major-element and petrographic data on the chromitite, suggest: 1) relatively larger Ir and Ru contents and highest total PGE in the middle part of each section; 2) PGE concentrations and ratios do not correlate with coexisting silicate and chromite abundances or chromite compositions; 3) Pd/PGE, on average, increases upward in each section; 4) Samail PGE concentrations, particularly Rh, Pt and Pd, are lower than the average values for chromite-rich rocks in stratiform intrusions. 2) suggests that PGEs occur in discrete alloy or sulphide phases rather than in the major oxides or silicates, and 4) suggests that chromite-rich rocks from the oceanic upper mantle are depleted in PGE with respect to chondrites. L.C.C.

  15. One-carbon (bio ?) Geochemistry in Subsurface Waters of the Serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Mccollom, Tom; Schrenk, Matt; Cardace, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Serpentinization - the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks - typically imparts a highly reducing and alkaline character to the reacting fluids. In turn, these can influence the speciation and potential for metabolism of one-carbon compounds in the system. We examined the aqueous geochemistry and assessed the biological potential of one-carbon compounds in the subsurface of the McLaughlin Natural Reserve (Coast Range Ophiolite, California, USA). Fluids from wells sunk at depths of 25-90 meters have pH values ranging from 9.7 to 11.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations) generally below 60 micromolar. Methane is present at concentrations up to 1.3 millimolar (approximately one-atmosphere saturation), and hydrogen concentrations are below 15 nanomolar, suggesting active consumption of H2 and production of CH4. However, methane production from CO2 is thermodynamically unfavorable under these conditions. Additionally, the speciation of DIC predominantly into carbonate at these high pH values creates a problem of carbon availability for any organisms that require CO2 (or bicarbonate) for catabolism or anabolism. A potential alternative is carbon monoxide, which is present in these waters at concentrations 2000-fold higher than equilibrium with atmospheric CO. CO is utilized in a variety of metabolisms, including methanogenesis, and bioavailability is not adversely affected by pH-dependent speciation (as for DIC). Methanogenesis from CO under in situ conditions is thermodynamically favorable and would satisfy biological energy requirements with respect to both Gibbs Energy yield and power.

  16. The Relationships of Upper Plate Ridge-Trench-Trench and Ridge-Trench-Transform Triple Junction Evolution to Arc Lengthening, Subduction Zone initiation and Ophiolitic Forearc Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Dewey, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overriding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallel split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in an obduction-ready settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are commonly highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies in modern environments). Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. We review both modern subduction environments and ancient obducted ophiolite analogues that illustrate this tectonic model for subduction initiation and the creation and rapid divergent-convergent plate tectonic transitions to ophiolitic forearcs.

  17. A possible difference in cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in peridotites from supra-subduction ophiolites and mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed for mafic and ultramafic rocks [1]. This new thermometer is based on temperature sensitive REE partition coefficients between coexisting pyroxenes and calibrated against laboratory partitioning data. Because REE diffusion rates in pyroxene are relatively slow, the thermometer reads a higher temperature than major element based pyroxene thermometers. The difference between major and trace element derived temperatures depends primarily on cooling rate. Here we report new trace element data for peridotites from Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and a modern supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite analogue (the Mariana trench) determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. We inverted temperatures from the new data and globally distributed ophiolitic peridotite from eight literature studies (Figure 1). Data quality was carefully monitored leaving temperatures from 65 samples. Individual ophiolites usually have temperatures clustered within a range of a few hundred degrees, but the temperature range for the global dataset is greater than 700°C (688-1401°C). Temperatures calculated for the same samples using the two pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler [2] are considerably lower (564-1049°C). REE temperatures are plotted against the major element temperatures [2] in Figure 1. Abyssal peridotites reported in [1] are shown by the peach field. Much of the ophiolite data plots farther from the blue 1:1 line than the abyssal peridotites, suggesting SSZ lithospheric mantle may cool more rapidly at those ophiolites. Fast cooling can be attributed to one or more dynamic differences between mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environments and supra-subduction environments, such as enhanced hydrothermal circulation, thinner oceanic crust, or rapid cooling due to basin closure and obduction. We note that several ophiolites appear to cool more slowly than the abyssal peridotites, however in those samples geochemical evidence suggests secondary overprinting by melt-rock reaction. By defining the thermometric extent of the global dataset we demonstrate surprising diversity among ophiolites and the potential utility of REE geothermometry to illuminate the dynamics of ophiolite formation and emplacement. [1] Liang et al. (2013), GCA 102, 246-260. [2] Brey and Köhler (1990), J. Pet. 31, 1353-1378.

  18. Palaeoproterozoic (1.83 Ga) zircons in a Bajocian (169 Ma) granite within a Middle Jurassic ophiolite (Rubiku, central Albania): a challenge for geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Beqiraj, Arjan

    2014-04-01

    Two distinct zircon populations, 1,827 ± 17 and 169 ± 2 Ma in age, have been found in the Rubiku granite dyke in the Middle Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in central Albania. The old inherited zircons represent a homogeneous population formed during a discrete Palaeoproterozoic, likely magmatic, zircon crystallization event. These older zircons were likely incorporated, in large part, into the granite magma that crystallized broadly at the time of the ophiolite emplacement (around 169 Ma). The limited data available do not allow for the construction of an unequivocal petrogenetic model, though several palaeotectonic scenarios are discussed as possible settings for the granite formation. The models refer to recent findings of old inherited zircons in rocks at recent mid-ocean ridge settings, but also consider likely contributions of crustal materials to primary basic ophiolitic magmas within supra-subduction settings and subsequent accretion/collision circumstances. The presence of old zircons in much younger rocks within ophiolite successions runs counter to geodynamic models of interaction between the oceanic lithosphere and continental crust, but constraining their genesis would require further systematic studies on these old inherited zircons, both in mafic (if present) and in felsic rocks of the ophiolites.

  19. The origin of amphibolites from metamorphic soles beneath the ultramafic ophiolites in Evia and Lesvos (Greece) and their geotectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzos, E.; Dietrich, V. J.; Migiros, G.; Serelis, K.; Lymperopoulou, Th.

    2009-03-01

    The dismembered Jurassic ophiolitic complexes of the two Greek islands, Evia and Lesvos show significant similarities concerning their general structural, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. However, their geotectonic position is quite different, the Evia ophiolites belonging to the "Western Ophiolite Belt" of the internal Hellenides, whereas the Lesvos ophiolites seem to be part of the "Eastern Ophiolite Belt", representing a possible link to the Pontides. Both ophiolites consist of large ultramafic masses, which are emplaced onto continental crust. The overthrust zones comprise flysch and ophiolitic mélange as well as amphibolitic metamorphic soles beneath the ultramafics. The identification of the protolithic character of the amphibolites as well as their metamorphic and deformation history allows a clarification of their complex emplacement processes from their original extensional oceanic ridge environment within the Pindos and Vardar marginal basins into a compressional supra-subduction zone, island arc and continental environment. On the basis of relict magmatic minerals and textures as well as on major and trace element bulk chemical composition, the medium to coarse grained Evia amphibolites are interpreted as former gabbroic and cumulate rocks similar to equivalent amphibolites dredged from numerous fracture zones in the Atlantic oceanic crust. Horizontal and vertical displacements which are able to produce such foliated and mylonitized gabbroic rocks suggest the existence of major deep reaching transform faults, which may be considered as one of the most important locations for the breakup of oceanic crust and lithosphere and subsequent incipient subduction. The Evia amphibolites could have been formed by a two-stage process: first, as gabbros that formed part of the gabbroic oceanic crust and secondly representing as small gabbroic and cumulate bodies within the ultramafic mantle. Either of these were transformed into low-grade epidote amphibolites under oceanic metamorphic facies conditions and deformed by transform fault displacement mechanism. Subsequently, within the Pindos intra-oceanic basin, these transform faults also facilitated obduction of slices of oceanic mantle and crust onto an accretionary wedge. In this respect, the Evia ophiolite complex shows a very similar emplacement process to that of the Othris, Vourinos and Pindos ophiolites, which can be interpreted using a combination of an intra-oceanic transform fault thrust and an obduction model. In this respect, the "Evia transform fault-overthrust model" sheds new light onto the discussion of the age of formation of oceanic crust, as well as on the timing of subduction and obduction. The so called "sole amphibolites", especially those of only low-grade epidote-amphibolite facies may have already been formed during mid-ocean floor spreading and transform fault movements and not later during the ophiolite emplacement processes. Therefore all of the ages of oceanic crust and amphibolites, both from sedimentary and paleontological evidence as well as from radiometric data indicate a specific time window between the generation of the older parts of oceanic crust around 170 Ma (Bajocian) and their emplacement processes at approximately 155 to 150 Ma. This leads to the conclusion that the Pindos marginal oceanic basin could have at least an age spread of 15 to 20 Ma. In contrast, the Lesvos amphibolites are fine to medium grained with granoblastic and nematoblastc textures with relics of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Cataclastic fabrics are also present as well as retrograde mineral assemblages from greenschist to prehnite facies metamorphic overprinting. According to bulk chemical analyses, these amphibolites are identified as MORB-type oceanic basalts as well as SSZ (supra-subduction zone/IAT —island arc tholeiite) basalts and olivine gabbros. The Lesvos amphibolites are seen as basaltic and gabbroic slices, which were incorporated into a supra-subduction, gabbro bearing island arc environment, overridden by larger slices of depleted lherzolite and harzburgite mantle. Since the amphibolites show in many cases highly deformed fabrics and a rather high-grade metamorphism as well as MORB basaltic compositions, an intra-oceanic thrusting cannot be excluded. Their origin can rather be placed in the Vardar oceanic basin than in the Pindos basin.

  20. Stratigraphy and tectonics of a time-transgressive ophiolite obduction onto the eastern margin of the Pelagonian platform from Late Bathonian until Valanginian time, exemplified in northern Evvoia, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherreiks, Rudolph; Meléndez, Guillermo; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Fermeli, Georgia; Bosence, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The obduction of an ophiolite sheet onto the eastern Pelagonian carbonate platform complex of the Hellenides began during the Late Bathonian and ended with the final emplacement of the ophiolite during Valanginian time. The early stages of obduction caused subaerial exposure of the platform, recorded by an unconformity of Callovian age, which is marked by laterites overlying folded and faulted, karstic substrates. The laterites have distinct ophiolitic geochemical signatures, indicating that emergent ophiolite had been undergoing lateritic weathering. This unconformity coincides with widespread western Tethyan, Callovian gaps, indicating that the obduction in the Hellenides was probably related to far-reaching plate tectonic processes. Resumed gravitational pull and rollback of the subducted, oceanic leading edge of the temporarily exposed ophiolite. Platform drowning continued into Tithonian-Valanginian time, documented initially by reefal carbonates and then by below-CCD, carbonate-free radiolarian cherts and shales. Subsequently, siliciclastic turbidites, which apparently originated from uplifted Variscan basement, were deposited together with and over the radiolarite as the ophiolite nappe sheet advanced. The nappe substrate underwent tectonic deformations of varying intensity, while polymictic mélange and syntectonic sedimentary debris accreted beneath the ophiolite and at the nappe front. The provenience of the ophiolite nappe complexes of northern Evvoia most probably has to be looked for in the Vardar ocean.

  1. Microbial Metabolic Landscapes Derived from Complementary Mineralogical, Aqueous Geochemical, and Gas Data Associated with High pH, Actively Serpentinizing Springs in the Coast Range Ophiolite (CA,USA) and Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Arcilla, C. A.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We applied x-ray diffraction and thin section petrography to profile the mineralogy of serpentinites and relict peridotites pertinent to the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbiological Observatory (CROMO, an array of 8 water monitoring wells installed in serpentinizing ultramafic rocks, sited at the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA) and Zambales and Palawan ophiolites in the Philippines. In general, serpentinization in near surface samples was extensive, obscuring many protolith characteristics, but relict olivine grains are apparent. Upwelling serpentinizing formation fluids react to varying degrees with shallow hydrological regimes impacted by meteoric inputs. In the vicinity of CROMO, modest pH (7 to 8.5) waters form spring deposits. In the Philippines ophiolites, high pH (10.8 to 11. 3) waters form extensive travertines near Manleluag Springs and newly faulted sections of the Poon Bato River. Travertine fabric and chemistry indicate episodic spring flow and suggest that ambient water chemistry shifts over time. A multiprobe meter simultaneously measured pH, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and dissolved oxygen at selected springs. Filtered water samples from monitoring wells and springs were analyzed for major elements and some ions. Dissolved gases and gas bubbles were captured and transported for analysis of H2, CO, and CH4. Aqueous and gas geochemistry data were transformed into activity data using EQ3: A Computer Program for Geochemical Aqueous Speciation-Solubility Calculations (Wolery, 1992) and the Gibbs Energy values for selected metabolic reactions, given the environmental conditions, were calculated. Metabolisms considered were: methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ferric iron reduction, ferrous iron oxidation, oxidation of S in pyrite, nitrification, denitrification, and N-fixation. At all sites tapping waters sourced in actively serpentinizing systems, regardless of geography, ferrous iron oxidation was the most strongly favored of the modeled reactions, while methanogenesis and nitrification reactions were not thermodynamically feasible, under the modeled conditions. Indeed, the lack of favorable biological methanogenesis is consistent with microbiological studies at CROMO. Also, concentrations of aqueous ferrous iron may be extremely low at high pH, however, causing the amount of energy to be gained from the reaction to be very small. Taken together, data from CROMO formation fluids and deeply sourced springs at the Philippines Ophiolite sites describe a similar landscape of favorable microbial metabolisms that could be extended to other serpentinizing ecosystems. The recurrent problem of a disrupted nitrogen cycle in these ultramafic-hosted springs is discussed.

  2. Zircon dating of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian ophiolites in West Mongolia and implications for the timing of orogenic processes in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Krner, Alfred; Jahn, Bor-ming; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Tomurhuu, Dondov; Liu, Dunyi

    2014-06-01

    We present new isotopic and trace element data to review the geochronological/geochemical/geological evolution of the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and find a fundamental geological problem in West Mongolia, which has traditionally been subdivided into northwestern early Paleozoic (formerly Caledonian) and southerly late Paleozoic (formerly Hercynian) belts by the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML). We resolve this problem with SHRIMP zircon dating of ophiolites and re-evaluation of much published literature. In Northwest Mongolia the Dariv-Khantaishir ophiolite marks the boundary between the Lake arc in the west and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent in the east. Zircons from a microgabbro and four plagiogranites yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 568 5 Ma, 567 4 Ma, 560 8 Ma (Dariv), 573 8 Ma and 566 7 Ma (Khantaishir) that we interpret as reflecting the time of ophiolite formation (ca. 573-560 Ma). Metamorphic zircons from an amphibolite on a thrust boundary between the Khantaishir ophiolite and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent formed at 514 8 Ma, which we interpret as the time of overthrusting. In South Mongolia the Gobi Altai ophiolite and the Trans-Altai Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc with an ophiolite basement were investigated. Zircons of a layered gabbro (lower ophiolite crust) and a leucogabbro (mid-upper crust) of the Gobi Altai ophiolite yielded crystallization ages of 523 5 Ma and 518 6 Ma. The age data constrain the formation time of ophiolite within ca. 523-518 Ma. Zircons from four samples of the Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc, with similar hybrid adakite-boninite affinities, yielded 519 4 Ma for an anorthosite, ? 512 4 Ma for a hornblendite and 520 5 and 511 5 Ma for two diorites. The ophiolite basement has an upper age limit of 494 6 Ma, determined by dating a tonalite dike cutting the Zoolen ophiolite. Integrating available zircon ages as well as geochemical and geological data, we re-subdivide West Mongolia into: a latest Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian, arc-microcontinent collision zone north of the MML; a Cambrian Gobi Altai ophiolite-microcontinent collision zone and a Cambrian Trans-Altai forearc complex south of the MML. The central CAOB evolved in five phases: subduction initiation and arc formation (ca. 573 to > ca. 540 Ma); arc-microcontinent collision (ca. 535-524 Ma); a continuum of slab delamination, overthrusting, crustal thickening and surface uplift (ca. 519-482 Ma) in Northwest Mongolia; initiation of new subduction zones in South Mongolia (ca. 523-511 Ma); and continuing orogeny with local surface uplift. Overall, the current, documented timing of orogenic development in the central CAOB is largely consistent with a W/SW-Pacific style of evolution in terms of subduction initiation, short timescales of individual orogenies, and episodic subduction-collision during a continuing migration of subduction zones.

  3. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation: 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Morris, Antony; Plümper, Oliver; Spakman, Wim

    2015-06-01

    Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to mid-ocean ridges, as in e.g., the Neotethys Ocean during the Jurassic, remains a matter of debate. In recent years, extensional detachment faults have been widely documented adjacent to slow-spreading and ultraslow-spreading ridges where they cut across the oceanic lithosphere. These structures are extremely weak due to widespread occurrence of serpentine and talc resulting from hydrothermal alteration, and can therefore effectively localize deformation. Here, we show geochemical, tectonic, and paleomagnetic evidence from the Jurassic ophiolites of Albania and Greece for a subduction zone formed in the western Neotethys parallel to a spreading ridge along an oceanic detachment fault. With 2-D numerical modeling exploring the evolution of a detachment-ridge system experiencing compression, we show that serpentinized detachments are always weaker than spreading ridges. We conclude that, owing to their extreme weakness, oceanic detachments can effectively localize deformation under perpendicular far-field forcing, providing ideal conditions to nucleate new subduction zones parallel and close to (or at) spreading ridges. Direct implication of this, is that resumed magmatic activity in the forearc during subduction initiation can yield widespread accretion of suprasubduction zone ophiolites at or close to the paleoridge. Our new model casts the enigmatic origin of regionally extensive ophiolite belts in a novel geodynamic context, and calls for future research on three-dimensional modeling of subduction initiation and how upper plate extension is associated with that.

  4. Petrological significance of the abyssal peridotites from the ophiolite belt of Indo-Myanmar Range, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maibam, B.; Foley, S.

    2009-04-01

    The ophiolite belt of the Indo-Myanmar Range of northeastern India is regarded as the continental extension of the Indonesia island arc. The ophiolite sequence forms a belt extending about 200 km from Pukhpur (Nagaland state) in the north to Moreh (Manipur state) in the south. Here we report preliminary mineralogical and phase geochemical data of peridotites collected from the ophiolite sequences of the Ukhrul district in Manipur. Primary minerals are clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and spinel with scarce relicts of olivine. Andraditic garnet present in a few samples is of secondary origin. The clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene show limited compositional range. Well's (1977) single clinopyroxene thermometry yielded variable equilibrium temperature between 780-1250oC. The lower temperature value suggests post-crystallisation re-equilibration. Equilibrium pressure estimates based on Nimis and Ulmer's single clinopyroxene (1998) and Köhler and Brey's (1990) olivine-spinel geobarometries range from 19 to 25 kbars. Oxygen fugacity expressed in terms of quartz-fayalite-magnetite (Delta QFM) value is calculated as -1.32. Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al)) of the peridotites reflects mantle residues after low degree of melting (F = 0.5 - 11%) if derived from primitive mantle. Mineral composition tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams confirm the studied samples to be abyssal peridotites. Laser Ablation ICPMS analyses of the rare earth element patterns of clinopyroxene in the peridotites show depleted light rare earth element with flat middle and heavy rare earth element patterns, similar to the reported abyssal peridotites. References Wells P.R.A. (1977) CMP, 62, 129-139. Nimis P., Ulmer P. (1998) CMP, 133, 122-135. Köhler T., Brey G.P. (1990) GCA, 54, 2375-2388.

  5. Tracking the Oman Ophiolite to the surface - New fission track and (U-Th)/He data from the Aswad and Khor Fakkan Blocks, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Thomas, Robert J.; Ksienzyk, Anna K.; Dunkl, István

    2015-03-01

    The Oman Ophiolite in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was formed in a supra-subduction zone environment at about 95 Ma and was almost immediately obducted onto the eastern margin of Arabia. The timing of obduction is well constrained, but the post-obduction tectonic, uplift and exhumation history of the ophiolite and associated rocks are less well understood. We present twenty-one new fission track and (U-Th)/He analyses of apatite and zircon from the Hajar Mountains. The data show that the Oman Ophiolite had a complex exhumation history to present exposure levels in the Khor Fakkan and Aswad Blocks, resulting from at least three distinct exhumation events: 1) initial ophiolite obduction between ca. 93 and 83 Ma is characterised by tectonic exhumation and rapid cooling, as revealed by zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission-track data, but it is not associated with major erosional exhumation; 2) data from the lower part of the ophiolite and the metamorphic sole document a second exhumation event at ca. 45-35 Ma, interpreted to represent an early phase of the Zagros orogeny that led to reactivation of pre-existing structures and the differential exhumation of the Khor Fakkan Block along the Wadi Ham Shear Zone. This event led to significant erosional exhumation and deposition of a thick sedimentary succession in the Ras Al Khaimah foreland basin; and 3) Neogene exhumation is recorded by ca. 20-15 Ma apatite (U-Th)/He data and a single apatite fission track date from the lowermost part of the metamorphic sole. This event can be linked to the main phase of the Zagros orogeny, which is manifested in large fans with ophiolite-derived debris (Barzaman Formation conglomerates). During this period, the metamorphic sole of the Masafi window stayed at temperatures in excess of ca. 120 °C, corresponding to ca. 4 km of overburden, only later to be eroded to present day levels.

  6. Ophiolites in the Xing'an-Inner Mongolia accretionary belt of the CAOB: Implications for two cycles of seafloor spreading and accretionary orogenic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shuguang; Wang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Xin; Wang, Chao; Niu, Yaoling; Allen, Mark B.; Su, Li

    2015-10-01

    The Xing'an-Inner Mongolia accretionary belt in the southeastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was produced by the long-lived subduction and eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and by the convergence between the North China Craton and the Mongolian microcontinent. Two ophiolite belts have been recognized: the northern Erenhot-Hegenshan-Xi-Ujimqin ophiolite belt and the southern Solonker-Linxi ophiolite belt. Most basalts in the northern ophiolite belt exhibit characteristics of normal-type to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalt affinities with depleted Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd(t) > +5), comparable to modern Eastern Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts. Most basaltic rocks in the southern belt show clear geochemical features of suprasubduction zone-type oceanic crust, probably formed in an arc/back-arc environment. The inferred back-arc extension along the Solonker-Linxi belt started at circa 280 Ma. Statistics of all the available age data for the ophiolites indicates two cycles of seafloor spreading/subduction, which gave rise to two main epochs of magmatic activity at 500-410 Ma and 360-220 Ma, respectively, with a gap of ~50 million years (Myr). The spatial and temporal distribution of the ophiolites and concurrent igneous rocks favor bilateral subduction toward the two continental margins in the convergence history, with final collision at ~230-220 Ma. In the whole belt, signals of continental collision and Himalayan-style mountain building are lacking. We thus conclude that the Xing'an-Inner Mongolia segment of the CAOB experienced two cycles of seafloor subduction, back-arc extension, and final "Appalachian-type" soft collision.

  7. Ophiolitic magmatism in the Ligurian Tethys: an ion microprobe study of basaltic clinopyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucci, R.; Rampone, E.; Piccardo, G. B.; Ottolini, L.; Bottazzi, P.

    1993-11-01

    Ion microprobe data (REE, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Zr) of unaltered clinopyroxenes in the ophiolitic basalts from the Northern Apennines have been used in a epx-based geochemical modelling of MORB magmatism from both External (EL) and Internal (IL) sectors of the Ligurian Tethys (i.e. Jurassic Ligure-Piemontese basin), alternative to the more common whole-rock approach. Clinopyroxenes from EL basalts display slightly fractionated LREE (CeN/SmN˜0.5) and HREE (GdN/ YbN˜1.5) patterns and large variations in the REE composition (up to 6 times from microphenocryst cores to interstitial clinopyroxenes). Interstitial clinopyroxenes in IL basalts are similar to the microphenocrysts from the most primitive EL basalts. By contrast, IL microphenocrysts are characterized by greater LREE (CeN/SmN ˜0.3) and lesser HREE (GdN/YbN<1.2) fractionation. The comparison of trace element variations in wholerocks and clinopyroxenes clearly shows that the olivine and plagioclase portion of the fractionation sequence is poorly represented by the EL and IL basalts. In fact, ophiolitic basalts mainly consist of a minor interstitial glass (now deeply altered) associated with a prevailing plagioclase-clinopyroxene assemblage crystallized from liquids significantly evolved along the olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene saturation boundary. Thus, bulk rock chemistry is largely governed by clinopyroxene composition. This, in addition to alteration, indicates that the bulk rock chemistry does not provide reliable chemical information to constrain the composition and the generation of the parental magmas. Unfortunately, most clinopyroxenes are characterized by complex zoning, probably caused by disequilibrium partitioning during crystal growth as a result of kinetic factors. On this ground, estimation of melt chemistry and inferences about the origins of these basalts are only allowed by the core compositions of microphenocrystic clinopyroxenes. Modelling of (Nd/Yb)N and Ti/Zr in the parental magmas, as deduced from the clinopyroxene compositions, indicates thata EL and IL basalts do not represent products of different mantle source composition. Rather, they were generated by varying degrees of fractional melting in the spinel stability field, lower for the EL (a few percent) relative to IL, totalling no more than 10% of an asthenospheric MORB source, and leaving in the residua clinopyroxene with REE patterns similar to those shown by IL suboceanic type peridotites. Accordingly, these latter are interpreted as refractory residua after MORB-generating fractional melting occurred during rifting and opening of the Ligure-Piemontese basin. By contrast, residual clinopyroxenes from the EL subcontinental type peridotites are not consistent with low degrees of fractional melting in agreement with the current interpretation that EL peridotites are unrelated to the MORB magmatism in the Ligure-Piemontese basin and represent lithospheric mantle material already emplaced towards the surface by a tectonic denudation mechanism during the early stages of oceanic rifting.

  8. Cross section through the peridotite in the Samail Ophiolite, southeastern Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F.; Coleman, R. G.

    1981-04-01

    A continuous cross section through the peridotite of the Samail ophiolite south of Wadi Tayin offers a relatively undisturbed slice of oceanic mantle 9-12 km thick. The whole section consists of a regularly foliated harzburgite banded with orthopyroxenite except for a narrow zone at the base where the primary banding is dominantly dunitic. Websterite dikes, sometimes deformed and branching, are observed throughout the whole sequence, whereas undeformed gabbro dikes appear abruptly about 2-5 km above the base. The top of the foliated harzburgite is in contact with dunite cumulates that grade upward into wehrlite and gabbro cumulates. The websterite and gabbro dikes are formed by crystal accumulation from ascending, off-axis olivine-poor tholeiite magma that passes through the tectonized harzburgite. Discordant and deformed dunite within the harzburgite represent fractionated olivine accumulates derived from the deep-seated primitive picritic tholeiite magmas as they moved through the harzburgite within the spreading axis. The homogeneous chemistry, extreme depletion, and absence of frozen partial melts demonstrate that the harzburgite tectonite is a highly refractory residue. It is suggested that the harzburgite tectonite does not represent the contemporaneous cogenetic residue from which the deep-seated primitive picritic tholeiite was derived. The discordant dunite, gabbro, and websterite dikes record crystal fractionation products of ascending basaltic liquids derived from partial melting of fertile mantle at greater depths, whereas at least some of these dunites may represent a partial melt residue. A spinel lineation dipping slightly to the southwest, present all through the cross section, parallels isoclinal fold axes of the primary banding in the harzburgite. The tectonic fabric of the harzburgite exhibits clear maxima of olivine crystallographic axes related to the regional foliation and the spinel lineation. The magmatic reaction, the comparison of tectonic fabrics, size of neoblasts and subgrains in olivine with experimental data, suggest that the harzburgite sequence was deformed at or near solidus temperatures and under a deviatoric stress increasing from 300 to 400 bars in the upper part of the sequence and from 600 to 700 bars in the lower part. Disequilibrium between primary phases due to subsolidus transformation precludes establishment of temperatures and pressures of partial melting by using present KD ratios of coexisting phases in the harzburgite. Mylonitic textures in narrow bands at the base of the sequence grade upward into porphyroclastic textures with rapidly increasing neoblast size. These textures are the imprint of a superposed deformation at lower temperatures and under a deviatoric stress reaching 1 to 2 kbar that affected the narrow sole of the sequence. A narrow amphibolite-facies zone at the base of the harzburgite tectonite nappe exhibits a similar fabric as the overlying mylonitic harzburgite. This deformation is thought to have occurred during thrusting and detachment of the Samail ophiolite nappes shortly after their formation as oceanic lithosphere.

  9. Where and what is the Deep Off-Axis Magmatism in the Oman Ophiolite (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousselin, D.; Reisberg, L. C.; Nicolas, A. A.; Nicolle, M.; Bosch, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2013-12-01

    We present a review of structures in the Oman ophiolite that can be related to off-axis magmatism in the lower crust and uppermost mantle at fast spreading ridges. First, we show evidence that a ridge axis is preserved within the ophiolite. As this axis can be used as a reference frame, we distinguish three cases of off-axis magma injection near the Moho or in the lower crust. The first two cases, though partly situated off-axis, are related to excess magmatism caused by mantle diapirs rising beneath the ridge axis, while the third is linked to the emplacement of a diapir far from the axis. (1) The Moho transition zone (MTZ) beneath the ridge axis is normally a few meters thick, but increases up to several hundred meters thick above mantle diapirs, within a ten Km radius. It forms from underplating of successive melt pulses. Once melt ponds at the base of the MTZ, it transforms harzburgite into dunite; then most of the melt is compacted and injected into the crust, but a portion forms plurimetric gabbro lenses within the dunite. Eight to ten Km away from the axis, the MTZ thickness is greatly reduced, thus on-axis diapiric emplacement may not induce off-axis magmatism at this level further than 10 Km away from the axis. (2) Pseudo "wehrlites" that form up to 30% of the lower crust define a second type of off-axis melt body. These intrusions are rooted in the MTZ where dunite is turned into an olivine-rich mush upon melt delivery, so they may be considered as chunks of MTZ intruded into the crust. Though many of these intrusions are tectonically transposed by the magmatic flow that affects lower crustal gabbros, showing that they were injected within the magma chamber, others are undeformed intrusions, showing that it was emplaced in an off-axis melt-poor crust, probably away from the crustal seismic low velocity zone. (3) We mapped an off-axis diapir located 30 km from the ridge axis that may be the root of an incipient seamount. The overlying MTZ is up to a thousand meters thick and contains pyroxenite instead of gabbro lenses in dunite. Above, and at the diapir periphery, melt intrudes a cooled lithosphere and forms amphibole-rich-microgabbro intrusions. Low ɛNd may suggest that off-axis melting occurred because of a compositional anomaly such as enriched veins. However, at the MTZ we find low incompatible element contents and LREE depletion more marked than that of typical MORB. We explain this compositional paradox using geological evidence of assimilation and mixing between incoming melt and the pre-existing depleted and hydrated off-axis lithosphere that drifted from the rise axis.

  10. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2008-10-01

    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  11. Modeling the Evolution of a Transform Fault in the Mantle Section of the New Caledonia Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, S. J.; Davis, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Bogota Peninsula shear zone has been interpreted as a paleotransform fault in the mantle section of the New Caledonia ophiolite. The shear zone was originally identified based on stronger fabric development on the Bogota Peninsula and the rotation of foliation from shallow NW-striking outside the shear zone to subvertical NNE-striking inside the shear zone. This rotation is generally symmetric and occurs across a 50 km-wide region centered on a 3 km-wide high strain core. To better understand the evolution of this dextral transform fault, we develop a kinematic model constrained by several types of field and laboratory data. Field fabrics were used to empirically define three distinct domains within the shear zone: a farfield, nearfield, and central high-strain core. Our model assumes that the shear zone localized during its development so that farfield features preserve the first increment of deformation and the center records the last increment. We specify the orientation of the shear zone boundary based on the lattice preferred orientation of olivine within the center. For each increment of deformation, the orientation of the finite strain ellipsoid is constrained by foliation and lineation while the magnitude is constrained the shape preferred orientation of macroscopic orthopyroxene. Our modeling also incorporates the changing orientation of orthopyroxene dikes that, like field fabrics, rotate systematically across the shear zone. Because many dikes also show increasing boudinage towards the center of the shear zone, we estimate stretches recorded by these dikes using the length, width, and separation between boudins along a variety of outcrop surfaces. This data-rich approach to modeling is challenging, but may ultimately provide more insight into the development of a transform fault at a deeper lithospheric level than is commonly observed.

  12. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  13. Seawater Circulation and Thermal Sink at OCEAN Ridges - FIELD Evidence in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Boudier, F. I.; Cathles, L. M.; Buck, W. R.; Celerier, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally, the lowermost gabbros in the Oman ophiolite are black and totally fresh, except for minute traces of impregnation by seawater fluids at very high temperature (~1000C). These black gabbros sharply contrast with normal, whitish gabbros altered down to Low-T~500-350C. These hydrous alterations are ascribed to an unconventional model of seawater circulation and cooling of the permanent magma chambers of fast spreading ocean ridges. In this model, gabbros issued from the magma chamber cross a ~100 m thick thermal boundary layer (TBL) before reaching a narrow, Low-T high permeability channel where the heated return seawater is flowing towards black smokers and the local gabbros are altered. Uprising mantle diapirs in Oman diverge at ~5 km on each side of the palaeo-ridge axis and feed an overlying magma chamber that closes at this distance from axis. Preservation of black gabbros along the Moho implies that the loop of seawater alteration locally does not reach Moho beyond this ~5km distance (otherwise black gabbros would be altered in whitish gabbros). This defines an internal "thermal sink" within ~5 km to the ridge axis. There, the sink is efficiently cooled by the active hydrothermal convection that is ridge transverse. This has been documented near the Galapagos ridge by marine geophysical data, within the same distance. Beyond this critical distance, the cooling system becomes dominantly conductive and ridge-parallel. The TBL and attached return flow channels must be rising into the overcooled, accreted crust. Beyond the thermal sink, the 500C isotherm rebounds into the crust. It is only after ~ 1My of crustal drift that this isotherm penetrates into the uppermost mantle in a sustained fashion, developing serpentinites at the expense of peridotites.

  14. Emplacement mechanism of off-axis large submarine lava field from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umino, Susumu

    2012-11-01

    Large submarine lava flows with thicknesses >100 m and volumes exceeding a few km3are not uncommon volcanic constructs of mid-ocean ridges and around Hawaii Islands, yet details of the physical processes of eruption of these large lava flows are poorly understood. The V3 unit of the Oman Ophiolite extruded onto pelagic sediment far off the paleospreading axis as thick lava flows with an areal extent of >11 km by 1.5 km and the maximum thickness >270 m, yielding an estimated volume >1.2 km3. The feeder dike for the V3 flow field has an unusual thickness up to 60 m, striking at a high angle to the paleospreading axis. The skewed variation in thickness suggests an intrusion at the apparent level of neutral buoyancy in off-axis crust. The thick sheet flows consist of massive core and columnar jointed crust. Finer-grained, finely jointed layers and lenses embedded in coarser-grained, roughly jointed lava show a complex cooling and growth history of the lava crust. In the periphery of the flow field, sheet flows lack developed core textures and change laterally into compound flows of pillow and subaqueous pahoehoe lobes, which are occasionally intermingled with pelagic shale. On the other hand, core lacks fine columnar joints and shows a typical doleritic texture. We conclude that the V3 flow field formed by extrusion of lava at low to moderate rates onto a subhorizontal seafloor covered with thick pelagic sediment, burying topographic relief >100 m of abyssal hills and fault grabens.

  15. Water and fabric in an ophiolitic peridotite from a supra-subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongfeng; Ren, Huaping; Jin, Zhenmin

    2016-03-01

    Mantle peridotites from modern supra-subduction zones (SSZs) are important windows through which we can investigate the geodynamic processes active in the subduction factory, but they are unfortunately rare and hard to access. Most ophiolitic peridotites stem from SSZ settings and are therefore good candidates to explore the water budget and deformation in mantle wedges. We present here an integrated study of the geochemistry, deformation microstructures and water contents of olivine and orthopyroxene from the Dongqiao harzburgites, central Tibet. These peridotites are characterized by an absence of interstitial clinopyroxene, the partial replacement of orthopyroxene by olivine, the highly magnesian olivine and chromium spinel, and remarkable LREE enrichments. These features suggest that the Dongqiao harzburgites are highly depleted and have undergone a high degree (~40 %) of partial melting, followed by infiltration of and interaction with melt while they were part of the mantle wedge. Olivine and orthopyroxene show prominent plastic deformation microstructures and have developed significant crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs), suggestive of dislocation creep deformation. Fourier transform infrared analyses show that olivine is essentially dry, while orthopyroxene contains an average water content of 70 ± 14 wt ppm. We propose that orthopyroxene largely retains its in- situ water content from the mantle source, while olivine completely loses its water during emplacement. The orthopyroxene water contents fall into the lower end of the range observed in SSZ peridotites. We consider that the high degree of partial melting and the interaction with a water-undersaturated melt contribute to the relatively lower water contents in orthopyroxene from the Dongqiao harzburgites. Based on experimentally determined hydrogen partition coefficients between olivine and orthopyroxene, the water contents of olivine in the mantle source are calculated to be 7-9 wt ppm (or 114-147 ppm H/Si), which is consistent with the observed A-type CPOs in olivine.

  16. Ore petrology of chromite-PGE mineralization in the Kempirsai ophiolite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distler, V. V.; Kryachko, V. V.; Yudovskaya, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromite ores of the Kempirsai ophiolite massif, located south of the Ural Mountains, are extremely varied in composition and represented predominantly by alloys, sulfides, arsenides, and sulfosalts of the iridium-group PGE (IPGE). The earlier Ir-Os-Ru alloys prevail over the later Cu-Os-Ru, Cu-Ir, Ni-Ir, Ni-Os-Ir-Ru, and Ni-Ru-Os-Fe alloys rich in base metals (BM). The earlier Ru-Os disulfides crystallize coevally with Ir-Os-Ru alloys, whereas the later sulfides are represented by compounds with a variable stoichiometry and a wide miscibility of Ni, Cu, Ir, Rh, Os, and Fe. Phase relations of PGE alloys with PGE-BM alloys, sulfides and sulfoarsenides confirm that deposition of these minerals was defined by a general evolution of PGE fractionation in the mineral-forming system but not by a super-imposed process. The leading mechanism of PGM crystallization is thought to be their dendritic growth during gas-transport reactions from low-density gaseous fluid enriched in PGE. The representative technological sampling of 0.5 million tons of an ore showed that the average PGE content in chromite ore is 0.71 ppm which leads to an evaluation of the PGE resources to be no less than 250 tons. Hence, the Kempirsai deposit is not only a giant chromium deposit, but also a giant deposit of IPGE: Ir, Ru, and Os. The size parameters of PGM and their aggregates suggests that the PGE may be recoverable in separate concentrates.

  17. Oman Ophiolite: Petrological and Geochemical Investigation of Fast-Spreading Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Schuth, S.; Wolff, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We undertook a detailed field campaign in the Wadi Gideah, which is located in the Wadi-Tayin Massif in the southern part of the Oman Ophiolite, to sample a complete section of fast-spreading oceanic crust. Our concept of performing different analytical and structural investigations on the same samples enabled us to create a coherent data set. The thickness of the layered and virtually undeformed oceanic crust, containing pillow lavas and sheeted dikes as well as varitextured, foliated and layered gabbros resting on a relatively thin MOHO transition zone, was recalculated to approximately 6km. Here we present our data focusing on the petrological and geochemical logs obtained. Samples from the layered gabbro sequence show modal compositions of ~50 vol% plagioclase, ~40 vol% clinopyroxene and ~10 vol% olivine in average. The samples from the foliated gabbro sequence display a slightly higher amount of plagioclase. In very few samples up to 20 vol% of orthopyroxene is present. The layered gabbro sequence display Mg# 71-82 for olivine, Mg# 75-83 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 71-93 mol%. The foliated gabbro sequence display Mg# 67-79 for olivine, Mg# 76-85 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 58-85 mol%. The varitextured gabbro sequence display Mg# 74-80 for clinopyroxene and An% 59-86 in plagioclase mol%. The generally evolving trends in mineral major element composition from bottom to top of the profile are also observed for bulk rock major and trace element data. The average Sr87/Sr86 ratio is 0.7033 ± 0.0002 for the entire foliated and layered gabbro with significantly higher values for samples from fault zones cutting the gabbros at all crustal level which here are interpreted as possible hydrothermal pathways for cooling of the deep crust. We calculated the Wadi Gideah bulk crust composition and modeled possible fractionation paths, implying significant crystallization in the deep crust.

  18. Progressive Subduction-Accretion Growth of the Late Paleozoic-Cretaceous Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone Melange in Northern Anatolia, Turkey, and a New Tectonic Model for the Evolution of Northern Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Y.; Sarifakioglu, E.; Sevin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seamount-oceanic plateau remnants and ophiolite fragments with MORB-like and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities occur as blocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in north-central Turkey, and provide temporal and geochemical evidence for magmatism associated with subduction initiation-evolution and convergent margin growth in the Northern Neotethys. Ophiolitic blocks and the serpentinite and/or greywacke matrix of the mélange are deformed and imbricated along generally south-directed thrust sheets as a result of the north-dipping subduction polarity and the continental collision tectonics in the early Paleogene. Plagiogranite dikes intruding the SSZ gabbros have revealed U/Pb zircon ages of 179 Ma; epi-ophiolitic pelitic rocks resting directly on various ophiolitic units, on the other hand, contain zircons with ages around 130 Ma. Upper Cretaceous flyschal deposits unconformably cover imbricate thrust sheets of the SSZ-type ophiolite and the ophiolitic mélange containing MORB-like ophiolitic slabs and seamount fragments. SSZ-type ophiolite blocks include upper mantle peridotites, cumulate to massive gabbros, sheeted diabase dykes, plagiogranite veins and stocks, and basalt-chert-radiolarite. MORB-like ophiolitic blocks mainly contain upper mantle peridotites, massive gabbros, basaltic lavas, and chert-radiolarite. TiO2 contents of the SSZ-type, diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas are between 0.2 - 0.93 wt.%, whereas those of the MORB-like basalts range between 0.85 - 5.05 wt.%. Nb contents of the SSZ-type diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas range between 0.1-2.5 ppm and of the MORB-like lavas between 3.7-5.4 ppm. SSZ-type basic rocks have Th/Yb ratios of 0.1-1 whereas the MORB-like basic rocks show Th/Yb values ranging from 0.01 to 0.3, suggesting enrichment by slab-derived fluids. The low TiO2 and Nb values, combined with higher Th/Yb ratios, indicate an IAT affinity of the SSZ rock suites in comparison to the tholeiitic features of the MORB-like suites. Based on the biostratigraphic and radiometric age relations and data we infer that the MORB-type oceanic lithosphere formed in the early Triassic (or earlier) through late Cretaceous between Pontides (north) and Anatolide-Tauride (south) continental blocks. The SSZ-type oceanic crust and seamounts/oceanic plateaus evolved in and across this pre-existing MORB-like oceanic lithosphere throughout the Liassic and Cretaecous. Accretion of seamounts and oceanic plateaus throughout the Mesozoic played a significant role in the tectonic evolution of the Eurasian active continental margin and its progressive southward migration and growth through time. We present a new geodynamic model here for the Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the Northern Neotethys.

  19. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, with applicatons to Tethyan ocean ridge tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, G.R.; Hopson, C.A.; Wright, J.E.

    1981-04-10

    Plagiogranites are a minor but widespread component of the Samail ophiolite plutonic member. They crystallized from the most fractionated melts generated by magmatic crystallization and differentiation of a steady state magma chamber beneath the Tethyan spreading ocean ridge, and their ages are thought to mark the time of ocean crust formation. Isotopic U--Pb ages of zircons from 13 plagiogranites collected along a 270-km segment of the Samail ophiolite subparallel to the regional trend of the sheeted dike complex (the former spreading ridge axis direction) define a narrow time interval of 93.5--97.9 m.y., with a pronounced clustering about 95 m.y. The zircon ages of the plagiogranites agree remarkably well with the early Cenomanian to early Turonian biostratigraphic ages of sediments that are intercalated within the ophiolite pillow lavas and that lie just above them (Tippit et al., 1981). The agreement of radiometric and biostratigraphic ages provides strong support for the conclusion that the plagiogranite U--Pb ages closely date the time span of ocean crust formation. No step changes in age patterns are observed along the ridge axis (sheeted dike) direction, suggesting that there are no major internal offsets of the ophiolite by transform or other faults along most of the traverse. One possible exception occurs at the southeastern end of the sampled interval (Ibra area), where a 3 m.y. discontinuity might be caused by an unmapped fault. Assuming that the regional trend of the sheeted dikes (N10 /sup 0/--25 /sup 0/W) marks the direction of the former spreading ridge axis, the present array of sample localities spans a distance of 130 to 195 km normal to that axis (i.e., in the spreading direction). The data as a whole do not define a clear-cut age trend normal to the spreading axis, but by eliminating samples that may be aberrant due to faulting, the data array suggests a pattern of increasing ages from east to west.

  20. Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Liu, Binqiang; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Weimin; Liu, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Jifeng ophiolitic mélange (ultramafic rocks, meta-basalts and gabbros) crops out in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range, the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which marks the closure of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean associated with the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. In order to investigate the formation age and magma source of the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange, the gabbros from newly discovered the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange are studied with zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating from the ophiolitic gabbros yields U-Pb age of 647 ± 5.3 Ma, which may represent the formation age of the ophiolitic mélange. The gabbros display low SiO2, TiO2, K2O contents, high Na2O, LREE contents and indistinctive REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 1.97-2.98]. It shows an E-MORB-like affinity, while the element concentrations of the Jifeng samples are lower than that of E-MORB. More importantly, Nb displays negative anomaly in comparison with Th, which shows a transitional SSZ-type ophiolite signature. Moreover, the ɛ Hf ( t) values of ~647 Ma zircons in the gabbros range from +8.4 to +13.4, and the corresponding Hf single-stage ages ( T DM1) are between 687 and 902 Ma, which is obviously older than the crystallization age of 647 Ma. These geochemical features can be explained as melts from the partial melting of a depleted mantle source meta-somatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. Accordingly, we conclude that the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange is probably related to transitional SSZ-type ophiolite and developed in an intra-oceanic subduction, which indicates that an ocean (the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean) existed between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. The Ocean's formation might be no later than the Neoproterozoic (647 Ma), and it was closed in the Late Cambrian because of the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block.

  1. Link between SSZ ophiolite formation, emplacement and arc inception, Northland, New Zealand: U Pb SHRIMP constraints; Cenozoic SW Pacific tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Malpas, John; Smith, Ian E. M.; Ali, Jason R.

    2006-10-01

    New U-Pb age-data from zircons separated from a Northland ophiolite gabbro yield a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 31.6 ± 0.2 Ma, providing support for a recently determined 28.3 ± 0.2 Ma SHRIMP age of an associated plagiogranite and ˜ 29-26 Ma 40Ar/ 39Ar ages ( n = 9) of basalts of the ophiolite. Elsewhere, Miocene arc-related calc-alkaline andesite dikes which intrude the ophiolitic rocks contain zircons which yield mean 206Pb/ 238U ages of 20.1 ± 0.2 and 19.8 ± 0.2 Ma. The ophiolite gabbro and the andesites both contain rare inherited zircons ranging from 122-104 Ma. The Early Cretaceous zircons in the arc andesites are interpreted as xenocrysts from the Mt. Camel basement terrane through which magmas of the Northland Miocene arc lavas erupted. The inherited zircons in the ophiolite gabbros suggest that a small fraction of this basement was introduced into the suboceanic mantle by subduction and mixed with mantle melts during ophiolite formation. We postulate that the tholeiitic suite of the ophiolite represents the crustal segment of SSZ lithosphere (SSZL) generated in the southern South Fiji Basin (SFB) at a northeast-dipping subduction zone that was initiated at about 35 Ma. The subduction zone nucleated along a pre-existing transform boundary separating circa 45-20 Ma oceanic lithosphere to the north and west of the Northland Peninsula from nascent back arc basin lithosphere of the SFB. Construction of the SSZL propagated southward along the transform boundary as the SFB continued to unzip to the southeast. After subduction of a large portion of oceanic lithosphere by about 26 Ma and collision of the SSZL with New Zealand, compression between the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate was taken up along a new southwest-dipping subduction zone behind the SSZL. Renewed volcanism began in the oceanic forearc at 25 Ma producing boninitic-like, SSZ and within-plate alkalic and calc-alkaline rocks. Rocks of these types temporally overlap ophiolite emplacement and subsequent Miocene continental arc construction.

  2. Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: A case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, ValéRie; Ceuleneer, Georges; Monnin, Christophe; Lansac, Benjamin; Hoareau, Guilhem; Boulart, CéDric

    2013-07-01

    We report on the mineralogical assemblages found in the hyperalkaline springs hosted on Liguria and Oman ophiolites based on exhaustive X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microprobe analyses. In Liguria, hyperalkaline springs produce a thin brownish calcite precipitate that covers the bedrock due to the concomitant atmospheric CO2 uptake and neutralization of the hyperalkaline waters. No brucite and portlandite minerals are observed. The discharge of alkaline waters in Oman ophiolite forms white-orange precipitates. Calcium carbonate minerals (calcite and/or aragonite) are the most abundant and ubiquitous precipitates and are produced by the same mechanism as in Liguria. This process is observed as a thin surface crust made of rhombohedral calcite. Morphological features of aragonite vary from needle-, bouquet-, dumbbell-, spheroidal-like habitus according to the origin of carbon, temperature, and ionic composition of the hyperalkaline springs, and the biochemical and organic compounds. Brucite is observed both at hyperalkaline springs located at the thrust plane and at the paleo-Moho. The varying mixing proportions between the surface runoff waters and the hyperalkaline ones control brucite precipitation. The layered double hydroxide minerals occur solely in the vicinity of hyperalkaline springs emerging within the bedded gabbros. Finally, the dominant mineralogical associations we found in Oman (Ca-bearing carbonates and brucite) in a serpentinizing environment driven by the meteoric waters are surprisingly the same as those observed at the Lost City hydrothermal site in a totally marine environment.

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of the rocks associated with a late proterozoic ophiolite in West Pokot, NW Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, A. C.; Vearncombe, J. R.; Price, R. C.; Shackleton, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Mafic and ultramafic rocks in the W Pokot area, NW Kenya are identified as parts of a dismembered ophiolite. They lie within the late Proterozoic Mozambique Belt and are associated with metasediments and calc-alkaline volcanics and intruded by granitic rocks. All these rocks are allochthonous, thrust westwards towards the Archaean Tanzanian Craton. The calc-alkaline volcanics, which are chemically similar to present-day island-arc volcanic rocks, give a Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron age of 663 49 Ma, and the associated metasediments give an age of 584 25 Ma, both ages interpreted as dating a regional amphibolitefacies metamorphism. These rocks are intruded by the Marich Granite from which a Rb/Sr whole-rock isochron age of 593 50 Ma was obtained with an 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratio of 0/7072 5 implying some crustal contamination either from the magmatite complex, which structurally underlies the ophiolitic rocks, or from deeper crustal rocks. The age spectrum is broadly similar to that established for similar sequences of rocks northwards along strike in Sudan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is no support for the view that these high-grade metamorphic rocks of this part of the Mozambique Belt are an older series underlying the lower grade Late Prpterozoic rocks of NE Africa and Saudi Arabia.

  4. Mineralization, alteration, and hydrothermal metamorphism of the ophiolite-hosted Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Seyfried, W.E., Jr.; Koski, R.A.; Strickler, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, part of the Josephine ophiolite, formed on and below the seafloor during Late Jurassic volcanism at a back arc spreading center. Ore fluids were probably localized by faults which were active on the seafloor at the time of sulfide deposition. The uppermost massive sulfide formed on the seafloor at hydrothermal vents. The bulk of the sulfide mineralization formed below the seafloor within olivine basalt hyaloclastite erupted near the time of mineralization. Infiltration of hydrothermal fluid into the hyaloclastite altered the rock. The fluid responsible for the hydrothermal alteration was evolved seawater with low pH and Mg and high Fe. The average value of sulfide and the difference between sulfide and contemporaneous seawater sulfate values are similar to ophiolite-hosted sulfide deposits in Cyprus. Mudstone and clinopyroxene basalt above the sulfide horizons were not altered by the ore-transporting hydrothermal fluid, but these rocks were hydrothermally metamorphosed by altered seawater heated by deep circulation into hot oceanic crust. This subseafloor metamorphism produced a mineral assemblage typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. Exchange with altered seawater increased the whole-rock ??18O of the basalts to values of 9.4-11.2%. -from Authors

  5. Reactive flow as dominant evolution process in the lowermost oceanic crust: evidence from olivine of the Pineto ophiolite (Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Tiepolo, Massimo; Berno, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The Jurassic Pineto ophiolite from Corsica exposes a ~1-km-thick troctolite-olivine-gabbro sequence, interpreted to represent a lowermost sector of the gabbroic oceanic crust from a (ultra-)slow spreading system. To constrain the petrogenesis of the olivine-gabbros, minor and trace element analyses of olivine (forsterite = 84-82 mol%) were carried out. Olivine from the olivine-gabbros is depleted in incompatible trace elements (Sc, V, Ti, Y, Zr and heavy rare earth elements) with respect to olivines from associated troctolites. Depleted incompatible element compositions are also shown by olivine (forsterite = 86 mol%) from a clinopyroxene-rich troctolite. The incompatible element compositions of olivine argue against a petrogenetic process entirely driven by fractional crystallization. We propose that melts migrating through an olivine-plagioclase crystal mush chemically evolved by reaction with the existing minerals, changing in composition as it flowed upward. The melt residual from these interactions led to partial dissolution of preexisting olivine and to crystallization of clinopyroxene, generating olivine-gabbro bodies within a troctolite matrix. Reactive flow was the major evolution process active in the ~1-km crustal transect exposed at the Pineto ophiolite, producing lithological variations classically attributed to fractional crystallization processes.

  6. Origin of primary PGM assemblage in сhromitite from a mantle tectonite at Harold's Grave (Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Lord, Richard A.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present textural and mineral chemistry data for a PGM inclusion assemblage and whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of chromitite from Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a dunite pod in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC), Scotland. The study utilized a number of analytical techniques, including acid digestion and isotope dilution (ID) ICP-MS, hydroseparation and electron microprobe analysis. The chromitite contains a pronounced enrichment of refractory PGE (IPGE: Os, Ir and Ru) over less refractory PGE (PPGE: Rh, Pt and Pd), typical of mantle hosted `ophiolitic' chromitites. A `primary' magmatic PGM assemblage is represented by euhedrally shaped (up to 60 μm in size) single and composite inclusions in chromite. Polyphase PGM grains are dominated by laurite and osmian iridium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (Can Mineral 40: 1705-1716, 2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200-1250 °C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07.

  7. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Marc; Muñoz, Manuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Cathelineau, Michel; Picard, Christian; Quesnel, Benoit; Boulvais, Philippe; Couteau, Clément

    2014-01-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  8. Dissolution-precipitation processes governing the carbonation and silicification of the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, M.; Munoz, M.; Guillot, S.; Cathelineau, M.; Picard, C.; Quesnel, B.; Boulvais, P.; Couteau, C.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering of mantle peridotite tectonically exposed to the atmosphere leads commonly to natural carbonation processes. Extensive cryptocrystalline magnesite veins and stock-work are widespread in the serpentinite sole of the New Caledonia ophiolite. Silica is systematically associated with magnesite. It is commonly admitted that Mg and Si are released during the laterization of overlying peridotites. Thus, the occurrence of these veins is generally attributed to a per descensum mechanism that involves the infiltration of meteoric waters enriched in dissolved atmospheric CO2. In this study, we investigate serpentinite carbonation processes, and related silicification, based on a detailed petrographic and crystal chemical study of serpentinites. The relationships between serpentine and alteration products are described using an original method for the analysis of micro-X-ray fluorescence images performed at the centimeter scale. Our investigations highlight a carbonation mechanism, together with precipitation of amorphous silica and sepiolite, based on a dissolution-precipitation process. In contrast with the per descensum Mg/Si-enrichment model that is mainly concentrated in rock fractures, dissolution-precipitation process is much more pervasive. Thus, although the texture of rocks remains relatively preserved, this process extends more widely into the rock and may represent a major part of total carbonation of the ophiolite.

  9. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

    2008-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting is unknown but it must postdate remanence acquisition in the Late Cretaceous. Two major orogenic events of the southern Patagonian Andes, in the Eocene (ca. 42 Ma) and Middle Miocene (ca. 12 Ma), respectively, could have caused the proposed tilting.

  10. Mineral Controls on Microbial Niche Space in Subsurface Serpentinites of the Coast Range Ophiolite, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Carnevale, D.; Schrenk, M. O.; Twing, K. I.; McCollom, T. M.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinites on Earth are excellent candidate environments for the origin of life and continue to serve as an outstanding model system for study of modern selection pressures (such as gradients in temperature, pressure, aqueous geochemistry, oxidation-reduction potential) on microbial communities. Recent coring (August 2011) in the Coast Range Ophiolite near Lower Lake, CA resulted in the establishment of two sets of reference continental serpentinite cores (to 30 and 42 m depth, respectively) and the installation of eight monitoring wells drawing from different depths. Six of these wells plumb serpentinizing waters, with characteristic high pH (up to 12.5), high calcium loads (10-200 ppm), and methane concentrations that are at or near one-atmosphere saturation, while hydrogen levels are orders of magnitude lower than is typically observed in other similar systems. Low hydrogen levels are cryptic; they may reflect consumption by microbial communities or possibly a pressure- or temperature-related solubility response. Two reference wells provide access to quasi-parallel, shallower groundwater flow regimes with near neutral pH values and surface-related major element and organic acid inventories. Many environmental parameters pertinent to microbiological communities active in serpentinites (such as dissolved hydrogen, methane, and other gas concentrations, redox status, ambient pH, and ionic strength) are largely controlled by host rock mineralogy and, thus, the temperature and progress of serpentinization. Since iron partitioning between co-existing minerals in serpentinites is strongly linked to the evolution of hydrogen (McCollom and Bach, 2009), we report here on mineralogy, bulk geochemistry, and selected mineral chemistry data for the serpentinite cores in order to constrain the production of hydrogen, the dominant bioenergetic driving force in this land-based deep biosphere setting. Parallel microbiological analyses of the same drill cores have shown the predominance of putative hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Together these data seek to link the mineralogy of microbial habitats in the serpentinite subsurface to the communities they support, which may have important implication for the study of both active and ancient serpentinizing ecosystems.

  11. An evolved axial melt lens in the Northern Ibra Valley, Southern Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The axial melt lens (AML) is a common feature lying at the base of the upper crust at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. It is thought to play a major role in the evolution of MORB and, potentially, accretion of the plutonic lower crust. In order to better understand the petrological processes that operate in AMLs we have examined the nature and variability of the horizon equivalent to the AML preserved in the Oman ophiolite. We present the results of a detailed investigation of a section east of Fahrah in the Ibra Valley. Here, a suite of 'varitextured' gabbros separates the sheeted dykes above from foliated gabbros below. It comprises 3 distinct units: an ophitic gabbro with pegmatitic patches (patchy gabbro; 70 m thick), overlain by a spotty gabbro (50 m), capped by a quartz-diorite (120 m). The sheeted dykes are observed to root in the quartz-diorite. Contacts between the plutonic units are gradational and subhorizontal. All of the units are isotropic. A total of 110 samples were collected for detailed petrographic and chemical analysis. With the exception of a small number of the diorites, all of the samples have a 'cumulate' component. Primary igneous amphibole is ubiquitous, present even as a minor phase in the foliated gabbros beneath, and indicating extensive differentiation and/or the presence of water in the primary liquid. France et al. (2014, Lithos) report patches of granoblastic material from this horizon in the Fahrah area, and suggest they represent the restites of partially melted pieces of the sheeted dykes. We did not, however, find any such granoblastic material, nor can the quartz-diorites represent partial melt; instead, preliminary geochemical modeling suggests that all of the units can be related by simple progressive fractional crystallization of an Oman axial ('V1' or 'Geotimes') melt. Along with the field relationships, as well as the basaltic andesite to dacite composition of the overlying sheeted dykes, this suggests that the AML was the locus of formation of the highly evolved melts. This contrasts with the more primitive AML and sheeted dyke complex documented in Wadi Abyad. From this we conclude that there is significant lateral variability in AML compositions along the Oman ridge axis.

  12. Tracing ancient events in the lithospheric mantle: A case study from ophiolitic chromitites of SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Mehmet; González-Jiménez, José María; Griffin, William L.; Belousova, Elena; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; McGowan, Nicole; Pearson, Norman J.

    2016-04-01

    New major-, minor- and trace-element data on high-Cr chromites from several ophiolitic podiform chromitites from Lycian and Antalya peridotites in southwestern Turkey reveal a polygenetic origin from a range of arc-type melts within forearc and back-arc settings. These forearc and the back-arc related high-Cr chromitites are interpreted to reflect the tectonic juxtaposition of different lithospheric mantle segments during the obduction. The diversity of the γOs(t=0) values (-8.28 to +13.92) in the Antalya and Lycian chromitite PGMs and their good correlations with the sub- to supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1175-0.1459) suggests a heterogeneous mantle source that incorporated up to 40% recycled crust, probably due to subduction processes of the orogenic events. The few model ages calculated define two significant peaks in TRD model ages at 1.5 and 0.25 Ga, suggesting that the chromitites are younger than 0.25 Ga and include relics of an at least Mesoproterozoic or older (>1.0 Ga) mantle protolith. Eight of the nine zircon grains separated from the chromitites, are interpreted as detrital and/or resorbed xenocrystic relics, whilst a significantly less reworked/resorbed one is considered to be of metasomatic origin. In-situ U-Pb dating of the xenocrystic zircon grains yielded a spread of ages within ca 0.6-2.1 Ga, suggesting recycling of crustal rocks younger than 0.6 Ga (Late Neoproterozoic). The notable coincidence between the lower age limit of the older zircons (ca 1.6 Ga) and the oldest Os model age peak (ca 1.5 Ga) from the PGM may suggest a Mesoproterozoic rifting stage. These findings imply a Paleoproterozoic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) protolith for the SW Anatolian mantle which was later converted into an oceanic lithospheric mantle domain possibly following a rifting and continental break-up initiated during Mesoproterozoic (ca 1.5-1.0 Ga). The single metasomatic zircon of ca 0.09 Ga age coinciding with the initiation of the contraction of the Neotethys may be interpreted to date the timing of a metasomatic event beneath the intra-oceanic subduction zone.

  13. Mantle lithosphere evolution during rifting and ocean formation: evidence from ophiolitic peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.; Muentener, O.

    2003-04-01

    Ophiolitic peridotites from Liguria, Corsica and Lanzo demonstrate that substantial portions of the lithospheric mantle of the Ligurian Tethys ocean were exhumed from spinel-facies conditions (and T in the range 900--1100^oC), during passive lithospheric extension, and were exposed at the sea-floor of the Jurassic oceanic basin. During exhumation, they were infiltrated by, and reacted with, migrating melts produced by the upwelling hot asthenosphere. Melts produced by near-fractional melting, and ascending by reactive porous flow, dissolved pyroxenes during migration in the mantle column. As the rising melts cooled below liquidus temperatures, they precipitated opx-plg-rich gabbronorite microgranular aggregates between the deformed mantle minerals of the spinel peridotites, which were transformed into impregnated, opx-plg-enriched peridotites. Clinoyroxenes, as both deformed mantle porphyroclasts and interstitial magmatic grains, have very similar trace element budgets, which are significantly enriched in MREE,Ti,Sc,V,Zr,Y with respect to clinopyroxenes in the precursor spinel peridotites: accordingly, pristine mantle minerals and newly formed magmatic minerals attained trace element equilibrium with the percolating melts. During percolation, migrating melts heated the lithospheric mantle up to 1300^oC. This indicates that, during ongoing exhumation, the ex-subcontinental/oceanic lithospheric mantle underwent thermochemical erosion (chemical refertilisation and thermal modification) by melts rising from the underlying hot asthenosphere. At Monte Maggiore (Corsica) and Lanzo, the diffuse melt porous flow was later replaced by focused porous flow, which locally formed a system of discordant dunite channels. At Lanzo, liquids migrating in the dunite channels crystallised small interstitial clinopyroxene grains, whose composition indicates that the migrating liquids where similar to MORB. The porous flow was later replaced by early intrusion which formed gabbroic veins/dykelets and pyroxene-rich cumulate pockets, cutting peridotites and dunites. Clinopyroxenes compositions indicate that: (1) the Lanzo dykelets derive from low degrees (2--3%), slightly enriched fractional melt increments and (2) the Monte Maggiore dykelets and cumulates derive from higher degrees (6--7%) strongly depleted fractional melt increments. Later, peridotites were intruded by aggregated N-MORB magmas, which gave rise to gabbroic dikes evolving from troctolite to Mg-rich to Fe-rich gabbros. The changes in melt composition, melt dynamics and mantle rheology are discussed in the frame of the rift evolution during transition from lithospheric extension to oceanic drifting in a slow spreading system.

  14. Timescales and rates for peridotite-groundwater reactions in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J.; Stute, M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The peridotite section of the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman is a site of ongoing low temperature serpentinization and carbonation. We present geochemical data for waters collected from boreholes in the peridotite to help describe subsurface water-rock reactions and rates. We constrained groundwater age using 3H-3He dating, He accumulation, dissolved noble gas thermometry, and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O). Dissolved gas samples were collected from boreholes and used to estimate ongoing serpentinization rates. Boreholes in peridotite contain two water types: Type I Mg2+-HCO3- water and Type II Ca2+-OH- water. All of our groundwater dating techniques suggest boreholes with Type I water contain modern recharge. Type I boreholes have 3H-3He dates of 0-40 years, 3He/4He ratios similar to the atmosphere, and low levels of He accumulation. Noble gas thermometry shows recharge temperatures of 32oC, the modern mean annual ground temperature. Stable isotopes in Type I waters fall between the northern and southern local meteoric water lines, similar to other modern northern Oman groundwaters (Weyhenmeyer et al., Wat. Resour. Res., 2002). In contrast, Type II hyperalkaline groundwaters from boreholes in peridotite appear to be significantly older. Waters have pre-bomb 3H levels, and significant He accumulation from sources such as crustal production from radioactive decay or mantle He. Noble gas temperatures range from 30oC to 25oC, with the cooler samples potentially having recharged during a glacial period. Stable isotopes for Type II waters plot either between the northern and southern meteoric water lines or are enriched in δ18O. The enrichment may be due to evaporation or a change in the source of local water vapor during glacial periods. Dissolved gases from boreholes with Type I water are primarily N2, while gases from boreholes with Type II water include millimolar concentrations of H2, CH4, or both. These dissolved gases suggest the Type II boreholes are in or near areas of active low temperature serpentinization. Serpentinization rates calculated from dissolved gas concentrations and groundwater flow vary from 4x10-8 to 2x10-6 volume fraction peridotite serpentinized per year.

  15. Sulfur geochemistry of peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems: Comparing the Ligurian ophiolites with oceanic serpentinites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Gaggero, Laura; Crispini, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Serpentinization processes at slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges control the exchange of various elements between seawater and the oceanic lithosphere and play a major role in marine geochemical cycles. We use opaque mineral assemblages and sulfur isotope geochemistry to reconstruct variations in fluid fluxes, redox conditions and microbial activity prevailing during serpentinization and carbonate precipitation of serpentinites and ophicalcites from an ophiolite sequence in the Northern Apennines (Italy). We then compare our results with calcite-veined serpentinites from the Iberian Margin formed during the opening of the North Atlantic, and with serpentinites sampled at the active peridotite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field on the Atlantis Massif near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The sulfide and oxide mineral assemblage of the serpentinites from the Northern Apennines is dominated by pyrite, pentlandite, millerite, siegenite, magnetite, and hematite, reflecting relatively oxidizing conditions, while the sulfur geochemistry reveals a dominance of sulfide sulfur over sulfate sulfur. δ34S values of sulfide and sulfate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction, leaching, and oxidation are the main processes that affected the sulfur isotope signature of these serpentinites. The opaque mineralogy in the serpentinites from the Northern Apennines is similar to that of the Iberian Margin and the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, and generally represents the late stages of serpentinization, where intense fluid circulation leads to fairly oxidizing conditions and alkaline fluids lead to carbonate precipitation. However, the mineral assemblages also indicate strong fluctuations in oxygen fugacity, likely caused by volume expansion during serpentinization and tectonic activity along a mid-ocean ridge. Additionally, local enrichment in 34S in sulfides suggests that fluids interacted at depth with gabbros and subsequently circulated along shear zones, similar to observations along detachment fault surfaces at the Atlantis Massif. Our results, therefore, give further evidence that the ophicalcites and serpentinites from the Northern Apennines formed in a tectonic setting similar to the Atlantis Massif. We estimate a global annual uptake of seawater sulfate of 5.6 to 12 × 1011 g S by serpentinization of ultramafic rocks exposed to seawater on the ocean floor. We suggest that the thermal structure of the exposed mantle rocks and, in turn, the efficiency of microbes to reduce seawater sulfate to sulfide is a major factor controlling the storage of sulfur in serpentinites. Thus, cycling of sulfur in peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems during the Jurassic was probably very similar to the processes observed today in systems along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  16. The fossilisation of a dynamic melt lens at fast spreading centers: insights from the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, L.; Ildefonse, B.; Koepke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Thin and narrow melt lenses are observed on top of crystal-rich magma chambers at fast spreading ridges. This particular horizon, which marks the interface between the magmatic and the hydrothermal system, presents complex petrological and structural features. Its dynamics remain poorly constrained. We present here new detailed mapping of continuous, undisturbed areas of the Oman ophiolite and discuss evidences for a dynamic system with upward and downward vertical movements of the melt lens. These observations are consistent with episodic dikes injections in a steady state model, but also suggest that the root of the sheeted dike complex is generally overprinted by the upward vertical movements of the melt lens. The latter trigger prograde recrystallization in the dikes. However, because of later, low-temperature alteration, the upward extent of such a possible recrystallization front is unconstrained. Dike assimilation is evidenced in the field; it provides a mechanism for the incorporation of hydrated phases in the melt lens during its upward migrations. Recrystallized-dike-enclaves accumulations are observed at the foliated gabbro/isotropic gabbro transition, and inferred to represent fragment of the assimilated dikes, stoped at the bottom of the melt lens during its upward migration. In the isotropic gabbro horizon, some coarse grained gabbros display a crystallisation sequence with the clinopyroxenes crystallizing earlier than the plagioclases, which is uncommon in oceanic gabbros. Plagioclase composition is also abnormal with anorthite content reaching An99. These unusual observations are consistent with crystallization under hydrous conditions. In these samples relict domains (reaching 5mm) display Al-Ti poor clinopyroxenes. They contain small oxide inclusions (1mm), which we interpret as an evidence of prograde metamorphic recrystallization of amphiboles. These domains illustrate the recycling of previously hydrothermalized lithologies in the melt lens. The described melt lens upward migration, which results in reheating and assimilation of hydrothermalized sheeted dikes, is consistent with observations made in IODP Hole 1256D. A general dynamic model for the melt lens evolution at fast spreading ridges is proposed, in which episodic dike injections during steady state regime stages alternate with vertical migrations of the melt lens. Upward and downward movements of the lens result in reheating/assimilation of dikes, and crystallization of varitextured isotropic gabbros, respectively.

  17. Assessing Hydrothermal Contributions to Global Biogeochemial Cycles; Insights From the Macquarie Island Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, R. M.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Davidson, G.; Alt, J.; Brewer, T. S.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is an important component of global biogeochemical cycles. Chemical exchange between seawater and the ocean crust affects the composition of the oceans, the ocean crust, and via subduction the composition and heterogeneity of the mantle. Despite 50 years of scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate goal of drilling a continuous in-situ section through the entire ocean crust has not yet been achieved. The absence of complete oceanic crustal sections makes full quantification of the hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles difficult. In particular, our knowledge of the nature and extent of fluid-rock interaction in the lower crust is limited by the absence of accessible submarine exposures or drill core. Macquarie Island, approximately 1500 km south of New Zealand, is the only sub-aerial exposure of a complete section of ocean crust in the ocean basin in which it formed. The crust formed during a phase of slow spreading along a short segment of mid-ocean ridge ~11 Myr ago and was uplifted during recent transpression along the Pacific Australian plate boundary. Hydrothermally altered rocks from Macquarie Island therefore provide a time-integrated record of the chemical changes due to fluid-rock exchange through a complete section of ocean crust. We exploit the immobile behavior of some elements during hydrothermal alteration to determine the precursor compositions to altered Macquarie whole rock samples, and then evaluate the changes in bulk rock chemistry due to fluid-rock interaction throughout the Macquarie crust. We combine these data with stratigraphic reconstructions through the Macquarie crust to determine its net hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles. The Macquarie crust was a net sink for Mn, Mg, Na, K, Cs and Ba and a net source of Fe, Ca, Cu and Sr to the oceans. To assess the role of hydrothermal circulation in global geochemical cycles we compare the calculated Macquarie hydrothermal fluxes to published estimates of the hydrothermal contributions from (i) drilled sections of in-situ upper ocean crust produced at slow, intermediate and fast spreading rates and of differing crustal ages; and (ii) supra-subduction zone ophiolites, which consistently record a greater extent of fluid-rock exchange than crust from mid-ocean ridges.

  18. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition in the lower oceanic crust: Clues from the Ligurian ophiolites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Renna, Maria Rosaria; Dallai, Luigi; Zanetti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The gabbroic bodies from the Jurassic Ligurian ophiolites are structurally and compositionally similar to the gabbroic sequences from the oceanic core complexes of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. Initial cooling of the Ligurian gabbros is associated with local development of hornblende-bearing felsic dykes and hornblende vein networks. The hornblende veining is correlated with the widespread development of hornblende as coronas/pseudomorphs after the clinopyroxene in the host gabbros. In addition, the studied gabbroic body includes a mantle sliver locally containing hornblende gabbros and hornblendite veins. The hornblendes from the felsic dykes and the hornblende-rich rocks within the mantle sliver show a similar geochemical signature, characterized by low Mg#, CaO and Al2O3, negligible Cl, and high TiO2, K2O, REE, Y, Zr and Nb concentrations. The whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the felsic dykes and the hornblende-rich rocks define a Sm-Nd isochron corresponding to an age of 154 ± 20 Ma and an initial ɛNd of 9.2 ± 0.5. The δ18O of the hornblendes and coexisting zircons from these rocks (about +4.5‰ and +5.8‰, respectively) do not indicate the presence of a seawater component in these melts. The formation of the felsic dykes and of the hornblende-rich rocks within the mantle sliver involved SiO2-rich silicate melts with negligible seawater component, which presumably were derived from high degree fractional crystallization of MOR-type basalts. The vein and the coronitic/pseudomorphic hornblendes show high Mg# and CaO, significant Cl (0.02-0.17 wt%) and low TiO2 and K2O concentrations. The coronitic/pseudomorphic hornblendes have trace element compositions similar to those of the clinopyroxenes from the gabbros and δ18O values (+1.0‰ to 0.7‰) close to seawater, suggesting an origin by reaction between migrating seawater-derived fluids and the host gabbros. The vein hornblendes commonly show slight LREE enrichment, relatively high concentrations of Nb (up to 2.5 ppm) and δ18O ranging from +3.7‰ to +0.8‰. The crystallization of these hornblendes most likely involved both seawater and magmatic components.

  19. Origin of ophiolite complexes related to intra-oceanic subduction initiation: implications of IODP Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin fore arc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Carvallo, Claire; Christeson, Gail; Ferré, Eric; Kurz, Walter; Kutterolf, Steffen; Morgan, Sally; Pearce, Julian; Reagan, Mark; Sager, William; Shervais, John; Whattam, Scott; International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc), the Scientific Party of

    2015-04-01

    Ophiolites, representing oceanic crust exposed on land (by whatever means), are central to the interpretation of many orogenic belts (e.g. E Mediterranean). Based mostly on geochemical evidence, ophiolites are widely interpreted, in many but by no means all cases, as having formed within intra-oceanic settings above subduction zones (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). Following land geological, dredging and submersible studies, fore arcs of the SW Pacific region became recognised as likely settings of supra-subduction zone ophiolite genesis. This hypothesis was tested by recent drilling of the Izu-Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that three of the sites are located in fault-controlled sediment ponds that formed in response to dominantly down-to the-west extensional faulting (with hints of preceding top-to-the-east compressional thrusting). The sediments overlying the igneous basement, of maximum Late Eocene to Recent age, document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds. At the two more trenchward sites (U1440 and U1441), mostly tholeiitic basalts were drilled, including massive and pillowed lavas and hyaloclastite. Geochemically, these extrusives are of near mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition (fore arc basalts). Subtle chemical deviation from normal MORB can be explained by weakly fluid-influenced melting during decompression melting in the earliest stages of supra-subduction zone spreading (not as 'trapped' older MORB). The remaining two sites, c. 6 km to the west (U1439 and U1442), penetrated dominantly high-magnesian andesites, known as boninites, largely as fragmental material. Their formation implies the extraction of highly depleted magmas from previously depleted, refractory upper mantle in a supra-subduction zone setting. Following supra-subduction zone spreading, the active modern arc formed c. 200 km westwards of the trench. The new drilling evidence proves that both fore arc-type basalt and boninite formed in a fore arc setting soon after subduction initiation (c.52 Ma). Comparisons with ophiolites reveal many similarities, especially the presence of fore arc-type basalts and low calcium boninites. The relative positions of the fore arc basalts, boninites and arc basalts in the Izu Bonin and Mariana forearc (based on previous studies) can be compared with the positions of comparable units in a range of ophiolite complexes in orogenic belts including the Troodos, Oman, Greek (e.g. Vourinos), Albanian (Mirdita), Coast Range (California) and Bay of Islands (Newfoundland) ophiolites. The comparisons support the interpretation that all of the ophiolites formed during intra-oceanic subduction initiation. There are also some specific differences between the individual ophiolites suggesting that ophiolites should be interpreted individually in their regional tectonic settings.

  20. Ophiolitic mélanges in crustal-scale fault zones: Implications for the Late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in West Junggar, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Guo, Zhaojie

    2014-12-01

    The Baijiantan and Darbut ophiolites in West Junggar are exposed in steep fault zones (>70°) containing serpentinite mélange, in contact on either side with regionally distributed Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous ocean floor peperitic basalts and overlying sedimentary successions. The ophiolitic mélanges show classic structural features created by strike-slip faulting and consistent shear sense indicators of left-slip kinematics. Sandstone blocks within the mélanges resemble the surrounding sediments in lithology and age, indicating that the ophiolitic mélanges consist of locally derived rocks. The ophiolitic mélanges therefore originated from left-slip fault zones within a remnant basin and are not plate boundaries nor subduction suture zones. Sandstone is the youngest lithology involved in the mélange and provides a maximum age for the mélange of 322 Ma, whereas stitching plutons are younger than 302 Ma. Multiple clusters in zircon ages from single gabbro blocks in the mélange at ~375, ~360, ~354, and ~340 Ma are inconsistent with accretionary incorporation of subducting ocean crust but rather suggest that episodic movement of the faults provided pathways for magma from the mantle into magma chambers. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of West Junggar involved Late Devonian to Carboniferous relative motion between the Junggar block and West Junggar ocean basin, which triggered the left-slip fault zones within a remnant ocean basin, along which the oceanic crust was disrupted to form linear ophiolitic mélanges. Final filling of this remnant ocean basin and its dismemberment by strike-slip faulting occurred in the late Carboniferous, followed by crustal thickening by juvenile granites at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary.

  1. Slab and sediment melting during subduction initiation: granitoid dykes from the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, Hugh

    2015-09-01

    New geochemical data are presented for a suite of tonalites, granodiorites, trondhjemites and granites intrusive into depleted mantle harzburgites of the Oman-UAE ophiolite. A detailed field, petrological and geochemical examination suggests that these `mantle granitoids' are the product of three processes: (a) the mixing of melts derived from both mafic and metasedimentary sources, (b) interaction with the mantle harzburgite host and (c) the fractional crystallisation of plagioclase, hornblende ± accessory phases. Geochemical data are used to characterise the identity of the protolith(s) by first screening the data for those samples which have experienced fractional crystallisation during emplacement. The resultant `reduced' data set has moderately fractionated REE, with small negative Eu anomalies and fractionated primitive mantle-normalised trace element patterns with high concentrations of fluid mobile elements and lower concentrations of HFS elements and with positive peaks for Rb and Pb and negative troughs for Ba, Nb, Sr and Ti. The character of the protolith was quantified using a melting model based upon a MORB-type basalt similar in composition to the Oman Geotimes lavas and a model using the MUQ (MUd from Queensland) global sediment composition (Kamber et al. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:1041-1058, 2005) both with an amphibolite/granulite facies mineralogy. The two compositions bracket the mantle granitoid data set with partial melts of the MORB source yielding trace element compositions lower than the granitoids, whereas melts of the MUQ source yield melts with compositions higher than the granitoids. Mixing of the calculated melt compositions indicates that the measured granitoid compositions represent between 10 and 30 % mixing of a metasedimentary melt into the melt of a mafic source. Current petrological, structural and geochronological data suggest a model for the origin of the Oman ophiolite in which it is formed by spreading above a subduction zone. The results of this study support this model in three ways: (a) trace element data show that the granitoids have interacted with the mantle, implying that they originated below the mantle section of the ophiolite and were emplaced into the mantle wedge from below; (b) a most probable setting for the melting of a sediment-basalt mix is in the upper part of a subducting slab; (c) the high temperature/shallow melting of the sediment and basaltic slab mix can only have been driven by the high temperatures of the overlying mantle wedge; this is most likely during subduction initiation. Thus, sediment melting during subduction initiation represents an important means of refertilising what is otherwise highly depleted mantle.

  2. Mapping of Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) in Samail ophiolites of Sultanate of Oman using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-08-01

    Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) of the Samail ophiolite of Sultanate of Oman are characteristic to potential occurrences of chromite deposit, hydrothermal mineralization and serpentinization. Mapping of Moho and MTZ, and discriminating them in between the mafic and ultramafic rocks in ophiolite sequence are more significant and important. The present study describes the remote sensing spectral characters of minerals and rocks of the Moho and MTZ and discriminates the Moho of Wadi Al Abyad of Nakhl massif, and Wadi Nidab and Wadi Abda regions of Sumail massif in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral regions using low-cost multispectral satellite data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results of this study show that the red-green-blue (RGB) color composite images of ASTER spectral bands 8, 3 and 1, and 8, 7 and 4 are able to delineate the Moho and MTZ of the regions. The RGB images of ASTER band ratios (4/8, 4/1, 3/2 * 4/3 and (1 + 3)/2, (4 + 6)/5, (7 + 9)/8) are capable to discriminate the mantle material (ultramafic harzburgites) and crustal rocks (mafic gabbros). The occurrence of such rock types is demonstrated by detection of their minerals using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) image processing method. The presence of Moho and MTZ, and associated lithologies are verified in field at Wadi Al Abyad, Wadi Nidab, Wadi Abda, Wadi Tayin, Wadi Fizh and several locations of Nakhl regions of Samail ophiolites. The laboratory study shows the occurrence of typical minerals namely olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgite and the minerals such as plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene and olivine in the layered gabbro. The spectral properties of the rocks are studied using Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) spectrometer and the occurrences of minerals are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. This study demonstrates the sensor capability of ASTER to map Moho and MTZ, and thus it is recommended to the geoscientists and geophysicists working on Moho and MTZ. The satellite image interpretations of Moho and MTZ, and the associated rocks and minerals are consistent with the field research studies carried out in these regions. Our images have potential to map the chromites mineralized zone and dunites (refractory materials) bearing MTZ.

  3. Evidence of melting, melt percolation and deformation in a supra-subduction zone (Marum ophiolite complex, Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Jonda, Leo; Davies, Hugh L.

    2015-08-01

    New geochemical and microstructural data are presented for a suite of ultramafic rocks from the Marum ophiolite in Papua New Guinea. Our results describe a piece of most depleted mantle made essentially of dunite and harzburgite showing compositions of supra-subduction zone peridotite. Strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in dunite and harzburgite inferred the activation of both (001)[100] and (010)[100] slip systems, which are activated at high-temperature and low-stress conditions. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene CPOs inferred the activation of (100)[001] and (010)[001] slip systems, which are common for pyroxenes deformed at high temperature. This plastic deformation is interpreted to have developed during the formation of the Marum ophiolite, prior to melt percolation. The orientation of the foliation and olivine [100] slip directions sub-parallel to the subduction zone indicates that mantle flow was parallel to the trench pointing a fast polarisation direction parallel to the arc. This provides new evidence that fast polarisation direction parallel to the arc could be caused by anisotropic peridotite and not by olivine [001] slip. After its formation, Marum ophiolite has been fertilised by diffuse crystallisation of a low proportion of clinopyroxene (1-2 %) (P1) and formation of cm-scale ol-clinopyroxenite and ol-websterite veins cross-cutting the foliation (P2). This percolating melt shows silica-rich magnesian affinities (boninite-like) related to supra-subduction zone in a young fore-arc environment. The peridotite has also been percolated by a melt with more tholeiite affinities precipitating plagioclase-rich wehrlite and thin gabbroic veins (P3); these are interpreted to form after the boninitic event. The small proportion of newly crystallised pyroxene in the dunite shows similar orientation of crystallographic axes to the host dunite (<100>ol parallel to <001>cpx-opx). In contrast, the pyroxenes in ol-clinopyroxenite, ol-websterite and the thin gabbroic veins in the wehrlite, record their own orientation with <001> axes at 45°-60° to olivine <100> axes. Our results indicate that for low melt proportion the crystallisation is governed by epitaxial growth, and when the proportion of melt is higher the newly formed minerals record syn-kinematic crystallisation. This switch of crystallographic axes orientation of newly formed minerals indicates a reorientation of the constraints during the boninitic and tholeiitic melts event probably due to a variation of lateral mantle flow within the fore-arc area. The variation of the crystallographic axes orientation could be an indicator for the development of a young fore-arc mantle in supra-subduction zone.

  4. Serpentinization and fluid-rock interaction in Jurassic mafic and ultramafic sea-floor: constraints from Ligurian ophiolite sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Monica; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Boschi, Chiara; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

    2014-05-01

    The Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex (Eastern Liguria) represents one of the largest and better-exposed ophiolitic successions in the Northern Apennines. It is considered to be a fragment of heterogeneous Jurassic lithosphere that records tectono-magmatic and alteration histories similar to those documented along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, such as at the 15°20'N area and the Atlantis Massif at 30°N. Structural and petrological studies on these rocks provide constraints on metamorphic/deformation processes during formation and hydrothermal alteration of the Jurassic oceanic lithosphere. We present a petrological and geochemical study of deformation processes and fluid-rock interaction in the Bracco-Levanto ophiolitic complex and compare these to modern oceanic hydrothermal systems, such as the Lost City Hydrothermal Field hosted in ultramafic rocks on the Atlantis Massif. A focus is on investigating mass transfer and fluid flow paths during high and low temperature hydrothermal activity, and on processes leading to hydrothermal carbonate precipitation and the formation of ophicalcites, which are characteristic of the Bracco-Levanto sequences. Major element and mineral compositional data allow us to distinguish a multiphase history of alteration characterized by: (1) widespread SiO2 metasomatism during progressive serpentinization, and (2) multiple phases of veining and carbonate precipitation associated with circulation of seawater and high fluid-rock ratios in the shallow ultramafic-dominated portions of the Jurassic seafloor. We observe regional variations in MgO, SiO2 and Al2O3, suggesting Si-flux towards stratigraphically higher units. In general, the ophicalcites have higher Si, Al and Fe concentrations and lower Mg than the serpentinite basement rocks or serpentinites with minimal carbonate veins. Bulk rock trace element data and Sr isotope ratios indicate seawater reacting with rocks of more mafic composition, then channeled towards stratigraphically higher units, leading to Si metasomatism in the serpentinites and ophicalcites. Channelling of Si-rich fluids is also indicated by amphibole and talc growth in shear zones and wall rock around the ophicalcites. δ18O-values of the carbonate veins indicate temperatures up to 150°C and document a decrease in temperature with ongoing serpentinization. Comparison with serpentinites from the Atlantis Massif and 15°20'N indicates a similar degree of Si enrichment in the modern seafloor and suggests that Si-metasomatism may be a fundamental process associated with serpentinization at slow-spreading ridge environments.

  5. Heavy metal fractionation and pedogenesis in subalpine and alpine soils on ophiolitic materials, western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, M.; Previtali, F.

    2009-04-01

    Soils on ultramafic materials are usually rich in Mg, Fe and heavy metals (particularly Ni, Cr, Mn, Co). These chemical properties could cause toxicity effects on biological communities. Metal fractionation shows the soil phases to which metals are associated (exchangeable, associated with organic matter, with amorphous or crystalline Fe or Mn oxides, in the crystal structure of primary minerals), and thus it is strictly related with metal mobilization and bioavailability. Ni, Cr, Mn, Co and Fe fractionations (6 fractions, analysed by a selective sequential extraction technique) were analysed in 6 subalpine and in 17 alpine soils (i.e., respectively under coniferous forest or above the present-day treeline) in the ophiolitic area of Mont Avic Natural Park (Valle d'Aosta, Italian Alps), on soils formed from metal-rich serpentinite or from metal-poor mafic rocks and calcschists. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. The results show a tight relationship between vegetation, soil forming processes, metal fractionation and bioavailability: below and above the present-day treeline soil forming processes and metal speciation change dramatically. Serpentinite soils are always extremely rich in metals, but metal speciation in analogous habitats is similar on every substrate. Under subalpine forest, the main pedogenic process is podzolization. In the extremely acidic and leached podzolic soils, all metals are mobilized and their lowest concentration is in the bleached E horizon, while there is a higher content in organic matter-rich surface horizon and in the spodic (illuvial) B. Not considering the amount associated with primary minerals (residual fraction), all the fractions of Ni, Co and Mn are strictly correlated with each other: in A and Bs horizons, the greatest amount is associated with organic matter and with crystalline Fe-oxides. The content in easily mobilizable forms associated with Mn and amorphous Fe oxides is only slightly lower. The greatest amount is in the residual fraction, as pedogenic forms are easily removed from the soil profiles by leaching; this is particularly evident in E horizons. Cr is less released by weathering, and the greatest fraction is associated with organic matter and amorphous Fe-oxides. No Cr could be detected associated with Mn oxides. The high mobility of metals in these soils increases their bioavailability. Above the treeline, the situation changes dramatically. Leaching is important only on stable, flat surfaces. Total and pedogenic fractions of Ni, Cr, Co and Fe increase from the bottom to the top of the soil profile, while all forms of Mn are strongly depleted in the upper horizons because of chemical reduction due to waterlogging at snowmelt. In fact, Mn is particularly sensitive to reduction processes. The most important factors involved in metal geochemistry are erosion and cryoturbation, which bring "fresh", metal-rich materials on the top of the profiles; weathering later releases the metals associated with pedogenic materials. The weak leaching due to limited acidification increases the concentration of potentially bioavailable metals (Fe, Co, Cr, and Ni) in the biologically active soil horizons. All metals are mobilized by waterlogging at snowmelt: extremely high contents of "labile" pedogenic forms of metals also in deep horizons of soils developed on metal-poor materials. However, the concentration due to the processes described above is stronger than leaching for Ni, Co, Fe and Cr.

  6. Modeling a CO2 mineralization experiment of fractured peridotite from the Semail ophiolite/ Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Nadja; Zhang, Guoxiang; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris; Ten Grotenhuis, Saskia; Hoedeman, Gerco

    2010-05-01

    Most geologic CO2 sequestration technologies focus on sedimentary rocks, where the carbon dioxide is stored in a fluid phase. A possible alternative is to trap it as a mineral in the subsurface (in-situ) in basaltic or even (ultra)mafic rocks. Carbon dioxide in aqueous solution reacts with Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing silicate minerals, precipitates as (MgCa,Fe)CO3 (carbonate), and can thus be permanently sequestered. The cation donors are silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene which are abundant in (ultra)mafic rocks, such as peridotite. Investigations are underway to evaluate the sequestration potential of the Semail Ophiolite in Oman, utilizing the large volumes of partially serpentinized peridotite that are present. Key factors are the rate of mineralization due to dissolution of the peridotite and precipitation of carbonate, the extent of the natural and hydraulic fracture network and the accessibility of the rock to reactive fluids. To quantify the influence of dissolution rates on the overall CO2 mineralization process, small, fractured peridotite samples were exposed to supercritical CO2 and water in laboratory experiments. The samples are cored from a large rock sample in the dimension of small cylinders with 1 cm in height and diameter, with a mass of ~2g. Several experimental conditions were tested with different equipment, from large volume autoclave to small volume cold seal vessel. The 650 ml autoclave contained 400-500g of water and a sample under 10 MPa of partial CO2 pressure up to 150. The small capsules in the cold seal vessel held 1-1.5g of water and the sample under CO2 partial pressure from 15MPa to 70 MPa and temperature from 60 to 200°C. The samples remained for two weeks in the reaction vessels. In addition, bench acid bath experiments in 150 ml vials were performed open to the atmosphere at 50-80°C and pH of ~3. The main observation was that the peridotite dissolved two orders of magnitude slower in the high pressure and temperature cell of the cold seal vessel than comparative experiments in large volume autoclaves and bench acid bath vials under lower and atmospheric pressure conditions. We attributed this observation to the limited water availability in the cold seal vessel, limiting the aqueous reaction of bi-carbonate formation and magnesite precipitation. To test this hypothesis, one of the cold seal vessel experiments at 20 MPa and 100°C was simulated with a reactive transport model, using TOUGHREACT. To simulate the actual experimental conditions, the model used a grid on mm and 100's of μm scale and a fractured peridotite medium with serpentine filling the fractures. The simulation produced dissolution comparable to the experiment and showed an effective shut down of the bi-carbonation reaction within one day after the start of the experiment. If the conditions of limited water supply seen in our experiments are applicable in a field setting, we could expect dissolution may be limited by the buffering of the pH and shut down of the bi-carbonate formation. Under field conditions water and CO2 will only flow in hydraulic induced fractures and the natural fracture network that is filled with serpentine and some carbonate. The simulation result and potential implication for the field application will require further experimental investigation in the lab or field in the future.

  7. Initiating intermediate-depth earthquakes: Insights from a HP-LT ophiolite from Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.

    2014-10-01

    The hypocentres of intermediate-depth earthquakes have been shown to overlap with the regions in subducting slabs that contain high abundances of hydrous minerals. This relationship was initially revealed using geophysical and numerical modelling and until recently has lacked corroboration from direct field-based research. We evaluated the relationship of the coincidence of intermediate-depth earthquakes with hydrous minerals in the slab by undertaking detailed geochemical analyses of blueschist to lawsonite to eclogite facies pseudotachylytes and their hostrocks located within an exhumed ophiolite, the Eocene Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica. These units comprise incompletely metamorphosed metagabbro and peridotite. The wallrocks of the pseudotachylytes contain variable amounts of hydrous minerals: tremolite, Mg-hornblende, glaucophane in the metagabbro, and serpentine, tremolite and chlorite in the peridotite. Back-scatter-electron images show that the hydrous minerals entrained in the melt undergo fusion rather than dehydration. Vesicular and H2O-rich melt veins are observed cross-cutting partially molten pseudotachylyte fault veins and show evidence of H2O exsolution during melt solidification. The crystallisation products of these melts indicate formation under high temperature, high pressure conditions (1400-1700 °C; 1.5 GPa). The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes crystallised olivine, orthopyroxene and diopside, which are surrounded by interstitial Al- and H2O-rich glass. The metagabbro pseudotachylyte is dominated by Al-rich omphacite, ilmenite and high-Fe anorthite. XRF bulk analyses of the wallrock of the pseudotachylyte and electron microprobe analyses of the pseudotachylyte matrix, entrained survivor clasts and the crystallisation products show that near-total disequilibrium melting took place. The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylyte composition is skewed strongly towards chlorite; however, the preservation of delicate dendritic diopside and olivine hopper crystals suggests that the pseudotachylyte is unaltered, indicating that preferential fusion of chlorite took place. The metagabbro-hosted pseudotachylyte matrix composition is very similar to the bulk wallrock composition but slightly skewed by the preferential melting of Mg-hornblende and tremolite. Not all the pseudotachylytes are hydrous as the H2O content of the melts is highly variable; the metagabbro-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 4 wt.% and the peridotite-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 14 wt.%. The range in H2O content of the pseudotachylytes has lead us to conclude that the localised dehydration of hydrous minerals may be a second order factor in initiating intermediate-depth seismicity. However, we have observed that the pseudotachylytes with the most chaotic vein networks, thickest fault veins and most comminuted material have the highest abundances of hydrous wallrock minerals, possibly owing to repeated fluid ingress in between pseudotachylyte-generating events. This implies that free fluids enhance pseudotachylyte generation and possibly seismicity, but are not a first order requirement. Microtextural and geochemical results from this study suggest that the presence of abundant H2O-rich minerals in the slab exerts a strong rheological control during high strain-rate deformation, facilitating thermally-triggered localising shear instabilities. These field-based observations allow us to explore the assumption of the causal link between slab hydration and earthquake nucleation, and offer fresh insight into the debate of how intermediate-depth earthquakes take place.

  8. Magma system along fast-spreading centers controlled by ridge segmentation: Evidence from the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Sumio; Adachi, Yoshiko

    2013-04-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are segmented at various scales with a hierarchy, from the biggest 1st- order to the smallest 4th-order segments. These segment structures control magmatic processes beneath the mid-ocean ridges such as mantle upwelling, partial melting of the upper mantle, and magma delivery system to form the oceanic crust (Macdonald, 1998). However, systematic studies on the segment control for magmatic processes are rare at modern mid-ocean ridges due to the difficulty of obtaining in-situ samples from different crustal-lithospheric depths. Sampling at ocean floors is generally exclusively limited only to the surface (i.e. the seafloor). Furthermore, the samples obtained from the surface of the ocean floor may likely represent the products of off-axis magmatism (Kusano et al., 2012). Therefore, studies of ocean ridge segmentation in ophiolites provide important constraints for the magmatic processes beneath seafloor spreading centers, because the precise 3-D architecture of the upper mantle and the crust (all the way to the uppermost extrusive layer) and their lateral variations could be observed and investigated in ophiolites. We have studied the northern Oman ophiolite where a complete succession from the upper mantle peridotites to the uppermost extrusive rocks is well exposed. Miyashita et al. (2003), Adachi and Miyashita (2003) and Umino et al. (2003) proposed a segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite; the Wadi Fizh area is regarded as a northward propagating tip of a mid-ocean ridge based on geological evidence (Adachi and Miyashita. 2003). On the other hand, the Wadi Thuqbah area, about 25 km south of Wadi Fizh, is regarded as a segment center based on the thickest Moho transition zone, well developed EW-trending lineations in the MTZ and layered gabbro, and the comparatively primitive compositions of the layered gabbros. Furthermore, the southern margin of the Hilti block (Salahi block), about 40 km south of Wadi Thuqbah, is inferred to be the segment-end, based on the compositional variations within the sheeted dike complex (Miyashita et al., 2003). In this presentation, we document the occurrence of along-axis variations along the Moho transition zones, the wehrlite intrusions, the extrusive sequence and the upper gabbro unit, and discuss the significance of ridge segmentation as a major controlling factor of magmatic systems beneath mid-ocean ridges. Adachi, Y. and Miyashita, S., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8619, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000272. Kusano, Y., Adachi, Y., Miyashita, S. and Umino, S., 2012,Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 13, 2012 Q05012, doi:10.1029/2011GC004006. Macdonald, K. C., 1998, Geophys. Monograph, 106, 27-58. MacLeod, C. J. and Yaouancq, G., 2001, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 176, 357-373. Miyashita, S., Adachi, Y. and Umino. S., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8617, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000235. Umino, S., Miyashita, S., Hotta, F. and Adachi, Y., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8618, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000233.

  9. Compositional and mineralogic constraints on the genesis of ophiolite hosted nickel mineralization in the Pevkos area, Limassol Forest, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Economou, M.; Panayiotou, A.

    1985-01-01

    Mineralization composed dominantly of primary troilite, maucherite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, and secondary valleriite occurs in serpentinized transition zone rocks of the Limasol Forest segment of the Troodos ophiolite complex, Cyprus. Whole-rock and electron microprobe analyses of this mineralization gives ranges of Cu/(Cu+Ni)=0.16 to 0.47, Pt/(Pt+Pd)=0.66 to 0.51, Ni/Co=6.33 to 13.4, and chondrite normalized plots with low concentrations of Rh, Pt, and Pd, but relatively high Au. Estimated distribution coefficients of nickel and iron between olivine and ore range from 0.5 to 7.4. Most of these data are unlike values from magmatic sulfide deposits and indicate either a complete alteration of a preexisting magmatic sulfide concentration or, more likely, a nonmagmatic origin for this mineralization. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Hydrogen generation during serpentinisation in ophiolite complexes: A comparison of H2-rich gases from Oman, Philippines and Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Valérie; Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2013-04-01

    H2-rich gas seepages in ultrabasic to basic contexts both in marine and continental environment are by-products of serpentinisation. Hydrothermal systems at MOR expose ultrabasic rocks to thermodynamic conditions favouring oxidation of FeII bearing minerals and water reduction. In continental context such thermodynamic conditions do not exist although active serpentinisation occurs in all known ophiolitic complexes (Barnes et al., 1978; Bruni et al., 2002; Cipolli et al., 2004; Boschetti and Toscani, 2008; Marques et al., 2008). Hyperalkaline springs are reported in these contexts as evidence of this active serpentinisation (Barnes et al., 1967) and are often associated with seepages of reduced gases (Neal and Stanger, 1983; Sano et al., 1993). Dry gas seepages are also observed (Abrajano et al., 1988, 1990; Hosgörmez, 2007; Etiope et al., 2011) Such H2-rich gases from ophiolite complexes were sampled in the Sultanate of Oman, the Philippines and Turkey and were analysed for chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. The conditions for present-day serpentinisation in ophiolites were recognised as low temperature processes in Oman with high rock/water ratios (Neal and Stanger, 1985), while the origin of gases is not as univocal for Philippines and Turkey gas seepages. Although, H2 generation is directly linked with FeII oxidation, different reactions can occur during peridotite hydration (McCollom and Bach, 2009; Marcaillou et al., 2011) and serpentine weathering. Produced H2 can react with carbonate species to produce methane via processes that could be biological or abiotic, while carbon availability depends on water recharge chemistry. In the present study, the geochemical properties of gases sampled from three different ophiolite complexes are compared and provide evidence that weathering reactions producing H2 depend on structural, geological, geomorphologic and hydrological local features. REFERENCES Abrajano, T. A., et al. (1988). Chemical Geology, 71(1-3), 211-222. Abrajano, T. A, et al. (1990). Applied Geochemistry, 5(5-6), 625-630. Barnes, I., et al. (1967). Science (New York, N.Y.), 156(3776), 830-2. Barnes, I., et al. (1978). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 42(1), 144-145. Boschetti, T., & Toscani, L. (2008). Chemical Geology, 257(1-2), 76-91. Bruni, J., et al. (2002). Applied Geochemistry, 17, 455-474. Cipolli, F., et al. (2004). Applied Geochemistry, 19(5), 787-802. Etiope, G., et al. (2011). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 310(1-2), 96-104. Hosgörmez, H. (2007). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 30(1), 131-141. Marcaillou, C., et al. (2011). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303(3-4), 281-290. Marques, J. M., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry, 23(12), 3278-3289. McCollom, T. M. & Bach, W. (2009). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(3), 856-875. Neal, C. & Stanger, G. (1983). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 66(66), 315-320. Neal, C. & Stanger, G. (1985). In J. I. Dever (Ed.), The Chemistry of Weathering (pp. 249-275). D. Reidel Publishing Company. Sano, Y., et al. (1993). Applied Geochemistry, 8(1), 1-8.

  11. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Albanian Dinarides? Preliminary paleomagnetic and structural results from the Mirdita Ophiolite (northern Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are dome-shaped massifs commonly associated with the inside corners of the intersection of transform faults and slow (and ultra-slow) spreading centres. They represent the uplifted footwalls of large-slip oceanic detachment faults (e.g. Cann et al., 1997; Blackman et al., 1998) and are composed of mantle and lower crustal rocks exhumed during fault displacement (Smith et al., 2006, 2008). Recent paleomagnetic studies of core samples from OCCs in the Atlantic Ocean (Morris et al., 2009; MacLeod et al., in prep) have confirmed that footwall sections undergo substantial rotation around (sub-) horizontal axes. These studies, therefore, support “rolling hinge” models for the evolution of OCCs, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at a steep angle at depth and then “roll-over” to their present day low angle orientations during unroofing (Buck, 1988; Wernicke & Axen, 1988; Lavier et al., 1999). However, a fully integrated paleomagnetic and structural analysis of this process is hampered by the one-dimensional sampling provided by ocean drilling of OCC footwalls. Therefore, ancient analogues for OCCs in ophiolites are of great interest, as these potentially provide 3-D exposures of these important structures and hence a more complete understanding of footwall strain and kinematics (providing that emplacement-related phases of deformation can be accounted for). Recently, the relationship between outcropping crustal and upper mantle rocks led Tremblay et al. (2009) to propose that an OCC is preserved within the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides (northern Albania). This is a slice of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere exposed along a N-S corridor which escaped the main late Cenozoic Alpine deformation (Robertson, 2002, 2004; Dilek et al., 2007). Though in the eastern portion of the Mirdita ophiolite a Penrose-type sequence is present, in the western portion mantle rocks are in tectonic contact with upper crustal lithologies. This main fault has been interpreted by Tremblay et al. (2009) as originally an oceanic detachment fault that exhumed mantle rocks and put them in contact with upper crustal basalts according to the “rolling-hinge” model. In order to test this model and document the kinematics of the proposed detachment fault, we carried out a preliminary paleomagnetic and structural sampling campaign in July 2010. The principal aims were: (i) to determine whether paleomagnetic remanences provide evidence for early relative rotation of footwall and hanging wall sequences either side of the proposed detachment that may be consistent with rolling-hinge models for OCCs; & (ii) to provide insights into the broader tectonic evolution of the Mirdita units. We collected c. 200 oriented samples at 32 localities distributed within a 30 km x 15 km area located between the Puka and Krabbi massifs, near the villages of Puka and Reps. Here we present the preliminary results of this study and discuss their geological implications for the history of the Mirdita ophiolite, including the interpretation of the Puka and Krabbi massifs as a fossil OCC and the primary orientation of the Mirdita spreading axis.

  12. Découverte d'un système hydrothermal océanique fossile dans l'ophiolite antécambrienne de Khzama (massif du Siroua, Anti-Atlas marocain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admou, Hassan; Juteau, Thierry

    1998-09-01

    The Khzama Precambrian ophiolite, tectonized and metamorphosed, exhibits all the lithological units of a complete ophiolite suite. The dyke complex, studied in detail in three tectonic slices, consists of isotropic to laminated, sometimes banded gabbros (about 50 %), crosscut by swarms of isolated diabase dykes with systematic chilled margins (about 50 %). This dyke complex unit shows a remarkably preserved network of fossil hydrothermal veins, consisting of quartz-epidote-sulfides associations, mostly oriented parallel to the margins of the diabase dykes. Greenish epidosites form veins and pockets, around which the diabases are impregnated with still fresh and shining sulfides, disseminated in the dykes' groundmass. These characteristics are identical to those described in fossil hydrothermal systems of much younger ophiolites, such as the cretaceous ophiolites of Oman or Cyprus, in the lower part of the sheeted dyke complex. The Khzama fossil hydrothermal system could constitute one of the most ancient oceanic hydrothermal systems developed at an oceanic spreading centre.

  13. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Kırşehir Block and the Central Anatolian Ophiolites, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Plunder, Alexis; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W. H.; Corfu, Fernando; Gürer, Derya; Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; Peters, Kalijn; McPhee, Peter J.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.

    2016-04-01

    In Central and Western Anatolia two continent-derived massifs simultaneously underthrusted an oceanic lithosphere in the Cretaceous and ended up with very contrasting metamorphic grades: high pressure, low temperature in the Tavşanlı zone and the low pressure, high temperature in the Kırşehir Block. To assess why, we reconstruct the Cretaceous paleogeography and plate configuration of Central Anatolia using structural, metamorphic, and geochronological constraints and Africa-Europe plate reconstructions. We review and provide new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from Central Anatolian metamorphic and magmatic rocks and ophiolites and show new paleomagnetic data on the paleo-ridge orientation in a Central Anatolian Ophiolite. Intraoceanic subduction that formed within the Neotethys around 100-90 Ma along connected N-S and E-W striking segments was followed by overriding oceanic plate extension. Already during suprasubduction zone ocean spreading, continental subduction started. We show that the complex geology of central and southern Turkey can at first order be explained by a foreland-propagating thrusting of upper crustal nappes derived from a downgoing, dominantly continental lithosphere: the Kırşehir Block and Tavşanlı zone accreted around 85 Ma, the Afyon zone around 65 Ma, and Taurides accretion continued until after the middle Eocene. We find no argument for Late Cretaceous subduction initiation within a conceptual "Inner Tauride Ocean" between the Kırşehir Block and the Afyon zone as widely inferred. We propose that the major contrast in metamorphic grade between the Kırşehir Block and the Tavşanlı zone primarily results from a major contrast in subduction obliquity and the associated burial rates, higher temperature being reached upon higher subduction obliquity.

  14. Formation of gabbronorites in the Purang ophiolite (SW Tibet) through melting of hydrothermally altered mantle along a detachment fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Zhang, Chang; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Purang ophiolite tectonically was thrust over an Upper Cretaceous mélange south of the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) in SW Tibet. It comprises a large ultramafic massif of ~ 800 km2, but plutonic and volcanic sections are notably absent. The Purang peridotite massif is dominated by harzburgites with minor clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites, which are occasionally intruded by gabbronoritic and basaltic dykes. They are characterized by low Al2O3 and CaO, which can be modeled by ~ 15-25% degrees of isobaric batch melting at a pressure of 20 kbar. Spinel Cr# values give an estimated ~ 12-19% degrees of fractional melting for the Purang peridotites. Clinopyroxenes in Purang peridotites show variable LREE patterns and their HREE contents could be reproduced by ~ 10-16% degrees of fractional melting from a depleted mantle source. The Purang gabbronorites are olivine-free, with early crystallization of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene relative to plagioclase. Pyroxenes in gabbronorites have more variable Mg# than those in peridotites. Plagioclases are characterized by very high anorthite contents of 94-99. Mineral compositions suggest that the Purang gabbronorites crystallized from high-silica hydrous melts, which are strongly depleted in incompatible elements. Such hydrous melts could be derived from serpentinized peridotite via melting along a detachment fault at a slow-spreading ridge that was triggered by the upwelling asthenosphere. The detachment fault exhumed the Purang peridotite massif as an oceanic core complex at the seafloor, which was emplaced and preserved in the suture zone. Therefore, we suggest that the Purang ophiolite was formed in the mid-ocean ridge rather than subduction-related settings.

  15. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains four articles in French and three in English, including: "Lire et comprendre un texte informatif (Reading and understanding an Informative Text)" (Jacqueline Billant, Pascale Fade); "Les nouveaux diplomes de Francais Language Etrangere: Le D.E.L.F. et le D.A.L.F. (The…

  16. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains six articles in French. These include the following: "E.A.O.: Expression avec ordinateur (E.A.O.: Computer-Aided Expression)" (Daniele Abe, Michele Cembalo); "Ou suis-je? De la relation apprenant/environnement (Where Am I? On the Learner/Environment Relationship)"…

  17. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains six articles in French and two in English, including: "Production orale: Comment mettre en place des strategies d'enseignment/apprentissage (Oral Production: How To Put Teaching/Learning Strategies in Place)" (Francis Carton, Richard Duda); "Trois jours pour parler…

  18. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains five articles in French and two in English. These include the following: "Enseignement individuel vs. enseignement de masse (Individual Instruction vs. Large Group Instruction)" (Jacqueline Billant, Pascal Fade); "Systemes 'autonomisants' d'apprentissage des langues…

  19. Southward trench migration at ∼130-120 Ma caused accretion of the Neo-Tethyan forearc lithosphere in Tibetan ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Griffin, William L.; Zheng, Jian-Ping; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Xu, Bo; Belousova, Elena A.

    2016-03-01

    The preservation of ultrahigh-pressure and super-reduced phases (diamond, moissanite, etc.) in the harzburgites and chromitites of the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolites (South Tibet, China) has major implications for mantle recycling and lithosphere evolution in the tectonic system related to the closing of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. However, important aspects of the genesis of these enigmatic ophiolites and the related geodynamic evolution are still unclear. In the Zedang ophiolite of the eastern Yarlung Zangbo Suture, detailed mineral chemical data reveal that the harzburgite domain in the east [spinel Cr# (mole Cr3+/(Cr3+ + Al3+) = 0.62-0.33] is more depleted than the lherzolite domain in the west (spinel Cr# = 0.30-0.17) and shows much lower equilibration temperatures (by ∼250-150 °C) than the lherzolites. Clinopyroxene trace-element compositions indicate that the harzburgites underwent pervasive metasomatism after melt extraction, while the lherzolites did not. New zircon U-Pb ages show that the harzburgites were intruded by dolerite dykes with chilled margins at ∼130-128 Ma, consistent with the widespread mafic magmatism at ∼130-120 Ma in the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolites. Nd-Hf isotopic data indicate that the Zedang lherzolites subcreted the pre-emplaced harzburgites concurrently with the intrusion of the dolerite dykes into the harzburgites, and that the lherzolites and dolerites both were derived from upwelling asthenosphere with minor slab input. Available zircon geochronology and Hf-isotope data show that juvenile magmatism in the adjacent Gangdese Arc was almost completely interrupted from ∼130-120 Ma. We suggest that the extension of the overlying harzburgitic lithosphere, subcretion of lherzolites, intrusion of mafic dykes, and the waning of Gangdese-Arc magmatism all reflect a southward trench migration in the Neo-Tethyan subduction system from the Gangdese Arc to the oceanic forearc lithosphere. This magmatic relocation and tectonic linkage are inferred to be the far-field effects of plate reorganization related to the Lhasa-Qiangtang collision and the breakup of Gondwanaland in the early Cretaceous. This model provides a solution for the global "ophiolite conundrum": supra-subduction-zone type ophiolites with mid-ocean-ridge features.

  20. Abiotic methane flux from the Chimaera seep and Tekirova ophiolites (Turkey): Understanding gas exhalation from low temperature serpentinization and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Hosgörmez, Hakan

    2011-10-01

    The emission of abiotic methane (CH 4) into the atmosphere from low temperature serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks is documented to date only in four countries, the Philippines, Oman, New Zealand, and Turkey. Serpentinization produces large amounts of hydrogen (H 2) which in theory may react with CO 2 or CO to form hydrocarbons (Fischer-Tropsch Type synthesis, FTT). Similar mechanisms have been invoked to explain the CH 4 detected on Mars, so that understanding flux and exhalation modality of ophiolitic gas on Earth may contribute to decipher the potential degassing on Mars. This work reports the first direct measurements of gas (CH 4, CO 2) flux ever done on onshore ophiolites with present-day serpentinization. We investigated the Tekirova ophiolites at Çirali, in Turkey, hosting the Chimaera seep, a system of gas vents issuing from fractures in a 5000 m 2 wide ophiolite outcrop. At this site at least 150-190 t of CH 4 is annually released into the atmosphere. The molecular and isotopic compositions of C 1-C 5 alkanes, CO 2, and N 2 combined with source rock maturity data and thermogenic gas formation modelling suggested a dominant abiotic component (~ 80-90%) mixed with thermogenic gas. Abiotic H 2-rich gas is likely formed at temperatures below 50 °C, suggested by the low deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio of H 2 (δD H2: - 720‰), consistent with the low geothermal gradient of the area. Abiotic gas synthesis must be very fast and effective in continuously producing an amount of gas equivalent to the long-lasting (> 2 millennia) emission of > 100 t CH 4 yr - 1 , otherwise pressurised gas accumulation must exist. Over the same ophiolitic formation, 3 km away from Chimaera, we detected an invisible microseepage of abiotic CH 4 with fluxes from 0.07 to 1 g m - 2 d - 1 . On Mars similar fluxes could be able to sustain the CH 4 plume apparently recognised in the Northern Summer 2003 (10 4 or 10 5 t yr - 1 ) over the wide olivine bedrock and outcrops of hydrated silicates in the Syrtis Major and Nili Fossae; just one seep like Chimaera or, more realistically, a weak, spatially sporadic microseepage, would be sufficient to maintain the atmospheric CH 4 level on Mars.

  1. Large scale obduction of preserved oceanic crust: linking the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolian ophiolites and implications for the formation of the Lesser Caucasus-Pontides Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Sosson, Marc; Galoyan, Ghazar; Sahakyan, Lilit; Topuz, Gultelin; Farouk Çelik, Omer; Avagyan, Ara; Muller, Carla

    2014-05-01

    During the Mesozoic, the Southern margin of the Eurasian continent was involved in the closure of the Paleotethys and opening Neotethys Ocean. Later, from the Jurassic to the Eocene, subductions, obductions, micro-plate accretions, and finally continent-continent collision occurred between Eurasia and Arabia, and resulted in the closure of Neotethys. In the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolia three main domains are distinguished from South to North: (1) the South Armenian Block (SAB) and the Tauride-Anatolide Platform (TAP), Gondwanian-derived continental terranes; (2) scattered outcrops of ophiolite bodies, coming up against the Sevan-Akera and Ankara-Erzincan suture zones; and (3) the Eurasian plate, represented by the Eastern Pontides margin and the Somkheto-Karabagh Arc. The slivers of ophiolites are preserved non-metamorphic relics of the now disappeared Northern Neotethys oceanic domain overthrusting onto the continental South Armenian Block (SAB) as well as on the Tauride-Anatolide plateform from the north to the south. It is important to point out that the major part of this oceanic lithosphere disappeared by subduction under the Eurasian Margin to the north. In the Lesser Caucasus, works using geochemical whole-rock analyses, 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts and gabbro amphiboles and paleontological dating have shown that the obducted oceanic domain originates from a back-arc setting formed throughout Middle Jurassic times. The comprehension of the geodynamic evolution of the Lesser Caucasus supports the presence of two north dipping subduction zones: (1) a subduction under the Eurasian margin and to the south by (2) an intra-oceanic subduction allowing the continental domain to subduct under the oceanic lithosphere, thus leading to ophiolite emplacement. To the West, the NE Anatolian ophiolites have been intensely studied with the aim to characterize the type of oceanic crust which they originated from. Geochemical analyses have shown similar rock types as in Armenia, Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) to volcanic arc rocks and Intra-Plate Basalts (IPB). Lithostratigraphic comparisons have shown that the relations between the three units, well identified in the Lesser Caucasus, are similar to those found in NE Anatolia, including the emplacement of stratigraphically conform and discordant deposits. New field data has also shed light on an outcrop of low-grade metamorphic rocks of volcanic origin overthrusted by the ophiolites towards the south on the northern side of the Erzincan basin, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). We extend our model for the Lesser Caucasus to NE Anatolia and infer that the missing of the volcanic arc formed above the intra-plate subduction may be explained by its dragging under the obducting ophiolite with scaling by faulting and tectonic erosion. In this large scale model the blueschists of Stepanavan, the garnet amphibolites of Amasia and the metamorphic arc complex of Erzincan correspond to this missing volcanic arc. We propose that the ophiolites of these two zones originate from the same oceanic domain and were emplaced during the same obduction event. This reconstructed ophiolitic nappe represents a preserved non-metamorphic oceanic domain over-thrusting up to 200km of continental domain along more than 500km. Distal outcrops of this exceptional object were preserved from latter collision which was concentrated along the suture zones.

  2. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.

    2014-12-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological study as well as resource exploration.

  3. The petrogenesis of leucogranitic dykes intruding the northern Semail ophiolite, United Arab Emirates: field relationships, geochemistry and Sr/Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jon; Searle, Mike; Pedersen, Rolf

    The Khawr Fakkan block of the Semail ophiolite (United Arab Emirates) exhibits a suite of 10-100m scale metaluminous to peraluminous granitic intrusions, ranging from cordierite-andalusite-biotite monzogranites to garnet-tourmaline leucogranites, which intrude mantle sequence harzburgites and lower crustal sequence cumulate gabbros. Structural constraints suggest that the subduction of continental sedimentary material beneath the hot proto-ophiolite in an intra-oceanic arc environment led to granulite facies metamorphism at the subduction front and the generation of granitic melts which were emplaced up to the level of the ophiolite Moho. Compositions indicate the analysed granitoids were largely minimum melts that crystallised at variable aH2O and pressures of 3 to 5kbar. The LILE (Sr, Rb and Ba) covariation modelling suggests that the granitoids formed largely by the dehydration melting of muscovite rich metasediments. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of analysed dykes vary between 0.710 and 0.706at initial ɛNd values of between -6.3 and -0.5. Cogenetic units of a composite sill from Ra's Dadnah yield a Sm-Nd isochron age of 98.8+/-9.5Ma (MSWD=1.18). Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the analysed granitic intrusions indicate that the subducted continental material was derived from oceanic trench fill (Haybi complex) sediments, preserved as greenschist (Asimah area) to granulite facies (Bani Hamid area) ophiolitic metamorphic sole terranes. The Sr-Nd isotope systematics suggest that hybrid granitic melts were derived from pre-magmatic mixing of two contrasting subduction zone sources.

  4. Compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland): Implications for chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration in the upper mantle portion of a supra-subduction zone ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbyshire, E. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Lenaz, D.; Gertisser, R.; Kronz, A.

    2013-03-01

    The mantle sequence of the ~ 492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC; Scotland) contains abundant compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite bodies enclosed in elongate dunite lenses in the vicinity of the petrological Moho. Chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration events recorded in these seams are examined here using petrography, mineral chemistry and crystal structural data. The resistant nature of Cr-spinel to serpentinisation and other late-stage alteration means that primary igneous compositions are preserved in unaltered crystal cores. Chromitite mineralogy and texture from five sampled localities at The Viels, Hagdale, Harold's Grave, Nikka Vord and Cliff reveal significant inter-pod chemical heterogeneity. The Cr-spinel mineral chemistry is consistent with supra-subduction zone melt extraction from the SOC peridotites. The occurrence of chromitite seams in the centres of the dunite lenses combined with variable Cr-spinel compositions at different chromitite seam localities supports a model of chromitite formation from spatially (and temporally?) fluctuating amounts of melt-rock interaction through channelised and/or porous melt flow. Pervasive serpentinisation of the SOC has led to the almost complete replacement of the primary (mantle) silicate mineral assemblages with serpentine (lizardite with minor chrysotile and antigorite). Magmatic sulphide (e.g., pentlandite) in dunite and chromitite is locally converted to reduced Ni-sulphide varieties (e.g., heazlewoodite and millerite). A post-serpentinisation (prograde) oxidisation event is recorded in the extensively altered Cliff chromitite seams in the west of the studied area, where chromitite Cr-spinel is extensively altered to ferritchromit. The ferritchromit may comprise > 50% of the volume of the Cliff Cr-spinels and contain appreciable quantities of 1-2 μm inclusions of sperrylite (PtAs2) and Ni-arsenide, signifying the coeval formation of these minerals with ferritchromit at temperatures of up to ~ 500 °C. The SOC chromitite Cr-spinels thus not only preserve key insights into the complex melting processes occurring in the upper mantle wedge but can also be utilised to construct a comprehensive alteration history of the lower mantle portions of such supra-subduction zone ophiolites.

  5. Petrogenesis of chromites from the Manipur ophiolite belt, NE India: evidence for a supra-subduction zone setting prior to Indo-Myanmar collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Tapan; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Nagendran, G.; Yanthan, N. M.; Singh, R.; Raghumani, N.

    2014-10-01

    The Manipur ophiolite belt within the Western Ophiolite Belt of the Indo-Myanmar Ranges (IMR), consists of tectonised to massive serpentinised peridotite, dunite pods, chromitite pods/lenses, cumulates, dykes, volcanic rocks and pelagic sediments. Chromitite pods and lenses hosted in peridotitic mantle rocks show magmatic textures, post magmatic brecciation and ferritchromitisation. Electron microprobe analyses show two types of massive chromitite, with one group having high-Cr (Cr# 75-76), medium-Al (Al2O3 12.2-12.4 wt%) chromites (Sirohi-type) and the other group (Gamnom-type) having a wide range of compositions with generally lower Cr and higher Al (Cr# 65-71, Al2O3 15.7-19 wt%). Accessory chromites in peridotitic mantle rocks have consistently low Cr (Cr# 38-39) and high Al (Al2O3 34-35 wt%), whereas chromites in dunite pods have intermediate compositions (Cr# ~60; Al2O3 20.7-21.2 wt%). The chromite chemistry suggests moderate (20 %) partial melting of the tectonised mantle harzburgite. The estimated Al2O3melt, (FeO/MgO)melt and TiO2melt for the Sirohi-type chromites indicate boninitic parentage, whereas chromite compositions from the Gamnom area suggest mixed boninitic—island arc tholeiitic magmas. The compositions of magmatic chromites suggest that the Manipur ophiolite was formed in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) setting.

  6. Evidence for the formation of boninitic melt in the base of the Salahi mantle section, the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Y.; Takazawa, E.

    2013-12-01

    The boninites in the Oman ophiolite occur as lavas and dikes of the Alley volcanic sequence (Ishikawa et al., 2002). Moreover, Yamazaki and Miyashita (2008) reported about boninitic dike swarms in the Fizh crustal section. The boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high temperature and low pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic lithosphere, which previously experienced MORB melt extraction. In this study, we report an ultramafic complex mainly composed of dunite which is in equilibrium with chemical composition of boninites in the southwestern part of the Salahi mantle section in the northern Oman ophiolite. Based on the study by Nomoto and Takazawa (2013) the complex consists mainly of massive dunite associated with minor amounts of harzburgite, pyroxenites and wehrlite. We use spinel Cr# (=Cr/[Cr+Al] atomic ratio) as an indicator of extent of melt extraction in harzburgites. For dunites spinel Cr# varies as a function of extent of reaction and of melt composition (Dick and Bullen, 1984; Arai, 1994; Ozawa, 2008). The spinels in the dunites from the complex have Cr# greater than 0.7 indicating highly refractory signature. The range of spinel Cr# is similar to those of spinels in boninites reported worldwide (Umino, 1986; van der Laan et al., 1992; Sobolev and Danyushevsky, 1994; Ishikawa et al., 2002). The complex might be a section of dunite channel that formed by flux melting of harzburgites as a result of infiltration of a voluminous fluid from the basal thrust. We determined the abundances of rare earth elements (REE) in the peridotite clinopyroxenes (cpxs) by LA-ICP-MS to estimate the compositions of the melts in equilibrium with these clinopyroxenes. The chondrite-normalized patterns for clinopyroxenes in the dunites are characterized by enrichments in light REE (LREE) relative to those of the harzburgite clinopyroxenes. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the calculated melts in equilibrium with clinopyroxenes in the dunites do not resemble to the pattern of N-MORB (Sun and McDonought, 1989) but fit very well to the patterns of the boninites (Cameron et al., 1983; Cameron, 1985; Taylor et al., 1994; Ishikawa et al., 2005). With increasing the spinel Cr# from harzburgite to dunite, the Yb content of clinopyroxenes decreases whereas the Ce content increases. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of clinopyroxenes in dunites indicate that the dunites are not a residue of closed system melting but a product of open system melting with addition of a LREE-enriched fluid. Our results supports a hypothesis that the dunites formed as residue after flux melting of harzburgite accompanied with LREE-enriched fluid infiltrated from the base of the ophiolite. The pyroxenites frequently occur in the periphery of the voluminous dunite mass. These pyroxenites were considered as crystal cumulates from the boninitic melt.

  7. Geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic amphibolites from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: A possible dismembered sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, E. S.

    2011-07-01

    Supra-subduction zone ophiolites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert (CED) occur as clusters in its northern (NCEDO) and southern (SCEDO) parts, displaying abundant island arc-boninitic and MORB/island-arc geochemical affinities, respectively. An amphibolite belt, including the investigated massive to slightly foliated Wadi Um Gheig (WUG) amphibolites, is exposed in the southeast most of the NCEDO thrusting over the El Sibai gneissic association and intruded by late- to post-orogenic granitoids and gabbros. The WUG rocks are metamorphosed under epidote amphibolite to common amphibolite facies. The amphiboles are calcic and represented by actinolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende in the epidote amphibolites and magnesio- to ferro-hornblende in the amphibolites. Plagioclase composition varies from pure albite (An3-8) in the epidote amphibolites to andesine and labradorite (An36-65) in the amphibolites. The estimated P-T conditions are in favor of their metamorphism under epidote amphibolite (c. 550-600 °C and 2-3 ± 1.5 kbar) and amphibolite (c. 618-720 °C and 3-6 ± 1.5 kbar) facies. The peak metamorphic conditions point to a burial depth of c.15-20 km. Geochemically, the WUG amphibolites show basaltic to andesitic compositions of tholeiitic affinity. They display LILE-enriched MORB-normalized patterns with negative Nb anomalies characteristic of the subduction-related rocks. However, their chondrite-normalized rare-earth element (REE) patterns vary from LREE-depleted (LaN/YbN = 0.29 to 0.49) to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN = 2.97 to 3.74). Few samples show major and trace element contents typical of boninitic rocks, including U-shaped REE pattern. On the standard tectonic discrimination diagrams the WUG amphibolites plot mostly in the island-arc fields with some samples of MORB and boninitic affinities. Greenschist facies metamorphosed NCEDO obviously share these geochemical characteristics, implying formation in the same tectonic environment, i.e. forearc basin. This argues that the WUG amphibolites likely represent remnants of a dismembered metamorphic sole beneath the NCEDO. Their formation possibly involves intra-forearc basin thrusting followed by emplacement of ophiolite as imbricated stack of dismembered thrust slices in an accretionary wedge setting. This revives interests in geotectonic model in which the CED represents a forearc-arc-back-arc system above a southeast-dipping subduction zone.

  8. Os isotope heterogeneity of the upper mantle: Evidence from the Mayarí Baracoa ophiolite belt in eastern Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Gervilla, F.; Meibom, A.; Proenza, J. A.; Garrido, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to quantify the extent of geochemical heterogeneity within a restricted and well dated portion of the upper mantle, 27 chromite separates from the 90 My old chromite deposits in the Mayarí-Baracoa ophiolite belt in eastern Cuba have been investigated for platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and Re-Os isotopic systematics. The samples are characterized by systematically subchondritic initial 187Os/ 188Os ratios and substantial heterogeneity. The initial 187Os/ 188Os ratios vary with chromite chemistry and with geographical distribution, reflecting differences in the Os isotopic evolution for the different upper mantle sections represented by the ophiolite. Accordingly, the Os isotope data might be divided into three groups. In the Moa-Baracoa district, where the chromite bodies are located in the mantle-crust transition zone, the calculated initial γOs values average - 0.97 ± 0.69 ( n = 13). In the Sagua de Tanamo district, where chromite chemistry is highly variable and their location in relation the mantle sequence is less clear, the initial γOs values are intermediate, with an average of - 1.77 ± 0.80 ( n = 7). In the Mayarí district, where the chromite bodies are located in the lower part of the mantle sequence, initial γOs values average - 2.66 ± 0.29 ( n = 7). These subchondritic (i.e. negative) initial γOs values are most simply explained by Re depletion during ancient partial melting and/or melt percolation events. The Os isotope heterogeneity documented here indicates a high degree of geochemical complexity on small to intermediate length scales in the upper mantle. Our results, in combination with data on chromites from the literature, show that an "average present-day Os isotopic composition" for the hypothetical depleted MORB mantle (DMM) reservoir cannot be precisely established beyond the statement that it is "broadly chondritic". Indeed, the upper mantle cannot be considered a sufficiently homogeneous geochemical "reservoir" to serve meaningfully as a baseline against which geochemical "anomalies" are evaluated. On the other hand, our findings are consistent with the "Statistical Upper Mantle Assemblage" or "SUMA"-concept, according to which a high level of geochemical heterogeneity is maintained in the upper mantle at all relevant length scales, as a result of the plate-tectonic cycle and intra-mantle processes such as melt-migration and metasomatism.

  9. The exhumation of an HP ophiolitic massif (Voltri Massif, Western Alps): insight from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Scambelluri, M.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    The high-pressure ophiolitic Voltri Massif outcrops at the eastern sector of the Ligurian Western Alps. Highly deformed serpentinite and metasediments wrap eclogite to blueschist facies metagabbro and metabasalt bodies; these lenses have foliated rims and preserve undeformed textures in their cores revealing a strong strain-partitioning. The mechanism that drove the exhumation of these high-pressure rocks has been already analyzed in detail using 2D numerical simulations (Malatesta et al., 2011). In particular they reproduce the subduction process that in the Mesozoic affected the Alpine branch of the Western Tethys. In the Ligurian area subduction was intraoceanic and involved a non-layered oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies inside serpentinized peridotites that were overlain by a limited basaltic cover. The comparison of field and petrologic evidence with model results showed that the exhumation of the high-pressure Voltri rocks was related to the formation of a serpentinite channel above the downgoing slab. This low-viscosity area formed after the hydration of the mantle-wedge rocks by the uprising fluids that migrate from the slab. Buoyancy of the high-pressure serpentinitic mélange that included slices of the slab finally triggered their exhumation. Alpine subduction was however oblique (Marroni and Treves, 1998; Malusà et al., 2011) thus including a trench-parallel left-lateral motion and not only a trench-normal motion as in 2D simulations. We have studied this particular setting through 3D numerical simulations starting from the setup of 2D models. We therefore designed an oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins and floored by a non-layered oceanic lithosphere. Subduction starts at a prescribed weak zone in the mantle; the weak zone defines the plate margins geometry. We test different "lateral" geometries of the weak zone (e.g. continuous, segmented). We designed "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins. Moreover, we tested the effect on subduction/exhumation dynamics of varying values of the trench-parallel component of convergence-rate vector. The comparison among field and petrologic data of the Voltri Massif rocks with 3D numerical models results will finally provide a more detailed description of the subduction dynamics acting in the Ligurian-Piedmontese basin and in particular will shed more light on the mechanism that drove the exhumation of the high-pressure ophiolitic Voltri Massif.

  10. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacuta, G.C., Jr.; Kay, R.W.; Gibbs, A.K.; Lipin, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in ore-grade concentration in some of the chromite deposits related to the ultramafic section of the Acoje Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex. The deposits are of three types: Type 1 - associated with cumulate peridotites at the base of the crust; Type 2 - in dunite pods from the top 1 km of mantle harzburgite; and Type 3 - like Type 2, but in deeper levels of the harzburgite. Most of the deposites have chromite compositions that are high in Cr with Cr/(Cr + Al) (expressed as chromium index, Cr#) > 0.6; high-Al (Cr# Pd, thought to be characteristic of PGE-barren deposits) and positive slope (Ir < Pd, characteristic of PGE-rich deposits). Iridium, Ru and Os commonly occur as micron-size laurite (sulfide) inclusions in unfractured chromite. Laurite and native Os are also found as inclusions in interstitial sulfides. Platinum and Pd occur as alloy inclusions (and possibly as solid solution) in interstitial Ni-Cu sulfides and as tellurobismuthides in serpentine and altered sulfides. Variability of PGE distribution may be explained by alteration, crystal fractionation or partial melting processes. Alteration and metamorphism were ruled out, because PGE contents do not correlate with degree of serpentinization or the abundance and type (hydroxyl versus non-hydroxyl) of silicate inclusions in chromite. Preliminary Os isotopic data do not support crustal contamination as a source of the PGEs in the Acoje deposits. The anomalous PGE concentrations in Type 1 high-Cr chromite deposits are attributed to two stages of enrichment: an early enrichment of their mantle source from previous melting events and a later stage of sulfide segregation accompanying chromite crystallization. High-Al chromite deposits which crystallized from basalts derived from relatively low degrees of melting owe their low PGE content to partitioning of PGEs in sulfides and alloys that remain in the mantle. High-Cr deposits crystallized from melts that were previously enriched with PGEs during early melting events of their mantle source; Pt and Pd ore concentrations (ppm levels) are attained by segregation of magmatic sulfides. The Acoje deposits indicate that ophiolites are a potential economic source of the PGEs. ?? 1990.

  11. Iron and magnesium isotopic constraints on the origin of chemical heterogeneity in podiform chromitite from the Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Su, Ben-Xun; Hu, Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhu, Bin; Shi, Ren-Deng; Huang, Qi-Shuai; Gong, Xiao-Han; He, Yong-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) isotopic compositions of olivine, orthopyroxene, and chromite separates from harzburgites, dunites, and chromitites in the mantle section of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, to investigate the origins of podiform chromitite. Two harzburgites in the Zedong ophiolite, southern Tibet, are also reported for comparison. The olivine and orthopyroxene in the Luobusa and Zedong harzburgites have similar Fe and Mg isotopic compositions, with δ56Fe values ranging from 0‰ to +0.083‰ in olivine, from -0.034‰ to +0.081‰ in orthopyroxene and δ26Mg values ranging from -0.25‰ to -0.20‰ in olivine, from -0.29‰ to -0.26‰ in orthopyroxene, respectively. The olivines of two dunites from the Luobusa display small Fe and Mg isotopic variations, with δ56Fe values of +0.014‰ and +0.116‰ and δ26Mg values of -0.21‰ and -0.29‰. All chromites in the Luobusa chromitites have lighter Fe isotopic compositions than the coexisting olivines, with δ56Fe values ranging from -0.247‰ to +0.043‰ in chromite and from -0.146‰ to +0.215‰ in olivine (Δ56FeChr-Ol = -0.294 to -0.101‰). The chromite δ26Mg values span a significant range from -0.41‰ to +0.14‰. Large disequilibrium Fe and Mg isotope fractionation between chromite and olivine, as well as positive correlation of chromite δ56Fe values with their MgO contents, could be attributed to Fe-Mg exchange between chromite and olivine. In the disseminated chromitites, the higher modal abundances of olivine than chromite would result in a more extensive Fe-Mg exchange, whereas chromite in the massive chromitite where olivine is rare could not be affected by this process.

  12. Structure, Age, and Tectonic Development of the Huoshishan-Niujuanzi Ophiolitic MÉLANGE, Beishan, Southernmost Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, W.; Tian, Z.; Windley, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Huoshishan-Niujuanzi ophiolitic mélange (HNO) is located near the central part of the Beishan orogenic belt in the southernmost Altaids. The HNO consists of ultramafic rocks, cumulate gabbros, gabbros, plagiogranites, diorites, diabases, basalts, andesites, rhyolitic volcaniclastic rocks and siliceous sedimentary rocks, many of which are in a schist matrix (Gongpoquan Group). Geochemical data of the mafic rocks indicate a calc-alkaline or mixture of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic rocks with negative Nb, Ta and positive Pb, Ba and La anomalies, suggesting formation in an island arc or supra-subduction zone setting. A gabbro from a block in the mélange in the Niujuanzi area has a zircon age of 435.0 × 1.9 Ma and a plagiogranite with an age of 444.3 × 1.9 Ma, and another gabbro from the Huoshishan area has an age of 410.5 × 3.7 Ma. The schist matrix has a zircon age of 512×5.3 Ma and contains Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous fossils, thus the mélange formed in the late Carboniferous or younger. Our structural analysis of fault planes in the HNO, the crenulation cleavages (S2) of the schist, and fold axial planes of early Permian sandy limestone/quartz veins and late Permian sandstones indicates that the mélange underwent a north-to-south compression, and the orientation of stretching lineations, slickensides and fold hinge lines implies that the HNO experienced top-to-the north (or -northwest) movement. The entire planar and linear structural data set suggests that the subduction polarity was probably to the south in the late Paleozoic. The emplacement age of the HNO was probably near the end-Permian based on the age of the youngest rocks in the ophiolitic mélange, and by the presence of a late Permian unconformity. From our work, integrated with published regional data, we outline a comprehensive geodynamic model for the central BOC. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41230207, 41190070, 41190075)

  13. Melt extraction and metasomatism recorded in basal peridotites above the metamorphic sole of the northern Fizh massif, Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masako; Python, Marie; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Takazawa, Eiichi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ueda, Akira; Sato, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    The Oman ophiolite is one of the best preserved sections of oceanic crust and upper mantle worldwide, and consists of multiple massifs that lie along more than 400 km of the Arabian coast. In the northernmost massifs, the oceanic crust preserves a record of polygenetic magmatism from mid-ocean ridge to subduction-related stages. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene (Cpx)-rich harzburgites of the Fizh block are located a few tens to a hundred meters above the metamorphic sole of the ophiolite and the geochemistry of these Cpx-rich peridotites provides evidence of a genetic link between oceanic crust and mantle. These Cpx-rich peridotites contain olivine with a restricted range of forsterite contents (90-91), but variable Cr-spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) values (0.12-0.33), suggesting that these Cpx-rich peridotites have undergone variable degrees of melt extraction. Cpxs within the Cpx-rich peridotites have chondrite-normalised trace element variation patterns that slope either gently or steeply between the heavy rare earth elements (REEs) and the middle REEs ((Sm/Yb)N = 0.08-0.55, where N chondrite-normalised) and are enriched in highly incompatible elements such as Rb, Ba and Nb. This Cpx chemistry can be explained by a polygenetic evolution whereby an initial 4-12% of melt was extracted from the depleted mantle source before this mantle was metasomatised by interaction with fluids derived from dehydration of the metamorphic sole during subduction initiation and obduction. A comparison between 143Nd/144Nd versus 147Sm/144Nd for Cpx in the Fizh basal Cpx-rich peridotites and a mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron for a gabbro from the same massif suggests a genetic link between crustal and mantle rocks in this area. In addition, Cpxs within the basal Cpx-rich peridotites have highly variable Sr isotopic compositions that are indicative of a significant contribution of seawater from the metamorphic sole, originally derived from subducted oceanic crustal material.

  14. Intermediate-depth Fracturing of Oceanic Lithosphere in Subduction Zones: Memories from Exhumed High-Pressure Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Oncken, Onno; Agard, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Understanding processes acting along the subduction interface is crucial to assess lithospheric scale coupling between tectonic plates and mechanisms causing intermediate-depth seismicity. Despite a wealth of geophysical studies aimed at better characterizing/localizing this seismicity, we still critically lack constrains on processes triggering fracturing in regions (40-100km depths; T > 400°C) where deformation is expected to be achieved by plastic flow. We herein attempt to bridge this gap by providing a review of available evidence from brittle deformation patterns in exhumed High Pressure (HP) ophiolites, together with some new, critical observations. Field examples from various ophiolitic terranes (New-Caledonia, W. Alps, Tian Shan…) indicate that brittle deformation under HP conditions generally implies vein filling and precipitation of HP minerals, probably under very high pore fluid pressure conditions. Coalescence of such vein networks could explain some of the seismic events recorded along the fluid-rich subduction interface region. By contrast, HP pseudotachylites (though reported in only few localities so far) are apparently restricted to somehow deeper slab regions where fluid-deficient conditions are prevalent (Corsica, Zambia, Voltri?). The recent discovery of eclogite breccias, found as m-sized dismembered fragments within an eclogite-facies shear zone from the Monviso area (W. Alps), provides a new opportunity to study the genesis of intermediate-depth earthquakes. We herein argue that these eclogite breccias constitute unique remnants from an ancient fault zone associated with intraslab, intermediate-depth seismicity at ca. 80 km depth. The breccia is internally made of 1-10 cm-sized rotated fragments of eclogite mylonite cemented by an eclogite-facies matrix attesting of fracturing and fault sealing under lawsonite-eclogite facies conditions (550°C, 2.5 GPa) during subduction of the Tethyan seafloor. Textural observations and polyphased fracturing-healing events frozen in garnet zoning patterns indicate that brecciation was most likely seismic and was accompanied by the input of externally-derived fluids, thereby highlighting again the role of fluids. Although dehydration embrittlement or hydrofracturing are generally amongst the most preferred candidates for explaining intermediate-depth seismicity, this contribution stresses the need for even more detailed studies to better understand the formation of such events.

  15. U/Pb, Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr geochronological and isotopic study of northern Sierra Nevada ophiolitic assemblages, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleeby, J. B.; Shaw, H. F.; Niemeyer, Sidney; Moores, E. M.; Edelman, S. H.

    1989-06-01

    Distinct ophiolitic assemblages occur as oceanic basement within three of the four regional tectonic belts of the northern Sierra Nevada. New U/Pb zircon, Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr data are presented for each assemblage, providing critical geochronological and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution of the ophiolitic and associated ensimatic assemblages. Ophiolitic assemblages include from west to east the Smartville complex, Central belt and Feather River belt. The Smartville complex represents an island arc volcanic-plutonic sequence with a major late-stage sheeted dike swarm. The Sm/Nd systems from a wide compositional spectrum of rocks record a 17821 Ma petrogenetic age and an ? Nd(T)=+9.20.6. Zircon U/Pb systems on an uppermost dacite yield a 1642 Ma age, and on a number of plagiogranite screens and dikes from the sheeted complex 1621 Ma ages. The Central and Feather River belts are structurally complex polygenetic assemblages. The U/Pb zircon and Sm/Nd systems record major 205 Ma and 315 Ma petrogenetic events respectively both involving depleted mantle derived magmas. Such magmatism probably occurred in marginal basin/transform systems developed within an older oceanic depleted mantle basement regime. Both Sm/Nd and U/Pb zircon systems show local components of Proterozoic sialic material. The sialic contaminants were probably introduced into the system as craton derived detritus. It is doubtful that any of the ophiolitic assemblages studied represent genetically related crust-upper mantle sequences generated during the development of new oceanic lithosphere. Integration of the geochronological data with geological relations reveals a pattern of petrogenesis and tectonics whereby progressively younger ensimatic terranes were added to the continental margin through time by plate convergence, and were ultimately welded into North American sial by a crosscutting batholithic belt. This accretionary pattern is reflected in both the protolith ages and deformation-metamorphic ages of each of the regional belts which progressively young westward. Crustal components of the accreted ensimatic terranes grew by mainly basaltic igneous activity within island arc, marginal basin and leaky transform systems adjacent to the continent edge prior to final tectonic accretion. Such complexities are suggested to be typical of Cordilleran-type ophiolites and representative of the circum-Pacific erogenic style.

  16. Formation of anorthosite-Gabbro rhythmic phase layering: an example at North Arm Mountain, Bay of Isands ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.; Elthon, D.

    1990-01-01

    Rhythmically layered anorthosite and gabbro are exposed in a 4-10-m thick interval at the base of the layered gabbro unit on North Arm Mountain, one of four massifs that compose the Bay of Islands ophiolite, Newfoundland. The rhythmically layered interval is sandwiched between thick layers of adcumulate to orthocumulate uniform gabbro. Calculated fractional crystallization paths and correlated cryptic variation patterns suggest that uniform and rhythmically layered gabbros represent 20-30% in situ crystallization of two distinct magma batches, one more evolved and the other more primitive. When the more primitive magma entered the crystallization site of the NA300-301 gabbros, it is estimated to have been ~40??C hotter than the resident evolved magma, and may have been chilled by contact with a magma chamber margin composed of uniform gabbro. In this model, chilling caused the liquid to become supercooled with respect to plagioclase nucleation temperatures, resulting in crystallization of gabbro deficient in plagioclase relative to equilibrium cotectic proportions. Subtraction of a plagioclase-poor melagabbro enriched the liquid in normative plagioclase, which in turn led to crystallization of an anorthosite layer. -from Authors

  17. Tectonic Evolution of the Careón Ophiolite (Northwest Spain): A Remnant of Oceanic Lithosphere in the Variscan Belt.

    PubMed

    Díaz García F; Arenas; Martínez Catalán JR; González del Tánago J; Dunning

    1999-09-01

    Analysis of the Careón Unit in the Ordenes Complex (northwest Iberian Massif) has supplied relevant data concerning the existence of a Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere, probably related to the Rheic realm, and the early subduction-related events that were obscured along much of the Variscan belt by subsequent collision tectonics. The ophiolite consists of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite in the lower section and a crustal section made up of coarse-grained and pegmatitic gabbros. An Early Devonian zircon age (395+/-2 Ma, U-Pb) was obtained in a leucocratic gabbro. The whole section was intruded by numerous diabasic gabbro dikes. Convergence processes took place shortly afterward, giving rise to a mantle-rooted synthetic thrust system, with some coeval igneous activity. Garnet amphibolite, developed in metamorphic soles, was found discontinuously attached to the thrust fault. The soles graded downward to epidote-amphibolite facies metabasite and were partially retrogressed to greenschist facies conditions. Thermobarometric estimations carried out at a metamorphic sole (T approximately 650 degrees C; P approximately 11.5 kbar) suggested that imbrications developed in a subduction setting, and regional geology places this subduction in the context of an early Variscan accretionary wedge. Subduction and imbrication of oceanic lithosphere was followed by underthrusting of the Gondwana continental margin. PMID:10504137

  18. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  19. Magnetic properties of the Bay of Islands ophiolite suite and implications for the magnetization of oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, B. Ann; Johnson, H. Paul

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metamorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetization of the underlying sheeted dike complex appears to have been destroyed by hydrothermal alteration soon after formation. The magnetic intensity of the gabbroic samples increases as the degree of alteration increases, with the highly altered upper metagabbros having an average intensity of 3×10−3 emu/c3. Because magnetization of the metagabbro samples is related to nonpervasive, variable alteration, these crustal units are unlikely to make a significant contribution to lineated magnetic anomalies. A compilation of our results and other studies suggests a model in which oceanic crust magnetization results from an upper extrusive basalt source layer, roughly 600 m thick, with no contribution from a deeper source layer recognizable from these Bay of Islands data.

  20. Shallow intrusive directions of sheeted dikes in the Troodos ophiolite: Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and structural data

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Gee, J.; Tauxe, L. ); Varga, R.J. )

    1992-09-01

    Sheeted dikes play a central role in the formation of oceanic crust. It is commonly assumed that sheeted dikes intrude vertically upward, from elongated mid-ocean ridge (MOR) magma chambers, but there are no direct observational data bearing on this hypothesis. This assumption contrasts with the intrusive behavior of subaerial volcanoes where magmas rise into shallow central magma chambers that laterally feed vertically oriented dikes. The authors have studied intrusive directions of sheeted dikes in a structural analogue to oceanic crust, the Troodos ophiolite. Structural and magnetic fabric data of 65 dikes provide consistent results and suggest a broad distribution of shallow (< 20[degree]) to nearly vertical, upward magma-transport directions. These data suggest that horizontal emplacement has to be considered for sheeted dikes at MORs, implying more centralized MOR plumbing systems than previously thought. Such plumbing systems provide ample opportunity for complex mixing, fractionation, and contamination of MOR lavas in magma chambers and tabular magma-storage volumes. Whether the MOR magma supply is linear or centralized also has a fundamental effect on crustal accretion processes and the geometry of hydrothermal convection systems.

  1. Significance of E. Paleozoic Paleo-Tethyan Ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane and the Greater Caucasus for the Cadomian-Hercynian Continental Growth of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariadze, G. S.; Karamata, S. O.; Dilek, Y.; Three Others, A.

    2007-12-01

    New geochronological & geochemical data from dismembered E. Paleozoic ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane (Serbia) & the Greater Caucasus (Russian Federation) link these remnants of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust to a series of events associated with the Cadomian and Hercynian evolution of S. Europe. The Balkan-South Carpathian ophiolite belt (BSCOB) WSW of the Moesian platform is part of the South European suture zone (SESZ) & includes the Deli Jovan massif (DJM) composed of ultramafic mantle restites, ultrabasic & basic cumulates, gabbros, diabasic dikes and basalts. The analyzed gabbros of DJM are high-Al (19-24.5 wt.%) cumulate gabbros-troctolites (Ol82-89+Cpx79-87+Pl77-91) originated from shallow-depth crystallization of low-K (<0.3 wt.%) tholeiitic basaltic melt (T=1050°-1160°). Dike rocks are composed of fine-grained, Cpx-Pl microphyric, high-Mg tholeiitic microgabbro-diabase showing MORB affinities [(La/Sm)n=0.18-1.31; (La/Yb)n=0.22-1.35; Th/La=0.073-0.19; Zr/Y=1.60-2.39] derived from depleted mantle source(s). New isotopic ages range between 406±24 Ma and 399.7±5.2 Ma [Sm-Nd isochron age of 406±24 Ma, MSWD=0.71; U-Pb isotope dilution zircon age of 399.7±5.2 Ma; U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 405.0±2.6 Ma]. Ophiolitic rocks of the BSCOB continue E into the Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Istanbul-Zonguldak Unit (IZU) in NW Turkey & the Crystalline Core and the Fore Range Zones of the Greater Caucasus. The metaophiolites in the Greater Caucasus include residual peridotites, ultrabasic & basic cumulates, gabbros, dike complexes, and volcanic rocks with limestones, ranging in age from 490 to 416 Ma. The volcanic sequences in these ophiolites include low-silica (SiO2=43.94-48.10 wt.%), high-Ti (TiO2=2.0-3.3 wt.%) and high phosphorus tholeiitic basalts showing slightly enriched T-MORB affinities [(La/Sm)n=2.98±0.57; (La/Yb)n=5.72±2.05; (Tb/Yb)n=1.42±0.62; and (Yb)MORB=0.97±0.35], and high-silica (SiO2=47.54-53.94 wt.%), low-Ti (TiO2=0.46-1.09 wt.%) and low-K tholeiitic basalts, basaltic andesites & andesites, showing suprasubduction zone affinities [(Tb/Yb)n=1.04±0.34; (Yb)MORB=0.62±0.28; and negative Nb and Zr anomalies]. The Early Paleozoic ophiolitic rocks within the SESZ along the southern edge of the European Platform (including the Moesian and Scythian platforms) developed during the evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan back-arc basin via seafloor spreading and arc-trench-subduction rollback processes behind the northward drifting peri-Gondwanan terranes (i.e. Transcaucasian massif in Georgia; IZU, Menderes and Armutlu massifs in Turkey; Florina terrane in Greece). They were accreted to the Eurasian continental margin during the Hercynian orogeny. The Cadomian peri- Gondwanan terranes & the SESZ ophiolites subsequently became part of the basement of a Late Paleozoic magmatic arc above a Paleo-Tethyan subduction zone along the southern margin of Europe.

  2. Geochemical characteristics of basaltic rocks from the Nain ophiolite (Central Iran); constraints on mantle wedge source evolution in an oceanic back arc basin and a geodynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Javad Mehdipour; Moazzen, Mohssen; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi

    2012-10-01

    The Nain ophiolitic complex is situated at the north west of the Central Iran Micro-continent (CIM) block. The basaltic rocks of this complex consist of both mantle and crustal suites and include pegmatitic and isotropic gabbros, gabbroic-dibasic dykes, dyke swarm complex and pillow lavas. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of most of these rocks show LREE depletion and the primary mantle-normalized incompatible elements indicate depletion in HFSEs (Nb, Ta) and enrichment in LILEs. The rocks show characters of island arc tholeiite/mid-ocean ridge basalt magma types. Whole rock chemistry of the rocks shows that they are originated in an oceanic back arc basin, and subsequently have been enriched by slab-derived fluids. Abundances of HFSE and HREE in most of the basaltic samples, suggest a slow subduction rate. Opening of Nain-Baft Ocean, which was probably a marginal basin, occurred during Lower Jurassic. After generation of an inter-oceanic island arc in the Nain-Baft Ocean during the Late Jurassic, a second rifting phase started within the inter-ocean island arc during Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Senonian). The inter-ocean island arc was developed and formed an oceanic back arc basin, the site of generation of most of the Nain ophiolitic rocks. The Nain-Baft Ocean finally closed in Maastrichtian. According to the new tectono-magmatic evolution model proposed here, the arc volcanic-like magmas were produced at the early stage (producing gabbros, gabbroic-diabasic dykes and dyke swarm complex) and then MORB-like basalts (producing pillow lavas) were generated at the later stage of evolution of the Nain ophiolitic complex.

  3. Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsiotis, Argirios; Grammatikopoulos, Tassos A.; Tsikouras, Basilios; Hatzipanagiotou, Konstantin; Zaccarini, Federica; Garuti, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Pindos ophiolite complex, located in the northwestern part of continental Greece, hosts various chromite deposits of both metallurgical (high-Cr) and refractory (high-Al) type. The Pefki chromitites are banded and sub-concordant to the surrounding serpentinized dunites. The Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al)] of magnesiochromite varies between 0.75 and 0.79. The total PGE grade ranges from 105.9 up to 300.0 ppb. IPGE are higher than PPGE, typical of mantle hosted ophiolitic chromitites. The PGM assemblage in chromitites comprises anduoite, ruarsite, laurite, irarsite, sperrylite, hollingworthite, Os-Ru-Ir alloys including osmium and rutheniridosmine, Ru-bearing oxides, braggite, paolovite, platarsite, cooperite, vysotskite, and palladodymite. Iridarsenite and omeiite were also observed as exsolutions in other PGM. Rare electrum and native Ag are recovered in concentrates. This PGM assemblage is of great petrogenetic importance because it is significantly different from that commonly observed in podiform mantle-hosted and banded crustal-hosted ophiolitic chromitites. PGE chalcogenides of As and S are primary, and possibly crystallized directly from a progressively enriched in As boninitic melt before or during magnesiochromite precipitation. The presence of Ru-bearing oxides implies simultaneous desulfurization and dearsenication processes. Chemically zoned laurite and composite paolovite-electrum intergrowths are indicative of the relatively high mobility of certain PGE at low temperatures under locally oxidizing conditions. The PGM assemblage and chemistry, in conjunction with geological and petrologic data of the studied chromitites, indicate that it is characteristic of chromitites found within or close to the petrologic Moho. Furthermore, the strikingly different PGM assemblages between the high-Cr chromitites within the Pindos massif is suggestive of non-homogeneous group of ores.

  4. Peridotites of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc and the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite (Albania) : implications for igneous activity during subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, T.; Tani, K.; Dilek, Y.

    2011-12-01

    There have been few studies of the mantle evolution related to igneous activity in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. We examined peridotites recovered from an exhumed crust/mantle section exposed along the landward slopes of the northern Izu-Bonin Trench (Morishita et al., Geology, 2011) and peridotite bodies in the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, Albania (Morishita et al., Lithos, 2011). Based on the Cr# (=Cr/(Cr+Al) atomic ratio) of spinel in the IBM, two distinctive groups, (1) High-Cr# (> 0.8) dunite and (2) Medium-Cr# (0.4-0.6) dunite, occur close to each other and are associated with refractory harzburgite. Two distinctive melts were in equilibrium with these dunites. In the case of the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, cpx porphyroclast-bearing harzburgite (Cpx-harzburgite) occurs structurally in the lower parts of the peridotite massifs, whereas harzburgite and dunite are more abundant towards the upper parts. The Cpx-harzburgite was formed as the residue of less-flux partial melting, which are similar to those in abyssal peridotites from MOR systems. On the other hand, harzburgite was produced as a result of enhanced partial melting of depleted peridotites due to infiltration of hydrous LREE-enriched fluids/melts. The wide range of variation in dunites from the IBM forearc and the uppermost section of the EMO probably reflects changing melt compositions from MORB-like melts to boninitic melts in the forearc setting due to an increase of slab-derived hydrous fluids/melts during subduction initiation. This scenario is consistent with the temporal and spatial variation of volcanic rocks in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (Reagan et al., G-cubed, 2010). If the "MORB-like" FAB is a ubiquitous phenomenon during the initiation of subduction, we should reconsider our interpretation of the ophiolites.

  5. Emplacement of serpentinites in the Chohar Gonbad-Gugher-Baft ophiolitic mélange, southeast Iran: examination of the mineral-chemical, petrologic, and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, N.; Ahmadipour, H.; Lentz, D. R.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.

    2016-03-01

    The Chohar Gonbad-Gugher-Baft ophiolite mélange, located along the major Baft and Shahr-e-Babak fault zones, southeast Iran, represents remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. This mélange contains blocks of harzburgite, dunite, lherzolite, basalt, and other ophiolite-related lithologies tectonically mixed with and embedded in a serpentinite matrix. Field, petrographic, and geochemical data show that peridotites in this mélange belong to the upper mantle. They seem to have undergone up to ~20 % partial melting in a supra-subduction zone setting, based on their spinel Cr# values (0.21-0.53). Chemical compositions and textures in the serpentinites indicate that they were partially hydrated during emplacement and further mobilized diapirically to the surface. The different deformation stages occurred in an accretionary wedge environment. Petrographic evidence shows that the first serpentinization event produced mesh-textured serpentinites formed under static conditions in an ocean floor environment (Nain-Baft ocean crust), where the initial lizardite, bastite, and chrysotile veins formed. Plastic deformation occurred due to the subduction of Nain-Baft oceanic lithospheric beneath the central Iranian microcontinent, with antigorite-bearing flare-textured serpentinites produced. During progressive exhumation of the Nain-Baft ophiolite mélange, the serpentinites were affected by ductile, ductile-brittle, and brittle deformation, respectively. Accretion and resultant diapirism are the most important processes in the emplacement of serpentinite, which is a consequence of hydration of the ocean crust. In this example, late-stage emplacement via thrusting occurred along the northern extent of the southern Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (S-SZ).

  6. Geological mapping strategy using visible near-infrared-shortwave infrared hyperspectral remote sensing: Application to the Oman ophiolite (Sumail Massif)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, R.; Launeau, P.; Carrère, V.; Pinet, P.; Ceuleneer, G.; Clénet, H.; Daydou, Y.; Girardeau, J.; Amri, I.

    2009-02-01

    An airborne hyperspectral survey of the Oman ophiolite (Sumail Massif) has been conducted using the HyMap airborne imaging spectrometer with associated field measurements (GER 3700). An ASD FieldSpec3 spectrometer was also used in order to constrain the spectral signatures of the principal lithologies cropping out in the surveyed area. Our objective was to identify and map the various igneous lithologies by a direct comparison at high spectral resolution between field and airborne spectra despite strong variations in outcropping conditions such as (1) lighting, (2) surface roughness geometry, (3) blocks coated with red/brown patina and exfoliation products, or (4) deep hydrothermal weathering. On the basis of spectral signatures, we are able to distinguish three end-members of olivine-orthopyroxene bearing assemblages in the mantle sequence: (1) harzburgites, (2) dunites, and (3) a harzburgite with interstitial carbonate. Because plagioclase is spectrally featureless in the wavelength range studied it cannot be detected. In the crustal sequence, we therefore identified four end-members with variable abundance of clinopyroxene: (1) massive gabbros, (2) amphibolized (upper) gabbros associated with intrusive dykes, (3) wehrlite with high serpentine content, and (4) gabbronorite (a lithology not previously recognized in the studied area). With the exception of wehrlite, spectra of olivine-rich end-members display characteristic Mg-OH narrow absorption features caused by their high serpentine content. We take advantage of this observation to split the data into two subsets, corresponding to the mantle and crustal sequences, respectively. Pixels of an image often correspond to heterogeneous areas in the field and a direct comparison between airborne and in situ spectra is not straightforward. However, comparing spectra of pixels associated with the most homogeneous areas in the field with the spectra acquired in situ at the same location, we found a systematic change both in mean intensity and overall spectral shape. Dividing each spectrum by its low-pass trend removes the effects caused by surface light scattering associated with each scale of analysis and results in an exceptional match between field and airborne spectra. However, the albedo information is lost and as a consequence, rock types only characterized by albedo change cannot be discriminated. A spectrum of a mixture of powdered minerals is usually seen as a linear combination of mineral spectra proportional to their abundance. However, this is no longer the case when minerals occur in complex arrangements in rock types. We thus develop a synthetic spectral library of all possible combinations of rock types covering the surface area of a pixel and use a simple distance calculation to identify the best match between each pixel and modeled spectra. This procedure allows the determination of the fractional cover of each rock type in a given pixel and to establish maps for each spectral end-member. The final product is a geological map, derived from the combination of end-member fractional cover maps, and is broadly consistent with the existing geological maps. Beyond this general agreement which demonstrates the potential of this new approach for geological mapping, imaging spectrometry allows (1) to map in detail the outline of the Moho north of Maqsad and (2) to identify a new crustal sequence enriched in silica south of Muqzah, revealing the presence of orthopyroxene, the nature and distribution of which are of relevance to the petrological and tectonic understanding of the Oman ophiolite evolution.

  7. Melt-rock reaction an melt impregnation in oceanic peridotites: insights from the Ligurian-Piemontese ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Mantle peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolites, deriving from the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys, record signatures of the complex petrogenetic evolution, other than partial melting, that the lithospheric mantle suffered during pre-oceanic extension and melt percolation, melt-rock interaction and refertilization of early melts from decompression melting of the almost adiabatically upwelling asthenosphere (Piccardo et al., 2008). Lithosphere extension by far field tectonic forces lead to thinning of the lithospheric mantle and its progressive exhumation. Field and petrographic-structural data indicate that lithosphere extension was driven by extensional shear zones during the whole evolution of the mantle lithosphere, from garnet- to plagioclase-facies conditions. The pristine sub-continental lithospheric mantle is still preserved in ophiolites deriving from the passive margins (ocean-continent transition zones) of the basin, whereas melt-reacted and refertilized peridotites are dominant in more internal oceanic domains. OCT peridotites maintain structural-paragenetic features indicating their provenance from the deep lithosphere (P > 2.5 GPa) (Piccardo et al., 2009). Km-scale extensional shear zones in spinel peridotites (e.g., Vissers et al., 1991; Hoogerduijn Strating et al., 1993) have been dated to 220 Ma (Lu-Hf age) (Montanini et al., 2006) and 225 Ma (40Ar/39Ar amphibole age) (Müntener & Hermann, 2001) indicating that significant lithosphere extension and mantle exhumation was already active during Triassic times. Passive upwelling asthenosphere underwent fractional melting under spinel-facies conditions forming MORB-type depleted single melt increments that were injected into the lithospheric spinel-facies shear zones. Porous flow percolation of the silica-undersaturated melt fractions and melt-peridotite interaction (pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation) formed reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. Melt-peridotite interaction led to silica saturation of the rising melts and further extension led to formation of plagioclase-facies shear zones and porous flow percolation under plagioclase-facies conditions. Melt-peridotite interaction (olivine corrosion and ortopyroxene + plagioclase precipitation) and melt interstitial crystallization (impregnation) enriched in gabbro-noritic components the lithospheric peridotites that were widely impregnated when the conductive heat loss prevailed on percolation heating and the depleted melts stagnated in the upper lithospheric mantle. Sometime pockets of melts formed strongly depleted gabbro-norite intrusions (Ross & Elthon, 1993; Piccardo & Guarnieri, 2011). The early depleted MORB-type melts were completely entrapped into the shallow mantle lithosphere and refertilized it. Later plagioclase-facies shear zones were frequently infiltrated by aggregated MORB-type melts and transformed by reactive percolation to dunite channels, sometimes 10-100-meters wide. These high porosity channels are considered the fastest way to deliver oceanic MORB to shallow levels. These melts form the gabbroic intrusions and the basaltic extrusions of the oceanic crustal rocks of Jurassic Ligurian Tethys.

  8. Geochemical evidence for active tropical serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica: An analog of a humid early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Gazel, Esteban; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Boll, Jan; Gill, Ben C.

    2014-05-01

    is a planetary process that has important consequences on geochemical cycles, supporting microbial activity through the formation of H2 and CH4 and having the potential to sequester atmospheric CO2. We present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica which is sustained by peridotites with a degree of serpentinization less than 50% with no evidence of an internal heat source. Average spring water temperatures are 29.1°C. Two hyperalkaline spring systems were discovered, with a spring fluid pH up to 11.18. The fluids are characterized by low Mg (1.0-5.9 mg/L) and K (1.0-5.5 mg/L) and relative high Ca (29-167 mg/L), Na (16-27 mg/L), Cl (26-29 mg/L), hydroxide (41-63 mg/L), and carbonate (31-49 mg/L). Active CH4 (24.3% v/v) vents coupled with carbonate deposits (δ13CCO2 =-27 to -14‰; δ18OCO2 =-17 to - 6‰) also provide evidence for active serpentinization and carbonation. Isotope ratios of the alkaline fluids (δ18O = -7.9‰, δ2H = -51.4‰) and groundwater (δ18O = -7.6‰; δ2H = -48.0‰) suggests that, during base flow recession, springs are fed by groundwater circulation. Methanogenic Archaea, which comprises a relatively high percentage of the 16S rRNA gene tag sequences, suggests that biological methanogenesis may play a significant role in the system. Santa Elena's extreme varying weather results in a scenario that could be of significant importance for (a) improving the knowledge of conditions on a humid early Earth or Mars that had periodic changes in water supply, (b) revealing new insights on serpentinizing solute transport, and (c) modeling hydrogeochemical responses as a function of recharge.

  9. Constraints on the accretion of the gabbroic lower oceanic crust from plagioclase lattice preferred orientation in the Samail ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-10-01

    Oceanic crust represents more than 60% of the earth's surface and despite a large body of knowledge regarding the formation and chemistry of the extrusive upper oceanic crust, there still remains significant debate over how the intrusive gabbroic lower oceanic crust is accreted at the ridge axis. The two proposed end-member models, the Gabbro Glacier and the Sheeted Sills, predict radically different strain accumulation in the lower crust during accretion. In order to determine which of these two hypotheses is most applicable to a well-studied lower crustal section, we present data on plagioclase lattice preferred orientations (LPO) in the Wadi Khafifah section of the Samail ophiolite. We observe no systematic change in the strength of the plagioclase LPO with height above the crust-mantle transition, no dominant orientation of the plagioclase a-axis lineation, and no systematic change in the obliquity of the plagioclase LPO with respect to the modal layering and macroscopic foliation evident in outcrop. These observations are most consistent with the Sheeted Sills hypothesis, in which gabbros are crystallized in situ and fabrics are dominated by compaction and localized extension rather than by systematically increasing shear strain with increasing depth in a Gabbro Glacier. Our data support the hypothesis of MacLeod and Yaouancq (2000) that the rotation of the outcrop-scale layering from sub-horizontal in the layered gabbros to sub-vertical near the sheeted dikes is due to rapid vertical melt migration through upper gabbros close to the axial magma chamber. Additionally, our results support the hypothesis that the majority of extensional strain in fast spreading ridges is accommodated in partially molten regions at the ridge axis, whereas in slow and ultra-slow ridges large shear strains are accommodated by plastic deformation.

  10. Evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan ocean: Insights from the geochronology and geochemistry of mafic rocks within ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao-Di; Wang, Li-Quan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Chen, Jian-Lin; Yin, Fu-Guang; Liu, Han; Li, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Ling-Kang

    2016-02-01

    The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ) is located in the central Tibetan Plateau, and represents the relict of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO). This paper presents zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data for the ophiolitic rocks from the Rutog, Dongco, Dongqiao, Amdo, and Dengqen areas (from west to east) in the BNSZ. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained from five gabbros and one leucogabbro from the five areas are 169 ± 2, 167 ± 2, 187 ± 2, 184 ± 2, 177 ± 3, and 164 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Mafic rocks (gabbros and basalts) in the BNSZ can be divided into MORB-like and OIB-type, based on geochemical data. The MORB-like rocks are tholeiitic and can be further divided into N- and E-MORB subtypes, marked by depleted and flat REE patterns, respectively. All MORB-like rocks show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical affinities such as mild enrichment in the large ion lithophile elements and depletion in the high field strength elements, coupled with high and positive whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 8.1 to + 5.4). The OIB-type rocks, which formed in the Early Cretaceous (~ 132-108 Ma), are exposed in the Dongco, Dongqiao, and Tarenben areas, and they consist mostly of alkali basalts with within-plate geochemical characteristics and positive εNd(t) values (+ 5.9 to + 4.5). On the basis of these new data, combined with information from the literature, we further support that the BNTO was an intra-oceanic arc-backarc basin that existed between the North Lhasa subterrane (NLT) and the South Qiangtang subterrane (SQT) during the Early-Middle Jurassic. This basin may have been active until the Early Cretaceous, when the OIB-type basalts erupted.

  11. Geochemistry of a continental site of serpentinization, the Tablelands Ophiolite, Gros Morne National Park: A Mars analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szponar, Natalie; Brazelton, William J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Bower, Dina M.; Steele, Andrew; Morrill, Penny L.

    2013-06-01

    The presence of aqueously altered, olivine-rich rocks along with carbonate on Mars suggest that serpentinization may have occurred in the past and may be occurring presently in the subsurface, and possibly contributing methane (CH4) to the martian atmosphere. Serpentinization, the hydration of olivine in ultramafic rocks, yields ultra-basic fluids (pH ⩾ 10) with unique chemistry (i.e. Ca2+-OH- waters) and hydrogen gas, which can support abiogenic production of hydrocarbons (i.e. Fischer-Tropsch Type synthesis) and subsurface chemosynthetic metabolisms. Mars analogue sites of present-day serpentinization can be used to determine what geochemical measurements are required for determining the source methane at sites of serpentinization on Earth and possibly on Mars. The Tablelands Ophiolite is a continental site of present-day serpentinization and a Mars analogue due to the presence of altered olivine-rich ultramafic rocks with both carbonate and serpentine signatures. This study describes the geochemical indicators of present-day serpentinization as evidenced by meteoric ultra-basic reducing groundwater discharging from ultramafic rocks, and travertine and calcium carbonate sediment, which form at the discharge points of the springs. Dissolved hydrogen concentrations (0.06-1.20 mg/L) and methane (0.04-0.30 mg/L) with δ13CCH4 values (-28.5‰ to -15.6‰) were measured in the spring fluids. Molecular and isotopic analyses of CH4, ethane, propane, butane, pentane and hexane suggest a non-microbial source of methane, and attribute the origin of methane and higher hydrocarbon gases to either thermogenic or abiogenic pathways.

  12. Feedbacks between deformation and melt distribution in the crust-mantle transition zone of the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgie, Katherine; Tommasi, Andréa

    2012-12-01

    This study presents microstructural evidence for deformation-controlled melt organization and for changes in olivine deformation associated with the presence of melt in an 80 m vertical section of the crust-mantle transition zone in the Oman ophiolite. This zone represents an ‘end member’ case for analyzing feedbacks between deformation and melt distribution in the upper mantle, since it experienced strong shear strains in presence of large melt fractions. It is characterized by a subhorizontal compositional layering at the mm to meter scale, from weakly impregnated dunites to olivine-rich gabbros, which parallels a pervasive foliation containing a strong stretching lineation. The parallelism between the compositional layering and the foliation, the diffuse limits of the layers, the alignment of elongated plagioclase-rich aggregates devoid of internal deformation structures with the elongation of olivine crystals in the dunitic layers, and the sharp compositional changes across some, but not all layer limits suggest deformation plays an essential role on the development of the layering. The variation on a mm-scale of the olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) symmetry as a function of the modal content: from axial-[100] symmetry in layers with <70% modal olivine to axial-[010] in more gabbroic levels (<40% olivine), which is repeated over the entire section, implies deformation in presence of variable melt fractions. Axial-[100] olivine CPO in olivine-rich layers is consistent with deformation by dislocation creep under high temperature, low pressure, dry conditions. Axial-[010] olivine CPO patterns imply additional sliding along preferentially wetted (010) grain boundaries, increase in the activity of [001] glide, or transpression localized in the melt-rich layers. Since the change in CPO symmetry is not accompanied by dispersion, instantaneous melt fractions must have remained <30-40% in all layers. The continuous variation in olivine CPO symmetry with decreasing olivine content implies therefore that the former depends on the cumulated strain in presence of melt rather than on the instantaneous melt fraction.

  13. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2016-01-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional basin. This basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.

    The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group.

    The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ˜ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during or shortly after the emplacement of the intra-oceanic Caribbean island arc onto the continental margin.

  14. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, A.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2015-06-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin. This piggy-back basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units. The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (caotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group. The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ∼ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during of shortly after the emplacement of the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc onto the continental margin.

  15. The Relationships of Plate Triple-junction Evolution, Trench-Arc Lengthening, Boninite Generation, and SSZ Spreading Centers to Ophiolite Formation, High-Temperature Soles, and Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Dewey, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A review of modern-day island arcs, the locations of boninite eruptions, the conditions necessary for hot upper plate spreading, potential regions of shallow SSZ flux melting, and formation of high-temperature metamorphic soles along the subduction channels indicates that many future, recent and ancient large slab ophiolite obduction events can be related to triple junctions that link SSZ spreading centers with trenches. These subduction systems leading to large slab ophiolite obduction events typically face stable continental margins. Boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high-temperature and low-pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic mantle asthenosphere and lithosphere, which previously likely experienced melt extraction. Metamorphic conditions associated with metamorphic soles formation likewise require a hot upper plate lithosphere that, based on sole protolith, geochronologic and thermochronologic data, rapidly heats and then refrigerates and decompresses MORB-OIB type subcreted lithosphere. Numerous examples of present-day and recent SSZ spreading centers that link with two trenches or a trench and transform are considered ideal sites for ophiolite and boninite generation. The SZZ fore-arc spreading centers that link to the trench lines and triple junctions at the front of the arc may also continue towards the arc and back arc, creating no distinction between fore-arc and back-arc spreading ep