Sample records for ophiolitic melange nellore-khammam

  1. Petrological and geochemical characterization of Proterozoic ophiolitic mélange, Nellore-Khammam schist belt, SE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharma Rao, C. V.; Reddy, U. V. B.

    2009-10-01

    The ophiolitic mélange occurs close to a major fault within the metavolcanics of Kanigiri area in the western margin of the Khammam-Nellore schist belt, Andhra Pradesh, India. The unique feature of Kanigiri mélange is the occurrence of ophiolitic bodies of various sizes, most of which display petrological and geochemical characteristics typical of supra-subduction zone oceanic crust. The ophiolitic mélange is composed mainly of blocks of variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, serpentinized ultramafic rocks, meta-gabbros, cherts and pelagic sediments in a pervasive scaly argillite matrix. The mélange has a tectonic contact with a granite intrusion and numerous thrust faults cut across the mélange exposures. Primary magmatic features such as drainage cavities in pillow basalts, magmatic layering in gabbros, and clinopyroxene cumulates in ultramafic rocks are well preserved in low-strain domains. Mafic components enclosed in the mélange are characterized by low pressure secondary mineral assemblages retrograded from amphibolite down to greenschist facies as commonly observed in subducted and exhumed orogens. All amphiboles in the studied fragments are calcic and cluster in the range from winchite, actinolite to hornblende. Amphibole compositions are characterized by Al 2O 3 (2.4-13.8%), FeO (5-13%), K 2O (0.04-0.7%) and X Mg (0.67-0.77). The metabasalt and wherlite samples exhibit light rare earth element (LREE) - enriched patterns and negative high field strength element (HFSE: Zr and Ti) consistent with a suprasubduction zone geodynamic setting. A notable feature of both metabasalt and wherlite samples is their pronounced negative Ce anomaly and a positive Eu anomaly as observed in a number of modern island arc suites. As the petrological features and the geochemical characteristics of the remnant fragments we analyzed in this study are reminiscent of their Phanerozoic ophiolite counterparts, we suggest that these rocks were derived from a Proterozoic oceanic plate belonging to a suprasubduction ophiolite assemblage. Subduction zone geochemical signatures and ophiolite-like crustal lithologies in the study region are consistent with the accretion of juvenile oceanic fragments to the pre-existing continental blocks through a forearc-continent collision.

  2. J. metamorphic Geol., 2000, 18, 699718 Origin, HP/LT metamorphism and cooling of ophiolitic melanges in

    E-print Network

    Dov, Avigad

    J. metamorphic Geol., 2000, 18, 699­718 Origin, HP/LT metamorphism and cooling of ophiolitic me Basic and ultrabasic blocks within ophiolitic me´langes of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit in southern Evia; me´lange; ophiolite. the southern parts of the island of Evia, where INTRODUCTION sporadically

  3. Application of imaging spectrometer data to the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1988-01-01

    The Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange in east-central California is thought to be an obducted oceanic fracture zone and provides the rare opportunity to examine in detail the complex nature of this type of terrain. It is anticipated that the distribution and abundance of components in the melange can be used to determine the relative importance of geologic processes responsible for the formation of fracture zone crust. Laboratory reflectance spectra of field samples indicate that the melange components have distinct, diagnostic absorptions at visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The spatial and spectral resolution of AVIRIS is ideally suited for addressing important scientific questions concerning the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite melange and fracture zones in general.

  4. Geochemistry of peridotites and mafic igneous rocks from the Central Dinaric Ophiolite Belt, Yugoslavia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bosko Lugovic; Rainer Altherr; Ingrid Raczek; Albrecht W. Hofmann; Vladimir Majer

    1991-01-01

    In the Central Dinaric Ophiolite Belt (CDOB) peridotites and associated metamorphic rocks of various grades tectonically overlie an olistostrome melange of middle to late Jurassic age. Peridotites and underlying slices of mafic granulites (partially transformed to gamet amphibolites) are intruded by doleritic dikes which do not occur in the melange. The melange contains blocks of subgreywackes and cherts as well

  5. PaleoceneEocene record of ophiolite obduction and initial India-Asia collision, south central Tibet

    E-print Network

    Paleocene­­Eocene record of ophiolite obduction and initial India-Asia collision, south central-rich spinel of ophiolite affinity (TiO2 generally Ophiolitic melange exposed subduction zone. Citation: Ding, L., P. Kapp, and X. Wan (2005), Paleocene­ Eocene record of ophiolite

  6. Tectonic setting for ophiolite obduction in Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Samail ophiolite is part of an elongate belt in the Middle East that forms an integral part of the Alpine mountain chains that make up the N boundary of the Arabian-African plate. The Samail ophiolite represents a portion of the Tethyan ocean crust formed at a spreading center of Middle Cretaceous age (Cenomanian). During the Cretaceous spreading of the Tethyan Sea, Gondwana Land continued its dispersal, and the Arabian-African plate drifted northward about 10o. These events, combined with the opposite rotation of Eurasia and Africa, initiated the closing of the Tethyan during the Late Cretaceous. At the early stages of closure, downwarping of the Arabian continental margin, combined with the compressional forces of closure from the Eurasian plate, initiated obduction of the Tethyan oceanic crust along preexisting transform faults and still-hot oceanic crust was detached along oblique NE dipping thrust faults. Plate configurations combined with palinspastic reconstructions show that subduction and attendant large-scale island arc volcanism did not commence until after the Tethyan sea began to close and the Samail ophiolite was emplaced southward across the Arabian continental margin. The Samail ophiolite nappe now rests upon a melange consisting mainly of pelagic sediments, volcanics and detached fragments of the basal amphibolites, which in turn rest on autochthonous shelf carbonates of the Arabian platform. Following emplacement (Eocene) of the Samail ophiolite, the Tethyan oceanic crust began northward subduction, and active arc volcanism started just N of the present Jaz Murian depression in Iran.-Author

  7. Diverse sources for igneous blocks in Franciscan melanges, California Coast Ranges

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, G.J. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA)); Phipps, S.P. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA)); Grossman, J.N. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Igneous blocks in Franciscan melanges are of three chemical-petrologic types: (1) tholeiitic basalts of both arc and spreading center origin, with depletions in light relative to heavy rare-earth elements, 3% > TiO{sub 2} > 1%, high Y/Zr and Y/Ti ratios, and relict augites that generally have low Al and Ti and well-defined iron-enrichment trends; (2) basalts of probable seamount origin with marked enrichments in light relative to heavy rare-earth elements, 5% > TiO{sub 2} > 1%, lower Y/Zr and Y/Ti than (1), and Ti-Al-rich augites showing little if any iron-enrichment trends; and (3) hypabyssal intrusives having SiO{sub 2} > 52%, TiO{sub 2} < 1%, flat or only slightly fractionated rare-earth-abundance patterns, and diopsidic augites that are very low in Ti and Al and show no iron-enrichment trends. All of the blocks are metamorphosed; most are undeformed pumpellyite-bearing greenstones, and a few contain sodic amphibole {plus minus} lawsonite {plus minus} sodic pyroxene. The melanges are probably olistostromal in origin, deriving their igneous block detritus both from the downgoing Pacific plate (ocean floor basalts and seamounts) and from the hanging wall of the Franciscan trench (basalts and arc-related silic intrusive rocks). The silicic intrusive rocks and some of the basalts are eroded fragments of the fore-arc crust that ultimately become the Coast Range Ophiolite. These fragments were incorporated into the Franciscan trench fill and subducted. Results suggest that the igneous blocks in ophiolitic melanges provide important information about melange formation and about the tectonics and paleogeography of the regions in which the melanges are found.

  8. Cordilleran- Versus Tethyan-Type Ophiolites and Global Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Distinguishing between Cordilleran- vs. Tethyan-type ophiolites is a first-order tectonic problem in studying orogenic belts and their geodynamic evolution. Cordilleran ophiolites (CO) in accretionary-type orogenic belts structurally overlie subduction-accretion complexes and are incorporated into active continental margins via progressive underthrusting of oceanic material and/or through ridge-trench interactions. Tethyan-type ophiolites (TO) structurally overlie passive continental margins, microcontinents or island arcs, and are emplaced via collision of these buoyant crustal entities with trenches and their attempted subduction. This process may lead to induced subduction initiation in the region (via subduction jump and/or flip) and precedes terminal continental collisions, which create intra-continental mountain belts (Alps, Himalayas). Cordilleran-type ophiolites are commonly polygenetic, developed on and across a deformed, heterogeneous oceanic basement and may include fully developed island arc sequences having island arc tholeiite (IAT) to calcalkaline affinities, pyroclastic rocks, and felsic differentiates. Prolonged history of subduction with variable polarity and kinematics may generate nested Cordilleran ophiolites with different ages and chemical compositions that may have been affected by orogen-parallel wrench faulting due to oblique convergence. Ophiolites in the Caribbean region are composed of dismembered mafic-ultramafic rock assemblages, including LIP-generated lithologies, and represent fragments of vertically thickened (via plume activities) oceanic crust with polygenetic histories; these kinds of LIP-related ophiolites may also exist in other accretionary-type orogenic belts and in the Precambrian record. Tethyan-type ophiolites include the Ligurian ophiolites with Hess-type oceanic crust and Eastern Mediterranean ophiolites with Penrose-type oceanic crust, and may contain well-developed sheeted dyke complexes developed due to robust magmatic extension beneath narrow rift zones during their seafloor spreading history. Igneous accretion of typical Tethyan-type ophiolites may have been facilitated by slab rollback and mantle flow that resulted in upper plate extension and further melting of previously depleted asthenosphere, showing a progressive evolution from MORB-like to IAT to boninitic proto-arc assemblages. Rift-drift sequences recording early phases of basin opening may be preserved as melange units beneath Tethyan ophiolites. Thus, Tethyan-type ophiolites may reflect the Wilson cycle evolution of ancient oceans and the timing of rifting-related dismantling and collision-driven assembly of supercontinents. Some of these global events may have been linked to the production of plumes and accelerated LIP formation. Recognition of Cordilleran- vs. Tethyan-type ophiolites in ancient mountain belts and in the Precambrian record can be a useful tool to distinguish between accretionary and collisional orogens and their mode of continental growth.

  9. Ophiolite suture in Central Anatolia: New insights from the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul

    2015-04-01

    The closure of the Neotethys is classically associated with the obduction of ophiolitic rocks, defining successive suture zones. Theses Alpine-Himalayan ophiolites reflect a complex and still poorly understood paleogeographic framework. In Turkey, various types of ophiolite have been described, involving supra subduction zone and ophiolitic melanges as well. Hence reconstructions of the Anatolian continent assumed the amalgamation of one or more continental fragments during the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic time. The Sivas Basin is located in a key position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. These blocks are separated to the North by the Izmir-Ankara-Erzican suture zone (IAESZ), and by the Inner Tauride suture zone (ITSZ) to the South. Ophiolitic outcrops are common in this area, mainly on the basin borders, and sometimes within the central part. These green rocks have been previously related to the ophiolitic melange from the IAESZ in Northern part and to the ITSZ for the southern parts. Recent fieldwork on the southern edge of the Sivas Basin allows a proper description of the ophiolitic complex, including from bottom to top: (1) a large volume of intensely serpentinized peridotites, strongly veined with chrysotile, with minor gabbroic intrusions; (2) upward, serpentinized mantle rocks affected by a cataclastic deformation associated with tectonic breccias and ophicalcites ; and eventually, (3) on the top of the mantle, silicates deposits similar to radiolarian cherts cover by sedimentary breccias with mantle clasts. New geochemical analysis and subsurface data confirm the existence of a southward obducted slice of ophiolite over more than 100km from North to South, forming the basement of the Sivas Basin since the Campanian. This southward obduction related to the IAESZ appears similar to slow spreading ridge or hyper-extended domains derived ophiolites. We interpret the parent body as related to the exhumation of mantle rocks along low angle detachment faults either during the rifting or the oceanic accretion. The peridotites record a high serpentization degree, increasing toward the surface. Outcropping of the mantle rocks at the sea floor is responsible for the reworking of materials as tectonosedimentary breccias (ophicalcites). The emplacement of the gabbro will be constrained by U-Pb zircon geochronology.

  10. Ophiolites and oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moores, E.M.; Jackson, E.D.

    1974-01-01

    OPHIOLITES consist of a pseudostratiform sequence, of harzburgite, tectonite, ultramafic and mafic cumulates sometimes including gabbro and quartz diorite (plagiogranite) intrusions, dolerite dyke swarms, pillow lava 1, and deep-sea sediments2-4. This assemblage occurs in all Phanerozoic mountain systems and is interpreted as fossil oceanic crust and uppermost mantle5-10. Outstanding problems include differences between the chemical properties of Ophiolites and rocks thought to represent present-day oceanic crust11,12, the lack in some complexes of recognised dyke swarms or cumulates, and the relative thinness of ophiolite mafic rocks compared with standard oceanic crustal sections5,8,13. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Metamorphosed melange terrane in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wright Morton Jr.; David E. Blake; Albert S. Wylie Jr.; Edward F. Stoddard

    1986-01-01

    The Falls Lake melange crops out in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina between the Carolina slate belt and the Raleigh belt. The melange is composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, dispersed without apparent stratigraphic continuity, in a matrix of pelitic schist and biotite-muscovite-plagioclase-quartz gneiss. Textures and structural relationships suggest formation by a

  12. Ophiolitic terranes of northern and central Alaska and their correlatives in Canada and northeastern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.W. Jr. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    All of the major ophiolitic terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Innoko, Seventymile, and Goodnews terranes) in the northern and central Alaska belong to the Tethyan-type' of Moores (1982) and were obducted onto Paleozoic and Proterozoic continental and continental margin terranes in Mesozoic time. Tethyan-type' ophiolitic assemblages also occur in the Slide Mountain terrane in the Canadian Cordillera and extend from western Alaska into northeastern Russia. Although investigators have suggested widely different ages from their times of abduction onto the continent, these ophiolitic terranes display some remarkably similar features: (1) they consist of a stack of imbricated thrust slices dominated by ocean floor sediments, basalt, and high-level gabbro of late Paleozoic and Triassic age; (2) their mafic-ultramafic complexes generally are confined to the uppermost thrust sheets; (3) they lack the large tectonic melanges zones and younger accretionary flysch deposits associated with the ophiolitic terranes of southern Alaska and the Koryak region of northeastern Russia; (4) blueschist mineral assemblages occur in the lower part of these ophiolite terranes and (or) in the underlying continental terranes; and (5) they are bordered on their outboard' side by Mesozoic intraoceanic volcanic arc terranes. Recent geochemical and geologic studies of the mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Anagayucham and Tozitna terranes strongly suggest they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) and that they are directly overlain by volcanic rocks of the Koyukuk terrane.

  13. Origin of tonalites from the Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J.S. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The Boil Mountain ophiolitic complex, west-central Maine, marks the suture between the Boundary Mountain and Gander terranes that became amalgamated in the late Cambrian during a pre-Taconic collisional event known as the Penobscottian orogeny. This even formed a composite terrane that is believed to have collided with the proto-North American margin during the Ordovician Taconic orogeny. The ophiolite is unusual in that there is no associated tectonized ultramafic section; there is a lack of a sheeted dike sequence; and an intrusive tonalite layer comprises a significant volume of the complex. Preliminary major and trace element geochemical analysis of the tonalites indicates that this unit is derived by partial melting of the associated mafic volcanics. This melting may have been induced by stopping water-rich hydrothermally altered basalts into subcrustal magma chambers. The association of arc-like volcanics and plutonics of the Boil Mountain ophiolite with the adjacent Hurricane melange suggests that the Boil Mountain may be a fragment of a forearc supra-subduction zone complex. Similar interpretations have been made recently for the Late Proterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite in Morocco and the Coast Range ophiolite.

  14. The Kanuti ophiolite, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loney, R.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Kanuti ophiolite is a mafic-ultramafic thrust sheet of probable Jurassic age, formerly considered to be the upper part of the Yukon-Koyukuk ophiolite (Angayucham terrane). It is here called the Kanuti ophiolite after the Kanuti River region on the southeastern flank of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin. The thrust sheet crops out discontinuously for a distance of more than 900 km along the northern and southeastern margins of the basin. The Kanuti consistently overlies another extensive thrust sheet, consisting mostly of pillow basalt and radiolarian chert of Devonian to Jurassic age (Narvak thrust panel). This sheet is thrust over a third sheet consisting of probable Devonian phyllite and metagraywacke, which is in turn thrust over older metamorphic rocks (Slate Creek thrust panel). The Kanuti ophiolite is a partial ophiolite that consists of a lower residual mantle suite and an upper magmatic suite, but dikes, extrusives, and sediments are absent. Because of the limited range in rock types in the ophiolite, the tectonic environment cannot be interpreted unambiguously. However, the structural and petrological data are best reconciled with an origin in a volcanic arc tectonic setting. -from Authors

  15. Geochemistry of the ophiolite and island-Arc volcanic rocks in the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone, southern Qinling and their tectonic significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai Shaocong; Zhang Guowei; Yang Yongcheng; Chen Jiayi

    1999-01-01

    Ultrabasic rocks in the Mianxian-Lueyang ophiolitic melange zone include harzburgite and dunite which exhibit LREE depletion\\u000a with remarkable positive Eu anomaly. The diabase dike swarm shows LREE enrichment but slightly negative Eu anomaly. Metamorphosed\\u000a volcanic rocks can be divided into two groups in terms of their REE geochemistry and trace element ratios of Ti\\/V, Th\\/Ta,\\u000a Th\\/Yb and Ta\\/Yb. One is

  16. Petrology and structure of greenstone blocks encased in mud-matrix melange of the Franciscan complex near San Simeon, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, R.K.; Cloos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Greenstones comprise about 20% of all mappable (>1 m) blocks encased in blueschist-block-bearing mud-matrix melange exposed in a 10 km-length of sea cliffs near San Simeon. Field and petrographic analysis of 25 blocks show they vary from finely crystalline (<1 mm) locally porphyritic or amygdaloidal, volcanics to coarsely crystalline (1 to 5 mm) diabase. Some are in contact with bedded chert and two have relict pillows. However, most blocks are intensely deformed. Pinch-and-swell and boundinage are recognized on scales from cm to about 10 m. Distortion was accommodated by cataclasis to an aggregate of pieces from mm to m across. Generally, m-sized blocks are pervasively cataclastic whereas larger blocks are crosscut by cataclastic zones that emanate from pervasively cataclastic margins or necked regions of boudins. Discontinuous, cm-thick veins and cavities that are lined by quartz and clacite and rarely, laumontite, prehnite and aragonite locally crosscut all other structures. Relict igneous textures show the primary minerals are plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Abundant secondary minerals, particularly in cataclastic zones, are albite, chlorite, pumpellyite (some have high Al), and calcite. The metamorphic parageneses indicate relatively minor greenschist-facies, sea-floor-type alterations under static conditions followed by lower-temperature alterations synchronous with cataclasis and the development of boudinage. If the blocks are fragments of disrupted ophiolites, only the uppermost section of the suite are present within the mud-matrix melange near San Simeon. The simplest explanation for their crystallization, metamorphism and incorporation into the melange is that they are fragments of seamounts dismembered during subduction.

  17. The Piney Branch Complex - a metamorphosed fragment of the central Appalachian ophiolite in northern Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, A.A., Jr.; Morgan, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Piney Branch Complex consists of subequal parts of highly altered peridotite, pyroxenite, and gabbro and crops out over an area of slightly more than 9km2 in Fairfax County, Va. The lack of discernible order to the distribution of these rock types within the Piney Branch Complex suggests it is a melange resulting from the deformation of a layered complex that contained repetitive cycles of ultramafic and mafic layers. Severely metamorphosed relict cumulate textures can be seen in some specimens of both serpentinite and metagabbro. Small dikes and sheets of plagiogranite occur throughout the complex. The Piney Branch closely resembles the ophiolite material that crops out in southeastern Pennsylvania and Maryland, in the kind, and relative abundance of rock types and in the chemical composition of the rocks, and it represents a continuation of the pattern of southwesterly increasing regional metamorphism of ophiolite material in the central Appalachians. Other bodies of ophiolitic material within the central Appalachians, although at different tectonic levels, also evidence of multiple movement. These bodies and the Piney Branch are believed to be fragments of a large dismembered 'Central Appalachian ophiolite' which records part of the complicated tectonic history of the eastern continental margin of N America.-Authors

  18. Osmium isotopes in ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Luck; Claude J. Allegre

    1991-01-01

    The present study reports Re and Os concentrations and Os isotropic composition for ultramafic samples from ophiolites. Present-day Os-187\\/Os-186 for the upper mantle is found to be constrained, for the time being, around 1.05-1.06. The mantle evolution curve for osmium isotopes through time, when associated with recent Os isotopic determinations from the literature for Archaean samples, shows a 'chondritic' Re-187\\/Os-196

  19. Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

  20. Structure and tectonics of a Lower Ordovician forearc ophiolite in central western Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzer, L.M.; Dilek, Y. (Vassar Coll., Poughkeepsie, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    The Lower Ordovician Boil Mountain ophiolite complex (BMO) in central western Maine occurs in the Gander tectonic zone, nearly 100 km SE of the main Appalachian ophiolite belt, and represents part of the Iapetus oceanic domain. It is exposed in an ENE trending narrow zone immediately south of the Precambrian Chain Lakes massif (CLM). The contact between the CLM and the BMO is characterized by a steeply to vertically south-dipping shear zone composed of several fault planes, which display subhorizontal slickenside lineations with sinistral sense of shearing and counterclockwise rotated porphyroclasts. The BMO consists mainly of pyroxenite, gabbro, diorite, plagiogranite, autobreccia, mafic to felsic volcanic, volcaniclastic, and hemipelagic sedimentary rocks, and contacts between these lithologic units are commonly vertical and faulted. Autobreccia outcrops containing clasts and blocks of serpentinite, diabase, pillowed basalt, and radioalarian chert in a medium-grained hemipelagic matrix indicates deposition penecontemporaneous with ocean floor tectonism during evolution of the ophiolite. Extrusive rocks include basaltic, massive to pillow-lava flows, and andesites, dacites, and rhyolites and are commonly metamorphosed up to a lower-greenschist facies. The BMO is overlain to the SE by a melange-flysch sequence composed mainly of metapelite, metagraywacke, phyllite, and slate with abundant volcanic material suggesting alternated shallow- and deep-water sedimentation in a forearc basin. These relations and the observed structures in the ophiolite indicate its development in an oceanic environment with a low magma budget and active vertical tectonism. The available geochemical data show low Ti, Zr, Y, Cr, and REE contents of volcanic rocks suggesting a depleted magma source in a suprasubduction zone tectonic setting for the ophiolite.

  1. Origin and emplacement of the Late Cretaceous Baer Bassit ophiolite and its metamorphic sole in NW Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Riyami, Khalil; Robertson, Alastair; Dixon, John; Xenophontos, Costas

    2002-11-01

    The Baer-Bassit ophiolite, of inferred Late Cretaceous age, was emplaced from the south Tethys ocean onto the leading edge of the Arabian continental margin in latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) time. Dismembered sequences in different thrust sheets can be correlated to produce a complete ophiolite sequence, with a metamorphic sole at the base, overlain, in turn, by upper mantle tectonite, rare cumulates, massive and layered gabbros, localized high-level plagiogranites, sheeted dykes, basic extrusives and minor Fe-Mn sediments (umbers). The restored ophiolite sequence is similar to that of the more intact Troodos and Hatay ophiolites, but dissimilar to Oman. The Baer-Bassit extrusives are magnesian and strongly depleted, comparable to primitive island arc tholeiites and some boninitic lavas, which favours a subduction-related origin. A well-developed metamorphic sole is divisible into high-grade (amphibolite facies) assemblages in the north and lower-grade (greenschist facies) assemblages in the centre of the region, but no complete inverted metamorphic gradient is preserved in any one local area. The protoliths of both the high-grade (amphibolites) and lower-grade rocks (greenschists) are interpreted as alkali basalts and pelagic sediments, including chert, similar to the volcanic rocks in an underlying unmetamorphosed melange. The metamorphic fabrics progressively evolved from ductile to brittle during tectonic transport towards the southeast. Most of the metamorphic fabrics evolved during intense shearing, but some of the alkaline metabasites apparently were metamorphosed under relatively static strain conditions. The apparent absence of preserved inverted metamorphic gradients in Baer-Bassit may reflect a complex deformation history during emplacement. Alternatively, differing P- T conditions may be recorded at different depths at the base of the over-riding mantle wedge. During emplacement, the front of the ophiolite was tectonically imbricated and overthrust by the main ultramafic slab (Bassit massif). The thickest massif (Baer) is underlain by a high-grade metamorphic sole and was internally shortened but without thrust duplication of the entire ophiolite sequence. Following covering by Late Maastrichtian-Palaeogene marine calcareous sediments, the area was subjected to mid-Tertiary regional folding. This was followed by Neogene dominantly left-lateral, strike-slip deformation along the African-Eurasian plate boundary, extending from south of Cyprus to the Dead Sea transform fault. As a result, the originally emplaced thrust sheets were dissected into three main composite units (Baer, Bassit and the Southeastern units), separated by strongly faulted and sheared ophiolitic blocks and unmetamorphosed volcanic-sedimentary melange.

  2. Metamorphosed melange in the central Piedmont of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mittwede, S.K.; Maybin, A.H. III (South Carolina Geological Survey, Columbia (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Enoree melange is exposed in the central Piedmont of South Carolina near the boundary between the Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The melange is composed of ultramafic and mafic blocks in a highly deformed matrix of biotite-feldspar-quartz gneiss which has a composition consistent with a felsic-to-intermediate volcanic precursor. The mafic and ultramafic blocks are separated chemically and petrographically into four compositional groups: metagabbro-clinopyroxenite, websterite, orthopyroxenite, and metasomatized (steatitized) orthopyroxenite. Based on their chemistry and mineralogy, the blocks are clearly exotic relative to their metavolcaniclastic( ) matrix and likely originated as parts of a plutonic suite from the basal or forward part of the Carolina arc terrane. If the Piedmont terrane-Carolina terrane boundary is a continent-arc suture, then the Enoree melange probably formed in the accretionary prism at this convergent margin. The matrix gneisses are interpreted as reworked volcanic debris shed by the Carolina arc terrane edifice and accumulated as graywacke in the accretionary deposits. West-vergent structures in the matrix suggest that the melange was emplaced to its present tectonostratigraphic position either during docking of the Carolina terrane or during widespread Alleghenian thrusting.

  3. Multistage melange formation in the Franciscan Complex, northernmost California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, K. R.

    1981-12-01

    Matrix induration and deformation style denote relative time and process of melange origin related to subduction. Mappable melange units contain chiefly blocks of greenstone, chert, and graywacke dispersed in weakly indurated argillite. Emplacement of these units as olistostromes is indicated by depositional contacts and lateral inter-tonguing with turbidites. Some blocks in sheared olistostromes are in themselves complexly mixed. These include breccias of gabbro, plagiogranite, diabase, basalt, tuff, chert, graywacke, and argillite variously combined and brittlely deformed. Blocks of intercalated tuff and argillite and of diamictite containing rounded clasts of tuff, chert, and graywacke dispersed in highly indurated, foliated argillite exhibit primary ductile and secondary brittle deformation. All block material was indurated, brecciated, and/or foliated during underplating at the base of a trench slope and later uplifted to provide olistostrome detritus. The Elk Head and Klamath coast terranes are highly indurated and compositionally similar to the mixed-lithology blocks in olistostromes. They are interpreted to form an accretionary prism consisting of tectonic melange slabs separating slope-basin rocks.

  4. The Naga Hills and Andaman ophiolite belt, their setting, nature and collisional emplacement history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, S. K.; Ray, K. K.; Sengupta, Subhasis

    The Indo-Burmese Range and the Andaman-Nicobar Island Arc, form a continuous arcuate trend along which several ophiolite occurrences have been reported. In Naga Hills (NHO) and Andaman (ANO), these ophiolites are represented by dismembered mafic and ultramafic rocks with closely associated oceanic pelagic sediments. They occur as folded thrust slices occupying the highest tectonic levels and are brought to lie over distal shelf sediments of Eocene to Oligocene age. Ophiolites are unconformably overlain by ophiolite-derived clastics of Middle to Late Eocene age. The ophiolites preserved along this belt are remnants of a continuous, narrow, one or several intra-continental ocean basin(s) of broadly comparable age, created during the Late Mesozoic rifting of the Greater India Gondwana continent. Rifting and creation of oceanic crust date between Cretaceous and Early Eocene. In the initial stages, the ocean floor had been deeper than Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD). Subsequently it had become uneven, when oceanic crust was being added through several seamounts or seamount chains and on top of which calcareous pelagic sediments were deposited. Both tholeiitic and alkaline volcanic rocks are present in these ophiolites. In NHO, the two groups of lavas have generated from different sources in different tectonic settings. The alkalic and some tholeiitic lavas in NHO are similar to off-axis seamount basalts. Tholeiitic lavas from ANO and some NHO resemble MORB or backarc basin basalts and on the basis of certain chemical characters these are suggested to have generated in marginal basin setting. Significant volume of acid differentiates are associated in ANO which also support the marginal basin character of the basalts. The suite of rocks in ANO indicates fractionation in a shallow level magma chamber. Closure of the small ocean basin(s) and emplacement of ophiolites took place in two stages. In the initial stage, the seamount chain brought to the subduction zone collided with the Burmese block prior to Middle Eocene. Part of the ophiolites represent clipped seamounts which got accreted to the leading edge of the eastern continental block. With continued closure, this eastern block with accreted ophiolite slices was brought in juxtaposition with distal shelf sediments of the western block marking the terminal continent-continent collision. The thrust front of ophiolitic rocks apparently advanced further westward in Andaman to the south compared to the northern sector, and thus an imbricated zone and melange involving the Eocene floor sediments (Lipa Fm) has been created, whereas in the Naga Hills the floor sediments (Disang Fm) remained virtually passive. The time of terminal continental collision is represented as the regional Late Oligocene unconformity. The entire thrust stack got deformed and folded into upright geometry after being blocked. The present subduction of oceanic crust beneath the Andaman island arc appears to be a westward jump of subduction zone due to sustained post-collisional NE drive of the Indian plate.

  5. Falls Lake melange, a polydeformed accretionary complex in the North Carolina piedmont

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Jr. Horton; D. E. Blake; A. S. Jr. Wylie; E. F. Stoddard

    1985-01-01

    The Falls Lake melange in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina is composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, from about 1 cm to 7 km in length, dispersed without stratigraphic continuity in a matrix of pelitic schist and metagraywacke. The melange lies between the Carolina slate belt on the west and the Raleigh

  6. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic ophiolite arc, and blueschist terranes in southwestern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlock, R.L. (San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The nature and significance of disrupted Mesozoic oceanic rocks on Isla Santa Margarita and Isla Magdalena, western Baja California Sur, have been reinterpreted on the basis of detailed mapping and petrologic studies. Three structural units are recognized. (1) The upper plate consists of ophiolitic, arc, and forearc basin rocks. Ophiolitic rocks, including metamorphosed ultramafic rocks, gabbro, dikes, volcanic rocks, and chert, underwent strong contractional deformation and penetrative greenschist-facies metamorphism. Arc rocks, including gabbro, a dike and sill complex, compositionally diverse volcanic rocks, lahars, and volcaniclastic strata, lack a penetrative fabric and are weakly metamorphosed. Forearc basin rocks consist of unmetamorphosed conglomerated and rhythmically bedded siliciclastic turbidites. (2) The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of weakly to moderately foliated and metamorphosed pillow and massive lavas, breccia, and tuff( ), interbedded red and green siliceous argillite, and rare radiolarian ribbon chert and limestone. Blueschist-facies metamorphism is indicated by lawsonite, aragonite, sodic amphibole, and sodic clino-pyroxene. (3) Serpentine-matrix melange crops out in shallowly dipping fault zones between the upper and lower plates. The structural and petrologic characteristics of the Mesozoic units, the geometry of contacts between them, and the age of extension are similar to those in the Isla Cedros-Vizcalno Peninsula region, 400 km to the northwest. The author infers that syn-subduction extension was a regional event that affected much of the western Baja forearc during the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene.

  7. Dynamics of sediment subduction, melange formation, and prism accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreve, Ronald L.; Cloos, Mark

    1986-09-01

    The descending plate and overriding block in a subduction zone are analogous to the guide surface and slide block in a slipper bearing, and subducted sediment is analogous to the lubricant. Subduction is more complex and varied, however, because the overriding block is not rigid, the sediment is buoyant, underplating can occur, and sediment supply can vary widely. A model based on the bearing analogy but taking these differences into account makes detailed quantitative predictions for actual sites, which are illustrated by calculations for five diverse examples: Mariana, 16°N; Mexico, 17°N; Lesser Antilles, 13°N (Barbados); Alaska, 153°W (Kodiak); and Japan, 40°N. It requires as input the geometry of the overriding block and the top of the descending plate, the distribution of density and permeability of the overriding block, the speed of subduction, the density and rheological properties of the subducted sediment, and the rate of sediment input. Its predictions include the profile of thickness of the layer of subducted sediment (all sites; maximum of 360 m at Mariana, 5300 m at Japan), the velocities of flow in the layer (all sites), the shear stresses exerted on the walls (all sites; low beneath accretionary prisms, up to 6 MPa beneath Japan), the rate of offscraping (none at Mariana and late Tertiary Mexico; 85% of input at Lesser Antilles; includes melange at Japan), the distribution and rates of underplating (none at Mariana, extensive at Japan), the zones of possible subduction erosion (extensive at Mariana; local at the others), the amount of sediment subducted to the volcanic arc (all sites; 2% of input at Lesser Antilles, 100% at Mariana), the qualitative pattern of flow at the inlet (five basic patterns; all sites), the upward flow of melange in many instances (none at Mariana; extensive at Japan), and, under relatively rare conditions, the formation of large-scale melange diapirs (only at Lesser Antilles beneath Barbados Island).

  8. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  9. Tectonic Setting for Ophiolite Obduction in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Coleman

    1981-01-01

    The Samail ophiolite is part of an elongate belt in the Middle East that forms an integral part of the Alpine mountain chains that make up the northern boundary of the Arabian-African plate. The Samail ophiolite represents a portion of the Tethyan ocean crust formed at a spreading center of Middle Cretaceous age (Cenomanian). During the Cretaceous spreading of the

  10. Reply to Aitchison and Ali: Reconciling Himalayan ophiolite and

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    LETTER Reply to Aitchison and Ali: Reconciling Himalayan ophiolite and Asian magmatic arc records. Additionally, Aitchison and Ali (2) argue that stratigraphic data we cited for a 70-Ma ophiolite obduction age by 60- to 50-Ma carbonates in the TH underlying the Spontang ophiolite showing there was 70-Ma ophiolite

  11. Ophiolite obduction in the Quebec Appalachians, Canada --40

    E-print Network

    Ophiolite obduction in the Quebec Appalachians, Canada -- 40 Ar/39 Ar age constraints and evidence, is herein combined with 40Ar/39Ar dating on a series of ophiolitic massifs, crosscutting granites-Brompton ophiolite and the Rivière-des-Plante Ultramafic Complex in southern Quebec, and the Nadeau Ophiolitic

  12. High-Pressure/Low-Temperature Melanges in the Cycladic Blueschist Belt, Greece: Results of an Ionprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröcker, M.; Keasling, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    The Cycladic blueschist belt (CBB) in the central Aegean Sea has experienced epidote blueschist to eclogite facies metamorphism in the Eocene (c. 50-40 Ma) during collisional processes between the Apulian microplate and Eurasia. The general geological framework is well established, but many details of the tectonometamorphic history still are not fully understood. Unresolved issues concern the importance of pre-Eocene HP metamorphism [1, 2] and the geochronological record that is preserved in melange sequences. These aspects are addressed in an ionprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon study focusing on block-matrix associations from the islands of Syros and Andros. Melanges comprise in variable mixtures eclogites, glaucophanites, meta-gabbros, ultrabasic rocks, meta-acidic gneisses and jadeitites in a serpentinitic and/or metasedimentary matrix. The origin of the block-matrix associations is controversial and in many cases it remains unclear whether these melanges record sedimentary or tectonic processes. A tectonic slab from Syros, consisting of an interlayered meta-acidic gneiss - glaucophanite sequence, yielded 206Pb/238U ages of c. 237-245 Ma, similar to ages determined for rocks collected from structurally coherent sequences on other Cycladic islands. On Syros, we have also studied zircons from a metasomatic alteration profile, which developed around a compound eclogite-jadeitite net-veined block enclosed in a serpentinite matrix. From the outside in, distinct blackwall alteration zones (c. 5-30 cm in thickness) can be distinguished, which predominantly consist either of actinolite- chlorite, glaucophane or omphacite. Zircon from the unaltered jadeitite and all reaction zones yielded 206Pb/238U ages of c. 80 Ma. Across this profile, systematic changes are observed in zircon morphology and CL patterns. U- and Th-concentrations in zircon decrease towards the peripheral rinds. These observations are difficult to reconcile with a magmatic origin of the zircons and instead we suggest a relationship of zircon formation to fluid infiltration and block-matrix interaction during subduction zone processes. Similar ages in meta-gabbros and associated felsic melts [2, this study] probably represent protolith ages. Thus, the Syros melange apparently records the coexistence of rocks documenting both magmatic and metamorphic processes of Cretaceous age. From Andros, we have dated a meta-gabbro and a meta-acidic gneiss that yielded Jurassic 206Pb/238U ages of 154.5 ± 0.7 Ma and 160.0 ± 0.5 Ma, respectively, which perfectly correspond to protolith ages reported for ophiolites from the Balkan peninsula and Crete [3]. Our study indicates that the Cycladic melanges comprise a heterogeneous age population of rocks derived from different sources. Up to now three magmatic (c. 240 Ma, c. 155-160 Ma, c. 75-80 Ma) and one metamorphic age group (c. 80 Ma) were recognized, but the number of dated blocks still is relatively small and the picture might be much more complex than implied by the available datasets. [1] Bröcker & Enders (1999): Geol. Mag. 136, 111-118. [2] Tomaschek et al. (2003): J. Petrol. 44, 1977-2002. [3] Koepke et al. (2002): Lithos 65, 183-203.

  13. Origin of Zircon in Ophiolitic Mantle Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.; Schmitt, A. K.; Li, J.; Ma, C.

    2011-12-01

    Zircon xenocrysts in ultramafic rocks are typically interpreted as grains picked up by intrusion of mantle rocks into crustal sequences and are taken as evidence of underlying continental crust. However, ultramafic rocks of the Luobusa and Dongqiao ophiolites of Tibet and the Semail ophiolite of Oman contain rounded zircon grains that are much older than the ophiolites themselves. In the Tibetan ophiolites the zircon is accompanied by diamonds, moissanite, corundum, coesite, kyanite, garnet and rutile and numerous highly reduced phases, including PGE and base-metal alloys and native elements. The zircon grains range from 20 to 300 ?m across, and are mostly well rounded with very complex internal structures. A few grains are euhedral to subhedral and have concentric zoning suggesting an igneous origin. Many of the grains contain low-pressure inclusions of quartz, rutile, orthoclase, mica, ilmenite and apatite. 206Pb/238U SIMS dates for the Luobusa zircons range from 549±19 to 1657±58 Ma, whereas those for the Dongqiao ophiolites range from 484±49 to 2515±276 Ma. These ages are much older than the host ophiolites (~126 Ma and 147 Ma, respectively). Sixteen dates on zircons from the Semail ophiolite range in age from 84±4 to 1386±48 Ma. Four of these grains are euhedral to subhedral and have late Cretaceous ages essentially the same as the host ophiolite (92±4 to 99±5 Ma), but most are much older. The one younger age of 84 Ma probably reflects slight Pb loss. Many grains in all three ophiolites have distinct cores surrounded by much younger rims, which are still older than the host ophiolites. All of the studied zircons have REE and trace element compositions characteristic of continental crustal grains. Because ophiolites are tectonically emplaced slices of oceanic lithosphere, the possibility of crustal contamination during formation is highly unlikely. Thus, the old zircons in these ophiolites are interpreted as crustal xenocrysts, introduced into the mantle by earlier subduction of continental crust in orogenic belts.

  14. Field evidence for fault controlled intrusion of blue-schist-bearing melange into an accretionary wedge, Island Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lamons, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two lithologic units of the Franciscan are well exposed along a loop of the Eel River at Island Mountain. They are 1) zeolite or lower grade lithic graywackes, and 2) a 0.5 km wide band of black shaly melange containing blueschist, chert, greenstone, metagraywacke, and a graywacke-hosted copper deposit. Sedimentary features were not observed in the melange. The graywacke was subdivided on the basis of presence or absence of sodium-cobaltonitrate stained K-spar. Field relationships suggest that the blueschist-bearing melange was emplaced along steep NW-dipping faults in an accretionary wedge. Mapping of S. Jewett Rock and SW Lake Mountain quadrangles show narrow anastomosing bands of the melange following NW-trending faults. East of this band, graywackes without K-spar are folded along NW/SE axes. No folds were found to the west. Other Melange bands pinch out into faults which juxtapose graywackes of different facies. The sheared melange bands are not folded and shale beds in the graywacke show little shear so the melange bands are unlikely to be sheared olistostromes. The areal extent of graywacke is about ten times that of melange shales. Assuming this pattern continues laterally and at depth, the amount of ductile material in the melange is far less than that assumed by Cloos (1982) in his flow model for melange. The ductile melange may have been forced upward by metamorphically produced volatiles, or as a result of relative plate motion. It originated at depth, moved up along the top of a subducting slab, plucking clasts, then splayed upward into pre-existing faults in the accretionary wedge.

  15. Ophiolites as Analogs to Habitats on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, M.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Ophiolite sequences that are located in northern and central California provide easily accessible areas that serve as good analogs for martian crustal rocks. The rock types found in a typical ophiolite sequence compare well with those found in the Mars meteorites, and those expected from spectrophotometric analysis. We have begun investigating and characterizing these sites in order to understand better the processes that may be responsible for the groundwater chemistry, mineralogy and biology of similar environments on Mars.

  16. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  17. Tectonic Evolution of Tethyan Ophiolites and Backarc Basins in Subduction Rollback Systems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Y.; Furnes, H.

    2009-04-01

    The late Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region was controlled by a series of collisions between Gondwana-derived continental blocks and Eurasia as the intervening ocean basins closed. Rifting of these ‘ribbon continents' from the northern edge of Gondwana occurred within a broadly convergent Tethyan realm and was mostly driven by slab-pull generated far-field stresses. Continued subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean floor northward beneath Eurasia was responsible for both these continental rifting events in its trailing edge and rapid backarc extension in the leading edge of Eurasia in the upper plate. Collapse of the backarc basins and Neo-Tethys through intra-oceanic subduction and ensuing slab rollback processes produced extended incipient arc-forearc crust nested within the older Tethyan lithosphere. Fragments of these ancient protoarc-forearc lithospheric material constitute most of the Jurassic-Cretaceous suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites along the Tethyan suture zones. Igneous accretion of the SSZ Tethyan ophiolites involved upper plate extension and advanced melting of previously depleted asthenosphere in host basins, showing a progressive evolution from MORB-like to IAT (island arc tholeiite) to boninitic (extremely refractory) proto-arc assemblages. Although all ophiolites exhibit geochemical features indicating increased subduction influence during the melt evolution of their younger extrusive sequences and dike intrusions, as evidenced by their negative ?Nd values, their overall characteristic trace-element patterns seem to have been strongly affected by the maturity of the subduction systems in which they developed. Emplacement of SSZ ophiolites was facilitated by passive margin-trench collisions, which led into and was followed by partial subduction of continental edges, their high-P metamorphism, continental collisions, slab breakoff, and crustal exhumation and core complex formation. The suture zones between the amalgamated microcontinents are marked by ophiolites, accretionary melanges (including seamounts), and rift assemblages that are commonly telescoped structurally in this descending order. The Tethyan suture zones include, therefore, a variety of tectonostratigraphic units with different geochemical and tectonic affinities, ages, and structural architecture, representing the remnants of collapsed backarc basin and protoarc-forearc oceanic lithosphere, and passive margin units of the bounding microcontinents.

  18. Newfoundland Ophiolites and the Geology of the Oceanic Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Peterson; P. J. Fox; E. SCHREIBER

    1974-01-01

    THE significance and origin of ophiolites is a matter of interest to geologists. Many investigators interpret ophiolites as slices of oceanic crust which have been technically emplaced in orogenic belts1-7. Moores and Vine5, Dewey and Bird6, and Coleman7 have proposed just such an origin for ophiolites as geographically diverse as Cyprus, Newfoundland and the Western United States. If ophiolites are

  19. Mantle petrology and mineralogy of the Thetford Mines Ophiolite Complex

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Mantle petrology and mineralogy of the Thetford Mines Ophiolite Complex Philippe Pagé a,1 , Jean H ophiolite complex (TMOC) formed by boninite-fed seafloor-spreading, probably in a fore-arc environment: Thetford Mines Ophiolite; Mantle Melting; Mantle Metasomatism; Mineral Chemistry; Southern Québec

  20. Precambrian Ophiolites and Related Rocks Edited by Timothy M. Kusky

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    Precambrian Ophiolites and Related Rocks Edited by Timothy M. Kusky Developments in Precambrian NEOPROTEROZOIC OPHIOLITES OF THE ARABIAN-NUBIAN SHIELD ROBERT J. STERNa, PETER R. JOHNSONb, ALFRED KRÖNERc Quality Management, P.O. Box 861, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa Ophiolites of mid-Neoproterozoic age

  1. Ophiolites of the Kunlun Mountains, China and their tectonic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-S. Yang; P. T. Robinson; C.-F. Jiang; Z.-Q. Xu

    1996-01-01

    Three ophiolite belts, ranging in age from Cambrian to Triassic, provide valuable data on the tectonic evolution of the Kunlun Mountains which lie along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. All of the ophiolites contain dismembered but nearly complete assemblages of peridotite, mafic and ultramafic cumulates, pillow and massive lavas and radiolarian cherts, (1) The oldest belt contains ophiolites

  2. Contact metamorphism by an ophiolite peridotite from neyriz, iran.

    PubMed

    Hall, R

    1980-06-13

    Ophiolites are conventionally regarded as fragments of former oceanic lithosphere. Mineralogical and field evidence indicates that peridotite of the Neyriz ophiolite was intruded at high temperature into folded crystalline limestones, forming skarns. This excludes the formation of the ophiolite at a mid-ocean ridge but is consistent with its origin by intrusion during continental rifting. PMID:17830810

  3. The Xigaze ophiolite (Tibet): a peculiar oceanic lithosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nicolas; J. Girardeau; J. Marcoux; B. Dupre; Wang Xibin; Cao Yougong; Zheng Haixiang; Xiao Xuchang

    1981-01-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite which outcrops along the Yarlung Zangbo river, southern Tibet, locally displays a complete ophiolitic sequence from marine sedimentary cover over basaltic volcanics to the north, to fresh Cr diopside-rich harzburgites to the south. In contrast with other ophiolites, the mafic part of the sequence is particularly thin. It is almost devoid of cumulate gabbros consisting of a

  4. Ultra-high Pressure Minerals in Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Bai, W.; Yang, J.; Fang, Q.

    2004-12-01

    Most ultra-high pressure (UHP) minerals are found in kimberlites, deeply subducted continental crustal rocks and meteorites or meteorite impact craters. Graphitized diamonds have been found in subcontinental peridotites of the Ronda and Beni Boursera massifs. Numerous UHP minerals have also been reported from ophiolites, particularly in Russia, Indonesia, Canada, the USA and China. Many of these reported discoveries are from placer deposits and the origin of the UHP minerals has not been confirmed. The best documented occurrence of an UHP mineral-bearing ophiolite is the Luobusa ophiolite, which lies in the Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone of southern Tibet. A wide variety of UHP minerals, including diamond, moissanite, coesite, Fe-silicides, wüstite, silicon rutile, silicon spinel, and CrC alloys, has been recovered from podiform chromitites in Luobusa. These minerals are associated with native elements, such as Si, Fe, Ti, and Cr, and with PGE alloys, some of which may also have an UHP origin. Diamonds have also been reported from the Donqiao ophiolite of the Nujiang-Bangong Lake suture zone in central Tibet but this occurrence as not been confirmed. The demonstrated occurrence of UHP minerals in Luobusa and the reported occurrences from other bodies suggest that ophiolites may be common repositories of UHP minerals.

  5. Ophiolite Perspectives on Oceanic Mantle Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Day, J. M.; Ash, R. D.; Daly, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The mantle sections of ophiolites offer a useful approach to studying compositional heterogeneities in the oceanic mantle. A potential caveat is that the tectonic provenance of ophiolites is often not easy to decipher, although many have undergone at least supra-subduction zone (SSZ) processing. Significant outstanding questions include the degree to which ophiolite peridotites preserve evidence of pre-SSZ events and the way that SSZ melt extraction modifies the character of these peridotites. A suite of Caledonian ophiolites associated with the closure of the Iapetus Ocean offers an opportunity to shed light on these issues, in particular to assess the degree to which long (regional) wavelength compositional heterogeneities survive SSZ melting. Observations on the combined highly-siderophile element (HSE) and 187Os/188Os systematics of the broadly coetaneous (490-500 Ma) Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland) and Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC; Norway) are presented here. Generally, the lithological composition of each locality is harzburgitic, and hosts lenses and layers of dunite, chromitite and pyroxenite that are interpreted as representing SSZ-related (channelised) melt migration and melt-rock interaction. Although the bulk of the harzburgitic rocks have approximately chondritic initial 187Os/188Os and HSE abundances, ancient (Proterozoic) melt depletion (TRD =1.4 to 1 Ga) is recorded in ~10% of samples from each locality. This is also commonly observed in abyssal peridotites. One important implication of the data is that SSZ melt generation/migration has had no discernible impact on the bulk Os isotopic composition of the Iapetus oceanic mantle. By contrast, non-harzburgitic lithologies consistently exhibit more radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os and more variable HSE abundances. The dunites, chromitites and pyroxenites of the LOC can be separated into two groups on the basis of isochrons that they define; yielding ages of 481±22 Ma and 589±15 Ma, respectively. The former age corresponds, within error, to the accepted age of the ophiolite (497 ± 2 Ma). The meaning of the latter age is uncertain, but may correspond to the early stages of Iapetus opening. The data imply that the oceanic mantle represented by both ophiolites resembles a 'patchwork' of peridotites of different ages and compositions.

  6. Mapping the Oman Ophiolite using TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Ophiolite terrains, considered to be the onland occurrences of oceanic crust, host a number of types of mineral deposits: volcanogenic massive sulfides, podiform chromite, and asbestos. Thematic Mapper data for the Semail Ophiolite in Oman were used to separate and map ultramafic lithologies hosting these deposits, including identification of the components of the extrusive volcanic sequence, mapping of serpentinization due to various tectonic processes, and direct identification of gossans. Thematic Mapper data were found to be extremely effective for mapping in this terrain due to the excellent spatial resolution and the presence of spectral bands which allow separation of the pertinent mineralogically caused spectral features associated with the rock types of interest.

  7. ARMA 08-357 FRANCISCAN COMPLEX, CALIFORNIA: PROBLEMS IN RECOGNITION OF MELANGES,

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi "Luke"

    ARMA 08-357 FRANCISCAN COMPLEX, CALIFORNIA: PROBLEMS IN RECOGNITION OF MELANGES, AND THE GAP and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA Copyright 2008, ARMA, American Rock, 2008. This paper was selected for presentation by an ARMA Technical Program Committee following review

  8. Falls Lake melange, a polydeformed accretionary complex in the North Carolina piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.W. Jr.; Blake, D.E.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Stoddard, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Falls Lake melange in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina is composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, from about 1 cm to 7 km in length, dispersed without stratigraphic continuity in a matrix of pelitic schist and metagraywacke. The melange lies between the Carolina slate belt on the west and the Raleigh belt on the east. This terrane has been mapped in detail from near Wilton in Granville County, southward for about 40 km to west Raleigh in Wake County. Preliminary petrologic and geochemical data suggest an oceanic crustal origin for the mafic and ultramafic inclusions. Although the lenticular shapes of most fragments are attributable to ductile deformation, a few more equant fragments that are clearly overprinted by the earliest recognized matrix schistosity have round to angular shapes resembling sedimentary clasts. These observations suggest formation by a combination of sedimentary and tectonic processes, perhaps in the accretionary wedge of a convergent plate margin. The Falls Lake melange and the overlying late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian volcanic-arc terrane of the accreted Carolina slate belt were thrust upon a probably continental terrane of the Raleigh belt before overprinting by late Paleozoic folding and metamorphism. The melange and its folded basal decollement are truncated on the east by a later fault of the Nutbush Creek system and have not been found east of this fault.

  9. Recycling of crustal minerals into the upper mantle: evidence from ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Robinson; J. Yang; R. Trumbull

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of ultrahigh pressure and crustal minerals has been recovered from podiform chromitites of the Donqiao and Luobusa ophiolites of Tibet, the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals and the Semail ophiolite of Oman. Microdiamonds are abundant in the Luobusa, Donqiao and Ray-Iz ophiolites, coesite and kyanite occur in Luobusa and moissanite is present in all four ophiolites.

  10. Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Subsidence in magma chamber and the development of magmatic foliation in Oman ophiolite gabbros Keywords: Oman ophiolite fast spreading ridges magma chamber gabbro subsidence In the Oman ophiolite of this ophiolite. They are complemented by 133 sites, located throughout the entire ophiolite, where the transition

  11. The Oman Ophiolite from Detachment to Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    An overview model is presented accounting for older and up-dated published data. Detachment of the Oman ophiolite exhumed a 20 km thick fragment of oceanic lithosphere 500 x 100 km2 in extension. This detachment occurred at margin of a fast spreading NeoTethyan Ocean, at P/T conditions ~900°C-200 MPa, 95-95.5 Ma ago. The Hawasinah nappes underlying the ophiolite at present, represent the stacking of the sedimentary cover deposited on the Arabian continental margin, thinned and rifted since Permian time, and extending more than 300 km north from the present shore. The sedimentary record points to the collapse of the continental basement at Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, 140 Ma ago. Subduction of the rifted continental margin is inferred, as recorded in the Saih Hatat high-pressure rocks whose metamorphic age 80-140 Ma is discussed, as well as the vergence of related subduction. Late Cretaceous time 85-70 Ma marks the emplacement of the Oman ophiolite in the Muti Basin, to its present position inland the Permo-Triassic continental margin. These episodes are not similarly recorded in the northern part of the Oman Mountains, that do not expose any HP metamorphic belt, but granulitic crustal rocks and large development of syn-obduction non-MORB magmatism in the ophiolite crustal section. Collision is achieved at the northern tip, the Musandam area, linked to the opening of the Gulf of Aden 25 Ma ago, and northward drift of the Arabian Plate.

  12. Mapping oceanic ridge segments in Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nicolas; F. Boudier

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of detailed mapping of high-temperature flow structures in the mantle and crust of two massifs of the Oman ophiolite. In these massifs, the dominant structures, including large-scale folds, shear zones, and fractures, were generated at elevated temperatures and are ascribed to the ridge or ridge environment activity; this means that the structural maps presented can

  13. A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Harald; de Wit, Maarten; Staudigel, Hubert; Rosing, Minik; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2007-03-23

    A sheeted-dike complex within the approximately 3.8-billion-year-old Isua supracrustal belt (ISB) in southwest Greenland provides the oldest evidence of oceanic crustal accretion by spreading. The geochemistry of the dikes and associated pillow lavas demonstrates an intraoceanic island arc and mid-ocean ridge-like setting, and their oxygen isotopes suggest a hydrothermal ocean-floor-type metamorphism. The pillows and dikes are associated with gabbroic and ultramafic rocks that together make up an ophiolitic association: the Paleoarchean Isua ophiolite complex. These sheeted dikes offer evidence for remnants of oceanic crust formed by sea-floor spreading of the earliest intact rocks on Earth. PMID:17379806

  14. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  15. The “ophiolite rule”, chemostratigraphy of Teythan-type ophiolites and subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, S. A.; Stern, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Characteristics of the classic late Jurassic and late Cretaceous Tethyan-type ophiolites of the Eastern Mediterranean - Persian Gulf region are consistent with formation in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ); the most robust model for their production entails formation upon subduction initiation in the forearc or proto-forearc region of a nascent intra-oceanic arc (IOA). The ‘ophiolite rule’ however, demonstrates that a co-existence of MOR-like (in addition to SSZ) lavas is the norm and not the exception. Specifically, the ‘normal’ chemostratigraphy of Tethyan-type ophiolites usually exhibits a thick, lower section of tholeiitic MOR-like lavas in addition to an upper section of dominantly calc-alkaline, HFSE-depleted, VAB-like lavas and intrusives and lesser boninites; latest stage dikes of boninitic affinity commonly cut both suites. This association testifies to changes in the ophiolitic melt source. To date, explanations for the near ubiquitous relationship of these two distinct tectonomagmatic suites usually infer that conventional MOR or marginal basin formation was followed by tectonic reorganization and consequent IOA construction above the (much older) first-formed MORB seafloor. While such ad hoc tectonic interpretations might apply to a few ophiolites, these explanations surely can’t explain what appears to be a global ophiolite phenomenon as this chemostratigraphy is now being recognized in other major ophiolitic belts (e.g., of the SW Pacific) and IOA forearcs (e.g., the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc). A lack of hiatus between sequences is shown by boundaries between the two main ophiolitic units that are stratigraphic and not fault-bounded; there exists no significant temporal hiatus between formation of the lower tholeiitic and upper calc-alkaline suites (no sediment horizons or obvious unconformities); furthermore, lavas compositionally intermediate to MORB- and VAB-like occur stratigraphically between the sequences. We present a new model consistent with these observations and detailed trace element chemistry characteristics. We interpret the normal ophiolite chemostratigraphy as described above to indicate that asthenospheric sources were systematically depleted and progressively metasomatized as the ophiolite formed. The model entails the decompression melting of a fertile, lherzolitic source and eruption of the lower MOR-like lavas in the earliest stages of subduction initiation; at this stage contribution of fluids from the sinking slab is small. Decompression melting of the asthenosphere leaves a depleted, OPX-rich source that is progressively metasomatized by slab-derived fluids; partial melting of increasingly depleted harzburgitic residue results in the production of VAB-like lavas and associated rocks of the upper unit and the latest stage dikes. Furthermore, the fact that many Neo-Teythan ophiolites display no affiliation with an evolved magmatic arc suggests formation in association with a narrow ocean basin, where subduction to ~100 km (needed to form a magmatic arc) did not occur prior to ophiolite emplacement.

  16. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport. PMID:10736270

  17. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 147, 1990 pp. 59-68, 7 figs. Printed in Northern Ireland TheSunnfjordMelange,evidence of Silurianophioliteaccretion

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    of continental margin deposits and the oceanic terraneoftheSolund-StavfjordOphiolite during the ophiolite accretion. A U-Pb zircon age of 443 f3 Ma from the ophiolite, the Silurian fossilsSunnfjordMelangeasanobductionmelangeprovidethebasis for awellconstrainedmodel of ophiolite accretion in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Detailedstructuralstudiescombined

  18. Comment on "A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite".

    PubMed

    Nutman, Allen P; Friend, Clark R L

    2007-11-01

    Furnes et al. (Reports, 23 March 2007, p. 1704) reported the identification of an ophiolite sequence within the approximately 3.8-billion-year-old Isua supracrustal belt. However, they did not acknowledge that the belt contains supracrustal rocks and mafic dikes of different ages, nor did they demonstrate that the proposed components of the ophiolite are coeval. PMID:17975049

  19. Harzburgite and lherzolite subtypes in ophiolitic and oceanic environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boudier; A. Nicolas

    1985-01-01

    In most ophiolites the ultramafic section is harzburgitic. It is rarely composed of residual lherzolites, except for the local occurrence of impregnation lherzolites within harzburgitic massifs. Several characters (environmental formations, thickness and composition of the crust, geometry of the asthenospheric flow, serpentinization) validate the distinction between an harzburgite and a lherzolite ophiolitic subtype. The harzburgite subtype can be derived from

  20. Birth, death, and resurrection: The life cycle of suprasubduction zone ophiolites

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    Birth, death, and resurrection: The life cycle of suprasubduction zone ophiolites John W. Shervais@cc.usu.edu) [1] Abstract: Suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites display a consistent sequence of events during such ophiolites. This sequence includes the following: (1) birth, which entails the formation of the ophiolite

  1. The Late Cretaceous Dehshir ophiolite is an important element within the Inner

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    1516 ABSTRACT The Late Cretaceous Dehshir ophiolite is an important element within the Inner Zagros (Nain-Baft) ophiolite belt and contains all components of a complete "Penrose ophiolite," including-mafic cumulates. The cumulate rocks of this ophiolite are composed of plagioclase lherzolite, clinopyroxenite

  2. Pictorial Article Late Cretaceous forearc ophiolites of Iraniar_745 1..4

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    Pictorial Article Late Cretaceous forearc ophiolites of Iraniar_745 1..4 HADI SHAFAII MOGHADAM1@du.ac.ir), and 2 Geosciences Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX75083-0688, USA Ophiolites is largely based on the ophiolitic sutures, such as the Late Cretaceous Ophiolite Belt of Southwest Asia

  3. EPR microplates, a model for the Oman Ophiolite F. Boudier, A. Nicolas, B. lldefonseand D. Jousselin

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    EPR microplates, a model for the Oman Ophiolite F. Boudier, A. Nicolas, B. lldefonseand D ci&x 05, France ABSTRACT Structural mapping in the Southern half of the Oman ophiolite has revealed as part of a future ophiolite. Local thrusting of the future ophiolite was also initiatedvery early

  4. Magnetic and structural fabrics of the melange in the Shimanto accretionary complex, Okinawa Island: Implication for strain history during decollement-related deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohtaro Ujiie; Toshio Hisamitsu; Wonn Soh

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic fabrics of the melange in the Shimanto accretionary complex of Okinawa Island were obtained from the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. The magnetic fabrics show a marked contrast between the structurally lower and upper parts of the melange; the lower part records deformation in the footwall of the decollement (D1), whereas the upper part documents that in

  5. Fluid-rock reactions in an evaporitic melange, Permian Haselgebirge, Austrian Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, C.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Ramseyer, K.; Kunk, M.J.; Wiesheu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonically isolated blocks of carbonate rocks present within the anhydritic Haselgebirge melange of the Northern Calcareous Alps record a complex history of deformation and associated deep-burial diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphic reactions. Fluids were hot (up to ~ 250 ??C) and reducing brines charged with carbon dioxide. Individual carbonate outcrops within the melange record different regimes of brine-rock reactions, ranging from pervasive dolomite recrystallization to dedolomitization. Early diagenetic features in these carbonates were almost entirely obliterated. Matrix dolomite alteration was related to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) recognized by the replacement of anhydrite by calcite + pyrite ?? native sulphur. Pyrite associated with TSR is coarsely crystalline and characterized by a small sulphur isotope fractionation relative to the precursor Permian anhydrite. Carbonates associated with TSR show low Fe/Mn ratios reflecting rapid reaction of ferrous iron during sulphide precipitation. As a result, TSR-related dolomite and calcite typically show bright Mn(II)-activated cathodoluminescence in contrast to the dull cathodoluminescence of many (ferroan) carbonate cements in other deep-burial settings. In addition to carbonates and sulphides, silicates formed closely related to TSR, including quartz, K-feldspar, albite and K-mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic K-feldspar yielded mostly disturbed step-heating spectra which suggest variable cooling through the argon retention interval for microcline during the Late Jurassic. This timing coincides with the recently recognized subduction and closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean to the south of the Northern Calcareous Alps and strongly suggests that the observed deep-burial fluid-rock reactions were related to Jurassic deformation and melange formation of these Permian evaporites.

  6. Dike complexes in ophiolites of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. V.; Savelieva, G. N.; Razumovsky, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The structure of dike complexes and their relationships with country rocks are considered for ophiolitic sections of the Polar and the Southern Urals. It has been established that composition of country rocks intruded by dikes is related to geodynamic settings of spreading. The Ordovician dike complexes of the Polar Urals and the Early Devonian complexes in the Southern Urals formed in the prearc setting contain screens of mantle, lower crustal, and upper crustal rocks pertaining to the ophiolitic section. The Late Silurian-Early Devonian complex of dikes and volcanic rocks in the Aktau-Tanalyk Zone of the Southern Urals was formed in the course of rifting in an island-arc structure. Rocks intruded by dikes are represented by island-arc gabbro, plagiogranite, and calc-alkaline volcanics. The Early-Middle Devonian dike complex of the West Mugodzhary Zone and the Early Devonian complex of the Dombarovsky Zone in the Southern Urals were formed in spreading zones of backarc basins, where dikes intruded the upper crustal gabbro and volcanic rocks.

  7. Project EARTH-13-MPS1: Constraining the origin and obduction history of the Oman Ophiolite: Structure, petrology and modeling of the ophiolite lower crust, Moho

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-13-MPS1: Constraining the origin and obduction history of the Oman Ophiolite: Structure, petrology and modeling of the ophiolite lower crust, Moho transition zone, mantle and underlying: The Oman Ophiolite is a ~15 km thick unit of upper mantle peridotite (harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite

  8. Igneous Petrogenesis of the Yakuno Ophiolite (Japan) in the context of the diversity of ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ishiwatari

    1985-01-01

    An ophiolite complex includes three major members: basaltic volcanics, mafic-ultramafic cumulates, and residual peridotite. From the aspect of igneous petrology, three distinct types are recognized among the associations of the three members: (Liguria type) alkalic basalt, plagioclase-type cumulates, and lherzolite; (Yakuno type) high-alumina tholeiite, clinopyroxene-type cumulates, and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite; (Papua type) low-alumina tholeiite, orthopyroxene-type cumulates, and clinopyroxene-free harzburgite. In the

  9. Geology of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rossman, D.L.; Castanada, G.C.; Bacuta, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Zambales ophiolite of western Luzon, Philippines, exposes a typical succession of basalt flows, diabasic dikes, gabbro and tectonized harzburgite. The age established by limiting strata is late Eocene. Lack of evidence of thrust faulting and the general domal disposition of the lithologie units indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are exposed by uplift. Highly complex internal layered structures within the complex are related to processes developed during formation of the ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite may be one of the least disturbed (by emplacement) ophiolitic masses known. The exposed mass trends north and the upper surface plunges at low angles (a few degrees) to the north and south. The chemistry and composition of the rocks in the northwest part of the Zambales area (Acoje block) is distinct from that in the southeastern segment (Coto block). The Acoje block, according to Evans (1983) and Hawkins and Evans (1983), resembles (on a chemical basis) arc-tholeiite series rocks from intra-island arcs and the rocks in the Coto block are typical back-arc basin rock series. The present writer believes that the ophiolite composes a single genetic unit and that the changes in composition are the result of changes that took place during the initial formation. The gabbro probably formed below a spreading center in an elongate, in cross section, V-shaped, magma chamber. The gabbro is estimated by the writer to be less than 2 km thick and may be less than 1 km in places. Numerous erosional windows through the gabbro in the northern and eastern side of the Zambales area show that the gabbro remaining in those areas is likely to be only a few hundred meters thick. Harzburgite is exposed to a depth of about 800 m in the Bagsit River area and this may be the deepest part of the ophiolite accessible for study on which there is any control on depth. A transitional zone, about 200 m thick lying between the gabbro and harzburgite, is composed of serpentinized dunite. Commonly the dunite contains disseminated sulfide minerals and at the Acoje Mines, platinum-group elements. A compositional layering within the gabbro is in places cumulate in the lower part of the unit but may have formed by nucleation higher up on the relatively steep sides of the magma chamber. A widespread gneissic banding in the gabbro forms large mappable structures which are many times more complex than is the disposition of the major rock units. These structures are believed to be the result of extensive slumping in the magma chamber. The structure produced by the cumulate layering merges with the gneissic banding, commonly without discernible change in attitude. This tectonic layered structure crosses the gabbro-peridotite boundary at any angle without seeming to disturb the original rock distribution. At greater depths below the boundary (ca. 800 m), the harzburgite contains low dipping banding, which probably reflects the result of differential movement within the mantle. Chromite occurs almost exclusively in a zone that generally lies no more than 200-300 m below the gabbro-peridotite boundary. Refractory-grade chromite is found in this zone below the olivine gabbro in the Goto block and as low-grade metallurgical grade chromite below norite in the Acoje block. At Acoje Mines the chromite is present in layers in dunite, which the writer interprets as being distributed in a zone along the gently dipping (ca. 25??) gabbro-peridotite boundary. The steeply dipping (ca. 60-80 ?? ) individual layers lie en echelon along the boundary at an angle (ca. 50 ?? ) to the contact. At Coto the chromite forms large discontinuous masses in the lowest dunite and in the uppermost harzburgite. Except for the chromite present as layers at Acoje, the regional tectonic layering crosses the chromite deposits without structural deviation. The chromite deposits and associated peridotite may be cumulate in origin, but have been modified to such an extent that cumulate textures are gener

  10. Ophiolites as Indicators of Rapid Global Tectonic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. A.; MacLeod, C. J.; Smith, A. G.; Yumul, G. P.; Kostopoulos, D. K.

    2001-12-01

    Geochemically, few ophiolites have simple compositions that enable them to be assigned easily and unambiguously to a single tectonic setting. More common are complex geochemical variations in space and time that indicate a rapidly evolving tectonomagmatic environment. Some of the world's best-exposed ophiolites provide some of the best examples, notably Semail (Oman), Bay of Islands (Newfoundland), Zambales (Philippines) and Pindos (Greece). The trend from MOR (mid-ocean ridge) to SSZ (supra-subduction zone) geochemical signatures is particularly significant. It can be seen in many mantle sequences where mineral and bulk-rock geochemistry (e.g. oxygen fugacity v Cr-number of chromites) indicate a polyphase origin, commonly as a MOR melting residue that has interacted with SSZ magma. Overlying plutonic sequences are represented by the products of MOR-type magma chambers intruded, or underplated, by the products of SSZ magmas (e.g. wehrlites). Lava stratigraphies similarly range from MORB-like compositions at the bases to SSZ-like (e.g. high Th/Nb ratio) compositions in their upper units, significantly with no major eruptive hiatus between the two. Ophiolites of this type are commonly components of ophiolite belts, many of which are broadly comtemporaneous with major plate reorganisations in the geologic record. These reorganisations, in turn, can usually be linked to major ocean opening or continent collision (end-subduction) events. Around the Pacific Rim, the most recent example is the present (e.g. Zambales ophiolite) and future (e.g. Mariana forearc) mid-Eocene ophiolite belt, which may be due to the India-Tibet collision triggering a subduction-initiation event in the Western Pacific. Cretaceous and Jurassic plate re-orientations linked to plume activity and stages of Atlantic opening, and a more enigmatic Ordovian re-orientation, produce major ophiolite belts around the world that include parts of the Pacific rim. In terms of process, ophiolites of this subduction-initiation type provide significant information on the mantle dynamics and process of oceanic crustal accretion during the rapid change from extensional to compressional tectonics. Other types of linked ophiolite generation and rapid tectonic change include ophiolites formed during ocean opening and ophiolites related to migration of ridge-trench intersections, both of which also have many examples around the Pacific rim.

  11. Formation and emplacement ages of the Masirah ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Smewing, J.D. (University Innovation Centre, Swansea (England)); Abbotts, I.L. (Clyde Petroleum plc, Herefordshire (England)); Dunne, L.A. (Amoco Production Co., Houston , TX (USA)); Rex, D.C. (Univ. of Leeds, Yorkshire (England))

    1991-05-01

    Hornblende separates from gabbros and biotite separates from crosscutting potassic granites of the Masirah ophiolite have been analyzed by conventional K-Ar techniques. The gabbros have Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ages (126-158 Ma), and the granites have broadly similar ages (124-146 Ma). Because the gabbros are likely to give ophiolite formation ages and the granites ophiolite emplacement ages, it can be concluded that the Masirah ophiolite was emplaced very soon after formation. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ages contrast with the middle Cretaceous ages (90-95 Ma) of the Semail ophiolite, confirming earlier suggestions that the Masirah ophiolite cannot simply be a right-laterally displaced fragment of the Semail ophiolite, but is instead an uplifted block of Indian Ocean crust. The formation and emplacement of the Masirah ophiolite are discussed in the context of the late Mesozoic evolution of the western Indian Ocean.

  12. Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the oman ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Hacker, B R

    1994-09-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of emplacement-related metamorphic rocks beneath the Samail ophiolite in Oman show that cooling to <525 degrees C occurred within approximately 1 million years of igneous crystallization of the ophiolite. This unexpectedly short time span and rapid cooling means that old, cold continental or oceanic lithosphere must have been adjacent to the ophiolite during spreading and then been thrust beneath the ophiolite almost immediately afterward. PMID:17801534

  13. Imbricate structure of the Luobusa Ophiolite and surrounding rock units, southern Tibet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Yamamoto; Shinji Yamamoto; Yoshiyuki Kaneko; Masaru Terabayashi; Tsuyoshi Komiya; Ikuo Katayama; Tsuyoshi Iizuka

    2007-01-01

    The Cretaceous Luobusa Ophiolite is a tectonic slice less than 1.2km thick. The structurally underlying unit is the Tertiary Luobusa Formation and the overlying unit is composed of feebly metamorphosed Triassic sedimentary rocks. The top and bottom contacts of the ophiolite dip gently to the south. The major part of the Luobusa Ophiolite is mantle peridotite, including podiform chromitite. This

  14. Palaeomagnetic data from a Mesozoic Philippine Sea Plate ophiolite on Obi Island, Eastern Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Palaeomagnetic data from a Mesozoic Philippine Sea Plate ophiolite on Obi Island, Eastern Indonesia; accepted 14 September 2000 Abstract Palaeomagnetic data are presented from part of the Halmahera ophiolite evidence, suggests that the magnetisation is primary. The ophiolite is Mesozoic, and most likely formed

  15. Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite Adolphe Nicolas and Francoise Boudier

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite Adolphe Nicolas and Franc¸oise Boudier´osciences Marines, IPG, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Ce´dex 05, France [1] In the Oman ophiolite crustal. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main

  16. Interactions between magma and hydrothermal system in Oman ophiolite and in IODP Hole 1256D: Fossilization

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Interactions between magma and hydrothermal system in Oman ophiolite and in IODP Hole 1256D processes. We present maps of two areas of the Oman ophiolite where this transition zone is observed reheating stages, and assimilation processes observed in the Oman ophiolite are consistent

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER The `subduction initiation rule': a key for linking ophiolites,

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER The `subduction initiation rule': a key for linking ophiolites, intra the `subduction initiation rule' (SIR) which predicts that most ophiolites form during subduction initiation (SI) and that the diagnostic magmatic chemostratigraphic progression for SIR ophiolites is from less to more HFSE

  18. Birth, death, and resurrection: The life cycle of suprasubduction zone ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Shervais

    2001-01-01

    (1) Abstract: Suprasubduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites display a consistent sequence of events during their formation and evolution that suggests that they form in response to processes that are common to all such ophiolites. This sequence includes the following: (1) birth, which entails the formation of the ophiolite above a nascent or reconfigured subduction zone; this stage is typically characterized by

  19. Research Article HfNd isotope constraints on the origin of Dehshir Ophiolite,

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    Research Article Hf­Nd isotope constraints on the origin of Dehshir Ophiolite, Central Iran HADI 237-0061, Japan Abstract The peri-Arabian ophiolite belt, from Cyprus in the west, eastward through on the north side of Neotethys. The Zagros ophiolites of Iran are part of this belt and are divided into Outer

  20. Direct evidence for dynamic magma supply fossilized in the lower oceanic crust of the Troodos ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Granot, Roi

    ophiolite Roi Granot,1,2 Meir Abelson,3 Hagai Ron,4 Matthew W. Lusk,5 and Amotz Agnon4 Received 20 May 2011 crust of the Troodos ophiolite at the segment edge near a fossil ridgetransform intersection. We for dynamic magma supply fossilized in the lower oceanic crust of the Troodos ophiolite, Geophys. Res. Lett

  1. Geochemical variability of the Oman ophiolite lavas: Relationship with spatial distribution and paleomagnetic

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Geochemical variability of the Oman ophiolite lavas: Relationship with spatial distribution in the extrusive section of the Oman ophiolite was determined by inductively coupled plasma-source mass lavas types in Oman. Most of the Oman ophiolite extrusive sequence is composed of lavas of composition

  2. Dismembered Ophiolite in NYC Charles Merguerian, Geology Department, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Dismembered Ophiolite in NYC Charles Merguerian, Geology Department, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 Serpentinites found in the NYC area are dismembered "alpine-type" ophiolitic scraps of dismembered ophiolite preserved in a sheared eugeosynclinal matrix. In deeply eroded terrains, such as the New

  3. Overview of the genesis and emplacement of Mesozoic ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean Tethyan region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair H. F Robertson

    2002-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region exhibits a fascinating diversity of ophiolites and related oceanic magmatic units of mainly Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age. Comparisons with the settings of modern oceanic lithosphere indicate that the various Eastern Mediterranean ophiolites have different origins and formed in a variety of tectonic settings. Some have argued that the largest ophiolites, of Jurassic and Cretaceous age

  4. A Detailed Study of Mantle Flow away from Diapirs in the Oman Ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    lr t A Detailed Study of Mantle Flow away from Diapirs in the Oman Ophiolite B.ILDEFONSE, S are documented in several ophiolites. We relate such inversions to the forced flow away from the top of mantle diapirs. In the Oman ophiolite, however, the shear direc- tion inversion is not systematically developed

  5. Geochemical investigation of serpentinized oceanic lithospheric mantle in the Feather River Ophiolite, California: Implications

    E-print Network

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Ophiolite, California: Implications for the recycling rate of water by subduction Zheng-Xue Anser Li , Cin Abstract The petrology and geochemistry of serpentinized harzburgites within the Feather River Ophiolite was estimated to be at least 40 km based on the minimum melting degree observed in the Feather River Ophiolite

  6. Significance of the concentration gradients associated with dunite bodies in the Josephine and Trinity ophiolites

    E-print Network

    and Trinity ophiolites Zachary Morgan and Yan Liang Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University bodies in the Josephine and Trinity ophiolites. The major peridotite lithologies sampled in the Josephine this study and those from other ophiolite studies also demonstrate that concentration profiles in dunite

  7. Geochemical variations in a depleted fore-arc mantle: The Ordovician Thetford Mines Ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Geochemical variations in a depleted fore-arc mantle: The Ordovician Thetford Mines Ophiolite Ophiolite Melting model Boninite Slab-derived fluid and melt Suprasubduction fore-arc setting Metasomatized refractory mantle source The 5 km thick mantle of the Ordovician Thetford Mines Ophiolite is dominated

  8. Multiple melting stages and refertilization as indicators for ridge to subduction formation: The New Caledonia ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    : The New Caledonia ophiolite Marc Ulricha, b, , , Christian Picardc , Stéphane Guillotb , Catherine ophiolite (South West Pacific), one of the largest in the world, is controversial. This nappe of ultramafic. The bulk of the ophiolite is composed of highly depleted harzburgites (± dunites) with characteristic U

  9. Deep and High-temperature Hydrothermal Circulation in the Oman Ophiolite-------

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Deep and High-temperature Hydrothermal Circulation in the Oman Ophiolite------- Petrological search for evidence of high-temperature hydrous alteration within the gabbros of the Samail ophiolite the internal wall of the magma chamber. KEY WORDS: hydrothermal systems; Oman ophiolite; Sr and O isotopes

  10. Ophiolites are on-land remnants of oceanic lithosphere, and most of the more extensive

    E-print Network

    Basu, Asish R.

    1548 ABSTRACT Ophiolites are on-land remnants of oceanic lithosphere, and most of the more extensive ophiolites apparently formed above a sub- duction zone, a tectonic setting known-zone ophiolites are emplaced over the same sub- duction zone over which they once formed or over a later one. High

  11. TECTONICS, VOL. 15,NO. 6, PAGES 1230-1247,DECEMBER 1996 Rapid emplacementof the Oman ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    TECTONICS, VOL. 15,NO. 6, PAGES 1230-1247,DECEMBER 1996 Rapid emplacementof the Oman ophiolite GeologicalandEnvironmentalSciences,StanfordUniversity,Stanford,California Abstract. In understandingof ophiolite-cuttingdikes requirethatthebasalmetamorphicthrustfault beneaththe ophiolite alsocooledbelow -825 K in 1-2 m.y. Motion alongthesolethrustaccountedfor 200

  12. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Appalachian Mountains recorded in the Bay of Island Ophiolite Complex, Canada.

    E-print Network

    Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Appalachian Mountains recorded in the Bay of Island Ophiolite Fster095@uottawa.ca Introduction The Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex (BOIC) is an Early Ordovician ophiolite located on the western ultramafic belt of the northern Appalachians, Newfiundland, Canada

  13. Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in western American and Caribbean orogenic development. Direct contact between the Kula/Farallon plates and North America may not have occurred until late Cretaceous time.

  14. A mid-Archaean ophiolite complex, Barberton Mountain land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewit, M. J.; Hart, R.; Hart, R.

    New field observations and structurally restored geologic sections through the southern part of 3.5-3.6 Ga Barberton greenstone belt show that its mafic to ultramafic rocks form a pseudostratigraphy comparable to that of Phanerozoic ophiolites; this ancient ophiolite is referred to as the Jamestown ophiolite complex. It consists of an intrusive-extrusive mafic-ultramafic section, underlain by a high-temperature tectono-metamorphic residual peridotitic base, and is capped by a chert-shale sequence which it locally intrudes. Geochemical data support an ophiolitic comparison. Fraction of high temperature melting PGE's 2500 C in the residual rocks suggest a lower mantle origin for the precursors of this crust. An oceanic rather than arc-related crustal section can be inferred from the absence of contemporaneous andesites. The entire simatic section has also been chemically altered during its formation by hyrothermal interaction with the Archean hydrosphere. The most primitive parent liquids, from which the extrusive sequence evolved, may have been picritic in character. Rocks with a komatiitic chemistry may have been derived during crystal accumulation from picrite-crystal mushes (predominantly olivine-clinopyroxene) and/or by metasomatism during one or more subsequent episodes of hydration-dehydration. The Jamestown ophiolite complex provides the oldest record with evidence for the formation of oceanic lithosphere at constructive tectonic boundaries.

  15. The carbon isotope composition of natural SiC (moissanite) from the Earth's mantle: New discoveries from ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Trumbull; Jing-Sui Yang; Paul T. Robinson; Simonpietro Di Pierro; Torsten Vennemann; Michael Wiedenbeck

    2009-01-01

    Moissanite (natural SiC) has been recovered from podiform chromitites of several ophiolite complexes, including the Luobusa and Donqiao ophiolites in Tibet, the Semail ophiolite in Oman and the United Arab Emirates, and the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals, Russia. Taking these new occurrences with the numerous earlier reports of moissanite in diamondiferous kimberlites leads to the conclusion that natural

  16. Comment on ``dating the geologic history of Oman's Semail ophiolite: insights from UPb geochronology'' by C. J. Warren,

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    COMMENT Comment on ``dating the geologic history of Oman's Semail ophiolite: insights from U of the Semail ophiolite of Oman. The new U­Pb data concern the eclogites preserved at the margin of the Arabian shield, and the metamorphic sole of the ophiolite, as well as plagiogranites intruding the ophiolite

  17. Osmium isotope systematics of the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic ophiolitic chromitites: In situ ion probe analysis of primary

    E-print Network

    Osmium isotope systematics of the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic ophiolitic chromitites: In situ ion chromitites both in the Proterozoic ophiolite, Eastern Desert, Egypt, and in the Phanerozoic Oman ophiolite contamination. The three chromitite types in the northern part of the Oman ophiolite are almost

  18. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  19. Metcalf, R.V., and Shervais, J.W., 2008, Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites: Is there really an ophiolite conundrum?, in Wright, J.E., and Shervais, J.W., eds., Ophiolites, Arcs, and Batholiths: A Tribute to Cliff Hopson: Geological Society of America Specia

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    191 Metcalf, R.V., and Shervais, J.W., 2008, Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites: Is there really an ophiolite conundrum?, in Wright, J.E., and Shervais, J.W., eds., Ophiolites, Arcs, and Batholiths: A Tribute rights reserved. The Geological Society of America Special Paper 438 2008 Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites

  20. Magnetism of the oceanic crust: Evidence from ophiolite complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.

    1980-07-10

    The magnetic properties of six ophiolite complexes from around the world, ranging in age from Jurassic to Miocene, are presented. An emphasis is placed in our study on the petrologic and isotopic data from these ophiolite complexes in order to determine first whether the rock samples presently available represent the pristine ocean crust or whether they have been altered subaerially since their formation. Five of the ophiolites are found to be acceptable, and the conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of a marine magnetic source layer that includes not only the pillow lavas but also the underlying dikes and gabbro. At the moment, however, our observations do not suggest that the magnetic contributions of the basaltic dikes should be overlooked in favor of gabbro. A second important conclusion is that nearly pure magnetite could indeed be a magnetic carrier which contributes to marine magnetic anomanies. It only awaits discovery by deeper ocean crustal penetration by future Deep Sea Drilling Project legs.

  1. Kinematic analysis of melange fabrics: Examples and applications from the McHugh Complex, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusky, T.M.; Bradley, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Permian to Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex on the Kenai Peninsula, south-central Alaska includes blocks and belts of graywacke, argillite, limestone, chert, basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks, intruded by a variety of igneous rocks. An oceanic plate stratigraphy is repeated hundreds of times across the map area, but most structures at the outcrop scale extend lithological layering. Strong rheological units occur as blocks within a matrix that flowed around the competent blocks during deformation, forming broken formation and melange. Deformation was noncoaxial, and disruption of primary layering was a consequence of general strain driven by plate convergence in a relatively narrow zone between the overriding accretionary wedge and the downgoing, generally thinly sedimented oceanic plate. Soft-sediment deformation processes do not appear to have played a major role in the formation of the melange. A model for deformation at the toe of the wedge is proposed in which layers oriented at low angles to ??1 are contracted in both the brittle and ductile regimes, layers at 30-45??to ??1 are extended in the brittle regime and contracted in the ductile regime, and layers at angles greater than 45??to ??1 are extended in both the brittle and ductile regimes. Imbrication in thrust duplexes occurs at deeper levels within the wedge. Many structures within melange of the McHugh Complex are asymmetric and record kinematic information consistent with the inferred structural setting in an accretionary wedge. A displacement field for the McHugh Complex on the lower Kenai Peninsula includes three belts: an inboard belt of Late Triassic rocks records west-to-east-directed slip of hanging walls, a central belt of predominantly Early Jurassic rocks records north-south directed displacements, and Early Cretaceous rocks in an outboard belt preserve southwest-northeast directed slip vectors. Although precise ages of accretion are unknown, slip directions are compatible with inferred plate motions during the general time frame of accretion of the McHugh Complex. The slip vectors are interpreted to preserve the convergence directions between the overriding and underriding plates, which became more oblique with time. They are not considered indicative of strain partitioning into belts of orogen-parallel and orogen-perpendicular displacements, because the kinematic data are derived from the earliest preserved structures, whereas fabrics related to strain partitioning would be expected to be superimposed on earlier accretion-related fabrics.Permian to Cretaceous melange of the McHugh Complex on the Kenai Peninsula, south-central Alaska includes blocks and belts of graywacke, argillite, limestone, chert, basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks, intruded by a variety of igneous rocks. An oceanic plate stratigraphy is repeated hundreds of times across the map area, but most structures at the outcrop scale extend lithological layering. Strong rheological units occur as blocks within a matrix that flowed around the competent blocks during deformation, forming broken formation and melange. Deformation was noncoaxial, and disruption of primary layering was a consequence of general strain driven by plate convergence in a relatively narrow zone between the overriding accretionary wedge and the downgoing, generally thinly sedimented oceanic plate. Soft-sediment deformation processes do not appear to have played a major role in the formation of the melange. A model for deformation at the toe of the wedge is proposed in which layers oriented at low angles to ??1 are contracted in both the brittle and ductile regimes, layers at 30-45?? to ??1 are extended in the brittle regime and contracted in the ductile regime, and layers at angles greater than 45?? to ??1 are extended in both the brittle and ductile regimes. Imbrication in thrust duplexes occurs at deeper levels within the wedge. Many structures within melange of the McHugh Complex are asymmetric and record

  2. White K-mica evolution from phengite to muscovite in shales and shale matrix melange, Diablo Range, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dalla Torre; Kenneth J. T. Livi; David R. Veblen; M. Frey

    1996-01-01

    Eleven samples from high-pressure\\/low-temperature (H P\\/L T) shales and shale-matrix melange from four areas in the Diablo Range were studied using electron microprobe (EMP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to provide information about white K-mica evolution and about the controls on illite ``crystallinity'' (IC) in these areas. The data indicate that: (1) compositional gradients from phengitic

  3. White K-mica evolution from phengite to muscovite in shales and shale matrix melange, Diablo Range, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dalla Torre; Kenneth J. T. Livi; David R. Veblen; M. Frey

    1996-01-01

    Eleven samples from high-pressure\\/low-temperature (HP\\/LT) shales and shale-matrix melange from four areas in the Diablo Range were studied using electron microprobe (EMP), transmission\\u000a electron microscopy (TEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to provide information about white K-mica evolution and\\u000a about the controls on illite “crystallinity” (IC) in these areas. The data indicate that: (1) compositional gradients from\\u000a phengitic to muscovitic

  4. Dismembered Archean ophiolite in the SE. Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ophiolitic rocks occur as wall rocks of the 2.7 Ga Louis Lake batholith near Atlantic City, Wyoming. All of the Archean rocks are strongly deformed and metamorphosed to a greenschist and amphibolite facies, but relict structures and textures are commonly preserved. These include the following, from west to east: (1) metadiabase with rare coarse-grained metagabbro; (2) ultramafic rocks and metagabbro; (3) amphibolite, locally pillowed, overlain(.) by pelitic schist, banded iron formation, and quartzite; and (4) pillow lavas, massive sills or flows, and minor metasedimentary rocks. Slice 1 locally contains parallel dike margins and rare metagabbro screens; these features suggest that it may represent a sheeted dike complex. Slice 2 locally contains ultramafic rocks having relict cumulus textures and igneous layering, corresponding to the cumulus portion of an ophiolite. The pillow lavas of slice 4 and possibly slice 3 are interpreted as comprising the extrusive portion of the ophiolite. The immobile trace element chemistry (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Cr, Ni) of slice 1 and 4 is very similar and supports a cogenetic origin, whereas pillow lavas of slice 3 are somewhat distinct. The metadiabases and lavas of slices 1 and 4 are similar to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, whereas lavas of slice 3 are more similar to island-arc tholeiites. Rare high-Ti basaltic komatiites occur in slices 1 and 4, but have very distinct trace element chemistry and probably represent later off-axis dikes. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted to represent the remains of Archean oceanic crust.

  5. Comment on "A vestige of Earth's oldest ophiolite".

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Warren B

    2007-11-01

    The claim by Furnes et al. (Reports, 23 March 2007, p. 1704) that Greenland metavolcanic rocks require Paleoarchean sea-floor spreading is incompatible with their own data. The purported sheeted dikes have the composition of pyroxenitic komatiite and could not have fed the adjacent ferroandesitic pillow lavas. Neither type has ophiolitic analogs, and both are likely ensialic. PMID:17975050

  6. Rare earth geochemistry of the Troodos ophiolite complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Kay; R. G. Senechal

    1976-01-01

    new chemical analyses of rocks from the Troodos ophiolite complex offer no clear evidence that it is a piece of oceanic crust. Ratios of selected nonlabile elements (REE, Zr, Ti) in Troodos lavas clearly distinguish them from the calc-alkaline lavas of evolved island arcs and the oceanic island basalts of Hawaiian and Icelandic type. However, these ratios are equivocal in

  7. The volcanic stratigraphy and petrogenesis of the Oman ophiolite complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alabaster; J. A. Pearce; J. Malpas

    1982-01-01

    The volcanic stratigraphy and trace element geochemistry of the Oman ophiolite complex indicate a multistage magmatic origin comprising: (1) magmatism due to sea-floor spreading in a marginal basin; (2) magmatism associated with discrete submarine volcanic centres or seamounts; (3) magmatism associated with crustal uplift and rifting; and (4) magmatism associated with continent-arc collision.

  8. Ocean floor metamorphism in the Betts Cove ophiolite, Newfoundland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Coish

    1977-01-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical features of the lower Ordovician Betts Cove ophiolite of northeastern Newfoundland indicate that hydrothermal circulation of seawater near a mid-ocean ridge has been involved in the metamorphism of the complex. The degree of greenschist facies metamorphism increases with stratigraphie depth in the ophioli te. Calcite, hematite and epidote distributions show that the metamorphosing fluid penetrated downward

  9. The Oman Ophiolite as a Record of Subduction Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is the largest and best-known ophiolite in the world. It formed in the Cretaceous (~95 Ma) in the Neotethyan ocean, but its geodynamic setting of formation has been heavily debated for over three decades. Many workers have assumed that it formed in an open ocean setting, consequently utilising the ophiolite as a direct analogue for fast-spreading oceanic crust, whereas others argue that the complex formed in a subduction setting. Here, we make the case that the Oman ophiolite records the evolution of the upper plate of a newly initiated subduction zone. Using a database of >1200 lava and dyke analyses ('OmanDB'), we show that the earliest lava sequence (the Geotimes unit) is systematically different to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, and that these differences can be explained by the presence of elevated water contents. This rules out a mid-ocean ridge origin, pointing instead to a subduction-related setting. The lavas evolved from the Geotimes 'moist MORB' to island-arc tholeiite and boninite (the Lasail and Alley units); hence, we conclude that the entire ophiolite formed in a subduction zone. The data suggest a progressive addition of water and concomitant depletion of the mantle source. High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates that this fundamental change in magmatic source occurred within ~2 million years. The spreading structure of the ophiolite is characterized by a series of NW-SE trending propagating rifts that crosscut earlier N-S trending ridge segments. Together with palaeomagnetic evidence, which calls for 30° clockwise rotation between Geotimes and Lasail/Alley, and 120° between Lasail/Alley and the later Salahi lavas, it suggests that construction of the lithosphere was accompanied by significant plate rotation. Combined, the available evidence suggests that the rapid change in magmatic signature to increasingly arc-like compositions was coeval with large-scale rotational disaggregation of young ocean lithosphere and consequent reorganisation of the spreading system. This is consistent with the formation of the ophiolite above a newly initiated subduction zone, where a rapidly sinking slab changes the mantle melting regime and induces rotational stress due to differential rollback.

  10. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  11. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  12. Paleomagnetism of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, northern Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Haston, R.; Almasco, J.

    1989-10-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from 52 sites in the Zambales ophiolite. The sites provide vertical sampling from the overlying sediments, in the north and south, to layered gabbros and dunites in the Acoje and Coto mines, in the west. They extend over an area of approximately 100 by 50 km. A Late Miocene-Pliocene intrusion in the Tarlac region gives a direction marginally distinguishable from the present field indicating a small clockwise rotation. This is consistent with other indications of clockwise rotation since Late Miocene in Luzon. Early and Mid-Miocene sediments from Barlo in the north and Tarlac in the south indicate a period of rapid counterclockwise rotation during the Miocene, again consistent with other results from Luzon. Eocene-Oligocene sediments overlying the ophiolite in the north and south indicate further counterclockwise rotation with northerly translation. The interpretation of the directions in the ophiolite itself is more problematical. Directions similar to those in the Eocene-Oligocene and in Mid-Miocene sediments probably reflect secondary magnetizations and magnetization associated with the unroofing of the ophiolite. We interpret the most strongly counterclockwise rotated magnetizations represented by a 44 Ma sill in the Barlo area and of the 46 Ma dykes at Coto as the primary direction of the ophiolite. The counterclockwise rotation and northward translation interpreted from our results is consistent with the Holloway model of the origin of the Philippines. However, this model neglects the role of the Philippine Sea Plate in the tectonic history of the Philippines. The counterclockwise rotation is also consistent with rotation of Luzon in the left-lateral shear between the Philippine Sea Plate and Asia, as suggested by Sarewitz and Karig. Our data do not distinguish between counterclockwise rotation of a single block, or of a number of smaller blocks. The data suggest post-Late Miocene clockwise rotation for Luzon, when it was coupled to the Philippine Sea Plate. Our data are not consistent with a Philippine Sea Plate origin for Zambales.

  13. Tectonic setting of the 1. 73 Ga Payson ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Dann, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    The Early Proterozoic orogenic belt of central Arizona is divided by north- to northeast-trending shear zones into a collage of crustal blocks assembled during three periods of convergent tectonism. Whether any of the crustal blocks are allochthonous with respect to one another is an outstanding question. The sheeted dike complex of the Payson ophiolite forms a pseudostratigraphic layer that connects underlying gabbro to an overlying sequence of submarine volcanic rocks. The ophiolite intruded and erupted upon an older basement complex that includes 1.75 Ga granitoids, the oldest rocks known in central Arizona. The 1.73 Ga ophiolite is overlain by dacitic and andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and a sequence of turbidites with 1.72 Ga ash beds and is intruded by 1.71 Ga granodiorite. In addition to a distinct arc geochemical signature, the fact that the Payson ophiolite intrudes older arc crust, is intruded by arc plutons, and is overlain by arc-derived rocks in consistent with in situ development within an arc. The northwest boundary of the Mazatzal block, the Moore Gulch fault, separates the Mazatzal block from the 1.74--1.735 Ga arc volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Ash Creek block. If the northeast-trending 1.70 Ga deformational structures are parallel to the paleo-convergent plate boundary, then the northwest-trending dikes of the ophiolite suggest arc-parallel extension. This geometry is more consistent with an intra-arc basin formed as a pull-apart structure along an arc-parallel, strike-slip fault than with a back-arc basin.

  14. Western Baie Verte Peninsula revisited: from ophiolite obduction onto Laurentia, the Notre Dame continental arc, to post-arc continental volcanism and the Salinic Orogeny.

    E-print Network

    Kidd, William S. F.

    Western Baie Verte Peninsula revisited: from ophiolite obduction onto Laurentia, the Notre Dame Peninsula where it represents an east-facing prism beneath obducted ophiolite. The overlying Advocate Complex contains dismembered ophiolite including mantle, boninitic cumulates, gabbro and sheeted dykes

  15. Spectral characterization and ASTER-based lithological mapping of an ophiolite complex: A case study from Neyriz ophiolite, SW Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid H. Tangestani; Laleh Jaffari; Robert K. Vincent; B. B. Maruthi Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    The Neyriz ophiolite occurs along the Zagros suture zone in SW Iran, and is part of a 3000-km obduction belt thrusting over the edge of the Arabian continent during the late Cretaceous. This complex typically consists of altered dunites and peridotites, layered and massive gabbros, sheeted dykes and pillow lavas, and a thick sequence of radiolarites. Reflectance and emittance spectra

  16. Temperatures and cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in ophiolitic and abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Liang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Mantle peridotites from ophiolites are commonly interpreted as having mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or supra-subduction zone (SSZ) affinity. Recently, an REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed (Liang et al., 2013) that has higher closure temperatures (designated as TREE) than major element based two-pyroxene thermometers for mafic and ultramafic rocks that experienced cooling. The REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer has the potential to extract meaningful cooling rates from ophiolitic peridotites and thus shed new light on the thermal history of the different tectonic regimes. We calculated TREE for available literature data from abyssal peridotites, subcontinental (SC) peridotites, and ophiolites around the world (Alps, Coast Range, Corsica, New Caledonia, Oman, Othris, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Turkey), and augmented the data with new measurements for peridotites from the Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and the Mariana trench. TREE are compared to major element based thermometers, including the two-pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler (1990) (TBKN). Samples with SC affinity have TREE and TBKN in good agreement. Samples with MOR and SSZ affinity have near-solidus TREE but TBKN hundreds of degrees lower. Closure temperatures for REE and Fe-Mg in pyroxenes were calculated to compare cooling rates among abyssal peridotites, MOR ophiolites, and SSZ ophiolites. Abyssal peridotites appear to cool more rapidly than peridotites from most ophiolites. On average, SSZ ophiolites have lower closure temperatures than abyssal peridotites and many ophiolites with MOR affinity. We propose that these lower temperatures can be attributed to the residence time in the cooling oceanic lithosphere prior to obduction. MOR ophiolites define a continuum spanning cooling rates from SSZ ophiolites to abyssal peridotites. Consistent high closure temperatures for abyssal peridotites and the Oman and Corsica ophiolites suggests hydrothermal circulation and/or rapid cooling events (e.g., normal faulting, unroofing) control the late thermal histories of peridotites from transform faults and slow and fast spreading centers with or without a crustal section.

  17. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Pallister, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb are determined for samples from massive sulfides and lithologic units of the Samail ophiolite. It is shown that the magma that formed the ophiolite was probably derived from a depleted mantle, similar in Pb isotopic composition to the source area of mid-ocean ridge basalt. The gross geochemical characteristics of the mantle sources have remained almost unchanged for the last 100 million years. It is also shown that the U-Th-Pb systematics of the Samail formation indicate that local vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can result from crystal fractionation and metasomatism at, and near, an oceanic spreading center.

  18. Geochemistry of an ophiolitic complex from New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dupuy; J. Dostal; M. Leblanc

    1981-01-01

    The ophiolites of New Caledonia are composed of ultramafics overlain by mafic rocks, all of which were affected by low P metamorphism. The mafic rocks studied (gabbroic cumulates, and basaltic flows and dikes) from Montagne des Sources are similar to recent mid-ocean ridge rocks. They are olivine-normative with Mg\\/Mg+Fe2+ ratios ranging from 0.69 in lavas to 0.90 in gabbroic cumulates

  19. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolitesHydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(5), 797817 (2002) EGS Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2002-01-01

    797 Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolitesHydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(5), 797­817 (2002) © EGS Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites Colin Neal1 and Paul: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron

  20. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB dikes) to represent the collision of an active spreading ridge. Subsequent reorganization of relative plate motions led to sinistral transpression, along with renewed subduction and accretion of the Franciscan Complex. The latter event resulted in uplift and exhumation of the ophiolite by the process of accretionary uplift. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A MORB source for low-Ti magmatism in the Semail ophiolite Marguerite Godard , Delphine Bosch, Florence Einaudi

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    A MORB source for low-Ti magmatism in the Semail ophiolite Marguerite Godard , Delphine Bosch) magmatism in the Semail ophiolite. Because of the alteration of the extrusive section, as shown by the high are consistent with the Semail ophiolite being formed either in a large back-arc basin, similar to present day

  2. Chemical heterogeneity in the upper mantle recorded by peridotites and chromitites from the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland Brian O'Driscoll a,n , James M.D. Day b,c , Richard J. Walker c , J siderophile elements Shetland Ophiolite Complex a b s t r a c t The timing, causes and extent of mantle heterogeneity preserved in the $492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland) are evaluated using Re­Os isotope

  3. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 144(19961239-250 Magma chambers in the Oman ophiolite: fed from the top

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    ophiolite: fed from the top and the bottom Frarqoise Boudier *, Adolphe Nicolas, Beno"it Ildefonse studies in the Oman ophiolite, we suggest that the accretion of the lower crust may not proceed entirely; Semail ophiolite; magma chambers; spreading centers; gabbros 1. Introduction has significantly improved

  4. The Mings Bight Ophiolite Complex, Newfoundland: Appalachian oceanic crust W. S. F.KIDD AND JOHN F. DEWEY

    E-print Network

    Kidd, William S. F.

    781 The Mings Bight Ophiolite Complex, Newfoundland: Appalachian oceanic crust and mantle W. S. F Ophiolite Complex, of probable early Ordovician age, is disposed in four major thrust sheets with an eastward vergence at the northern end of the Baie Verte Lineament. This narrow ophiolitic belt, and (to

  5. The effect of dynamic recrystallization on olivine fabric and seismic anisotropy: Insight from a ductile shear zone, Oman ophiolite

    E-print Network

    Kanagawa, Kyuichi

    a ductile shear zone, Oman ophiolite Katsuyoshi Michibayashi a,, Toshiki Ina a , Kyuichi Kanagawa b a shear zone in a sinistral sense of shear within the northern Fizh mantle section of the Oman ophiolite ophiolite; porphyroclastic texture; olivine crystal-preferred orientation; dynamic recrystallization

  6. Migration and accumulation of ultra-depleted subduction-related melts in the Massif du Sud ophiolite (New Caledonia)

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    ophiolite (New Caledonia) Claudio Marchesi a,b, , Carlos J. Garrido c , Marguerite Godard a , France Belley ophiolitic complex that crops out in the southern region of New Caledonia (SW Pacific). It is dominated in the Moho transition zone and lower crust of the Massif du Sud ophiolite are not products of fractional

  7. The crust and upper mantle structure of the UAE/Oman mountains: Implications for foreland basin formation and ophiolite emplacement

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    formation and ophiolite emplacement Supervisors: A. B. Watts and M. Y. Ali (Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi known ophiolites which were emplaced on the Arabian rifted continental margin during the Late Cretaceous processes such as those associated with foreland basin formation and ophiolite emplacement. The student

  8. Jurassic back-arc and Cretaceous hot-spot series In the Armenian ophiolites --Implications for the obduction process

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Jurassic back-arc and Cretaceous hot-spot series In the Armenian ophiolites -- Implications online 10 March 2009 Keywords: Nd­Sr­Pb isotopes Armenian ophiolite Back-arc Obduction Oceanic plateau. The ophiolitic nappe preserves three distinct magmatic series, obducted in a single tectonic slice over the South

  9. Pull-apart formation and strike-slip partitioning in an obliquely divergent setting, Leka Ophiolite, Norway

    E-print Network

    Fossen, Haakon

    Pull-apart formation and strike-slip partitioning in an obliquely divergent setting, Leka Ophiolite The Leka Ophiolite Complex (LOC) is located on the island of Leka, Norway, and belongs to the Uppermost islands are basement gneisses and supracrustal rocks not related to the ophiolite complex. Paleostress

  10. Internal distribution of Li and B in serpentinites from the Feather River Ophiolite, California, based on laser ablation

    E-print Network

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    Internal distribution of Li and B in serpentinites from the Feather River Ophiolite, California spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of B and Li in serpentinized peridotites from the Feather River Ophiolite. However, Li/Yb and Yb contents of many of the Feather River Ophiolites plot above the melt depletion curve

  11. Modeling the seismic signature of structural data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir be detected beneath

    E-print Network

    Toomey, Doug

    Modeling the seismic signature of structural data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir diapirs mapped in the Oman ophiolite and compare these results with those of active source seismic data from the Oman Ophiolite: Can a mantle diapir be detected beneath the East Pacific Rise?, Geochem

  12. Melt Extraction and Melt Refertilization in Mantle Peridotite of the Coast Range Ophiolite: An LA-ICP-MS Study

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    1 Melt Extraction and Melt Refertilization in Mantle Peridotite of the Coast Range Ophiolite: An LA Range Ophiolite (CRO) is one of the most important tectonic elements in western California, cropping out are commonly interpreted to represent a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite, but models specifying a mid

  13. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  14. Root zone of the sheeted dike complex in the Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolphe Nicolas; Françoise Boudier; Jurgen Koepke; Benoît Ildefonse; Catherine Mevel

    2008-01-01

    In the Oman ophiolite crustal section, a contact zone between the gabbro unit and the volcanics and diabase sheeted dikes, called the root zone of the sheeted dike complex, has been recently mapped at a fine scale in a selected area. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main

  15. Compositional Heterogeneity and Spatial Segmentation of Suprasubduction (ssz-type) Ophiolites: Evidence From The Kamchatka Arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Osipenko; K. Krylov

    2002-01-01

    In ophiolite complexes from the Eastern Asian accretion belts the spatial heterogeneity of geochemical parameters for different components of an ophiolite sequence is estab- lished: restite mantle-derived peridotites, cumulative layered complex and volcanics. This heterogeneity is displayed as at a regional level (tens - hundred km), and at a level of local structures (hundred i - first tens km). As

  16. Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry of the Samail Ophiolite near Ibra, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Pallister; Roy J. Knight

    1981-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) analyses of 68 rock and mineral separate samples from the Samail ophiolite clearly. differentiate the various units of the ophiolite suite and indicate that the crustal suite is cogenetic, produced by crystal fractionation of basaltic magma in a spreading ridge magma chamber. Mantle peridotires are residual in rare-earth character, but cannot be clearly related to the overlying

  17. Chronology of ophiolite crystallization, detachment, and emplacement: Evidence from the Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, K.R.; Bird, J.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data from early Middle Jurassic ophiolites (187-184 Ma) in the western Brooks Range, Alaska, indicate that detachment - related metamorphism occurred {approximately}20 m.y. after crystallization and {approximately}20 m.y. before emplacement onto the Arctic Alaska margin. High-temperature metamorphic rocks along the basal surfaces of many ophiolites have ages that are contemporaneous with ophiolite crystallization, suggesting that detachment and thrust faulting occur while the lithosphere is young ({lt}10 Ma) and relatively hot. From these relations it has been generally assumed that detachment and initial overthrusting of oceanic lithosphere occur near the site of generation, such as a marginal basin or mid-ocean ridge. The new data from the Brooks Range ophiolites confirm previous indications that some ophiolites have much longer intervals between crystallization, thrust-related metamorphism, and emplacement. On the basis of these new results and data from other ophiolites, the authors propose that ophiolites originating within large ocean basins will generally have longer crystallization-to-emplacement intervals than the more commonly recognized marginal basin-type ophiolites.

  18. The origin of oceanic plagiogranites from the karmoy ophiolite, western Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf B. Pedersen; John Malpas

    1984-01-01

    Both field relationships and geochemical characteristics indicate two suites of plagiogranitic and related rocks coexisting in the higher parts of the Karmoy ophiolite of western Norway. The plutonic zone of this ophiolite can be subdivided into three complexes; the East-Karmoy Igneous Complex, the Visnes High Level Complex and the Veavagen Igneous Complex and plagiogranitic rocks are well developed in the

  19. Indo-Burma Range: a belt of accreted microcontinents, ophiolites and Mesozoic-Paleogene flyschoid sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    This study provides an insight into the lithotectonic evolution of the N-S trending Indo-Burma Range (IBR), constituting the southern flank of the Himalayan syntaxis. Paleogene flyschoid sediments (Disang-Barail) that represent a shallow marine to deltaic environment mainly comprise the west-central sector of IBR, possibly resting upon a continental base. On the east, these sequences are tectonically flanked by the Eocene olistostromal facies of the Disang, which developed through accretion of trench sediments during the subduction. The shelf and trench facies sequences of the Disang underwent overthrusting from the east, giving rise to two ophiolite suites (Naga Hills Lower Ophiolite (NHLO) and Victoria Hills Upper Ophiolite (VHUO), but with different accretion history. The ophiolite and ophiolite cover rock package were subsequently overthrusted by the Proterozoic metamorphic sequence, originated from the Burmese continent. The NHLO suite of Late Jurassic to Early Eocene age is unconformably overlain by mid-Eocene shallow marine ophiolite-derived clastics. On the south, the VHUO of Mesozoic age is structurally underlain by continental metamorphic rocks. The entire package in Victoria Hills is unconformably overlain by shallow marine Late Albian sediments. Both the ophiolite suites and the sandwiched continental metamorphic rocks are thrust westward over the Paleogene shelf sediments. These dismembered ophiolites and continental metamorphic rocks suggest thin-skinned tectonic detachment processes in IBR, as reflected from the presence of klippe of continental metamorphic rocks over the NHLO and the flyschoid Disang floor sediments and half windows exposing the Disang beneath the NHLO.

  20. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Hegenshan Ophiolite, Inner Mongolia, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T Robinson; Mei-fu Zhou; Xu-Feng Hu; P Reynolds; Bai Wenji; Jingsui Yang

    1999-01-01

    The Hegenshan ophiolite in Inner Mongolia is a remnant of oceanic lithosphere of probable Devonian age. The ophiolite consists of several blocks composed chiefly of serpentinized ultramafic rocks with lesser amounts of troctolite and gabbro, and sparse lavas and dikes. The ultramafic rocks consist chiefly of depleted harzburgite and minor dunite and are interpreted as mantle tectonites. In the Hegenshan

  1. Plagioclase lherzolite-residual mantle relationships within two eastern mediterranean ophiolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Menzies; Cameron Allen

    1974-01-01

    The ophiolites of Othris, northern Greece, and Troodos, Cyprus, are of mixed lherzolite-harzburgite and harzburgite sub-type respectively. Within both ophiolites an entire spectrum of harzburgite, plagioclase harzburgite, lherzolite and plagioclase lherzolite interpreted respectively as residual and highly, moderately and slightly modified upper mantle has been recognised. Plagioclase lherzolite frequently contains gabbroic segregations generated by partial melting and incomplete extraction. Othris

  2. The osmium isotopic composition of convecting upper mantle deduced from ophiolite chromites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Walker; Hazel M. Prichard; Akira Ishiwatari; Márcio Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Chromites separated from the upper mantle or lower crustal portions of 18 ophiolites ranging in age from 900 Ma to 50 Ma are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. The ophiolites include both MORB and back arc types, although most are from supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. The chromites are robust indicators of the initial Os isotopic compositions of the systems sampled.

  3. Back-arc basin origin for the East Sulawesi ophiolite (eastern Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Monnier; Jacques Girardeau; René C. Maury; Joseph Cotten

    1995-01-01

    The East Sulawesi ophiolite is one of the three largest ophiolites in the world. It displays all the components of a typical sequence, from residual mantle peridotites to cumulate gabbros, sheeted dolerites, and lavas of normal mid-oceanic-ridge basalt (MORB) composition. Trace element data on the lavas and dolerites, and particularly their depletion in Nb compared to neighboring incompatible elements, suggest

  4. The `subduction initiation rule': a key for linking ophiolites, intra-oceanic forearcs, and subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Stern, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    We establish the `subduction initiation rule' (SIR) which predicts that most ophiolites form during subduction initiation (SI) and that the diagnostic magmatic chemostratigraphic progression for SIR ophiolites is from less to more HFSE-depleted and LILE-enriched compositions. This chemostratigraphic evolution reflects formation of what ultimately becomes forearc lithosphere as a result of mantle melting that is progressively influenced by subduction zone enrichment during SI. The magmatic chemostratigraphic progression for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) forearc and most Tethyan ophiolites is specifically from MORB-like to arc-like (volcanic arc basalts or VAB ± boninites or BON) because SI progressed until establishment of a mature subduction zone. MORB-like lavas result from decompression melting of upwelling asthenosphere and are the first magmatic expression of SI. The contribution of fluids from dehydrating oceanic crust and sediments on the sinking slab is negligible in early SI, but continued melting results in a depleted, harzburgitic residue that is progressively metasomatized by fluids from the sinking slab; subsequent partial melting of this residue yields `typical' SSZ-like lavas in the latter stages of SI. If SI is arrested early, e.g., as a result of collision, `MORB-only' ophiolites might be expected. Consequently, MORB- and SSZ-only ophiolites may represent end-members of the SI ophiolite spectrum. The chemostratigraphic similarity of the Mariana forearc with that of ophiolites that follow the SIR intimates that a model linking such ophiolites, oceanic forearcs, and SI is globally applicable.

  5. Plate kinematics, origin and tectonic emplacement of supra-subduction ophiolites in SE Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Pubellier; Christophe Monnier; René Maury; R. Tamayo

    2004-01-01

    A unique feature of the Circum Pacific orogenic belts is the occurrence of ophiolitic bodies of various sizes, most of which display petrological and geochemical characteristics typical of supra-subduction zone oceanic crust. In SE Asia, a majority of the ophiolites appear to have originated at convergent margins, and specifically in backarc or island arc settings, which evolved either along the

  6. Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoic ophiolites along the AllaqiHeiani Suture, South Eastern Desert of Egypt

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoic ophiolites along the Allaqi online xxxx Keywords: Neoproterozoic Ophiolite Arabian­Nubian Shield U­Pb zircon age Ophiolites are key and ophiolite belt can be traced 600 km across the Nubian and Arabian shields. We report ve new SHRIMP U

  7. Subduction-channel model of prism accretion, melange formation, sediment subduction, and subduction erosion at convergent plate margins: 2. Implications and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloos, Mark; Shreve, Ronald L.

    1988-09-01

    The subduction-channel model predicts five geologically and geophysically distinctive types of convergent plate margin. They differ primarily in the proportions of incoming sediment and upflowing melange offscraped and underplated near the toe of the overriding block. The model predicts complex patterns of uplift or subsidence of the forearc region due to differential underplating or subduction erosion and to initiation or cessation of melange upflow. It shows how subduction speed, sediment input, and pressure gradient along the channel govern the general distribution and magnitude of subduction-zone earthquakes. It can predict the upward trajectories of exotic blueschist or serpentinized peridotite blocks that become entrained in the upwelling melange; and it suggests mechanisms by which much larger tracts of coherent blueschist can be raised to shallower levels. It predicts characteristic structural and metamorphic histories for geologic units accreted during steady-state subduction, showing for example, that offscraped materials undergo subhorizontally-directed compression during final dewatering and accretion, whereas underplated ones undergo large simple shear. It gives the maximum depths reached by upwelled melange, which bear significantly on the metamorphic changes observed in them. It predicts large-scale melange diapirism in certain rare cases, in which the normally adverse pressure gradient is reversed in a short reach of the channel, as at Barbados Island. Finally, it explains why pelagic sediments are seldom found in accretionary complexes and gives insight into the factors controlling what portion of the incoming sediment, and the10Be and other tracers it carries, will reach the region of volcanic-arc magmagenesis.

  8. Tectonic Emplacement of the Ophiolitic Mélange in the West Junggar, NW China: Comment on the Plate Boundary Significance of Ophiolitic Mélange Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Xu, Y.; Xiao, L.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Many ophiolitic mélanges distribute in the West Junggar, NW China. They are fault-contacted with Carboniferous turbidites with mostly NE trend and some NS trend with ages mostly Ordovician-Silurian and some Late Devonian. The boundary faults and the foliation inside the mélanges are of high-angle or nearly vertical. The NE trend ophiolitic mélange belts were structurally emplaced into the Carboniferous strata mainly by dextral transpressive deformation, but the NS trend ophiolitic mélange belts mainly by lateral extrusion deformation or pure shearing, suggesting a uniform stress field of nearly EW compression controlled the emplacements. The tectonic relationship between the ophiolitic mélanges and the Carboniferous turbidites imply that the ophiolitic mélanges are the main components of the basement of the Carboniferous strata. The geophysical data also reveal that high gravity, high magnetic and medium resistivity exist under the Carboniferous strata, matching well to the distribution of the ophiolitic mélanges on the surface. The neodymium model ages (TDM) of widely distributed Late Carboniferous-Permian granites are mostly between 0.352-0.923Ga and concentrate in 0.45-0.6Ga with positive eNd(t) mostly between 5~10, suggesting the Early Paleozoic rocks as the main magma source, consistent with the age of the ophiolitic mélanges, also coinciding with the conclusion of the ophiolitic mélanges as the basement of the Carboniferous strata. The Carboniferous turbidites primarily formed in residual basin. Early Permian terrestrial coarse molasses deposits unconformitily cover on the Carboniferous turbidites, suggesting the residual basin closed in Late Carboniferous. The accretionary complex or residual oceanic crust emplaced into the overlying Carboniferous turbidites through the dextral transpression or lateral extrusion due to EW convergent when the residual basin closed. The tectonic juxtaposition relationship between the ophiolitic mélanges and the younger lateral strata with same stratigraphic system suggests that the ophiolitic mélange belts do not separate different tectonic palaeogeographic or stratigraphic divisions. The traditional understanding of the ophiolitic mélange belt as plate or terrane boundary should be carefully to apply to the West Jungar.

  9. Fully carbonated peridotite (listvenite) from the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite--fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz--occur along the basal thrust of the Samail Ophiolite in Oman. The presence of these listvenites demonstrates that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on a large scale under natural conditions. Thus, understanding the conditions of listvenite formation can provide insights into the feasibility of achieving complete carbonation of peridotite through engineered approaches for carbon capture and storage. The Oman listvenites likely formed during emplacement of the ophiolite, as CO2-bearing fluids derived from underlying metasediments reacted with peridotite in the hanging wall. Listvenite outcrops occur within 500 meters of the basal thrust, where peridotite overlies carbonate-bearing metasediments. 87Sr/86Sr values in listvenite are higher than seawater values and consistent with values in these underlying metasediments. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are also consistent with values in some of the metasediments. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 × 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry in listvenites yields temperatures around 100°C, and thermodynamically stable coexistence of antigorite, talc, and quartz in serpentinite along the margins of the listvenite would require reaction temperatures around 80°C, as calculated in THERMOCALC. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, these moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites probably formed at relatively shallow depths, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals more probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid than deeper metamorphic reactions without significant transport of fluids along the slab interface. Through EQ3/6 geochemical reaction path models of these processes over a range of pressures, temperatures, and water-rock ratios we explore the conditions under which listvenite could have formed.

  10. Geochemical regularities and genetic significance of ophiolitic basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen-Su Sun; Robert W. Nesbitt

    1978-01-01

    Al2O3\\/TiO2 and CaO\\/TiO2 ratios of primitive mid-ocean ridge basalts increase along with degree of partial melting (TiO2 content decreases) until ratios seen in chondrites (about 20 and 17, respectively) are reached at ˜0.8% TiO2. Low-Ti (<0.6%) basalts from ophiolitic complexes (for example, Troodos and Betts Cove), island arcs, and interarc basins are characterized by much higher Al2O3\\/TiO2 and CaO\\/TiO2 ratios

  11. The proterozoic ophiolite problem, continental emergence, and the venus connection.

    PubMed

    Moores, E M

    1986-10-01

    To account for the lack of preservation of ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust and mantle) in old orogenic belts (age 1000 to 2500 million years), a hypothesis proposes that the magmatic oceanic crust formed during sea-floor spreading was thicker during the cited time interval. This thickening led to reduced contrast between the elevation of continental and oceanic regions and to greater average flooding of the continents. The resultant distribution of elevation may have resembled modern Venus more than modern Earth. PMID:17742635

  12. Varying mantle sources of supra-subduction zone ophiolites: REE evidence from the Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex, a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, is characterized by three volcanic-hypabyssal rock units: the Coto Block volcanic-hypabyssal rocks, the Coto dikes intruded into the Coto residual peridotites and the Acoje Block volcanic-hypabyssal rocks. The first two groups exhibit transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc characteristics while the latter reveals island arc affinity. Furthermore, these three volcanic rock suites are characterized by differing bulk REE, major-element, trace-element and mineral chemistries. The Coto Block volcanic-hypabyssal rocks [ {(Ce}/{Yb) n} 0.4-1.0; TiO 2 0.50-1.50 wt.%; Zr 31-76 ppm; Y 13-31 ppm] have higher REE, Ti, Zr and Y than the Coto dikes [ {(Ce}/{Yb) n} 0.3-0.8; TiO 2 0.52-0.94 wt.%; Zr 15-55 ppm; Y 10-27 ppm] and the Acoje Block volcanic-hypabyssal rocks [ {(Ce}/{Yb) n} 0.2-0.3; TiO 2 0.26-0.86 wt.%; Zr 11-45 ppm; Y 10-23 ppm] arguing for an increasing degree of melting of the sources from the former to the latter. These data suggest the involvement of several mantle sources which have undergone different degrees of partial melting and LREE addition as evidenced by the presence of LREE-enriched basalts [ {(Ce}/{Yb) n} 3-5] among the Coto Block volcanic-hypabyssal rocks. These results further illustrate the complexities involved in the generation and evolution of supra-subduction zone ophiolites.

  13. Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitechurch, Hubert; Agard, Philippe; Ulrich, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of ophiolites and obduction processes: examples from Eastern Tethyan regions and New Caledonia. Whitechurch H.(1) Agard P.(2), Ulrich M.(1) (1) EOST - University of Strasbourg (France) (2) ISTeP - University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France) Ophiolites are considered as pieces of oceanic lithosphere that escaped subduction to be obducted on continental margins. After the Penrose Conference in 1972, they have all been regarded as issued from mid-ocean ridges of large oceans. Subsequently, most of ophiolites have been considered as generated in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) environment, mainly on the basis of geochemical arguments. However, this characterization encompasses very different geological situations, somewhat in contradiction with a univocal geochemical interpretation, both in terms of where ophiolite formed (i.e., ocean-continent transition zones, ocean ridges, marginal basins) and were obducted (contrasting nature of the margins). Examples from eastern Mesozoic Tethyan ophiolites (Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Iran, Oman) and tertiary New Caledonia ophiolites all show this diversity, both in their internal structures and geological setting of obduction. Several questions will be addressed in this debate: the relationships and paradoxes between the nature of ophiolites, their geodynamic environment of formation, their geochemistry, their modality of obduction and ultimately the mountain range style where they are found.

  14. Early-Middle Ordovician ridge-trench collision during the closure of Iapetus: Evidence from the Dunnage Melange tract, Newfoundland Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorevski, Alexandre; van Staal, Cees R.; McNicoll, Vicki

    2010-05-01

    The Red Indian Line marks the boundary between the peri-Laurentian and peri-Gondwanan realms in the Northern Apppalachians and delimits the main Iapetus suture. The Middle Ordovician Dunnage Melange tract occurs immediately south of the Red Indian Line in north-central Newfoundland. The genesis of the melange belt has always been contentious, because it preserves structures both suggestive of an olistostromal (e.g. pebbly mudstone) and tectonic origin (e.g. cleaved psammitic clasts). Its spatial association with the suture zone and strong lithological linkages with the Middle Ordovician arc-trench gap rocks of the Popelogan-Victoria arc (PVA) system suggest a genetic linkage to subduction processes along the leading edge of Ganderia prior to its collision with Laurentia's leading edge. The melange hosts a variety of Middle Ordovician mafic to felsic intrusions. This investigation is focused on the Coaker quartz-feldspar porphyry that intruded the Dunnage melange. Thin sheets of the flow banded porphyry intrude cleaved black shales and are intricately folded in complex isoclinal and sheath-like geometries. The fold hinges displays a well-preserved folded trachytic texture indicative of laminar flow in partially molten state and show little intra-crystalline deformation. These relationships suggest the porphyry intruded syn-tectonically into partly lithified sediments. The age of deformation and crystallization is constrained by a new U-Pb SHRIMP age of 469 ± 3 Ma. The porphyry contains a large variety of xenoliths and xenocrysts including variably serpentinized harzburgite, orthopyroxenite, hornblendite, garnet granulite, amphibolites, gabbro, garnet and pyroxene. The variety and composition of xenoliths suggest it was sampling lower and middle arc or continental crust that probably formed the forearc basement to the PVA. The variety of inherited zircons (ca. 489, 517, 547, 620, 655, 895, 940, 1305, 1515, 1740, 1970, 2630 Ma) confirms its affinity with the peri-Gondwanan arc system that was built upon the leading edge of Ganderia. The geochemistry of the porphyry and xenoliths, magmatism, tectonism and melange formation in the arc-trench gap and overall enriched E-MORB-like magmatism in the arc support earlier suggestions of a ridge subduction at c. 469 Ma. The Dunnage Melange is thus interpreted as deformed forearc strata near the boundary between the accretionary wedge and the forearc basin formed during ridge-trench collision.

  15. The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane, West Koryak Orogen: Isotopic dating and paleotectonic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palandzhyan, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The Ust-Belaya ophiolite terrane in the West Koryak Orogen, which is the largest in northeastern Asia, consists of three nappe complexes. The upper Ust-Belaya Nappe is composed of a thick (>5 km) sheet of fertile peridotites and mafic rocks (remnants of the proto-Pacific lithosphere); its upper age boundary is marked by Late Neoproterozoic plagiogranites. In the middle Tolovka-Otrozhny Nappe, the Late Precambrian lherzolite-type ophiolites are supplemented by fragments of tectonically delaminated harzburgite-type ophiolites, which make up the Tolovka rock association. The isotopic age of metadacite (K-Ar method, whole-rock sample) and zircons from plagiogranite porphyry (U-Pb method, SHRIMP) determines the upper chronological limit of the Tolovka ophiolites as 262-265 Ma ago. It is suggested that igneous rocks of these ophiolites were generated in a backarc basin during the Early Carboniferous and then incorporated into the fold-nappe structure in the Mid-Permian. This was the future basement of the Koni-Taigonos arc, where the Early Carboniferous ophiolites together with Late Neoproterozoic precursors were subject to low-temperature metamorphism and intruded by plagiogranite porphyry dikes in Permian-Triassic. The polymicte serpentinite mélange, which was formed in the accretionary complex of the Koni-Taigonos arc comprises rock blocks of the upper units of Late Precambrian ophiolites (in particular, plagiogranite), the overlying Middle to Upper Devonian and Early Carboniferous deposits, as well as Early Carboniferous (?) Tolovka ophiolites and meta-ophiolites. Mélange of this type with inclusions of Late Precambrian "oceanic" granitoids also developed in the lower Utyosiki Nappe composed of Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic sequences, the formation of which was related to the next Uda-Murgal island-arc systems.

  16. Ophiolites of the deep-sea trenches of the western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chudaev, O.

    1990-06-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks of ophiolites are widespread in the basement of the Izu-Bonin, Volcano, Mariana, Philippine, Yap, Palau, New Hebrides, West Melanesian, Tonga, and Mussau trenches. Ophiolite in the trenches includes (1) metamorphic rocks ranging from low-T and low P to high-T and moderate P; (2) serpentinites after harzburgite; (3) ultramafic-mafic layered series; (4) tholeiitic basalts, dolerites, and their metamorphosed varieties; and (5) rocks of the boninitic series. Two geodynamic stages could be distinguished in the formation of the ophiolites of the Western Pacific. At the rifting stage, mantle diapir ascended during rifting and magmatic series were formed. In this period, rocks underwent intense low-temperature metasomatic alterations in the zones of heated seawater circulation. At the compression stage (subduction zone) regional pressure metamorphism of the ophiolites superimposed on the low-temperature metasomatic processes.

  17. Ophiolite sections of the Dzhalair-Nayman zone, South Kazakhstan: Their structure and age substantiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. V.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kotov, A. B.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.; Anisimova, I. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2009-08-01

    The ophiolite complexes outcrop extending more than 700 km in the Dzhalair-Nayman zone located between the Chuya-Kendyk Tas (in the southwest) and Aktau-Dzhungar (in the northeast) Precambrian sialic massifs in South Kazakhstan. The most complete ophiolite sections are described in the central (Andassai massif) and southeastern (Dulankara massif) parts of the zone. Plagiogranites occur in a sheeted dyke complex in the upper part of ophiolite sections. A bimodal volcanic series occurs atop the section. The U/Pb zircons ages for the Andassai and Dulankara plagiogranites are 519 ± 4 and 521 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Ophiolites associated with bimodal volcanic series are also found in the north and northeast of Kazakhstan. They may form, together with the Lower Cambrian complexes of the Dzhalair-Nayman zone, a single paleostructure, whose fragments are well-traceable for over 2000 km

  18. Age of amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Dinaride ophiolite zone, Yugoslavia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Karamata, S.; Pamic, J.

    1975-01-01

    Amphibolites associated with alpine peridotites in the Central Ophiolite zone in Yugoslavia have K-Ar ages of 160-170 m.y. These amphibolites and associated peridotites underwent deep-seated metamorphism prior to tectonic emplacement into the sedimentary-volcanic assemblage of the Dinarides. The alpine peridotites and associated local rocks of the ophiolite suite are interpreted as Jurassic oceanic crust and upper mantle. ?? 1975.

  19. Minéralisations cuprifères et volcanisme albitophyrique dans les ophiolites précambriennes de Bou Azzer (Anti-Atlas, Maroc)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Leblanc

    1974-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  There are many stratiform copper deposits (chalcopyrite, pyrite) in the volcano-sedimentary upper part of the Bou Azzer ophiolitic\\u000a complex (upper Precambrian). The sulfides are genetically in relationship with a spilitic and keratophyric submarine volcanism.\\u000a The Bou Azzer complex belongs to an ophiolitic lineament around the West-african craton; this lineament is a metallotect for\\u000a copper ores.

  20. Geology, petrology and tectonic setting of the Late Jurassic ophiolite in Hokkaido, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reishi Takashima; Hiroshi Nishi; Takeyoshi Yoshida

    2002-01-01

    The Gokurakudaira Formation, which has a N–S zonal distribution within a latest Jurassic greenstone belt in Hokkaido Island, Japan, constitutes the uppermost ultramafic–mafic unit of the Horokanai Ophiolite. The following three hypotheses for the origin of the ophiolite have been proposed: (1) a mid-oceanic ridge; (2) an oceanic plateau; and (3) an island arc. The Gokurakudaira Formation can be subdivided

  1. Imbricate structure of the Luobusa Ophiolite and surrounding rock units, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Terabayashi, Masaru; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Katayama, Ikuo; Iizuka, Tsuyoshi

    2007-02-01

    The Cretaceous Luobusa Ophiolite is a tectonic slice less than 1.2 km thick. The structurally underlying unit is the Tertiary Luobusa Formation and the overlying unit is composed of feebly metamorphosed Triassic sedimentary rocks. The top and bottom contacts of the ophiolite dip gently to the south. The major part of the Luobusa Ophiolite is mantle peridotite, including podiform chromitite. This chromitite has received much attention because it contains an 'unusual mineral assemblage' which includes diamond and moissanite. A serpentinite mélange zone, including clasts of basaltic and sedimentary rocks, occurs underneath the mantle peridotite. Mesoscopic-microscopic structures were observed in the sheared rocks. Shear-indicating structures (C'-type shear bands and ?-type porphyroclasts) in the rocks near the top and bottom boundaries of the Luobusa Ophiolite show consistent top-to-the-north (or northeast) reverse displacement. The results reveal that the Luobusa Ophiolite was overturned and intercalated into an imbricate structure. The thrust faults on the top and bottom of the ophiolite can be correlated with north-vergent back-thrusting which was associated with crustal shortening along the Main Central Thrust due to the continued northward movement of India, after the welding of India to Asia.

  2. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10°N paleolatitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    1992-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11° ±3°) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6° ±5°) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite at low paleo-latitudes. Uniform-polarity directions for other remnants of ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10°N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  3. Tectonics of formation, translation, and dispersal of the Coast Range ophiolite of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Blake, M.C., Jr.; Griscom, A.; Blome, C.D.; Murchey, B.

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Coast Range ophiolite and its tectonic outliers in the northern California Coast Ranges suggest that the lower part of the ophiolite formed 169 to 163 Ma in a forearc or back arc setting at equatorial latitudes. Beginning about 156 Ma and continuing until 145 Ma, arc magmatism was superimposed on the ophiolite, and concurrently, a transform developed along the arc axis or in the back arc area. Rapid northward translation of this rifted active magmatic arc to middle latitudes culminated in its accretion to the California margin of North America at about 145 Ma. This Late Jurassic episode of translation, arc magmatism, and accretion coincided with the Nevadan orogeny and a proposed major plate reorganization in the eastern Pacific basin. Displacement occurred between about 60 and 52 Ma. Ophiolitic rocks in the Decatur terrane of western Washington that have recently been correlated with the Coast Range ophiolite and the Great Valley sequence of California were apparently displaced at least 950 to 1200 km from the west side of the Great Valley between early Tertiary and Early Cretaceous time. Derived rates of northward translation for the ophiolite outliers in California are in the range of 1 to 4 cm/yr. -from Authors

  4. Reconstructing Ophiolites: Reassessing Assumptions From the Oceanic Crust and Related Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The internal structure of ophiolite complexes has long been used as a window into the inaccessible parts of the oceanic lithosphere and by inference, processes beneath spreading centers. However, even the best preserved ophiolite complexes have been tilted, folded, faulting and dismembered during post-spreading tectonic events. Some degree of reconstruction is required to restore ophiolite structures to their appropriate relative orientations in order to relate them to processes beneath spreading centers. A number of assumptions about ophiolite structures have been used to guide reconstructions including: lava flows (horizontal, especially sheet-like lavas), dikes in lavas and sheeted dike complexes (vertical and parallel to spreading centers), the contacts between major rock units (horizontal, analogous to the seismic structure of oceanic crust) and the mafic/ultramafic contact representing the geologic expression of the Moho (horizontal). Based in part on these assumptions the internal structure of rock units, metamorphic relationships, and the kinematics of faults and deformation fabrics are also inferred. The spreading direction is seldom constrained in ophiolites making it difficult to assess the geometry of asymmetrical features, such as the dip of dikes, faults, or igneous layering, relative to spreading axes. Observations from exposures of upper crustal rock units (lavas, transition zones, dike and upper gabbroic rocks) along major tectonic escarpments in oceanic crust formed at fast to intermediate rates, as well as the uplifted and glaciated Tertiary basaltic crust of Iceland, raise questions about several of the assumptions used in ophiolite reconstructions. Alternative reconstructions may provide new ideas about spreading processes.

  5. Submarine hydrothermal metamorphism of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, R.C.; Schiffman, P.

    1983-01-01

    Metamorphic zonation overprinted on the volcanic member and overlying volcanogenic sediments of the ophiolite complex increases downward in grade and is characterized by the sequential appearance with depth of zeolites, ferric pumpellyite and pistacitic epidote. Metamorphic assemblages of the plutonic member of the complex are characterized by the presence of calcic amphibole. The overprinting represents the effects of hydrothermal metamorphism resulting from the massive interaction between hot igneous rocks and convecting sea-water in a submarine environment. A thermal gradient of 100oC/km is postulated to account for the zonal recrystallization effects in the volcanic member. The diversity and sporadic distribution of mineral assemblages in the amphibole zone are considered due to the limited availability of H2O in the deeper part of the complex. Details of the zonation and representative microprobe analyses are tabulated.-M.S.

  6. Petrology of plagiogranite from Sjenica, Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt (southwestern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovi?, Dragan; Sre?kovi?-Bato?anin, Danica; Savi?, Marija; Popovic, Dana

    2012-04-01

    The Sjenica plagiogranite occurs in the southern part of the Dinaridic Ophiolite Belt, 5 km northwest of Sjenica. The main minerals are albite with strongly altered biotite (replaced with chlorite), with occasional amphibole (magnesio hornblende to tschermakite) and quartz. An enclave of fine-grained granitic rocks with garnet grains was noted too. Secondary minerals are calcite and chlorite (daphnite). Major, trace and REE geochemistry coupled with field observations support a model by which the Sjenica plagiogranite could be formed by fractional crystallization of mantle origin mafic magma in a supra-subduction zone setting. Occurrences of calcite and chlorite nests in the Sjenica plagiogranites revealed that these rocks underwent hydrothermal alteration due to intensive sea water circulation in a sub-sea-floor environment.

  7. Tectonic environment and geodynamic significance of the Neo-Cimmerian Donqiao ophiolite, Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, Tibet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Girardeau; J. Marcoux; C. J. Allègre; J. P. Bassoullet; Tang Youking; Xiao Xuchang; Zao Yougong; Wang Xibin

    1984-01-01

    The Bangong-Nujiang suture zone is underlain by a discontinuous and roughly EW ophiolite belt. Around Donqiao-Gyanco, ophiolitic and metasedimentary Palaeozoic series form nappes thrusted over Jurassic flysch series. All these series have undergone a late symmetrical folding accompanied by generally northward reverse faulting. Although strongly dismembered, a complete ophiolitic sequence comprising harzburgites with large podiform-type chromite deposits, wehrlites, cumulate gabbros,

  8. Geochemistry and petrology of listvenite in the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman: Complete carbonation of peridotite during ophiolite emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Elisabeth S.; Kelemen, Peter B.

    2015-07-01

    Extensive outcrops of listvenite-fully carbonated peridotite, with all Mg in carbonate minerals and all Si in quartz-occur along the basal thrust of the Samail ophiolite in Oman. These rocks can provide insight into processes including (a) carbon fluxes at the "leading edge of the mantle wedge" in subduction zones and (b) enhanced mineral carbonation of peridotite as a means of carbon storage. Here we examine mineralogical, chemical and isotopic evidence on the temperatures, timing, and fluid compositions involved in the formation of this listvenite. The listvenites are composed primarily of magnesite and/or dolomite + quartz + relict Cr-spinel. In some instances the conversion of peridotite to listvenite is nearly isochemical except for the addition of CO2, while other samples have also seen significant calcium addition and/or variable, minor addition of K and Mn. Along margins where listvenite bodies are in contact with serpentinized peridotite, talc and antigorite are present in addition to carbonate and quartz. The presence of antigorite + quartz + talc in these samples implies temperatures of 80-130 °C. This range of temperature is consistent with dolomite and magnesite clumped isotope thermometry in listvenite (average T = 90 ± 15 °C) and with conventional mineral-water oxygen isotope exchange thermometry (assuming fluid ?18O near zero). CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the formation of listvenite were likely derived from underlying calcite-bearing metasediment during emplacement of the ophiolite. An internal Rb-Sr isochron from one listvenite sample yields an age of 97 ± 29 Ma, consistent with the timing of emplacement of the ophiolite over allochthonous sediments of the Hawasina group, and autochthonous sediments of the Arabian continental margin. Most of the initial 87Sr/86Sr values in the listvenite, ranging from 0.7085 to 0.7135, are significantly higher than seawater values and consistent with values measured in the underlying metasediments. While constraints on the pressure of listvenite formation are lacking, the moderate temperatures suggest that listvenites formed at relatively shallow depths in the subduction zone, making release of carbonate-saturated pore-water due to compaction of subducted sediment or low-pressure phase transitions of hydrous minerals, such as clays, probable sources of the CO2-bearing fluid. Carbonate dissolution from subducted sediments and transfer of CO2 to the mantle wedge to form listvenites may be an important process in forearc hydrothermal systems. Additionally, the presence of listvenites demonstrate that peridotite carbonation reactions can proceed to completion on large scales, suggesting that in situ mineral carbonation of peridotite may offer a viable solution for carbon storage.

  9. The ophiolites of northeast India — a subduction zone ophiolite complex of the Indo-Burman orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, C. C.

    1991-06-01

    The ophiolites of northeast India are rootless blocks of various dimensions, floating in a matrix which belongs to the upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Disang Group. They consist of diverse igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, of which ultramafics are the main component. They do not constitute a continuous sheet but are made up of units haphazardly juxtaposed along faults or they consist of lensoid slices interbedded with Disang Group rocks. The ultramafics are interpreted as slices of oceanic crust and upper mantle obducted onto the Indian continental margin. Associated blue schist is indicative of subduction zone tectonics. The occurrences of ultramafics showing intrusive contacts and the presence of intermediate — acid volcanics suggest an island arc — continent type of collision along the Benioff Zone coincident with the ophiolite belt. The tectonic history of the Indo-Burman orogenic belt can be tentatively summarised as follows: Introduction of the subduction zone during Cretaceous times; obduction of oceanic crust and upper mantle and intermixing with deep oceanic sediments. Deposition of the Disang sediments. Formation of an island arc separating the sedimentary basin into eastern and western sub-basins. The Barail sediments were deposited in both basins. The formation of the island arc was accompanied by plutonism and volcanism and by deformation and low grade metamorphism of the lower Disang sediments. Gradual shallowing of the basin consequent upon the collision of the island arc with the easterly subducted India plate. Continent-continent collision and rotation of the down-basin normal faults into low angle reverse faults (thrusts) along which the thrust sheets were piled up. The frontal areas of the thrust sheets were asymmetrically folded. This was followed by asymmetrical folding of the rocks of the foreland areas. Formation of gravity faults and conjugate sets of strike-slip faults in the orogen and the foreland areas. The structures associated with the ophiolite belt are attributed first to the collision of the easterly subducting India plate with an island arc and subsequently with the Burma plate.

  10. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect the environment. PMID:9726791

  11. Concordant paleolatitudes from ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Williams, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from two ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges: from Mount Diablo in the San Francisco Bay area and from Potter Valley, north of Clear Lake. The ophiolite exposed at Mount Diablo is part of the late Middle to Late Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, and that exposed near Potter Valley is Late Jurassic to perhaps Early Cretaceous in age and occurs within the Franciscan assemblage. Data from the sheeted-dike complex at Mount Diablo show these rocks to be strongly overprinted, probably following uplift and erosion of the ophiolite. Samples whose primary remanent magnetization seems to be recovered yield a mean paleomagnetic pole at 30.7??N, 159.5??E with ??95 = 5.6??. A comparison of this pole with the Jurassic apparent polar wander path for North America indicates that the ophiolite has rotated 45?? ?? 7?? counterclockwise relative to the craton and has not been latitudinally displaced. The diabase and pillow basalt in Potter Valley have not been strongly overprinted and data from those rocks yield a paleomagnetic pole at 79.0??N, 61.5??E with ??95 = 6.4??. This result indicates that the ophiolite at Potter Valley has rotated approximately 29?? ?? 8?? clockwise, and has undergone little or no latitudinal displacement. Because of the predominantly northeastward transport of oceanic plates converging with the western margin of North America since middle Mesozoic time, the absence of appreciable northward displacement of either ophiolite fragment indicates that both formed close to the continental margin. ?? 1991.

  12. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of plagiogranites from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, and their tectonic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Mukasa, S.B.; Ludden, J.N.

    1987-09-01

    Zircon populations from two plagiogranites in the plutonic section of the Troodos ophiolite yield U-Pb dates between 90.3 +/- 0.7 and 9.24 +/- 0.7 Ma. Zircons from one of the two samples yield U-Pb dates of 90.3 +/- 0.7 and 92.1 +/- 0.7 Ma. This difference is greater than their analytical error, and the zircons are therefore considered to be slightly discordant. Two fractions from another sample are internally and externally concordant and have an average date of 91.6 +/- 1.4 Ma. This date is adopted as the age of plagiogranite crystallization. The plutonic section of the Troodos ophiolite is complex in that several generations of intrusion can be identified. The plagiogranites occur at the top of the intrusive section and represent fractionated residua of magma chambers related to the lower pillow lavas. They are possibly slightly older than small ultramafic layered complexes that represent the final intrusive episode within the Troodos ophiolite. There is good agreement between their results and the ages of radiolaria which occur in umbers intercalated with the upper pillow lavas of Troodos. This shows that the 75 to 85 Ma K-Ar dates on the lavas and sheeted dikes represent age resetting unrelated to ophiolite formation. The Troodos U-Pb zircon ages are slightly lower than U-Pb zircon ages from the Samail ophiolite in Oman, which vary between 93.5 and 97.9 Ma and average 95 Ma. The small difference in age between the Troodos and the Samail ophiolites and the geochemical similarities of basalts from both complexes to island-arc volcanic rocks imply that a 3000-km axis of rift-related island arcs formed between 91 and 98 Ma. Emplacement of the ophiolites followed during the early Maastrichtian.

  13. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, S.; Yamaoka, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2010-12-01

    The boron contents and isotopic compositions were determined for the hydrothermally altered oceanic crust through the Troodos ophiolite. The samples were represented by the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) drill-Holes CY1 (479m), CY2A (689m), CY4 (2263m), and selected outcrops along the Akaki river. Hole CY1 was composed upper and lower pillow lava, CY4 constituted sheeted dike complex and gabbro section, and the samples along Akaki river formed from pillow lava to sheeted dike complex. Hole CY2A was composed pillow lava and sheeted dike, drilled near Agrokipia ‘B’ deposit a stockwork type which completely enclosed within the lower pillow lava. The goal of this study is to understand the Boron geochemistry during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust including hydrothermal ore deposit as Agrokipia ‘B’. The average boron contents of each sequence from Troodos ophiolite were pillow lava (63.2ppm), sheeted dike complex (4.5ppm), gabbro section (1.6ppm). But then, those of Oman ophiolite were 7.9ppm, 5.3ppm, 1.7ppm (Yamaoka et al., 2010 submitted). Thus, both of these ophiolites, the vertical profile of boron content decreased with depth, also the boron contents were much richer than fresh-MORB (0.5ppm) (Spivack and Edmond, 1987; Chaussidon and Jambon, 1994). This indicates boron rich of the altered oceanic crust were derived from seawater. And sheeted dike complex and gabbro section were similar value relatively, but pillow lava differed widely. These results may represent the difference of length being submarine, because these ophiolites were generated in deep water of the Tethys sea about 90Ma (Late Cretaceous) (Tilton et al., 1981; Mukasa and Ludden, 1987), and Oman ophiolite was obducted about 70Ma (Lanphere, 1981) but Troodos ophiolite uplifted about 10Ma (Middle Miocene) (Robertson and Woodcock, 1979).

  14. Geol. Mag. 127 (3), 1990, pp. 209-224. Printed in Great Britain 209 The Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex and associated

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    Geol. Mag. 127 (3), 1990, pp. 209-224. Printed in Great Britain 209 The Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite! November 1989) Abstract - Metabasalts of the Upper Ordovician Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex of subduction influence. The Solund-Stavfjord Ophiolite Complex is overlain by a heterogeneous assemblage

  15. Earliest Eocene (53 Ma) convergence in the Southwest Pacific; evidence from pre-obduction dikes in the ophiolite of New Caledonia.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the ophiolite of New Caledonia. Dominique Cluzel1 , Sebastien Meffre2 , Pierre Maurizot3 and Anthony J. Crawford intruding mantle peridotite in the ophiolite of New Caledonia infer that subduction-related magmatism began tectonic implications. Regional geology The ophiolitic nappe of New Caledonia consists of an undated

  16. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 88, NO. Bll, PAGES 9419-9435, NOVEMBER 10, 1983 OPHIOLITE EMPLACEMENT BY COLLISION BETWEEN THE SULA PLATFORM

    E-print Network

    McCaffrey, Robert

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 88, NO. Bll, PAGES 9419-9435, NOVEMBER 10, 1983 ~ OPHIOLITE displayed in eastern Indonesia results fronl a forearc settings. Deformation of the ophiolite may series the emplacement of a tion occurred during emplacement. The Sulawesi large ophiolite belt, resulting from

  17. The seismic velocity structure of a traverse through the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland, an exposure of oceanic crust and upper mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew H. Salisbury; Nikolas I. Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Although the ophiolites are widely recognized as segments of oceanic crust emplaced on land, direct correlation between the ophiolites and the the oceanic crust has proven difficult owing to the near absence of common criteria on which to base a comparison; the ophiolites are defined petrologically, while the oceanic crust is defined largely in terms of seismic structure. To bridge

  18. Structural, geochronological, magnetic and magmatic constraints of a ridge collision/ridge subduction-related ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anma, Ryo

    2013-04-01

    A mid-oceanic ridge system subducts underneath South American plate at latitude 46S off Chilean coast, forming a ridge-trench-trench type triple junction. At ~ 6 Ma, a short segment of the Chile ridge system subducted in south of the present triple junction. This ridge subduction event resulted in emplacement of a young ophiolite (5. 6 to 5. 2 Ma) and rapid crustal uplift (partly emerged after 4.9 Ma), and synchronous magmatism. This ophiolite, namely the Taitao ophiolite, provides criteria for the recognition of ridge collision/ridge subduction-related ophiolites. Aiming to establish recognition criteria, we studied distribution of structures, magnetic properties, geochemical characteristics, and radiometric ages of the Taitao ophiolite and related igneous rocks. The Taitao ophiolite exhibits a classic Penrose-type stratigraphy: ultramafic rocks and gabbros (collectively referred as plutonic section hereafter) in the south, and sheeted dike complex (SDC) and volcanic sequences in the north. Composite foliations developed in the plutonic section, which were folded. SDC were exposed in two isolated blocks having orthogonal strikes of dike margins. Geochemically, gabbros have an N-MORB composition whereas basalts of the volcanic sequence have an E-MORB composition. U-Pb ages of zircons separated from gabbros, SDC and sediments interbeded with billow lavas implied that the center of magmatic activities migrated from the plutonic section to volcanic section during ~5.6 Ma and ~5.2 Ma. Zircon fission track ages of gabbros coincide with U-Pb ages within error range, implying rapid cooling. Demagnetization paths for SDC and lavas form a straight line, whereas those from the plutonic section are Z-shaped and divisble into two components: low coercivity and high coercivity. Restored orientation of gabbro structures imply that the magnetization acquired while gabbroic structures were folding. Thus, magma genesis and emplacement of the plutonic section of ophiolite took place almost instantaneously. The ophiolite is surrounded by synchronous (5.7 Ma to 5.2 Ma) granitic intrusions with various compositions. Our data indicates that the granitic melts started forming near the conjunction of the subducting ridge and transform fault. Generation of granitic melts continued as the spreading center of the same segment subducted, due to partial melting of the oceanic crust and subducted sediments at amphibolite-facies conditions. The obduction of the Taitao ophiolite also accompanied volcanism in the Chile Margin that migrates from west (5.2 Ma) to east (4.6 Ma) at a rate of 5 cm/y as a fracture zone subducted. A ridge collision/ridge subduction-related ophiolite has a short-life. The most intrinsic recognition criteria for such ophiolite must be hot emplacement of plutonic rocks, that represent magmatism at the axial magma chamber in the spreading ridge environment, into cold forearc region, which results in rapid cooling of the deep plutonic section (U-Pb ages coincide with cooling ages within an error range), and pervasive high temperature ductile deformation (after magmatic flow) throughout gabbro. Folding continued until the rocks were cooled to Curie T of magnetite (~580C) in the case of the Taitao ophiolite. A ridge collision/ridge subduction-related ophiolite may accompany block rotation of volcanic sequence, because of high viscosity contrast between hot plutonic section and overriding volcanic section that has already cooled and solidified. It may also accompany acidic intrusions with various compositions and basaltic volcanisms due to subduction of fracture zones.

  19. Compositional Heterogeneity and Spatial Segmentation of Suprasubduction (ssz-type) Ophiolites: Evidence From The Kamchatka Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipenko, A.; Krylov, K.

    In ophiolite complexes from the Eastern Asian accretion belts the spatial heterogeneity of geochemical parameters for different components of an ophiolite sequence is estab- lished: restite mantle-derived peridotites, cumulative layered complex and volcanics. This heterogeneity is displayed as at a regional level (tens - hundred km), and at a level of local structures (hundred i - first tens km). As a rule, distinction is observed on a complex of geochemical parameters (concentration and form of REE spectra, EPG distribution, isotope characteristics, Cr-spinel and pyroxene composition etc.). Revealed at once in several suprasubduction-type ophiolite belts (Kamuikotan, Philip- pines New Guinea etc.), the spatial variations of geochemical parameters have not gradual, and discrete character. For an explanation of the reasons of ophiolite com- positional heterogeneity several mechanisms are offered: (1) tectonical overlapping of various fragments of lithosphere; (2) different specify of deep processes, resulting to compositional heterogeneity of rocks from the same lithosphere level; 3) hetero- geneity of the upper mantle and/or mantle metasomatism; 4) evolution of ophiolites (Shervais, 2001) and/or center of magma generation (mixture of continuous series of melt portions, separated during different stages of progressive mantle source melting (Bazylev et al., 2001)); 5) preservations of relict blocks of low lithosphere and upper mantle from the previous stage in suprasubduction conditions. The authors consider regional geochemical heterogeneity and segmentation of suprasubduction ophiolites (SSZ-type) on an example of peridotites from the Eastern Kamchatka ophiolite belt (EKOB), where sublongitude zones, crossed the basic geological structures of a penin- sula (including EROB) were allocated earlier. For each of zones the complex of geo- chemical attributes, steady is established within the limits of a zone, but distinct from of the characteristics of other zones. Among the factors causing an unequal degree of partial melting of peridotites, a main role play a geothermal regime and composition of fluid phase (first of all, the role of water fluid is great). These parameters, in turn, are supervised by a geodynamic regime of magma generation (such characteristics as speed of subduction and geometry of a subducted plate) and finally determine speed of uplift from the diapir in mantle, depth of the termination of partial melting, amount of 1 extracted melt, form and capacity of the magma chamber etc. The local heterogeneity in SSZ-ophiolites is considered on an example of a complex of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula - the largest ophiolite complex in EKOB. Isotope, geochemical and miner- alogical study have shown, that a part, prevailing on volume, of this complex consist suprasubduction-type magmatic rocks (restite high-depleted harzburgites and related layered cumulative complex), whereas peridotites of harzburgite-lherzolite series and high-grade metabasites (retrograde eclogites and garnet amphibolites) composition- ally correspond to series of N-MORB and Ò-MORB-type. The presence in ophiolite of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula alongside with high-depleted harzburgites as well moderately- and low-depleted peridotites of harzburgite-lherzolite series allows to as- sume, that Late Mesozoic suprasubduction ophiolites were formed on peridotitic basis of abyssal type. Thus the transformation of "oceanic" substrate was not complete, that has allowed to be kept relict peridotites of lherzolitic type and high-pressure metamor- phics. Probably it reflects pulsing character of geodynamics of suprasubduction-type ophiolite formation, it is possible is connected with "jumping" of spreading axes in suprasubduction conditions. During followed multistage napping in a northeast direc- tion in the Upper Cretaceous time disintegrated fragments of both mantle complexes were tectonically concurrent. In the report the alternative versions of tectonic models of development are also discussed for the Eastern Kamchatka ophiolites. 2

  20. Chemistry and origin of trapped melts in ophiolitic peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, E.; Piccardo, G. B.; Vannucci, R.; Bottazzi, P.

    1997-11-01

    Melt impregnation and peridotite-melt interaction are ubiquitous phenomena in the oceanic-type lithospheric mantle. Nevertheless, the nature of the infiltrating melts is still poorly understood. We performed detailed textural and chemical investigations (by means of electron and ion microprobe) on: (1) impregnated plagioclase-bearing ophiolitic peridotites from the Internal Ligurides (Northern Apennine, Italy) and Mt. Maggiore (Corsica), and (2) olivine cumulates (consisting of 85 vol% olivine plus interstitial plagioclase and rare poikilitic clinopyroxene) from magmatic pods intruded within the Mt. Maggiore peridotites. Field evidence indicates that such cumulates crystallized from the melts, which impregnated the surrounding peridotites. Melt impregnation in the peridotites is verified by the occurrence of peculiar microstructures: (1) plagioclase blebs and/or veins confined along grain boundaries or crosscutting mantle minerals; (2) partial dissolution of mantle clinopyroxene and replacement by orthopyroxene and plagioclase aggregates, which indicate disequilibrium between melts and host peridotites. Interaction with melts also produces chemical modifications in mantle clinopyroxenes, i.e., Ti, M(middle)- to H(heavy)-REEs (and, to a lesser extent, Zr, Y, and Sc) enrichment coupled to depletion in Al. Minerals crystallized from the melts have depleted Geochemical signature: plagioclases are highly Anorthitic (An 88?An 94 in the peridotites; An 81?An 85 in the cumulates), and show extremely low Sr (<26 ppm) and LREE ( < 1 × Cl; CeN/SMN = 0.13-0.50 ) concentrations. Interstitial clinopyroxenes in the cumulates are characterized by high Mg values (90.6-91.7): their REE spectra show significant LREE depletion ( CeN/YbN = 0.027-0.039 ), high M- to H-REE concentrations (15-30 × C1) and pronounced negative Eu N anomalies. Geochemical modeling indicates that the impregnating liquids probably consisted of unmixed depleted melt increments produced by 6-7% fractional melting. The results of this study therefore suggest that the impregnating melts originated at deeper mantle levels and presumably represented the last melt increments of a fractional melting process. There is thus a higher probability that they will remain incorporated in the upper mantle. They subsequently ascended, partly crystallized as cumulate pods, and interacted with the studied peridotites dissolving mantle clinopyroxene and precipitating orthopyroxene. Such a process has been increasingly invoked in studies of melt/rock reaction zones from ophiolitic peridotites.

  1. Plate kinematics, origin and tectonic emplacement of supra-subduction ophiolites in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Monnier, Christophe; Maury, René; Tamayo, R.

    2004-11-01

    A unique feature of the Circum Pacific orogenic belts is the occurrence of ophiolitic bodies of various sizes, most of which display petrological and geochemical characteristics typical of supra-subduction zone oceanic crust. In SE Asia, a majority of the ophiolites appear to have originated at convergent margins, and specifically in backarc or island arc settings, which evolved either along the edge of the Sunda (Eurasia) and Australian cratons, or within the Philippine Sea Plate. These ophiolites were later accreted to continental margins during the Tertiary. Because of fast relative plate velocities, tectonic regimes at the active margins of these three plates also changed rapidly. Strain partitioning associated with oblique convergence caused arc-trench systems to move further away from the locus of their accretion. We distinguish "relatively autochthonous ophiolites" resulting from the shortening of marginal basins such as the present-day South China Sea or the Coral Sea, and "highly displaced ophiolites" developed in oblique convergent margins, where they were dismantled, transported and locally severely sheared during final docking. In peri-cratonic mobile belts (i.e. the Philippine Mobile Belt) we find a series of oceanic basins which have been slightly deformed and uplifted. Varying lithologies and geochemical compositions of tectonic units in these basins, as well as their age discrepancies, suggest important displacements along major wrench faults. We have used plate tectonic reconstructions to restore the former backarc basins and island arcs characterized by known petro-geochemical data to their original location and their former tectonic settings. Some of the ophiolites occurring in front of the Sunda plate represent supra-subduction zone basins formed along the Australian Craton margin during the Mesozoic. The Philippine Sea Basin, the Huatung basin south of Taiwan, and composite ophiolitic basements of the Philippines and Halmahera may represent remnants of such marginal basins. The portion of the Philippine Sea Plate carrying the Taiwan-Philippine arc and its composite ophiolitic/continental crustal basement might have actually originated in a different setting, closer to that of the Papua New Guinea Ophiolite, and then have been displaced rapidly as a result of shearing associated with fast oblique convergence.

  2. K-Ar ages of metamorphic rocks at the base of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.

    1981-04-10

    Hornblendes from amphiobolities in the sheet of metamorphic rocks beneath the peridotite member of the Samail ophiolite and phyllites farther from the peridotite contact have weighted mean /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar total fusion ages of 90.0 +- 3.0 m.y. and 79.5 +- 3.0 m.y., respectively. The amphibolities represent the first tectonic slice welded to the base of the Samail ophiolite after it was detached from the Tethyan oceanic crust. Formation of the amphiobolities occurred no more than 3 to 7 m.y. after crystallization of plagiogranite in the ophiolite. The phyllites represent another tectonic slice of ocean floor sediments welded to the ophiolite as it was transported further from the Tethyan spreading axis. The K-Ar ages suggest, assuming a half-spreading rate of 2 to 5 cm/yr, that detachment of the Samail ophiolite and formation of amphibolite facies rocks occurred no more than 60 to 350 km from spreading center. Using the same spreading rate, one can calculate a minimum half width of 300 to 750 km for the Tethyan Ocean during the Late Cretaceous.

  3. Thermo-mechanical models of obduction applied to the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Duretz; Philippe, Agard; Philippe, Yamato; Céline, Ducassou; Taras, Gerya; Evguenii, Burov

    2015-04-01

    During obduction regional-scale fragments of oceanic lithosphere (ophiolites) are emplaced somewhat enigmatically on top of lighter continental lithosphere. We herein use two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models to investigate the feasibility and controlling parameters of obduction. The models are designed using available geological data from the Oman (Semail) ophiolite. Initial and boundary conditions are constrained by plate kinematic and geochronological data and modeling results are validated against petrological and structural observations. The reference model consists of three distinct stages: (1) initiation of oceanic subduction initiation away from Arabian margin, (2) emplacement of the Oman Ophiolite atop the Arabian margin, (2) dome-like exhumation of the subducted Arabian margin beneath the overlying ophiolite. A parametric study suggests that 350-400 km of shortening allows to best fit both the peak P-T conditions of the subducted margin (1.5-2.5 GPa / 450-600°C) and the dimensions of the ophiolite (~170 km width), in agreement with previous estimations. Our results further confirm that the locus of obduction initiation is close to the eastern edge of the Arabian margin (~100 km) and indicate that obduction is facilitated by a strong continental basement rheology.

  4. The age and origin of felsic intrusions of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, Quebec.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frankel, C.S.; Eaby, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This ophiolite was obducted in the early Ordovician during the closing of the proto-Atlantic. The tectonized peridotite of the lower unit of the ophiolite is intruded by felsic dykes and pods, including isolated lenses of massive rodingite, small bodies of strongly deformed diorite, and younger, less deformed monzonite. These intrusions are found only near the base of the ophiolite, and are considered to have been emplaced before the ophiolite reached its present position. The young group of intrusions consists of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite and leuco-quartz monzonite. Analysed samples have high K2O, high (K2O X 100)/Na2O + K2O) ratios, and high initial Sr ratios, indicating that the magma source was continental and that these felsic rocks formed by partial melting of continental sediments. Whole-rock and mineral isochron ages suggest that the felsic intrusions are approx 456 + or - 4 m.y. old and that they were metamorphosed approx 418 + or - 7 m.y. ago. The detachment of the ophiolite occurred approx 491 + or - 3 m.y. ago. The felsic dykes were intruded approx 35 m.y. later, during the Taconic orogeny. The lengthy time between detachment and final nappe emplacement recorded by the felsic dykes may be a requirement for formation of abundant asbestiform chrysotile. Whole-rock analyses (16) and Rb, Sr and 87Sr/86Sr data from the Colline de Granite, King Mts., Vimy Ridge and Black Lake samples are presented.-P.Br.

  5. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  6. Root Zone of Sheeted Dike Complex in Oman Ophiolite-Comparison with Results from IODP Site 1256

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nicolas; F. Boudier; J. Koepke; B. Ildefonse; C. Mevel

    2008-01-01

    In the Oman ophiolite crustal section, a contact zone between the gabbro unit and the volcanics and diabase sheeted dikes, called the root zone of the sheeted dike complex, has been recently mapped at a fine-scale in a selected area. The Oman ophiolite is derived from a fast spreading ridge which had a melt lens located between the main gabbro

  7. Natural radioelement concentration in the Troodos Ophiolite Complex of Cyprus

    E-print Network

    Tzortzis, M; Tzortzis, Michalis; Tsertos, Haralabos

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was exploited to determine naturally occurring thorium (Th), uranium (U) and potassium (K) elemental concentrations in the whole area covered by the Troodos Ophiolite Complex of Cyprus. For that purpose, a total of 59 samples from surface soils and 10 from the main rock formations of the region of interest were analysed. Elemental concentrations were determined for Th (range from 2.5x10^-3 ppm to 2.0 ppm), U (from 8.1x10^-4 ppm to 0.6 ppm), and K (from 1.3x10^-4 % to 1.0 %). The average values (A.M +- S.D.) derived are (0.24 +- 0.34) ppm, (0.10 +- 0.10) ppm and (0.21 +- 0.24) %, for Th, U, and K, respectively, in the soils, and (0.52 +- 0.17) ppm, (0.17 +- 0.11) ppm and (0.49 +- 0.87) % in the rocks. From these values, a radioactivity (radioelement) loss of nearly 50% is estimated in the underlying surface soils due to bleaching and eluviation during weathering of the rocks. The measured Th/U ratio exhibits values between 2 and 4, whereas the K/Th ratio is highly variabl...

  8. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr-isotopic compositions were measured in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite, diabase dykes, and gabbro and websterite dykes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cumulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70314 + or - 0.00030 and 0.70306 + or - 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr- isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr-isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern MORB. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dykes range 0.7034-0.7047, 0.7038-0.7046 and 0.7037- 0.7061, respectively. These higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with sea-water. Mineral separates from dykes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr-isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dykes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.-T.R.

  9. Rooted Brooks Range ophiolite: Implications for Cordilleran terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Morin, R.L.; Hudson, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling of gravity and magnetic data shows that areally extensive mafic and ultramafic rocks of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, are at least 8 km thick, and that gabbro and ultramafic rocks underlie basalt in several places. The basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks have been considered parts of a far-traveled ophiolite assemblage. These rocks are the highest structural elements in the Brooks Range thrust belt and are thought to be hundreds of kilometers north of their origin. This requires these rocks to be thin klippen without geologic ties to the continental shelf sedimentary rocks that now surround them. The geophysically determined, thick and interleaved subsurface character of the basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks is inconsistent with this interpretation. An origin within an extensional setting on the continental shelf could produce the required subsurface geometries and explain other perplexing characteristics of these rocks. Early Mesozoic Alaska, from the North Slope southward to the interior, may have had many irregular extensional basins on a broad, distal continental shelf. This original tectonic setting may apply elsewhere in Cordilleran-type margins where appropriate mafic and ultramafic analogs are present.

  10. Natural radioelement concentration in the Troodos Ophiolite Complex of Cyprus

    E-print Network

    Michalis Tzortzis; Haralabos Tsertos

    2004-09-16

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was exploited to determine naturally occurring thorium (Th), uranium (U) and potassium (K) elemental concentrations in the whole area covered by the Troodos Ophiolite Complex of Cyprus. For that purpose, a total of 59 samples from surface soils and 10 from the main rock formations of the region of interest were analysed. Elemental concentrations were determined for Th (range from 2.5x10^-3 ppm to 2.0 ppm), U (from 8.1x10^-4 ppm to 0.6 ppm), and K (from 1.3x10^-4 % to 1.0 %). The average values (A.M +- S.D.) derived are (0.24 +- 0.34) ppm, (0.10 +- 0.10) ppm and (0.21 +- 0.24) %, for Th, U, and K, respectively, in the soils, and (0.52 +- 0.17) ppm, (0.17 +- 0.11) ppm and (0.49 +- 0.87) % in the rocks. From these values, a radioactivity (radioelement) loss of nearly 50% is estimated in the underlying surface soils due to bleaching and eluviation during weathering of the rocks. The measured Th/U ratio exhibits values between 2 and 4, whereas the K/Th ratio is highly variable ranging between 1.5x10^3 and 3.0x10^4.

  11. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-04-10

    We have measured Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic compositions in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite diabase dikes, and gabbro and websterite dikes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cummulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have mean /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and standard deviations of 0.70314 +- 0.00030 and 0.70306 +- 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern midocean ridge basalt. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dikes range from 0.7034 to 0.7047, 0.7038 to 0.7046, and 0.7037 to 0.7061, respectively. These higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with seawater. Mineral separates from dikes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dikes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.

  12. The Hellenic ophiolites: eastward or westward obduction of the Maliac Ocean, a discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Jacky; Chanier, Frank; Ditbanjong, Pitaksit

    2012-09-01

    Ophiolitic bodies in the Dinaro-Hellenic mountain belt are among the most important ones in the Peri-Mediterranean Alpine chains. The characteristic feature of this ophiolitic belt is its Middle to Late Jurassic age of obduction. The ophiolitic bodies form two major belts on each side of the Pelagonian zone: an east Pelagonian belt in the Vardarian domain and a Supra-Pelagonian ophiolitic belt (SPO) to the west. The different hypotheses relative to the origin of the SPO present geodynamic evolution models accounting for most of the available data: a mid-Triassic episode of rifting; a Ladinian-Jurassic episode of sea-floor spreading forming notably the Maliac Ocean; a Middle to Late Jurassic convergent period with subduction and obduction episodes, and finally, a late episode of Tertiary compressional deformation responsible for the westward thrusting of the Jurassic ophiolitic nappes over the external zones. Despite many studies dating from the early 1970s, the eastern or western Pelagonian origin of these ophiolites, especially the SPO, is still under dispute. Whatever the adopted hypothesis, we consider that the main SPO bodies (N-Pindos, Vourinos, Othris, Evia, Argolis) have the same origin because of their geographic continuity and of the similarities in their geological characteristics. We propose that this ocean corresponds everywhere to the Maliac Ocean, defined in Othris from the well-preserved sedimentary (oceanic margin) and ophiolitic nappes thrust during the Late Jurassic obduction onto the Pelagonian platform. There is strong evidence for the existence of two deep basins on both sides of the Pelagonian continental ridge during Triassic-Jurassic times. They correspond, respectively, to the Vardar area to the east and the Pindos domain to the west, one of these domains being at the origin of the SPO. The hypothesis of an eastward emplacement of the SPO from the Pindos domain is based mainly on sedimentological data from the margin series and on structural analyses of ophiolitic bodies. However, we conclude the westward obduction of the Maliac Ocean, originating from the Vardar area, to be the best fitting model. This westward model is supported by paleogeographic and structural constraints on regional scale. Notably, the absence of obducted ophiolites in the Jurassic series of the Koziakas units (units attributed to the western Pelagonian margin) and of the Parnassus domain (on the eastern side of the Pindos basin) is difficult to reconcile with an eastward obduction from the Pindos domain. Other observations, such as the distribution of ophiolitic detritus in the internal and external zones, also promote the westward Late Jurassic obduction of the Maliac Ocean. Our preferred model offers a consistent explanation for the mechanism and timing of the emplacement of the SPO, as well as providing insight on the origin and emplacement of the Vardarian ophiolites. Following this hypothesis, there is no need for a clear boundary between the SPO and the west Vardarian ophiolitic bodies as they were obducted from the same oceanic basin and during the same Jurassic tectonic event. In this paper, we develop evidence in favor of the eastern Pelagonian origin for the SPO (our adopted model) and provide discussion on the data supporting the main alternative hypothesis (western origin for the SPO).

  13. Oxygen isotope evidence for submarine hydrothermal alteration of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.; Evarts, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions and metamorphic mineral assemblages of hydrothermally altered rocks from the Del Puerto ophiolite and overlying volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks at the base of the Great Valley sequence indicate that their alteration occurred in a submarine hydrothermal system. Whole rock ??18O compositions decrease progressively down section (with increasing metamorphic grade): +22.4??? (SMOW) to +13.8 for zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks overlying the ophiolite; +19.6 to +11.6 for pumpellyite-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the upper part of the ophiolite's volcanic member; +12.3 to +8.1 for epidote-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the lower part of the volcanic member; +8.5 to +5.7 for greenschist facies rocks from the ophiolite's plutonic member; +7.6 to +5.8 for amphibolite facies or unmetamorphosed rocks from the plutonic member. Modelling of fluid-rock interaction in the Del Puerto ophiolite indicates that the observed pattern of upward enrichment in whole rock ??18O can be best explained by isotopic exchange with discharging 18O-shifted seawater at fluid/rock mass ratios near 2 and temperatures below 500??C. 18O-depleted plutonic rocks necessarily produced during hydrothermal circulation were later removed as a result of tectonism. Submarine weathering and later burial metamorphism at the base of the Great Valley sequence cannot by itself have produced the zonation of hydrothermal minerals and the corresponding variations in oxygen isotope compositions. The pervasive zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies mineral assemblages found in the Del Puerto ophiolite may reflect its origin near an island arc rather than deep ocean spreading center. ?? 1984.

  14. Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites formed in the Gangdese forearc: Evidence from paleomagnetism, sediment provenance, and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Orme, Devon A.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guilmette, Carl; Ding, Lin; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The India-Asia suture zone of southern Tibet exposes Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites and radiolarian cherts, and time-equivalent Asian-derived clastic forearc sedimentary rocks (Xigaze Group). These ophiolites have been interpreted to have formed in the forearc of the north-dipping subduction zone below Tibet that produced the Gangdese magmatic arc around 15-20°N, or in the forearc of a sub-equatorial intra-oceanic subduction zone. To better constrain the latitude of the ophiolites, we carried out an integrated paleomagnetic, geochronologic and stratigraphical study on epi-ophiolitic radiolarites (Chongdui and Bainang sections), and Xigaze Group turbiditic sandstones unconformably overlying the ophiolite's mantle units (Sangsang section). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of tuffaceous layers from the Chongdui section and sandstones of the Xigaze Group at the Sangsang section provides maximum depositional ages of 116.5 ± 3.1 Ma and 128.8 ± 3.4 Ma, respectively, for the Chongdui section and an Asian provenance signature for the Xigaze Group. Paleomagnetic analyses, integrated with rock magnetic experiments, indicate significant compaction-related inclination 'shallowing' of the remanence within the studied rocks. Two independent methods are applied for the inclination shallowing correction of the paleomagnetic directions from the Sangsang section, yielding consistent mean paleolatitudes of 16.2°N [13°N, 20.9°N] and 16.8°N [11.1°N, 23.3°N], respectively. These results are indistinguishable from recent paleolatitude estimates for the Gangdese arc in southern Tibet. Radiolarites from the Chongdui and Bainang sections yield low paleomagnetic inclinations that would suggest a sub-equatorial paleolatitude, but the distribution of the paleomagnetic directions in these rocks strongly suggests a low inclination bias by compaction. Our data indicate that spreading of the Xigaze ophiolite occurred in the Gangdese forearc, and formed the basement of the forearc strata.

  15. Palaeogeographical evolution of the Arabian platform during the obduction of the Samail ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducassou, Céline; Robin, Cécile; Wohlwend, Stephan; Piuz, André; Gorican, Spela

    2014-05-01

    Obduction of a dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a light continental lithosphere remains one of the oddest phenomenons in plate tectonics. In northern Oman, the emplacement of the Samail (or Oman) ophiolite took place during Upper Cretaceous. The Samail ophiolite is probably the best studied ophiolite in the world because of its large size and because it has been relatively well preserved from deformation after its emplacement. If many studies have been carried out on the ophiolite itself in order to better understand the structure of an oceanic crust, little is known on the processes leading to its emplacement on the top of the Arabian platform. The sedimentary series deposited on the Arabian platform during the emplacement of the ophiolite could help us to understand the processes involved during the obduction by providing tectono-stratigraphic constraints on the evolution of the platform affected by the obduction. Moreover the reconstitution of the palaeoenvironments and the identification of source areas would allow discussing the evolution of reliefs formed in such a unique context. However, these series, being located just below the allochthonous units, have been affected by deformation. They are grouped in one formation, the Muti Formation, consisting of various lithologies of which the age is uncertain. In consequence, sedimentological analyses require careful mapping of the sedimentary series and biostratigraphical determinations remain difficult. The first results of our sedimentological and stratigraphical investigations show (i) a diachronism of the onset of syn-tectonic sedimentation (chemostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data) and (ii) a high variation of the source areas within the basin. These data are used in order to present a new model of evolution of the basin formed during the emplacement of the Samail ophiolite on top of the Arabian Platform. Implications for the processes involved during the obduction are also discussed.

  16. The Significance of Paired Ophiolite Belts - Examples From the Western Pacific and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpas, J.; Zhou, M.

    2001-12-01

    Both the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC), Philippines, and the Mayari-Baracoa Ophiolite Belt (MBOB), Cuba, comprise two geochemically distinct ophiolitic assemblages. In the ZOC, the Coto Block contains a mantle sequence characterised by depleted residual harzburgites with a thin dunitic transition zone. Chromitites are of the high-Al variety (Cr2O3=30-44 wt%; Al2O3=20-30 wt%). The adjacent Acoje Block has a less depleted lherzolite-harzburgite mantle sequence, a well developed dunitic transition zone and high-Cr type chromitites (Cr2O3=45-53 wt%; Al2O3=12-18 wt%). The MBOB is made up of two massifs, the Moa-Baracoa Massif (MBM) and the Mayari-Cristal Massif (MCM). The MBM consists of depleted harzburgites with abundant high-Al podiform chromitites, whereas the MCM comprises peridotites with high-Cr podiform chromitites. The occurrence of two adjacent mantle sequences in each of these ophiolites makes them excellent examples of "paired ophiolite belts". The distinct mantle sequences have different REE and PGE patterns that demonstrate that they have different origins in terms of their source regions, partial melting and melt-rock interaction processes. High-Cr chromitites crystallised from refractory (boninitic) melts whereas high-Al chromitites were associated with tholeiitic melts. These differences can best be accommodated in a model in which the more depleted sections are formed as part of a volcanic arc sequence, whereas the less depleted sections formed in a back arc basin. As such, paired ophiolite belts may provide evidence of subduction polarity and the nature of mantle dynamics in a suprasubduction zone environment.

  17. Recycling of crustal minerals into the upper mantle: evidence from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.; Trumbull, R.

    2009-05-01

    A wide variety of ultrahigh pressure and crustal minerals has been recovered from podiform chromitites of the Donqiao and Luobusa ophiolites of Tibet, the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals and the Semail ophiolite of Oman. Microdiamonds are abundant in the Luobusa, Donqiao and Ray-Iz ophiolites, coesite and kyanite occur in Luobusa and moissanite is present in all four ophiolites. Numerous crustal minerals, including zircon, corundum, quartz, almandine garnet, rutile, and feldspar are also present. The diamonds are mostly euhedral grains,100-200 µm across, commonly containing metallic and Mg-Fe silicate inclusions. One small grain occurs as an inclusion in an Os-Ir alloy. Coesite and kyanite are intergrown with each other on the rim of a grain of Ti-Fe alloy, and the coesite has a prismatic form suggesting it may be pseudomorphic after stishovite. Moissanite is common in all four ophiolites and occurs as small colorless, green or blue, vitreous fragments. Zircon grains range from 20 to 300 µm, and are mostly well rounded with very complex internal structures. They commonly contain low-pressure inclusions of quartz, rutile, orthoclase, mica, ilmenite and apatite. 206Pb/238U SIMS and SHRIMP dates for the zircons are mostly Paleozoic and Precambrian, far older than the ophiolites. The grains of quartz, almandine garnet, corundum and feldspar range up to about 0.5 mm and are moderately to well rounded. Smaller, angular fragments of such grains are also present. The rounded morphology of these grains, as well as the zircons, strongly suggests derivation from sedimentary material, presumably transported into the mantle by subduction. The microdiamonds and moissanite could also have been derived from crustal materials recycled into the mantle. We suggest that the various minerals were picked up by melts from which the chromitites precipitated and carried to shallow crustal levels. The preservation of such minerals, particularly quartz and coesite, in the mantle implies isolation from the enclosing rock, perhaps in xenoliths. The recovery of essentially the same minerals from four widely separated ophiolites, processed in different laboratories, argues strongly against natural or anthropogenic contamination.

  18. Mantle Wedge formation during Subduction Initiation: evidence from the refertilized base of the Oman ophiolitic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite

    2015-04-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. The latter one is supported by studies on volcanic sequences, whereas all studies dealing on the mantle section have recognized a first stage of oceanic accretion before subduction initiation. We herein focus on basal peridotites from all along the ophiolite strike in order to decipher and characterize potential fluid/melt transfers due to subduction processes. Samples were taken along hm- to km-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical (major, trace elements and boron isotopes) study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Results were then interpreted using thermal modelling of the ophiolitic mantle evolution during subduction initiation. Our results show that basal peridotites range from lherzolites to highly depleted harzburgites in composition. The clinopyroxenes (cpx) display melt impregnation textures and co-crystallized with HT/HP amphiboles (amph). The major and trace elements of the constitutive minerals indicate that the different basal lithologies only result from varying degrees of melt extraction. Combined with isotopic data, we demonstrate that the initial melt reacting with these peridotites derives from the mixing of asthenospheric melt and metamorphic sole-derived fluids, and was later extracted in variable proportions. From these observations and thermal modelling of the Fizh ophiolitic mantle evolution after subduction initiation, we interpret the occurrence of these basal lherzolites as representing a freezing front developed by thermal re-equilibration (cooling) of the subduction: the asthenospheric melt mixed with subduction-related fluids was extracted at different degrees until getting ultimately trapped, and crystallized cpx, amph and other associated minerals. The young and still very hot mantle section of today's northern Fizh massif thus contrasted, during subduction initiation, with the colder southernmost massifs of the ophiolite. These different thermal structures reflect different maturity of the oceanic lithosphere at the onset of subduction, which is hardly reconcilable with the ophiolite being formed in an entire supra-subduction zone system. We therefore favor a model in which a preexisting marginal basin acquired its arc-signature during subsequent subduction processes. If our interpretation is correct, the base of the Oman ophiolite could provide the best proxy for the composition of a frozen-in, incipiently forming mantle wedge.

  19. Beginning the Modern Regime of Subduction Tectonics in Neoproterozoic time: Inferences from Ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R.

    2003-04-01

    It is now clear that the motive force for plate tectonics is provided by the sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones. Correspondingly, the modern tectonic regime is more aptly called ``subduction tectonics" than plate tectonics, which only describes the way Earth's thermal boundary layer adjusts to subduction. The absence of subduction tectonics on Mars and Venus implies that special circumstances are required for subduction to occur on a silicate planet. This begs the question: When did Earth's oceanic lithosphere cool sufficiently for subduction to began? This must be inferred from indirect lines of evidence; the focus here is on the temporal distribution of ophiolites. Well-preserved ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) affinities are increasingly regarded as forming when subduction initiates as a result of lithospheric collapse (± a nudge to get it started), and the formation of ophiolitic lithosphere in evolving forearcs favors their emplacement and preservation. The question now is what percentage of ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) chemical signatures formed in forearcs during subduction initiation events? Most of the large, well-preserved ophiolites (e.g., Oman, Cyprus, California, Newfoundland) may have this origin. If so, the distribution in space and time of such ophiolites can be used to identify ``subduction initiation" events, which are important events in the evolution of plate tectonics. Such events first occurred at the end of the Archean (˜2.5Ga) and again in the Paleoproterozoic (˜1.8 Ga), but ophiolites become uncommon after this. Well-preserved ophiolites become abundant in Neoproterozoic time, at about 800±50 Ma. Ophiolites of this age are common and well-preserved in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia. ANS ophiolites mostly contain spinels with high Cr#, indicating SSZ affinities. Limited trace element data on pillowed lavas supports this interpretation. Boninites are unusual melts of harzburgite that result from asthenospheric upwelling interactng with slab-derived water. This environment is only common during subduction initiation events. Boninites associated with ophiolites have been reported from Egypt, Ethiopia and Eritrea, but most of the geochemical studies of ANS ophiolitic basalts are based on studies that are a decade or more old. The abundance of ANS ophiolites implies an episode of subduction initiation occurred in Neoproterozoic time.

  20. Faulting and Serpentinisation of Peridotites in the Leka Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Drivdal, Kerstin; Austrheim, Håkon; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The ocean floor is strongly affected by seismic activity along mid ocean ridges and transform faults, where the upper mantle may undergo extensive alteration and serpentinisation. While the spatial link between faulting and serpentinisation is generally accepted, the causal connection between these two processes is not well understood. The cumulate section of the Leka Ophiolite, north-central Norway, is transected by kilometre long sets of parallel faults and shear zones with a dextral shear. The discrete faults have spacings from centimetres to decimetres and displacements in the same range. They alternate with breccia zones and metre thick shear zones with displacements up to 30 m. The extent of the faulted areas and the consistent dextral displacements indicate a regional deformation process, possibly related to a transform. The observation of progressive peridotite alteration in the Leka Ophiolite gives new insights into the interplay between serpentinisation and deformation. In the least altered peridotite, propagating fractures produce a texture reminiscent of cleaved olivine. Serpentinisation initiates along the cleavage planes. In more deformed samples, the centres of the discrete faults contain relatively large coherent olivine fragments alternating with trails of small spinel grains parallel to the fault. Most of the spinel is ferrichromite or magnetite, but some contain cores of primary chromite. Towards the margins of the faults, the amount of (fibrous) serpentine and fracturing of olivine increases significantly. The fault margins appear dark in hand specimens, which is due to finely dispersed magnetite grains in olivine and serpentine. The surrounding damage zones contain moderately serpentinised olivine grains exhibiting different deformation indicators such as undulous extinction, deformation lamellae and subgrain boundaries. In the breccia zones, where peridotite clasts are enclosed by deformation zones with the same buildup as the faults, this texture is, to different degrees, overprinted by late-stage antigorite serpentinisation. The faults themselves appear unaffected by this last stage of alteration. This challenges the common assumption that fractures enhance the progress of serpentinisation by providing fluid pathways. During the first stage of serpentinisation, the faults have been preferential reaction sites, as suggested by the abundance of magnetite along these zones and the serpentine along the cleavage planes in olivine. During the later antigorite formation, however, they remained unchanged. We envisage a process similar to the permeability reduction caused by deformation bands in sandstones: The grain size reduction and compaction during shearing apparently resulted in impermeable bands in the peridotites. Nevertheless, there must have been a significant mass flow from the antigorite domains, as they hardly contain any magnetite and brucite, both of which should have formed during serpentinisation. Consequently, the permeability of the deformed peridotite complex as a whole persisted despite the sealing of the fault cores. It remains to explore if the fault barriers played a role in seismic pumping and to couple the tectonic deformation to possible volume changes due to reaction.

  1. First pressure- and temperature estimates of the metamorphic sole of the Pinarbasi ophiolite, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje; Drury, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    Ophiolites are interpreted as remnants of oceanic lithosphere. Many have a so-called supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signature, suggestive of formation at a spreading ridge overlying a subduction zone. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites frequently have a several-hundred-meter thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: the metamorphic sole. These dominantly mafic and generally heavily sheared metamorphic rocks have been shown to preserve an inverted metamorphic gradient with the highest pressures and temperatures at the top of the sole, decreasing downwards. Pressure estimates from rocks found at the top of metamorphic soles may be as much as 10-15 kbar with temperature estimates up to 875°C. The metamorphic grade varies from greenschist near the base, up to granulite facies at the top, with the bulk comprising of amphibolite facies rocks. At some locations a blueschist overprint of the amphibolite facies mineral assemblages has been described. The relative high pressures preserved in the metamorphic sole cannot simply result from overburden pressure of the currently overlying ophiolite, which is a long-standing problem. This raises the question of what process(es) can explain pressures up to 10-15 kbar in the top of metamorphic soles, in relation to the approximately synchronous formation of the SSZ oceanic lithosphere above the sole. One of the places to study the formation of SSZ ophiolites and their metamorphic soles is the Neotethyan Suture zone. Remnants of Neotethyan lithosphere are preserved as ophiolites that are discontinuously exposed from the Mediterranean region through the Himalaya to SE Asia. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites are particularly widespread in Turkey. The Pinarba?i ophiolite is located in the SE of Central Anatolia, and overlies the Tauride fold-and-thrust belt that formed since the Late Cretaceous. It comprises mantle tectonites consisting of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite with remnants of gabbro to the top, cross-cut by felsic dikes. The mantle tectonites are highly brecciated at the bottom, near the contact with the metamorphic sole. The ophiolite is less than 3 km thick. A well-preserved metamorphic sole structurally underlies the mantle tectonites and consists in ascending order of non-metamorphic rocks, sheared and foliated greenschists, amphibolites, and garnet-amphibolites. The greenschist facies rocks are foliated and folded. The amphibolite is well foliated and has asymmetric isoclinal folds and a lineation defined by amphibole crystals. It is fine-grained at the bottom and coarser at structurally higher levels with up to 8 mm garnet porphyroblasts near the contact with the mantle tectonite. The lower-grade rocks at the base of the sole are predominantly metasediments, whilst the (garnet-) amphibolites mostly appear to be of magmatic origin. The sole is between 200 and 300 meters thick and is laterally discontinuous, at least in part due to late brittle faulting. The metamorphic sole overlies a tectonic mélange that separates the ophiolite and the sole from Tauride carbonate platform rocks. In this presentation we will show preliminary results constraining the PT-conditions for the different levels in the metamorphic sole underneath the Pinarba?i ophiolite to define the formation mechanism of the sole in relation to the overlying SSZ ophiolite.

  2. Shervais, J.W., 2008, Tonalites, trondhjemites, and diorites of the Elder Creek ophiolite, California: Low-pressure slab melting and reaction with the mantle wedge, in Wright, J.E., and Shervais, J.W., eds., Ophiolites, Arcs, and Batholiths: A Tribute to

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    113 Shervais, J.W., 2008, Tonalites, trondhjemites, and diorites of the Elder Creek ophiolite.W., eds., Ophiolites, Arcs, and Batholiths: A Tribute to Cliff Hopson: Geological Society of America Paper 438 2008 Tonalites, trondhjemites, and diorites of the Elder Creek ophiolite, California: Low

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  4. Melt viscosity, temperature and transport processes, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Hans; Kelemen, Peter B.

    2002-07-01

    The lava section in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, is chemically stratified and divided into a shallow lava sequence with low TiO 2 content and a deeper lava sequence with high TiO 2 content. We calculate the viscosity at magmatic temperature based on major element chemistry of lavas in Cyprus Crustal Study Project (CCSP) Holes CY-1 and 1A. We find that typical shallow low-Ti lavas have a magmatic viscosity that is two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of the deeper high-Ti lavas. This implies that, after eruption on-axis, Troodos low-Ti lavas would have been able to flow down the same slope faster and farther than high-Ti lavas. The calculated lava viscosity increases systematically from the lava-sediment interface to the bottom of the composite Hole CY-1/1A. This suggests that an efficient process of lava segregation by viscosity on the upper flanks of the paleo Troodos rise may have been responsible for the chemical stratification in the Troodos lava pile. Calculated magmatic temperature and molar Mg/(Mg+Fe), or Mg#, decrease systematically down-section, while SiO 2 content increases. Correlation of Mg# in the lavas with Mg# in the underlying, lower crustal plutonic rocks sampled by CCSP Hole CY-4 shows that the shallow lavas came from a high-temperature, lower crustal magma reservoir which is now represented by high-Mg# pyroxenite cumulates, while the deeper lavas were erupted from a lower-temperature, mid-crustal reservoir which is now represented by gabbroic cumulates with lower Mg#.

  5. The Mesoarchaean Tartoq Group suprasubduction zone ophiolite, SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilas, K.; van Hinsberg, V. J.; Kisters, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Tartoq Group comprises supracrustal rocks including: pillow lavas, sills/dykes, gabbros, and serpentinites. Metamorphic conditions range from greenschist to granulite facies. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age dating of an intrusive TTG sheet yields a minimum age of 2986 ±4 Ma for the supracrustal rocks. The mafic metavolcanic rocks are dominated by tholeiitic basaltic compositions (MgO = 4.2-16.5 wt.%, Fe2O3T = 5.7-17.3 wt.% and TiO2 = 0.3-1.6). They possess negative primitive mantle-normalized Nb-anomalies (Nb/Nb* = 0.26-1.31 and NbN/LaN from 0.3-0.9), positive Pb, K2O and Sr anomalies, and flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns (LaCN/SmCN = 0.67-1.96). La, Y, and Nb contents are similar to those of modern back-arc basalts and Th/Yb vs. Nb/Yb also indicates a subduction zone component in the source of the volcanic sequence. The serpentinites have major- and trace element contents consistent with them being mantle harzburgites and their PGE pattern also strongly supports a mantle origin. However, these ultramafic rocks have rather high Fe2O3T (10.5-18.8 wt.%). The similar flat trace element patterns of the different mafic lithologies are consistent with a co-magmatic assemblage of rocks that represents an ophiolite sequence. Combined metamorphic and structural data show horizontal fabrics and P-T conditions, which support a convergent margin setting that have undergone collision tectonics. Thus, we propose that the Tartoq Group represents a slab of now dismembered Mesoarchaean suprasubduction zone oceanic crust.

  6. Forearc hyperextension by detachment faulting and ophiolite dismemberment: examples from the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture Zone (Southern Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, M.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Huang, W.; Koornneef, L.; Guilmette, C.; Borneman, N.; Hodges, K. V.; Kapp, P. A.; Lin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The broad deformation zone of the Himalayan belt and Tibetan plateau is largely the product of continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia plates since the Early Eocene. Ophiolites exposed along the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture Zone (southern Tibet) demonstrate that a long-lasting intra-oceanic subduction zone must have played a significant role in accommodating closure of the >7500 km wide Neotethyan Ocean before continental collision. Their study can provide key constraints on the initial history of the Neotethyan subduction systems, and the following formation and emplacement of the ophiolite. Paleomagnetic analyses of the sheeted dykes complex of ophiolites have been successfully applied in the past to reconstruct the initial geometry of the spreading system associated to the ophiolite formation. Furthermore, oceanic detachment faults, structures widely occurring in modern magma-poor (slow-spreading) mid-ocean ridges, have been recently recognized also in ophiolites (i.e., Mirdita ophiolite of Albania), and (if present) their study may provide unique insights into the geodynamics and geometry of the associated spreading system. The YZSZ ophiolites form a 2500 km long belt mainly composed of dismembered ultramafic massifs locally covered by a crustal sequence and oceanic sediments, underlying a regionally continuous clastic Xigaze sedimentary basin interpreted as the Tibetan forearc. Our study focused along a ~250 km transect within the eastern sector of the YZSZ between the Sangsang and Xigatze ophiolite. Paleomagnetic, structural geological, and geochemical analyses evidenced the presence of fossil oceanic detachment faults that locally (Sangsang) exposed the lowermost units (mantle) directly at the seafloor. Based on this evidence, and the reconstructed rotation pattern of the region we propose a tectonic evolutionary model characterized by the interplay between magmatic crustal accretion and trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular tectonic extension, which resulted in thinning and dismemberment of the ophiolite.

  7. Diamond and moissanite in ophiolitic mantle rocks and podiform chromitites: A deep carbon source?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yang; X. Xu; M. Wiedenbeck; R. B. Trumbull; P. T. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds are known from a variety of occurreces, mainly from mantle-derived kimberlites, meteorite impact craters, and continental deep subduction and collision zones. Recently, an unusual mineral group was discovered in the Luobusa ophiolitic chromitites from the Yarlung Zangbu suture, Tibet, which probably originated from a depth of over 300 km in the mantle. Minerals of deep origin include coesite apparently

  8. Petrogenesis of boninites in the Ordovician Ballantrae Complex ophiolite, southwestern Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Smellie; P. Stone; J. Evans

    1995-01-01

    Primitive lava and hyaloclastite with unusual, highly refractory compositions, form part of the Early Ordovician Balcreuchan Group within the ophiolitic Ballantrae Complex, southwestern Scotland. They are identified as likely high-Ca boninites on the basis of new XRF and INAA results and are the first unambiguous boninites to be discovered in the British Isles. The boninites are interbedded with low-Ti tholeiitic

  9. Merguerian, Charles, 1979, Dismembered ophiolite along Cameron's Line, West Torrington, Connecticut.

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    of the fault. Near Cameron's Line 2 km west of Torrington, a 10 m slice of ultramafic rock together accretionary prism, juxtaposing the North American shelf and transition sequence with the Hartland ComplexMerguerian, Charles, 1979, Dismembered ophiolite along Cameron's Line, West Torrington, Connecticut

  10. Magma chambers in the Oman ophiolite: fed from the top and the bottom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Boudier; Adolphe Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    Recent models of magma chambers at fast-spreading ridges are based on the idea that the entire gabbro section of the oceanic crust crystallizes from a thin melt lens located just below the sheeted dike complex. The shape of the lens has been deduced from seismic reflection data at fast-spreading ridges. On the basis of structural studies in the Oman ophiolite,

  11. Geology and seismic structure of the northern section of the Oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolas I. Christensen; John D. Smewing

    1981-01-01

    In the north Oman mountains, a continuous ophiolite succession is exposed, from tectonized harzuburgities and dunities at the base, through layered gabbros and peridotities, high-level gabbros and plagiogranite, to a dike swarm and pillowed volcanic overlain by pelagic shales. The upper part of this sequence possesses a static metamorphic overprint, which passes downward from greenschist facies in the lowermost volcanics

  12. Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolas I. Christensen; Matthew H. Salisbury

    1979-01-01

    Olivine fabrics in 17 field-oriented ultramafics and mafics from three widely-spaced traverses in the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Complex, Newfoundland, display a remarkably uniform symmetry in which the olivine a crystallographic axes are aligned subprependicular to the sheeted dikes and the b and c axes lie within the plane of the sheeted dikes. The ultramafics studied consist entirely of tectonites;

  13. Structure of the Sheeted Dike Complex of the Samail Ophiolite Near Ibra, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Pallister

    1981-01-01

    The sheeted dike complex is a regionally mappable geologic unit with a consistent position in the Samail ophiolite stratigraphy. Discontinuous exposures of the complex in the Ibra area of the southeast Oman Mountains provide structural data that allow reconstruction of a paleo-spreading ridge axis of 347 ø for the region and suggests a maximum spreading width of 275 km for

  14. Melt segregation and flow in mantle diapirs below spreading centers: evidence from the oman ophiolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rabinowicz; G. Ceuleneer; A. Nicolas

    1987-01-01

    A mantle diapir of 8-km radius has been recognized by systematic structural mapping of the Oman ophiolite in the Maqsad district. This diapir chilled while still active under the ridge crest. Streamlines rotated in the diverging part of the diapir a few hundred meters under the Moho. This implies a decrease by several orders of magnitude in the effective viscosity

  15. TiV plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Shervais

    1982-01-01

    Plots of Ti vs. V for many modern volcanic rock associations are diagnostic of tectonic setting and can be used to determine possible tectonic settings of ophiolites as well. The basis of this plot is the variation in the crystal\\/liquid partition coefficients for vanadium, which range with increasing oxygen fugacity from > 1 to << 1. Since the partition coefficients

  16. A Magnetotelluric Survey of Ophiolites in the Neyriz area of southwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskooi, B.; Mansoori, I.; Pedersen, L. B.; Koyi, H. A.

    2015-02-01

    A wide band magnetotelluric study of the ophiolitic zone of the Zagros orogenic belt was conducted in the Neyriz area of southwestern Iran. The purpose of the study was to image subsurface structures electrically and relocate the main Zagros thrust fault in the region. The thrust fault has a complex structure with obscure behavior and is believed to be located within a zone of ongoing continental plate convergence. The fault zone with a NW-SE geological trend is parallel to the Zagros orogenic belt and separates the Neyriz ophiolite assemblage from the adjacent Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone. Magnetotelluric data were collected along a SW-NE profile across the geologic strike; the study included 18 stations and modeling was performed using a 2-D inversion scheme. Analysis of both modes of magnetotelluric data (TE and TM) clarifies the signatures of large resistivity variation in the study area. Due to the presence of a high contrast in resistivity between the ophiolites and neighboring rocks, we are able to discern two sharp boundaries as faulting planes and borders of the ophiolite-radiolarite zone in the north-eastern and southwestern parts of the 2-D resistivity models, respectively.

  17. Cross section through the peridotite in the Samail ophiolite, southeastern Oman Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boudier; R. G. Coleman

    1981-01-01

    A continuous cross section through the peridotite of the Samail ophiolite south of Wadi Tayin offers a relatively undisturbed slice of oceanic mantle 9-12 km thick. The whole section consists of a regularly foliated harzburgite banded with orthopyroxenite except for a narrow zone at the base where the primary banding is dominantly dunitic. Websterite dikes, sometimes deformed and branching, are

  18. Emplacement of the East Sulawesi Ophiolite: evidence from subophiolite metamorphic rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Parkinson

    1998-01-01

    A newly discovered high-temperature metamorphic sole at the base of the extensive East Sulawesi Ophiolite in Sulawesi, Indonesia yields new structural and petrological data with which to constrain the emplacement history. The metamorphic sole is composed of a thin sequence of garnet and epidote amphibolite and basal greenschist metaclastics. East-dipping tectonite fabrics in the metamorphic sole amphibolite are coincident with

  19. Ophiolite emplacement by collision between the sula platform and the sulawesi island arc, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli A. Silver; Robert McCaffrey; Yoko Joyodiwiryo; Scott Stevens

    1983-01-01

    Much of the tectonic complexity displayed in eastern Indonesia results from a series of Neogene collision events between island arcs, continental fragments, and the Australian continent. Here we examine the emplacement of a large ophiolite belt, resulting from the Miocene collision between the Sulawesi island arc and a continental fragment, the Sula platform. We present the results of several marine

  20. Emplacement of the Irian Ophiolite and unroofing of the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt of Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard John Weiland Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of Irian Ophiolite metabasites near the Gauttier Offset indicate exhumation from a northeast dipping subduction zone. Amphibolites, were metamorphosed at <5 kb and ˜700 °C, blueschists at ˜7 kb and ˜400 °C, and eclogites at ˜450 °C but not necessarily higher pressures. Basaltic compositions, REE concentrations, and radiogenic isotope ratios are characteristic of seawater altered ORB. Isotopic ages

  1. Early Paleozoic Ophiolite Complexes of the Newfoundland Appalachians as Mantle-Oceanic Crust Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Church; R. K. Stevens

    1971-01-01

    The layered ultramarie-marie complexes of the Northwest platform and the Fleur de Lys orthotectonic zones of the Newfoundland Appalaehians are comparable to layered Tethyan ophiolite suites of the Piedmont Alps, the Dinarides, and the Oman. They can be interpreted as oceanic crust and mantle: the peridotires, with high-pressure mineral assemblages, kaersutire, and titaniferous phlogopite, represent the upper mantle; the overlying

  2. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to investigate the very early stages of formation of faulted oceanic bodies that may further be incorporated into mountain belts as ophiolites. They allow to discuss rates and duration of deformation, diffuse vs localized deformation, re-activation vs neo-formed faults, serpentinization and thermal regime, spacing of minor and major thrust faults. Delescluse, M., L. G. J. Montesi, and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Fault reactivation and selective abandonment in the oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 35. Delescluse, M., and N. Chamot-Rooke (2008) Serpentinization pulse in the actively deforming Central Indian Basin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 276, p. 140-151. Eittreim, S. L., and J. Ewing (1972), Mid-Plate Tectonics in the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77(32), 6413-6421.

  3. Platinum-group elements in rocks from the voikar-syninsky ophiolite complex, Polar Urals, U.S.S.R.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Haffty, J.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of platinum-group elements (PGE) in rocks collected from the Voikar-Syninsky ophiolite in the Polar Urals suggest that the distribution and geochemistry of PGE in this Paleozoic ophiolite are similar to those in Mesozoic ophiolites from elsewhere. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns for chromitite, the tectonite unit, and ultramafic and mafic cumulate unit have negative slopes. These results are similar to those found for chromitites from other ophiolites; stratiform chromities show positive slopes. If the magmas that form both types of chromitite originate from similar mantle source material with respect to PGE content, the processes involved must be quite different. However, the distinct chondrite-normalized PGE patterns may reflect differing source materials. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite orebody Cr11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangzhen Xu; Jingsui Yang; Songyong Chen; Qingsong Fang; Wenji Bai; Dengzhu Ba

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of unusual mantle has been reported from podiform chromitite orebodies Cr-31 and Cr-74 in the Luobusa (???)\\u000a ophiolite, Tibet. A detailed investigation of chromitite orebody Cr-11, located in the Kangjinla (???) district at the eastern\\u000a end of the ophiolite, has revealed many of the same minerals, including diamond, moissanite, and some native elements, alloys,\\u000a oxides, sulphides, silicates,

  5. Calc-alkaline differentiation trend in the plutonic sequence of the Wadi Haymiliyah section, Haylayn massif, Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lachize; J. P. Lorand; T. Juteau

    1996-01-01

    The Wadi Haymiliyah section, in the Haylayn block (Semail ophiolite, Oman) displays an unusual plutonic sequence closely similar to those of supra-subduction zone harzburgitic ophiolites (“Troodos sub-type”). It comprizes a bottom, 1000 m-thick, coarse-grained layered gabbro unit (MLGU) overlain by a 1000 m-thick, fine-grained, laminated noritic gabbro unit (MLNGU). Taken as a whole, the mineralogical and bulk-rock trends of the

  6. Samarium-neodymium data on two late Proterozoic ophiolites of Saudi Arabia and implications for crustal and mantle evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Claesson; John S. Pallister; Mitsunobu Tatsumoto

    1984-01-01

    Whole-rock and mineral samples from the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites, northwestern Saudi Arabia, yield Sm-Nd isochron ages of 743+24 Ma and 782±38 Ma, respectively. These formation ages, which provide maximum limits for possible obduction ages, are in broad but not precise agreement with the previously known geologic history of the Arabian Shield. They indicate that the ophiolitic

  7. Geologic Section Through the Samail Ophiolite and Associated Rocks Along a Muscat-Ibra Transect, Southeastern Oman Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Hopson; R. G. Coleman; R. T. Gregory; J. S. Pallister; E. H. Bailey

    1981-01-01

    ' Regional mapping at a 1:60,000 scale of a 30-kin strip from the Gulf of Oman (Muscat) across the Oman Mountains, 130 km to the south, provides the geologic setting for the (-95 m.y.) Ibra section of the Samail ophiolite. Where best preserved, the Ibra ophiolite section is an ---8 kin-thick section of oceanic consisting of --0.5 km of pillow

  8. Timing of accretion and collisional deformation in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: implications of granite geochronology in the Bayankhongor Ophiolite Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Buchan; J. Pfänder; A. Kröner; T. Brewer; O. Tomurtogoo; D. Tomurhuu; D. Cunningham; B. Windley

    2003-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the mechanism of Palaeozoic continental growth in Central Asia was by subduction-accretion with punctuated collisions that produced ophiolitic sutures between accreted blocks. The Bayankhongor ophiolite is the largest ophiolite in Mongolia and possibly all of Central Asia, and is interpreted to mark the collisional suture between the Baidrag and Hangai continental blocks. New 207Pb\\/206Pb zircon evaporation

  9. U\\/Pb ages of ophiolites and arc-related plutons of the Norwegian Caledonides: implications for the development of Iapetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Dunning; R. B. Pedersen

    1988-01-01

    U\\/Pb zircon ages are reported for four ophiolites and three crosscutting arc-related plutons from the Norwegian Caledonides. Plagiogranite differentiated from gabbro of the Karmøy ophiolite is dated at 493+7\\/-4 Ma whereas arc-related trondhjemite cutting this ophiolite crystallized at 485+\\/-2 Ma. A crosscutting clinopyroxene-phyric gabbro intrusion is dated at 470+9\\/-5 Ma by near concordant magmatic titanite (sphene) and discordant U-rich (2903–6677

  10. The oldest island arc and ophiolite complexes of the Russian Arctic (Taimyr Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitriy V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Y.; Romanova, Irina V.

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the age of indicator complexes such as island arc, ophiolite, collisional, subductional etc. is extremely important for paleogeodynamic reconstructions. The age along with other geological and geophysical data enables the reestablishing of the positions of terranes of various origins in relation to continental margins and to each other. When studying the issues concerning the ancient Arctida paleocontinent, the nature of terranes and continental plates that compose the present day arctic shelf and submerged ridges it is important to determine the main stages of tectonic events. At the same time it is particularly important to establish the earliest stages of tectonic transformations. The Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya orogenic belt is one of the large accretionary-collisional key structures in the Arctic. The Central Taimyr accretionary belt includes two granite-metamorphic terranes: Faddey and Mamont-Shrenk that include the oldest igneous formations of Taimyr. Those are granitoids with U/Pb zircons age of 850-830 Ma (Faddey) and 940-885 Ma (Mamont-Shrenk). Presently we have determined fragments of paleo-island arcs and ophiolites in the framing of these terranes. Moreover, in addition to already identified Neoproterozoic (755-730 Ma) ophiolites and island arc rocks (plagiogranites, gabbro, volcanics) we found more ancient rock complexes in the framings of both terranes closer in age to the Meso-Neoproterozoic boundary. In the region of the Tree Sisters Lake a paleo-island arc complex was found including plagiogranites and plagiorhyodacites with U-Pb isotopic zircon age of 969-961 Ma. Sm-Nd isotopic data for these rocks showed a Mesoproterozoic model age: TNd(DM) varies from 1170 to 1219 Ma. These data as well as Rb-Sr isotopic investigations indicate a predominance of a mantle component in the magmatic sources of these rocks: ?Nd (967-961) = 5.1-5.2 and (87Sr/86Sr)0 =0.70258-0.70391. In the framing of the Mamont-Shrenk terrane we determined ophiolite fragments in the mouths of Krasnaya River and Kabachkovaya Hill. The Kabachkovaya ophiolites form near E-W elongated narrow zones of ultramafic rocks and small plutons of fine and medium grained gabbros and diabases among flows of tholeitic basalts forming pillow lavas and tuffs. Ar/Ar dating of amphiboles from metagabbros in the Krasnaya R. mouth yielded an age of 1029 Ma. In conclusion, these data indicate the existence of Meso-Neoproterozoic ophiolites and island arcs in the Russian Arctic, which, with available paleomagnetic data, allows composing more correct plate tectonic reconstructions for the early stages of the evolution of this region.

  11. Obduction of western Anatolian ophiolites: from birth to steady state of a subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Whitechurch, Hubert; Okay, Aral

    2015-04-01

    During Cretaceous times, the convergence between the Anatolide Tauride block (following the movement of Africa) and Eurasia lead to the closure of a branch of the Neotethyan ocean and to ophiolite obduction. Obducted ophiolite and their sub-ophiolitic units can be found along a 400 kilometre-long north to south transect in western Anatolia. The aim of this contribution is twofold: (1) (re)-appraise the metamorphic pressure-temperature (PT) conditions and evolution of the sub-ophiolitic units of western Anatolia, by constraining the formation of the metamorphic sole during the first stages of subduction and the unusual accretion of ocean-derived units along a subduction interface in an evolving, cooling thermal regime, and (2) understand the dynamics of a large-scale and long-lived obduction. Directly below the ophiolite (mostly made of mantle-derived rocks) lies a metamorphic sole. The upper part is this sole is made of garnet and garnet clinopyroxene amphibolites, the lower part consisting in amphibolite or green-schist facies metapelites and metabasite suggestive of discrete accretion steps. In the northern part of the section the metamorphic sole is characterised by an important blueschist-facies overprint destabilizing the amphibolite paragenesis. This high-pressure overprint is lacking in the southern area. Using field and petrological observations, three units (namely and from top to bottom, OC1, OC2 and OC3) were distinguished in the accretionary complex with PT conditions ranging from incipient metamorphism to blueschist facies conditions. OC1 represents most of the outcropping unit, is found all along the section and shows only low-grade metamorphism. Metamorphic conditions remains hard to establish in this unit made of a stack of hm-thick tectonic slices showing subtle differences in their metamorphic grade (from pristine pillow basalts and hydrothermalized lavas to lawsonite pumpellyite-lawsonite bearing basalts). In OC2, Fe-Mg carpholite-bearing layers were found and attest to high-pressure and low-temperature conditions. As OC2, OC3 exhibit a clear blueschist facies metamorphism, but slightly higher PT conditions. Both OC2 and 3 were only found in the northern area close to the suture zone. Combining these data, available radiometric and palaeogeographic data and recent themomechanical modelling a tentative reconstruction of the subduction-zone evolution through time during the emplacement of a large-scale ophiolite is presented. We show that the cooling of the subduction must occur very quickly (~<15 My) after subduction inception and investigate the implications for early subduction and obduction dynamics.

  12. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Zambales and Angat ophiolites, Luzon, Philippines: Evidence for an Eocene arc-back arc pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encarnacion, John P.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Obille, Eligio C., Jr.

    1993-11-01

    Two basement terranes, the Zambales ophiolite in the west, and the Angat ophiolite in the east, are exposed on the island of Luzon, separated by a circa 10 km thich and circa 100 km wide sedimentary basin. The structural and age relationships between the two ophiolitic blocks are center to understanding the geologic and tectonic development of the northern Philippines and evaluating models of terrane evolution proposed for this area of the western Pacific. We analyzed zircons from the Zambales and Angat terranes to better constrain their origin. Two zircon fractions from tonalite in the Acoje block of the Zambales ophiolite give concordant U-Pb ages at 44.2 (+/- 0.9) Ma. Two zircon fractions from plagiogranite and one fraction from diorite in the Coto block of the Zambales ophiolite give concordant U-Pb ages of 45.1 (+/- 0.6) Ma. These results provide a Middle Eocene age for the Zambales ophiolite, in agreement with the minimum Late Eocene age of the overlying Akistero Formation. No age difference is discerned between the arc-like Acoje block and MORB-like Coto block of the Zambales ophiolite. Four zircon fractions from two sample sites in the Angat ophiolite give concordant ages of 48.1 (+/- 0.5) Ma. This age is considerably younger than the Late Cretaceous age based on radiolarian fauna derived from a sheeted dike-pillow lava-sediment sequence south-southeast of the main ophiolite. The small age difference between the Zambales and Angat ophiolites suggests a common origin and obviates the need for a major structural discontinuity west of the Southern Sierra Mandre beneath the Central Valley of Luzon. The Cretaceous biostratigraphic ages of the ophiolitic rocks southeast of the Eocene Angat ophilolite implies that there are two ophiolitic basements exposed in the Southern Sierra Mandre. The relationship between the two ophiolites is constrainted by the overlying stratigraphic relations wich indicate that an Eocene volcanic arc and associated volcaniclastic apron was built on both the Eocene and Cretaceous ophiolitic basement. This suugests that the Zambales-Angat ophiolite represents a preserved Eocene back-arc basin that opened behind an Eocene arc that developed within Cretaceous oceanic basement. In this model, the Zambales-Angat ophiolites are therefore not allochthonous terranes but part of a single plate, generated in situ, forming part of the autochthonous basement of Luzon.

  13. Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Le Mée, Laurent; Girardeau, Jacques; Monnier, Christophe

    2004-11-11

    It has been difficult to relate the segmentation of mid-ocean ridges to processes occurring in the Earth's underlying mantle, as the mantle is rarely sampled directly and chemical variations observed in lavas at the surface are heavily influenced by details of their production as melt extracted from the mantle. Our understanding of such mantle processes has therefore relied on the analysis of pieces of fossil oceanic lithosphere now exposed at the Earth's surface, known as ophiolites. Here we present the phase chemistry and whole-rock major- and trace-element contents of 174 samples of the mantle collected along over 400 km of the Oman Sultanate ophiolite. We show that, when analysed along the fossil ridge, variations of elemental ratios sensitive to the melting process define a three-dimensional geometry of mantle upwellings, which can be related to the segmentation observed in modern mid-ocean ridge environments. PMID:15538358

  14. Geology of the Southern Zambales Ophiolite Complex, (Philippines): juxtaposed terranes of diverse origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.

    1997-08-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex, which is made up of three massifs—Masinloc, Cabangan and San Antonio, was generated in a subduction-related marginal basin. Combined field geological and geochemical evidences show that the Cabangan and San Antonio massifs are genetically related to the Coto (transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc) and Acoje (island arc) blocks of the Masinloc massif, respectively. A tectonic contact, the Subic Bay Fault Zone, is believed to separate the San Antonio and Cabangan massifs. The San Antonio massif is a displaced terrane rifted from the Acoje block and translated southward to its present position through the West Luzon Shear (?)/Subic Bay Fault Zone. The Zambales Ophiolite Complex could have not formed through the rifting or folding of the arc-related Acoje block-San Antonio massif to generate the transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc like Coto block-Cabangan massif!

  15. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of plagiogranites from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, and their tectonic significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel B. Mukasa; John N. Ludden

    1987-01-01

    Zircon populations from two plagiogranites in the plutonic section of the Troodos ophiolite yield U-Pb dates between 90.3 +\\/- 0.7 and 9.24 +\\/- 0.7 Ma. Zircons from one of the two samples yield U-Pb dates of 90.3 +\\/- 0.7 and 92.1 +\\/- 0.7 Ma. This difference is greater than their analytical error, and the zircons are therefore considered to be

  16. Geochemistry of reduced gas related to serpentinization of the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrajano, T.A.; Sturchio, N.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Lyon, G.L.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Methane-hydrogen gas seeps with mantle-like C and noble gas isotopic characteristics issue from partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks in the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines. New measurements of noble gas and 14C isotope abundances, rock/mixed-volatile equilibrium calculations, and previous chemical and isotopic data suggest that these reduced gases are products of periodotite hydration. The gas seeps are produced in rock-dominated zones of serpentinization, and similar gases may be ubiquitous in ultramafic terranes undergoing serpentinization. ?? 1990.

  17. Seismic anisotropy in an ophiolite peridotite: Application to oceanic upper mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Peselnick; A. Nicolas

    1978-01-01

    Compressional velocity Vp to 8 kbar and 275°C in a homogeneous. 0.5% porosity, little-altered harzburgite from the Antalya ophiolite complex in Turkey was measured along the three principal kinematic axes as defined from the preferred orientations of olivine and enstatite. The observed Vp anisotropy was 0.7 km\\/s for pressures P from 2 to 8 kbar and temperatures T from 25°

  18. Petrology and origin of primitive lavas from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Cameron

    1985-01-01

    Parental magmas to the Troodos ophiolite are characterised by low TiO2 and Al2O3 and high SiO2. Extremely fresh and chemically primitive (high MgO) rocks are found within the Upper Pillow Lavas and along the Arakapas Fault Belt of Cyprus and contain forsteritic olivine±enstatite and groundmass clinopyroxene set in glass or plagioclase, with accessory magnesiochromite and sometimes hornblende. They are quartz-normative

  19. Metamorphic sole genesis at the base of ophiolite nappes: Insights from numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Agard, Philippe; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Obduction emplaces oceanic lithosphere on top of continental lithosphere. Although a number of studies have focused on this enigmatic process, the initial stages of obduction remain poorly understood. Field, petrological, and geochronological data reveal that during the first stages of the obduction (i.e., during the first 1-2 Myrs) a HT-LP metamorphic sole (~700-800 ° C and ~1 GPa) is systematically welded at the base of ophiolite nappes. However, the reason why such welding of the ophiolite soles occurs at these particular P-T conditions, and only at the onset of obduction, is still an open issue. The aim of this study is to explore the conditions required to explain the genesis of metamorphic soles. For this, we employ two-dimensional numerical modelling, constrained by the wealth of available data from the Oman ophiolite. We first present a thermo-kinematic model in which the velocity field is prescribed in order to simulate obduction initiation. The heat advection-diffusion equation is solved at each time step. The model is intentionally kept simple in order to control each parameter (e.g., convergence rate, dip angle, thermal age) and to test its influence on the resulting P-T conditions obtained through time along the obduction interface. Results show that the key factor allowing the formation of metamorphic soles is the age of the oceanic lithosphere involved. Moreover, we speculate that the reason why metamorphic soles are always welded at the same P-T conditions is due to the fact that, at these particular conditions, strength jumps occur within the oceanic lithosphere. These jumps lead to changes in strain localisation and allow the spalling of oceanic crust and its juxtaposition to the ophiolite nappe. This hypothesis is further tested using thermo-mechanical models in which the obduction initiates dynamically (only initial and boundary conditions are prescribed). The interplay between the temperature evolution and the mechanical behaviour is then discussed.

  20. Origin of the New Caledonian ophiolites based on a French–Australian Seismic Transect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Auzende; Sabrina Van de Beuque; Marc Régnier; Yves Lafoy; Phil Symonds

    2000-01-01

    The origin, age and nature of the New Caledonian ophiolites are still debated. Recently, as part of the joint French–Australian Seismic Transect (FAUST) program, the Australian research vessel Rig-Seismic recorded a series of multichannel deep-seismic profiles between the New Hebrides Arc and the Australian margin. These profiles, which ran south of New Caledonia, image the southern prolongation of the overthrusted

  1. A stable isotope study of serpentinization in the Fengtien ophiolite, Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzen-Fu Yui; Hsueh-Wen Yeh; Chihming Wang Lee

    1990-01-01

    Detailed H- and O-isotopic studies of serpentinites of Fengtien ophiolite have been made in order to enhance our knowledge on the process of serpentinization. Pseudomorphic lizardites have 18 O = +3.6%. and D = -48 to -49%.; bladed-mat and foliated antigorites have 18 O = +3.5 to +5.8%. and D = -45 to -69%.; slickensided antigorites have 18 O =

  2. Paleomagnetism, paleogeographic origins, and uplift history of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Jones, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Divergent paleogeographic origins have been proposed for the Coast Range ophiolite of western California which are testable using paleomagnetic methods. Paleomagnetic data for Middle Jurassic pillow lavas and diabase sills of the Coast Range ophiolite at Mount Diablo, northern California, indicate that they contain two components of remanent magnetization. The characteristic directions have normal and reversed polarities and apparently are carried by Ti-poor magnetite. This magnetization is inferred to have been acquired during emplacement and seafloor alteration at an ancient spreading ridge. The paleolatitude calculated from its structurally corrected mean direction is 20??N ?? 9?? and agrees with the expected direction for stable North America; this result is also consistent with the concordant paleolatitude (32??N ?? 8??) recently determined for Upper Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain in southern California. In addition, clockwise vertical axis rotation of Mount Diablo (143?? ?? 11??) is indicated by the characteristic magnetization direction. An overprint component is inferred to have been acquired during uplift of Mount Diablo since the Miocene.

  3. Subduction initiation at oceanic detachment faults: a mechanism to generate extensive ophiolite belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Morris, Antony; Plumper, oliver; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    One of the least understood processes of plate tectonics is the nucleation of new subduction zones and the formation of ophiolites by subsequent upper plate extension. Subduction initiation within ocean basins is thought to occur along weakness zones such as transform faults, fracture zones, and mid-ocean ridges. Detachment faults, which cut across oceanic lithosphere immediately adjacent to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges may yields ideal rheological conditions for subduction initiation due to their pervasive serpentinization. We numerically test this hypothesis by modeling the inversion of an ocean basin cut by a serpentinized detachment fault adjacent to an active spreading center. The results of our models consistently show that the serpentinized fault effectively localizes deformation, assisting subduction initiation upon compression. Subsequent reactivation of the pre-existing spreading center preserved in the forearc above the nascent subduction zone provides an efficient mechanism for the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Application of our model of subduction initiation to the ~700 km-long ophiolite belt spanning from Albania to Greece is then discussed.

  4. Geological features of a collision zone marker: The Antique Ophiolite Complex (Western Panay, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Tamayo, Rodolfo A.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.

    2013-03-01

    The Antique Ophiolite Complex exposed along the western side of Panay Island, central Philippines was derived from the Jurassic to Cretaceous proto-South China Sea oceanic leading edge of the Palawan microcontinental block. The subduction and ultimate closure of this ocean basin resulted in the emplacement and exposure of this lithospheric fragment along the collisional boundary of the microcontinental block and the oceanic- to island arc-affiliated Philippine mobile belt. The ophiolite complex has volcanic rocks having normal- to transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to island arc tholeiitic (IAT) geochemistry consistent with the transitional MORB-IAT characteristics of its peridotites. The chromitites manifest subduction signature suggestive of the involvement of water in its generation. All of these would be consistent with generation in a supra-subduction zone environment, specifically in a subduction-related marginal ocean basin. The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt along western Panay resulted, aside from ophiolite emplacement, into arc curvature, island rotation, serpentinite diapirism and thrusting along the forearc side. The offshore bathymetric expression of the microcontinental block along the collision zone shows the leading edge of this oceanic bathymetric high to have spread laterally. This is indicative of its being buoyant resulting to non-subduction as supported by available earthquake hypocenter data.

  5. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India: A mineral-chemical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Dhang, Avik; Ray, Jyotisankar; Chakraborty, Suvankar; Moecher, David

    2010-06-01

    Field studies supplemented by petrographic analyses clearly reveal complete preservation of ophiolite suite from Port Blair (11°39'N: 92°45'E) to Chiriyatapu (11°30'24?N: 92°42'30?E) stretch of South Andaman. The ophiolite suite reveals serpentinite at the base which is overlain unconformably by cumulate ultramafic-mafic members with discernible cumulus texture and igneous layering. Basaltic dykes are found to cut across the cumulate ultramafic-mafic members. The succession is capped by well exposed pillow basalts interlayered with arkosic sediments. Olivine from the basal serpentinite unit are highly magnesian (Fo80.1-86.2). All clinopyroxene analyses from cumulate pyroxenite, cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke are discriminated to be ‘Quad’ and are uniformly restricted to the diopside field. Composition of plagioclase in different lithomembers is systematically varying from calcic to sodic endmembers progressively from cumulate pyroxenite to pillow basalt through cumulate gabbro and basaltic dyke. Plagioclase phenocrysts from basaltic dyke are found to be distinctly zoned (An60.7-An35.3) whereas groundmass plagioclase are relatively sodic (An33-An23.5). Deduced thermobarometric data from different lithomembers clearly correspond to the observed preservation of complete ophiolite suite.

  6. Paleozoic ophiolitic mélanges from the South Tianshan Orogen, NW China: Geological, geochemical and geochronological implications for the geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tuo; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; Qian, Qing; Zhang, Xi; Xiong, Xianming; Wang, Xinshui; Tan, Zhou; Chen, Bangxue

    2014-02-01

    Two ophiolitic mélange belts, the South Central Tianshan Ophiolite Belt (SCTOB) and the South Tianshan Ophiolite Belt (STOB), extend almost parallel to the Chinese South Tianshan Orogen - the southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The SCTOB occurs interlayered in the South Central Tianshan Suture Zone, the STOB as exotic blocks in Palaeozoic sedimentary strata. However, their tectonic settings and ages, which are crucial for understanding the formation of the CAOB, are still controversially discussed. In order to better understand these geological problems, geological, geochemical and geochronological investigations were conducted on the Guluogou (SCTOB) as well as on the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi ophiolitic mélanges (STOB). The ophiolitic suites are composed of basalts, gabbros and mantle peridotites. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon ages of 334 ± 5 Ma and 332 ± 7 Ma were obtained for the Guluogou gabbros, while SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of 423 ± 10 Ma and 423 ± 4 Ma were determined for the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi gabbros. The mineral composition of the mantle peridotites and the geochemical characteristics of the basalts suggest a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) type affinity for the Guluogou ophiolite and a SSZ type affinity for the Serikeyayilake and Aertengkesi ophiolites. The present data, combined with previously published results, indicate that the STOB may have been derived from a forearc rifting setting that existed during the early Silurian to the early Carboniferous (ca. 439-356 Ma), whereas the SCTOB may represent fragments of a normal wide ocean that lasted to the early Carboniferous (ca. 332 Ma).

  7. Evolution of composition of major mineral phases in layered complex of ophiolite assemblage: Evidence for the Voykar ophiolites (Polar urals, Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharkov, E.V.; Chistyakov, A.V.; Laz'ko, E. E.; Quick, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed study of compositional variation of major minerals through a cross section of the layered complex of the Late Devonian Voykar ophiolite assemblage (Polar Urals). The principal characteristics of this layered complex suggest crystallization from a periodically replenished open magma system in a tectonically dynamic, oceanic environment. The complex may be described in terms of two sequences of cumulus rocks, or megarhythms, that each display an upward progression from ultramafic to gabbroic composition. A transitional zone between the megarhythms is characterized by an upwardly reverse lithologic progression from gabbroic to ultramafic composition. Broad cryptic variation in mineral composition over intervals >100 m parallel changes in the lithologic abundances and suggest changes in the rate of magma supply relative to crystallization and(or) tapping of different mantle sources that had been previously depleted to different degrees. The mineralogy, mineral compositions and isotopic composition of the layered complex coupled with the association of the Voykar ophiolite with island-arc complexes suggest that it most likely formed in a back-arc basin.

  8. LE METAMORPHISME OCEANIQUE DANS LE COMPLEXE GABBROQUE DE L'OPHIOLITE D'OMAN. NICOLLET Christian, DEBRET Baptiste Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Universit Blaise Pascal -UMR 6524 -Clermont-Ferrand

    E-print Network

    Nicollet, Christian

    LE METAMORPHISME OCEANIQUE DANS LE COMPLEXE GABBROÏQUE DE L'OPHIOLITE D'OMAN. NICOLLET Christian l'ophiolite d'Oman, à la base du complexe filonien et dans les gabbros isotropes, les conditions et trajets PTt dans le complexe gabbroïque de l'ophiolite d'Oman ... le manteau est traversée de

  9. COMPRENDRE LE FONCTIONNEMENT DE LA CROUTE OCEANIQUE GRACE A L'ETUDE DES OPHIOLITES. NICOLLET Christian, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Universit Blaise Pascal -UMR 6524. 5, rue Kessler, 63 038 Clermont-Ferrand FRANCE

    E-print Network

    Nicollet, Christian

    COMPRENDRE LE FONCTIONNEMENT DE LA CROUTE OCEANIQUE GRACE A L'ETUDE DES OPHIOLITES. NICOLLET Clermont-Ferrand FRANCE CROUTE OCEANIQUE ET OPHIOLITES La croûte terrestre sous les océans est bien océanique ont été obduites et on les appelle ophiolites. 2200 2400 2300 2300 2200 2000 2500 2300 2200 2200

  10. Diamond and moissanite in ophiolitic mantle rocks and podiform chromitites: A deep carbon source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Xu, X.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Trumbull, R. B.; Robinson, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    Diamonds are known from a variety of occurreces, mainly from mantle-derived kimberlites, meteorite impact craters, and continental deep subduction and collision zones. Recently, an unusual mineral group was discovered in the Luobusa ophiolitic chromitites from the Yarlung Zangbu suture, Tibet, which probably originated from a depth of over 300 km in the mantle. Minerals of deep origin include coesite apparently pseudomorphing stishovite, and diamond as individual grains or inclusions in OsIr alloy. To determine if such UHP and unusual minerals occur elsewhere, we collected about 1.5 t of chromitite from two orebodies in an ultramafic body in the Polar Urals. Thus far, more than 60 different mineral species have been separated from these ores. The most exciting discovery is the common occurrence of diamond, a typical UHP mineral in the Luobusa chromitites. These minerals are very similar in composition and structure to those reported from the Luobusa chromitites. So far diamond and/or moissanite have been discovered from many different ophiolitic ultramafic rocks, including in-situ grains in polished chromitite fragments. These discoveries demonstrate that the Luobusa ophiolite is not a unique diamond-bearing massif. Secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis shows that the ophiolite-hosted diamond has a distinctive 13C-depleted isotopic composition (?13C from -18 to -28‰, n=70), compatible to the ophiolite-hosted moissanite (?13C from -18 to -35‰, n=36), both are much lighter than the main carbon reservoir in the upper mantle (?13C near -5‰). The compiled data from moissanite from kimberlites and other mantle settings share the characteristic of strongly 13C-depleted isotopic composition. This suggests that diamond and moissanite originates from a separate carbon reservoir in the mantle or that its formation involved strong isotopic fractionation. Subduction of biogenic carbonaceous material could potentially satisfy both the unusual isotopic and redox constraints on diamond and moissanite formation, but this material would need to stay chemically isolated from the upper mantle until it reached the high-T stability field of diamond and moissanite. The origin of diamond and moissanite in the mantle is still unsolved, but all evidence from the upper mantle indicates that they cannot have formed there, except under special and local redox conditions. We suggest, alternatively, that diamond and moissanite may have formed in the lower mantle, where the existence of 13C-depleted carbon is strongly suspected.

  11. Deep origin of the Luobusa ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Robinson, P. T.; Li, J.; Xu, X.; Xiong, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Luobusa ophiolite in the 1400-km-long Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, marking the boundary between India and Asia, hosts significant podiform chromitites. Abundant diamonds have been recovered from peridotites and podiform chromitites by heavy mineral separation and in-situ grains in the chromitites confirm that the diamonds are natural. The diamonds are associated with other ultrahigh pressure (UHP) and highly reduced minerals, such as coesite, kyanite, moissanite, base-metal alloys and native elements. In-situ grains of diamond and moissanite occur in both podiform chromitite and mantle peridotite of the Luobusa ophiolite. SIMS analysis shows that the diamonds have delta13CPDB = -18 to -28, distinctly different from kimberlitic diamonds (delta13C near -5‰). It is suggested that the diamonds formed from C-rich fluids with highly reduced phases and low delta13CPDB values derived from previously subducted slabs. A 1400-km-deep borehole was recently drilled by Luobusa Scientific Drilling Project (LSD) to investigate the distribution and conditions of formation of the podiform chromitites. Borehole LSD-1 penetrated 1100 m of mantle peridotite separated from a lower 300-m-thick sequence of dunite and pyroxenite by a fault. Detailed mineralogical studies indicate at least two stages of mineral formation of Cpx, Opx, Ol and Sp, suggesting late-stage modification of a MORB-type ophiolite in a SSZ environment. We propose here a new model for the formation of ophiolitic peridotites and chromitites. Previously subducted slabs of continental and oceanic lithosphere, lying in the lower part of the mantle transition zone, undergo partial melting at high temperatures in a highly reduced environment. H2O, CO2 and other fluids are released from the rocks and some of them are reduced to single element material, such as C and H. The melts then rise through the mantle to the top of, or above, the transition zone (> 300 km depth), where diamond, moissanite, ultrahigh-pressure chromite (with dissolved Si) and stishovite may crystallize from the melts or fluids. With continued upwelling, coesite exsolution lamellae form in the chromite grains and stishovite is replaced by coesite, but the diamonds are preserved as inclusions in chromite grains. This new model challenges the prevailing view that ophiolites and their podiform chromitites originated at shallow depths in the mantle.

  12. Slab and Sediment Melting during Subduction Initiation: Mantle Plagiogranites from the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinson, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Granitoid dykes up to several hundred metres wide and 2 km long are found in depleted harzburgites in the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite. They vary in composition from tonalite to potassic granite and are generally more potassic than the crustal plagiogranites found within the sheeted dyke complex higher up within the ophiolite stratigraphy. Some granites are strongly peraluminous and contain garnet and andalusite. They are geochemically variable, some with REE that are relatively unfractionated ((La/Yb)n= 3.5-6.0, flat middle to heavy REE, steep light REE) to those which are highly fractionated ((La/Yb)n= 28-220). On primitive-mantle normalised plots some have very high concentrations of fluid-mobile elements - Cs, Rb, Th, U and Pb. Few have significant Ta-Nb anomalies. On the Ca-Fe-Mg-Ti discrimination diagram of Patino Douce (J. Petrol., 1999) whole-rock compositions define a spectrum between felsic-pelite derived melts and amphibolite-derived melts. There is a chemical similarity between the least REE fractionated plagiogranites (generally tonalites and granodiorites) and melts of an amphibolitic parent. This is supported by the occurrence of mafic xenoliths in some dykes, the presence of hornblende and highly calcic cores (up to An85) in some plagioclase grains. Trace element modelling using Oman Geotimes lavas as the starting composition indicates that melting took place in the garnet stability field, although enrichment in the melt in Cs, Rb, Ba and Pb suggests that there was another component present in addition to the mafic parent. Other plagiogranites (trondhjemites and granites) have a strongly peraluminous chemistry and mineralogy and geochemical similarities with the Himalayan leucogranites implying that they were derived from a sedimentary protolith. These mantle plagiogranites are more prevalent in the northern outcrops of the ophiolite. The volume of granitoid melt and the depth of melting preclude their derivation from the sole of the ophiolite, rather they were derived during subduction by the partial melting of the slab and associated sediment and emplaced into the overlying mantle wedge. Current subduction-initiation models for supra-subduction ophiolites should integrate this process into their thinking.

  13. The basal part of the Oman ophiolitic mantle: a fossil Mantle Wedge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Agard, Philippe; Godard, Marguerite; Chauvet, Alain; Dubacq, Benoit; Monié, Patrick; Yamato, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Although the Oman ophiolite is classically regarded as being the direct analog of oceanic lithosphere created at fast spreading ridges, the geodynamic context of its formation is still highly debated. The other alternative end-member model suggests that this ophiolite entirely formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Fluids involved in the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere and in the presence of a secondary boninitic and andesitic volcanism may provide a way to discriminate between these two interpretations: are they descending near-axis hydrothermal fluxes (first model) or ascending from a subducting slab (second model)? We herein focus on the base of the ophiolitic mantle in order to characterize the origin of fluids and decipher hydration processes. Samples were taken along hecto- to kilometre-long sections across the basal banded unit directly overlying the amphibolitic/granulitic metamorphic sole. We carried out a petrological, structural and geochemical study on these rocks and their constitutive minerals. Our results show that, unlike the generally refractory character of Oman harzburgites, all the basal mantle rocks display secondary crystallization of clinopyroxene and amphibole through metasomatic processes. The microstructures and the chronology of these secondary mineralizations (clinopyroxene, pargasitic amphibole, antigorite and then lizardite/chrysotile) suggest that these basal rocks have been affected by cooling from mantle temperatures (<1200°C) to low-T serpentinisation (<300°C). Furthermore, major elements required to crystallize these minerals and the observed fluid-mobile elements (FMEs) enrichments in the clinopyroxenes and in the amphiboles (B, Pb, Sr), as well as in the serpentines (B, Sr, Rb, Ba, As), are consistent with amphibolite-derived fluids (Ishikawa et al., 2005) and cannot be easily explained by other sources. Based on these observations, we propose a geodynamic model in which intense and continuous metasomatism of the cooling base of the ophiolitic mantle is due to the release of fluids coming from the progressive dehydration of underlying amphibolitic rocks. This process is compatible with the progressive subduction of the Arabian margin during the Upper Cretaceous (e.g., HP-LT units history, and tectonic structures observed on top of it). The basal part of the Oman ophiolite would thus represent a fossil incipient mantle wedge.

  14. Smash tectonics of the Mineoka ophiolite belt in the Boso TTT-type triple junction margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, R.; Ogawa, Y. F.; Kurosawa, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Hirano, N.

    2005-12-01

    Quite unique history and tectonics were verified from the Mineoka ophiolite belt in the Boso TTT-type triple junction margin, NW Pacific corner, by stratigraphy, chemistry, dating, and particularly deformation of the basaltic, plutonic and metamorphic blocks within a serpentinite-bearing fault zone. First, Cretaceous rocks (chert and basalt) were found from the previously known Paleogene ophiolitic rocks and their Paleogene-Miocene pelagic cover. Pillow basalts, ranging from MORB-BABB to IAT,_@might be come back to Early Cretaceous. If the ophiolitic rocks belong to one single plate, it would be a Creataceous-Paelogene oceanic plate or island arc (possibly forearc) body. Next, the deformations are various with at least three major stages, consisting of the first normal-strike-slip faulting under ductile conditions, the second strike-slip (dextral) faulting with thrust-component under deeper ductile conditions. The third stage is large scale-mixture by strike-slip (dextral) faulting under shallower brittle conditions into breccia (zeolite facies) incorporated with various rocks ranging from the Cretaceous to Paleogene ophiolitic rocks, Miocene alkali basalts, Cretaceous-Miocene chert-limestone, and middle Miocene terrigenous clastic sediments with serpentinite fragments and continent-island arc derived materials. This final stage deformation occurred in a transpressional regime, forming Riedel shear system. It is still continuing to the present forearc sliver fault zone. This phenomenon has a key to understanding the uplift and exhumation process of the deeper metamorphic and plutonic rocks in the convergent margin. Those deformed rocks are covered with undeformed andesitic pumice fall deposits of middle Miocene age which has basalt and diorite xenoliths. All such components in the Mineoka belt are not distributed outside but restricted only in the belt between the Miocene forearc basin and accretionary prism, strongly indicating the very specific history and tectonics. The best candidate for the original Mineoka ophiolite is the Izu forearc seamount or plateau, like the Hahajima seamount off the Bonin Islands. Such specific forearc part with schistose amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks was experienced by various deformations and sedimentations into the final TTT-triple junction smash tectonics, which brings all such materials into a single forearc sliver fault system seen at present in the sandwiched area between the Izu and Honshu forearcs.

  15. Interactions between magma chambers and hydrothermal systems: Oceanic and ophiolitic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlig, P.

    1993-11-01

    A compilation of published exit temperatures and salinities for seafloor hydrothermal fluids, along with fluid inclusion data on oceanic and ophiolitic rocks, shows that ridge axes hydrothermal systems are generally characterized by maximum temperatures around 300 - 360 C, thus clearly being in the one-phase field. They overlie a lower system marked by the generation of highly saline brines at high temperatures. The brines may have originated either when seawater approached the top of the magma chamber or more probably as exsolution products of the differentiated melts that typify the roof of oceanic magma chambers. In ophiolites, the brines typically occur within the transition zone between the sheeted-dike complex and the plutonic sequence, i.e., on top of magma chambers. This transition zone, relatively well known from ophiolite studies (Oman, Troodos, Bay of Islands, Josephine), is characterized by mutually intrusive relationships between gabbro, plagiogranite, and dikes and xenoliths of altered diabase within plagiogranite and gabbro. In fast to medium spreading ophiolites (Oman) it is the locus of a major downward decrease in the density of hydrothermal veins and alteration. The vein system is strongly anistropic and shows a well-marked preferred vertical along-stike orientation. The underlying cummulates are almost unaltered and exhibit only a diffuse net of amphibole veins, while the overlying sheeted-dike complex is densely veined and pervasively altered. This zone is marked by major gradients in the physical parameters over short distances: temperature (several degrees Celsius per meter), pressure (several hundred kilopascals), transition from brittle to ductile. In steady state systems, direct interactions between the magma chamber and the hydrothermal system are restricted to this zone, characterized by exsolution of magmatic volatiles into the hydrothermal system and the incorporation of hydrothermal fluids into the magma chamber by digestion of altered roof rocks. Complications to this stready state model resulting from a non-steady state magma chamber (e.g., Josephine ophiolite) are mainly the development of late stage faulting and more pronounced retrogressive alteration.

  16. Samarium-neodymium data on two late Proterozoic ophiolites of Saudi Arabia and implications for crustal and mantle evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claesson, S.; Pallister, J.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Whole-rock and mineral samples from the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites, northwestern Saudi Arabia, yield Sm-Nd isochron ages of 743+24 Ma and 782??38 Ma, respectively. These formation ages, which provide maximum limits for possible obduction ages, are in broad but not precise agreement with the previously known geologic history of the Arabian Shield. They indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are roughly coeval with nearby volcanic and plutonic rocks, supporting a back-arc origin for the two ophiolites. We suggest that the Jabal al Wask and Jabal Ess ophiolites were parts of the same northeast-southwest trending ophiolite belt, now offset along the Najd fault system. Initial e{open}Nd values range from +6.6 to+ 7.6, indicating derivation from a mantle source that has been LIL-depleted for at least 2 Ga. Reported e{open}Nd values from the Arabian Shield that are lower than this suggest the presence of older, reworked continental crust. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10 degree N paleolatitude

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, J.T. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11{degree} {plus minus} 3{degree}) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6{degree} {plus minus} 5{degree}) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10{degree}N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  18. Lower Permian formations of the Buqingshan Mountains in the A'nyemaqen ophiolitic zone (Eastern Kunlun, Qinghai Province, China): On the beginning of the Paleotethys closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Pospelov; E. J. Leven; Qiantao Bian; V. A. Aristov; O. A. Korchagin

    2005-01-01

    (1) Several Lower Permian formations are most completely represented within the Buqing- shan Mountains (eastern portion of the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt), a part of the Paleotethyan ophiolite suture commonly considered as the A'nyemaqen ophiolite zone. The formations were formed in the following paleogeodynamic environments (in a southward direction): (1) shelf and slope of a passive continental margin of a

  19. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Deville; A. Prinzhofer; C. Vacquand; V. Chavagnac; C. Monnin; G. Ceuleneer; C. A. Arcilla

    2009-01-01

    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates

  20. Broken formations, melanges and olistostromes in Puerto Plata area (Northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaiz Huerta, Pedro Pablo; Valera Fernando, Pérez; de Los Santos Manuel, Abad; Jacques, Monthel; de Neira Alberto, Díaz

    2010-05-01

    The Northern Cordillera of the Dominican Republic records the (oblique) subduction and collisional processes occurred between the Caribbean and North-American plates during Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleogene times. The boundary between these two plates can be traced within this range disrupted by an Upper Paleogene to present intense left-lateral strike-slip tectonism, onset after collision. In the western part of the range this boundary might be defined by the Camu fault. In the coastal area of Puerto Plata, located on the northern block of the Camu fault, basement rocks belonging to the subducting plate (the Puerto Plata Basement Complex) and several related units probably formed in an accretionary prism, preserve in a large (300 km2) outcrop of chaotic formations presumably formed (and exhumed) during collision. They include from broken formations and tectonic melanges to olistostromes and other coeval sedimentary deposits. The Puerto Plata Basement Complex (PPBC) consists of highly faulted and dismembered blocks formed by discontinuous but sometimes coherent outcrops of serpentinized or massive peridotite, pods of ultramafic cumulates, massive or banded gabbros and Los Caños Fm, a thick sequence of gross bedded volcaniclastic material with interbedded basaltic (sometimes pillowed) or andesitic flows. All these rocks bear low grade metamorphism and lack a general deformation fabric apart from occasional transformation to mylonites due to localized shearing. The PPBC has been interpreted as a fragment of oceanic crust, belonging to the subducting (North-American) slab that has been exhumed as a tectonic melange or a broken complex. The Imbert Fm, of Palaeocene-Eocene age, is formed by a well bedded succession of white very fine grained porcelaneous tuffs, with eventual intercalations of cherts, limestones and marls that, towards the lower part, is interbedded with volcanic-derived graywackes and limolites, and more occasionally, thick beds of conglomerates and debris. These last ones typically incorporate fragments of serpentized peridotites and blocks of the volcanic rocks identified in the PPBC. The Imbert Fm is also internally disrupted and although not a single clear contact can be observed in the field, it is considered to rest unconformably over the complex, so postdating its exhumation. A separate mappable unit of serpentinitic brecchias has recently been identified mainly distributed along the outer limits of the PPBC but also in several scattered outcrops inside it. The unit is dominantly made of fragments and blocks of serpentinized peridotites, embedded in an abundant matrix of the same composition and includes also blocks of Los Caños and Imbert Fm, as well as other exotic blocks of unknown origin. In the southeastern limit of the complex, close to the Camu fault, there is a particular high concentration of exotic blocks derived from metamorphic rocks (greenschists, anfibolites, marbles and even blueschists) not exposed in any neighbouring areas and thus suggesting a deep-sited, subduction-related, feeding. The basal contact of this unit with the rocks of the PPBC is usually faulted and difficult to observe in the field, but cartographic patterns suggest that it is an unconformity. Outcrops of serpentinitic breccias show a wide variety of internal chaotic organization, from pods of tectonic melanges to the most frequent block-in matrix fabric, but most of them also show evidences of sedimentary rework. In the easternmost part of the PPBC, the serpentinitic brecchias are, in turn, the base of an olistostromic complex widely represented in the region, the San Marcos Fm. The olistostrome includes similar exotic blocks than observed in the serpentinitic brecchias and blocks and olistolithes derived from the PPBC but, mainly, from the Imbert Fm. According to the described relationships, the serpentinitic breccias and San Marcos olistostrome are considered partially coeval and laterally equivalent to the Imbert Fm.

  1. Precambrian ophiolites of arabia: geologic settings, UPb geochronology, Pb-isotope characteristics, and implications for continental accretion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Stacey, J.S.; Fischer, L.B.; Premo, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Disrupted ophiolites occur in linear belts up to 900 km long between microplates that collided during the late Proterozoic to form the Arabian Shield. UPb zircon ages and Pb-isotope data from these ophiolitic rocks help constrain the history of accretion of the Arabian Shield and thereby contribute to the definition of its microplates and terranes. Terranes of the central and western Arabian Shield are generally thought to represent intraoceanic island arcs that range in age from about 900 to 640 Ma; however, a region of the eastern Arabian Shield contains rocks of Early Proterozoic age and may represent an exotic continental fragment entrained between the arc complexes. Ophiolites of the Yanbu suture (northwestern shield), dated by UPb (zircon) and SmNd (mineral isochron) methods, yield model ages of 740-780 Ma. These are among the oldest well-dated rocks in the northwestern Arabian Shield. Ages from the Jabal al Wask complex overlap with ages of adjacent arc rocks. This overlap in age supports geologic and geochemical evidence that the Wask complex represents a fragment of back-arc oceanic lithosphere formed during arc magmatism. Older ages of about 780 Ma for gabbro from the Jabal Ess ophiolite suggest that the ophiolite is either a fragment of fore-arc oceanic crust or oceanic basement on which an arc was built. Gabbro samples from ophiolites of the Bir Umq suture (west-central Arabian Shield) yield zircons with ages of 820-870 Ma and $ ??1250 Ma. The 820-870 Ma dates overlap with ages of the oldest nearby arc rocks; this favors an intra-arc or near-arc paleotectonic setting. The older zircons suggest that middle or early Proterozoic crustal material, possibly derived from the Mozambique belt of Africa, was present during back- or intra-arc magmatism. Plagiogranite from the Bir Tuluhah ophiolitic complex at the nothern end of the 900 km-long Nabitah mobile belt was dated by the zircon UPb method at ??? 830 Ma. This date is in the range of the oldest dated arc rocks along the northern and central parts of the Nabitah suture, but is ??? 100 Ma older than the oldest arc plutons (tonalites) associated with the southern part of the belt. These age relations suggest that the northern part of the Nabitah belt contains an extension of the Bir Umq suture that was transposed parallel to the Nabitah trend during collision of the arc terranes of the northwest Arabian Shield with the Afif plate to the east. Feldspar lead-isotope data from the ophiolites are of three types: (1) lead from the ophiolitic rocks and arc tonalites of the northwestern Shield and ophiolitic rocks of the Nabitah suture is similar to lead in modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, (2) anomalous radiogenic data from the Thurwah ophiolite are from rocks that contain zircons from pre-late Proterozoic continental crust, and (3) feldspar from the Urd ophiolite shows retarded uranogenic lead growth and is related either to an anomalous and perhaps primitive oceanic mantle source, or in an unknown manner to ancient continental mantle or lower crust of the eastern Arabian Shield. ?? 1988.

  2. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  3. Petrogenetic implications from ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites in ophiolitic occurrences of East Othris, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsovitis, P.; Magganas, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites in east Othris are included within ophiolitic units near the villages of Vrinena, Karavomilos, Pelasgia, Eretria, Agios Georgios, Aerino and Velestino. The first five ophiolitic occurrences are estimated to have been emplaced between the Oxfordian and Tithonian-Berriasian[1,2,3], while the latter two have been emplaced during the Eocene[4]. Ultramafic rocks include variably serpentinized harzburgites and lherzolites. Pyroxenites are usually found in the form of crosscutting veins within the harzburgites. Ultramafic rocks include depleted lherzolites, with Al2O3 ranging from 1.12 to 1.80 wt% and Cr from 3250 to 3290 ppm, as well as moderate to highly depleted serpentinized harzburgites, with Al2O3 ranging from 0.69 to 1.98 wt% and Cr from 2663 to 5582 ppm. Pyroxenites have generally higher Al2O3 ranging from 1.91 to 3.08 wt% and variable Cr ranging from 1798 to 3611 ppm. Lherzolites mostly include olivines (Fo=87.07-89.23) and clinopyroxenes (Mg#=85.71-90.12). Spinels from Eretria lherzolite (TiO2=0.02-0.08 wt%, Al2O3=36.06-42.45 wt%, Cr#=31.67-36.33) are compositionally similar with those of MORB peridotites[5], while those from Vrinena lherzolite (TiO2=0.16-0.43 wt%, Al2O3=6.90-22.12 wt%, Cr#=57.69-76.88) are similar to SSZ peridotites[5]. Serpentinized harzburgites include few olivines (Fo=90.51-91.15), enstatite porphyroclasts (Mg#=87.42-88.91), as well as fine grained enstatites of similar composition. Harzburgites from Pelasgia, Eretria and Agios Georgios include spinels (TiO2=0.03-0.08 wt%, Al2O3=23.21-31.58 wt%, Cr#=45.21-56.85) which do not clearly show if they are related with MORB or SSZ peridotites[5]. Spinels from Karavomilos harzburgite (TiO2=0.02-0.05 wt%, Al2O3=45.71-50.85 wt%, Cr#=16.84-22.32) are compositionally similar with MORB peridotites[5], whereas spinels from Vrinena harzburgite (TiO2=0.15-0.19 wt%, Al2O3=1.42-1.86 wt% Cr#=91.64-93.47) with SSZ peridotites[5]. Pyroxenites include clinopyroxenes (Mg#=84.25-91.78) but also enstatites (Mg#=88.37-91.47). Spinels have been analysed in pyroxenites from Aerino and Velestino (TiO2=0.79-1.07 wt%, Al2O3=10.88-18.46 wt% Cr#=60.74-70.78), indicating SSZ settings. Application of the olivine-spinel[6], olivine-augite[7], Cpx-Opx[8,9] geothermometers, yield equilibration temperatures of 961-1075 oC for lherzolites, 895-1084 oC for harzburgites and 990-1011 oC for pyroxenites. Our data indicate that the ophiolitic occurrences of Vrinena, Aerino and Velestino include ultramafic rocks and pyroxenites related to SSZ processes, while the other ophiolitic occurrences embrace ultramafic rocks which originated from a MORB-like setting, similar to west Othris ophiolites. It should be noted that even lherzolites have Cr and Y values similar to those of a highly depleted mantle source. A supra-subduction zone origin of the east Othris ophiolites, possibly with a slab rollback in the Pindos oceanic basin, may explain the different geotectonic environment affinities of the studied rocks.

  4. Post-emplacement history of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex: Insights from petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of Neogene clastic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimalanta, C. B.; Salapare, R. C.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Ramos, N. T.; Queaño, K. L.; Yumul, G. P.; Yang, T. F.

    2015-05-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex in Luzon, Philippines is made up of two blocks with differing geochemical signatures and ages - the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Acoje Block-San Antonio Massif that is of island arc tholeiite composition and the Eocene Coto Block-Cabangan Massif which is of transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt-island arc tholeiite affinity. These ophiolitic bodies are overlain by Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary units whose petrochemistry are reported here for the first time. Varying degrees of influences from ophiolitic detritus and from arc volcanic materials, as shown by petrography and indicator elements including Cr, Co and Ni, are observed in these sedimentary formations from north to south and from the oldest to the youngest. The Early to Middle Miocene Cabaluan Formation, whose outcrops are found to overlie only the Acoje Block, registers a more dominant ophiolitic signature as compared to the Late Miocene to Pliocene Santa Cruz Formation. The Santa Cruz Formation is generally characterized by fewer ophiolitic clasts and higher amounts of felsic components. Additionally, within this formation itself, a pronounced compositional change is observed relative to its spatial distribution. From the south to the north, an increase in ophiolitic components and a relative decrease in felsic signature is noted in units of the Santa Cruz Formation. It is therefore inferred that changes in the petrochemistry of rocks from the older Cabaluan to the younger Santa Cruz sedimentary formations record a decline in the influx of ophiolitic detritus or, conversely, the introduction of more diverse sediment sources as the deposition progressed. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from the Santa Cruz Formation, with peaks at 46.73 ± 0.94 and 5.78 ± 0.13 Ma, reflects this change in provenance from the unroofing of an Early Eocene oceanic crust to fresh contributions from an active volcanic arc during the Late Miocene. The contrast in compositions of the southern and northern Santa Cruz Formation also indicates a closer proximity of the southern units to the source of these non-ophiolitic sources, which most likely corresponds to the Pliocene volcanoes of the West Luzon Arc.

  5. Hydrogen Gas from Serpentinite, Ophiolites and the Modern Ocean Floor as a Source of Green Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coveney, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen gas is emitted by springs associated with serpentinites and extensive carbonate deposits in Oman, The Philippines, the USA and other continental locations. The hydrogen springs contain unusually alkaline fluids with pH values between 11 and 12.5. Other workers have described off-ridge submarine springs with comparably alkaline fluid compositions, serpentinite, abundant free hydrogen gas, and associated carbonate edifices such as Lost City on the Atlantis Massif 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D.S. Kelley and associates, Science 2005). The association of hydrogen gas with ultramafites is a consistent one that has been attributed to a redox couple involving oxidation of divalent iron to the trivalent state during serpentinization, although other possibilities exist. Some of the hydrogen springs on land are widespread. For example in Oman dozens of alkaline springs (Neal and Stanger, EPSL 1983) can be found over thousands of sq km of outcropping ophiolite. While the deposits in Oman and the Philippines are well-known to much of the geochemical community, little interest seems to have been displayed toward either the ophiolitic occurrences or the submarine deposits for energy production. This may be a mistake as the showings because they could lead to an important source of green energy. Widespread skepticism currently exists about hydrogen as a primary energy source. It is commonly said that free hydrogen does not occur on earth and that it is therefore necessary to use other sources of energy to produce hydrogen, obviating the general environmental benefit. However the existence of numerous occurrences of hydrogen gas associated with ophiolites and submarine occurrences of hydrogen suggests the likelihood that natural hydrogen gas may be an important source of clean energy for modern society remaining to be tapped. Calculations in progress should establish whether or not this is likely to be the case.

  6. New constraints for the tectonic development of the western Pacific margin since the Mesozoic: comprehensive SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the Philippine ophiolite belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, K.; Gabo, J. A. S.; Horie, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Padrones, J.; Payot, B. D.; Tejada, M. L. G.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Imai, A.; Arai, S.; Yumul, G. P., Jr.; Dimalanta, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    The post-Mesozoic tectonic history of the western Pacific margin is critical in understanding the major global tectonic events that occurred in the Eocene, such as the westward change in Pacific Plate motion and the simultaneous subduction initiation of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc (Ishizuka et al., 2011 EPSL). The present location of the Philippine Islands continuously serves as a major tectonic boundary between the southeastern Eurasian and the Pacific Plates, accommodating the large left-lateral movement associated with the clockwise rotation of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from Eocene to Miocene and now the subduction of the PSP from the east at the Philippine Trench - East Luzon Trough. The basement rocks of the Philippine Islands are characterized by the presence of ophiolitic complexes exposed among the islands. Yumul (2007, Island Arc) defined four belts in the Philippine ophiolites and proposed that they progressively become younger towards west, from Early - Late Cretaceous at the easternmost belt to Eocene - Oligocene in the west. However, most of the ophiolitic complexes have been dated by radiolarians and foraminifera in the overlying sediments. To precisely determine the igneous ages of the Philippine ophiolites, we have conducted SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the gabbroic and leucocratic rocks collected from the ophiolitic complexes in the Philippine Islands, including those from Luzon (Zambales and Isabela ophiolites), Masbate (Balud ophiolite), Tablas (Sibuyan Ophiolite), and Cebu. New zircon ages show that all of the ages obtained so far from the eastern ophiolite belts are Eocene in age, from 52 Ma to 41 Ma. These ages coincide well with the opening of the West Philippine Basin (49 - 33 Ma, Taylor and Goodliffe, 2004 JGR), which is a backarc basin formed behind the incipient IBM Arc. Furthermore, geochemical data available from the igneous rocks in the eastern ophiolite belts show backarc basin basalt-like geochemical affinities (e.g. Yumul, 2007), suggesting that these ophiolites are genetically associated with the West Philippine Basin. On the contrary, gabbroic and leucocratic rocks that are associated with the ophiolitic complex in Cebu are Late Cretaceous (~90 Ma) in age, significantly older than those in the eastern ophiolite belts, suggesting a different origin.

  7. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  8. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  9. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from cretaceous sulfide ores of the samail ophiolite, oman.

    PubMed

    Haymon, R M; Koski, R A; Sinclair, C

    1984-03-30

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. PMID:17746052

  10. A mechanism for decoupling within the oceanic lithosphere revealed in the Troodos ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agar, S.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasting kinematic histories recorded in the sheeted dykes and underlying plutonic rocks of the Troodos ophiolite provide a new perspective on the mechanical evolution of oceanic spreading centres. The kinematic framework of the decoupling zone that partitions deformation between the sheeted dykes and plutonics contrasts with low-angle detachment models for slow-spreading ridges based on continental-rift analogues. A model for the generation of multiple, horizontal decoupling horizons, linked by planar normal faults, demonstrates new possibilities for the kinematic and rheological significance of seismic reflectors in oceanic lithosphere.

  11. Metsovo lung outside Metsovo. Endemic pleural calcifications in the ophiolite belts of Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Constantopoulos, S.H.; Theodoracopoulos, P.; Dascalopoulos, G.; Saratzis, N.; Sideris, K. (Ioannina Medical School (Greece))

    1991-05-01

    Endemic PCs and high incidence of malignant mesothelioma from household use of asbestos have been reported in Metsovo in northwestern Greece ('Metsovo lung'). In the present study, we present similar findings in six more areas of Greece. Like Metsovo, all these areas are located within ophiolite belts. Like Metsovo, material similar to 'Metsovo whitewash' has been used for various domestic uses. Asbestos fibers (chrysotile, antigorite and tremolite) were found in three of the six areas. Also, in two, MPM has been diagnosed. These findings suggest that 'Metsovo lung' occurs in several areas of Greece and has similar etiology and epidemiology.

  12. Mont Albert to Buck Mountain: Provenance of Appalachian Ophiolite Chromites Using Osmium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Gale, A.; Booker, C.

    2003-12-01

    Osmium 187Os/188Os isotopic ratios have been determined for chrome-rich spinels from a suite of Appalachian ophiolites thought to represent Iapetus margin mantle formed and emplaced during the Ordovician. Because Re is incompatible during mantle melting while Os is compatible, non-radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os can constrain the average source and the timing of melt extraction, especially as Os is concentrated in chromite. Radiogenic ratios indicate contamination from aged sources with high Re/Os, such as mafic or continental crust. In rocks where spinel is the only remaining primary mineral, these properties can constrain the tectonic environment of formation as well as active-margin Os transport. There is little correction for 187Os in-growth since the Ordovician due to very low sample Re. Each ultramafic unit (from Mont Albert on the Gaspé Peninsula of Québec down to the Blue Ridge of North Carolina) forms a unique cluster of 187Os/188Os ratios, spanning 1 to 3%, but the whole range is about 10%. This corresponds to a range of initial ? Os of -1 to +9, where ? Os is the percent deviation from a chondritic source at the age of formation (roughly 500 Ma). Within ophiolites where detailed mapping and other geochemical information are available, there is a correlation between mantle-like Os and tholeiitic basalts; radiogenic Os and boninites (Thetford Mines). Continental arc-related mantle chromites (Baltimore Mafic Complex; ? Os +4 to +7) are the most radiogenic. The least radiogenic are chromites from the Staten Island serpentinite and Mont Albert (? Os -1 and 0, respectively), either indicating formation from a previously depleted source or that they predate the other Taconic ophiolites. The restricted range of each ophiolite, compared to the whole of the data set, allow provenance links to be made between isolated bodies. For example, the Buck Creek, NC ultramafic complex, which has undergone granulite facies metamorphism, (Tenthorey et al., 1996) has a similar 187Os/188Os to other Ordovician NC Blue Ridge dunites (? Os = +6.5 to +8.5), but distinctly different from a NC Piedmont chromitite (? Os = +2, Falls Lake mélange, Stoddard et al, 1989) that is inferred to be Neoproterozoic in age.

  13. Metsovo lung outside Metsovo. Endemic pleural calcifications in the ophiolite belts of Greece.

    PubMed

    Constantopoulos, S H; Theodoracopoulos, P; Dascalopoulos, G; Saratzis, N; Sideris, K

    1991-05-01

    Endemic PCs and high incidence of malignant mesothelioma from household use of asbestos have been reported in Metsovo in northwestern Greece ("Metsovo lung"). In the present study, we present similar findings in six more areas of Greece. Like Metsovo, all these areas are located within ophiolite belts. Like Metsovo, material similar to "Metsovo whitewash" has been used for various domestic uses. Asbestos fibers (chrysotile, antigorite and tremolite) were found in three of the six areas. Also, in two, MPM has been diagnosed. These findings suggest that "Metsovo lung" occurs in several areas of Greece and has similar etiology and epidemiology. PMID:2019171

  14. Kinematic evolution of the Yarlung Zangpo Suture Zone ophiolites (Southern Tibet): Early Cretaceous saloon-door spreading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Huang, Wentao; Koornneef, Louise; Guilmette, Carl; Borneman, Nathaniel; Hodges, Kip; Li, Shun; Kapp, Paul; Ding, Lin

    2014-05-01

    The broad deformation zone of the Himalayan belt and Tibetan plateau is largely the product of continent-continent collision between India and Eurasia plates since the Early Eocene. Continental collision, however, is only the ultimate effect of long-lasting plate convergence and subduction below the Lhasa block since at least early Cretaceous times. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) between Himalayan (Indian) and Tibetan (Eurasiatic) terranes demonstrate that a long-lasting intra-oceanic subduction zone, close to Lhasa or far outboard, must have played a significant role in accommodating closure of the >7500 km wide Neotethyan Ocean. These ophiolites are the best-preserved, yet still highly incomplete record of the vast Neotethys. However, their study can provide key constraints on the plate kinematic history of the Neotethyan subduction systems, in particular their early stages. Paleomagnetic analyses of the upper crustal sequence (pillow basalt and sheeted dykes, sills) of ophiolites have been successfully applied in the past to reconstruct the initial geometry of the spreading system associated to the ophiolite formation. Furthermore, oceanic detachment faults, structures widely occurring in modern magma-poor (slow-spreading) mid-ocean ridges, have been recently recognized also in ophiolites (i.e., Mirdita ophiolite of Albania), and (if present) their study may provide unique insights into the geodynamics of the associated spreading system. The YZSZ ophiolites form a 2500 km long belt mainly composed of dismembered ultramafic massifs locally covered by a crustal sequence and oceanic sediments, underlying a regionally continuous clastic Xigaze sedimentary basin interpreted as the Tibetan forearc. Our study focused along a ~250 km transect within the eastern sector of the YZSZ between the Sangsang and Xigatze ophiolite. More than 500 cores were paleomagnetically sampled at 22 localities within sheeted dykes/sills, pillow lavas, mantle peridotites and mantle-hosted gabbros. Paleomagnetic sampling was coupled with a structural geological analysis in the field. The geochemistry of the crustal units, and its geodynamic setting inferred from that (back-arc vs. forearc) was constrained through specific geochemical analyses. Since the YZSZ ophiolite likely suffered of multiple stages of vertical axis rotation and tilt associated to (i) the Mesozoic ocean spreading and subduction dynamics, (ii) the Eocene thrusting of the ophiolites over the Greater Indian continental margin, and (iii) the subsequent continent-continent collision, we adopted a Net Tectonic Rotation (NTR) approach for our kinematic analysis based on paleomagnetic data. This technique, already tested in other ophiolitic belts, describes the total deformation through inclined axes that can then be decomposed into simple vertical and horizontal axis components of rotation. Relying on the calculated rotation and paleo-spreading direction pattern, and the possible occurrence of oceanic detachment faults, we propose a tectonic evolutionary model characterized by the interplay between subduction-related back-arc spreading generating magmatic ocean floor, and detachment faulting associated to trench-parallel stretching upon saloon-door back arc basin opening.

  15. Genesis of the Smartville arc-ophiolite, Sierra Nevada foothills, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, M.; Blanchard, D.; Xenophontos, C.

    1980-01-01

    Rare earth element analyses of metavolcanic rocks from the Smartville, Calif. ophiolite divide the uniform suite of pillowed and massive lavas into the lower part consisting of massive, brecciated tholeiites, an intrusive dike-sill complex, and part of a plutonic suite. The tholeiites are light REE depleted with a (Ce)N range of 6.5 to 26.0 and (Yb)N of 6.0 to 30.0; it is suggested that the tholeiites were produced by partial melting of a LREE depleted source similar to MORB. The upper part of the volcanic pile is comprised of basaltic-andesitic flows and interbedded coarse to fine volcanic sediments; these 'calc-alkaline' rocks are light REE enriched with the (Ce)N range of 17.0-28.0 and (Yb)N of 8.0 to 12.0. Finally, petrographic investigations of volcanic sediments and sulfide ore deposits in the lava show that the ophiolite formed near a group of active submarine and subareal volcanoes.

  16. K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of celadonites from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Gillis, K.; Duncan, R.

    1986-01-01

    K/Ar dating and Rb/Sr isochrons of two celadonite veins from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, consistently yield precipitation ages of 77-80 and 87-92 Ma, respectively. Their K/Ar bulk-rock age data (84.7 +/- 2.3 Ma), combined with the oldest celadonite age and recently published radiolarian ages, suggest that the Troodos ophiolite was formed between 85 and 92 Ma, providing an estimate for the duration of celadonite formation of at least 7 m.y., but possibly up to 15 m.y. These data are consistent with data from Deep Sea Drilling Project holes, suggesting that precipitation of the most significant portion of vein minerals in the oceanic crust occurs within about 12 m.y., but possibly up to 19 m.y. after crustal formation. Leaching experiments suggest that K, Ar, Rb, and Sr in exchangeable and nonexchangeable sites of the structure of stoichiometric celadonite maintain their isotope characteristics and are resistant to change from diagenetic processes or surface alteration.

  17. A Deep Seismic Study of the United Arab Emirates: Implications for Collision Tectonics and Ophiolite Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    We recently carried out the first integrated deep seismic experiment in the United Arabic Emirates (UAE) from the Arabian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman. Reflection data were acquired along 925 line km in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman using a large-volume airgun source (7060 cubic inches) and up to 5 km long streamer. Refraction data were acquired along selected reflection lines using 25 land recording stations in the UAE. In addition, gravity and magnetic anomaly data were acquired along all the seismic lines. The objective of the seismic experiment is to determine the crust and mantle structure associated with UAE orogenic belt, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. In addition, the experiment aims to determine mechanisms of ophiolite emplacement and the velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the orogenic belt and the flanking UAE foreland basin and offshore Furairah/Sharjah. Preliminary results of the experiment will be presented including initial findings of seismic reflection, refraction and potential field data. Seismic reflection data in the Gulf of Oman, for example, show evidence for post-rift and syn-rift sedimentation, tilted fault blocks and re-activated faults that appear to have offset the seafloor. Other findings include delineation, using gravity and magnetic data, of the offshore extent of the ophiolite, its thickness and the nature of its bounding faults.

  18. Geodynamics of ophiolites and formation of hydrocarbon fields on the shelf of eastern Sakhalin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raznitsin, Yu. N.

    2012-01-01

    A model is proposed showing the formation of hydrocarbon fields on the shelf of eastern Sakhalin as being caused by sustained (from the Late Cretaceous to the present) extension in the adjacent deepwater Deryugin Basin with exposure of the upper mantle rocks at the bottom of the sedimentary basin. The thrust faults and detachments formed through this process facilitated the penetration of seawater into ultramafic rocks, thus providing large-scale serpentinization accompanied by generation of hydrocarbons. Extension in the Deryugin Basin was compensated by horizontal shortening at its margins, and as a result, by the formation of ophiolitic allochthons as constituents of the accretionary prism of eastern Sakhalin. Hydrocarbons were injected and pumped in the root zones of the allochthons, giving rise to their westward migration and the formation of petroleum pools in fault-line and underthrust traps on the shelf of Sakhalin Island. The Deryugin Basin is a petroleum-collecting area for oil and gas fields localized in the upper part of its western margin. More broadly, the work considers interrelations between hydrocarbon generation and the geodynamics of tectonic couples of ophiolitic allochthons and adjacent deepwater basins of marginal seas, in particular, in the western Pacific.

  19. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-09-01

    The large areal extent and complex nature of the terrain has meant that previous, largely field-based, mapping programmes in the Oman ophiolite have produced maps of internally inconsistent quality. Recognition of subtle changes and minor outcrops across the area of a 1° × 1° map sheet is possible in the field only by unrealistically exhaustive mapping. By using parts of the short-wavelength infrared spectrum, Landsat Thematic Mapper data have the capacity to capitalize on distinctions in the spectral reflectances of different rock types and their weathering products, and to allow consistent mapping across the whole ophiolite. Decorrelation stretching of these data produces images in which it is possible to recognize variations in gabbro composition, to identify small acidic, gabbroic and ultramafic intrusions, to discriminate the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, to locate the Moho precisely, and to delineate gossans and areas subject to chloritic-epidotic alteration. Off-axis plutonism is more widespread and dispersed than previously appreciated. The significance of certain faults is reassessed in the light of new insights provided by the imagery. Such data could be a valuable mapping tool in similarly exposed terrains in arid and semi-arid regions, even where already mapped at the 1:100,000 scale.

  20. The Moho transition zone in the Oman ophiolite-relation with wehrlites in the crust and dunites in the mantle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jousselin; Adolphe Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Field data in the Oman ophiolite show that the Moho transition zone (MTZ), which is on average 300 m thick above mantle diapirs, reduces to 50 m away from diapirs, with a sharp transition at the outskirts of the diapirs. We show here that this reduction is dominantly due to compaction of a dunitic mush present above diapirs in the MTZ, with

  1. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, with applicatons to Tethyan ocean ridge tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Tilton; C. A. Hopson; J. E. Wright

    1981-01-01

    Plagiogranites are a minor but widespread component of the Samail ophiolite plutonic member. They crystallized from the most fractionated melts generated by magmatic crystallization and differentiation of a steady state magma chamber beneath the Tethyan spreading ocean ridge, and their ages are thought to mark the time of ocean crust formation. Isotopic U--Pb ages of zircons from 13 plagiogranites collected

  2. Seismic waves velocities and anisotropy in serpentinized peridotites from Xigaze ophiolite: Abundance of serpentine in slow spreading ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Horen; M. Zamora; G. Dubuisson

    1996-01-01

    The effect of serpentinization on seismic wave velocity and anisotropy has been analyzed in 6 peridotite samples of the Xigaze ophiolite, having harzburgitic composition and a degree of serpentinization ranging from 3% to 70%. We found: i) P- and S-wave velocities are linearly correlated with serpentine content; ii) anisotropy of P- and S-waves decreases with increasing serpentinization (while in fresh

  3. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Lower Oceanic Crust: Sr Isotopic Constraints from the CCSP CY4 Drill Hole, Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. King; D. A. Teagle; M. J. Cooper; J. C. Alt

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the structure and geometry of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems is severely hindered by a dearth of continuous samples into the plutonic complexes of the ocean crust as it is this region that provides the power to drive hydrothermal circulation and preserves a record of magma chamber processes. Although the Troodos ophiolite most probably formed in a supra-subduction

  4. 35. OPHIOLITIC ROCKS OF THE MIDDLE AMERICA TRENCH LANDWARD SLOPE OFF GUATEMALA: DEFORMATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND TECTONIC SIGNIFICANCE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yujiro Ogawa; Kantaro Fujioka; Tadao Nishiyama; Seiichiro Uehara; Masaharu Nakagawa

    Dismembered ophiolitic rocks including abundant sheared, serpentinized peridotite (mostly harzburgite) and minor basalts, dolerites, gabbros, and altered metabasites (mainly altered amphibolite) were drilled at most of the sites on the upper to lower Middle America Trench landward slope off Guatemala during Leg 84 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. These rocks show characteristic Cataclastic deformation with zeolite facies metamorphism and

  5. Magnetic Properties of the Bay of Islands Ophiolite Suite and Implications for the Magnetization of Oceanic Crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ann Swift; H. Paul Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metamorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetization of the underlying sheeted dike

  6. Magnetic properties of the Bay of Islands Ophiolite suite and implications for the magnetization of oceanic crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ann Swift; H. Paul Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metomorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex. Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetizaiton of the underlying sheeted dike

  7. Nitrogen isotopes in ophiolitic metagabbros: A re-evaluation of modern nitrogen fluxes in subduction zones and implication

    E-print Network

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Nitrogen isotopes in ophiolitic metagabbros: A re-evaluation of modern nitrogen fluxes; available online 6 October 2011 Abstract Nitrogen contents and isotope compositions together with major, nitrogen (2.6­55 ppm) occurs as bound ammonium (NH4 þ ) substituting for K or Na­Ca in minerals. Cu

  8. New Perspectives on Ophiolite Formation: Evidence from Ultrahigh Pressure (UHP), Highly Reduced and Crustal-type Minerals in Podiform Chromitites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Separated and in situ ultrahigh pressure (UHP), highly reduced and crustal-type minerals are common in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa and Dongqiao ophiolites, Tibet and the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals, Russia. Highly reduced and crustal-type minerals have also been recovered from the Oman ophiolite. UHP minerals include diamond, coesite-stishovite and kyanite, whereas highly reduced minerals are mainly moissanite (SiC), native elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Cr, Al, Ti, Mn, W, Ta) and a wide variety of metallic alloys. Crustal-type minerals are represented by various combinations of zircon, corundum, almandine garnet, kyanite, andalusite, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, apatite, amphibole, rutile, and titanite. Most in-situ grains are hosted in small, circular to irregular patches of amorphous carbon within grains of magnesiochromite, indicating the former presence of a C-rich fluid, either during or after crystallization of the chromite. The recovered zircons are typically rounded to sub-rounded grains with complex internal structures indicating polyphase growth. Their trace element contents and low-pressure inclusion assemblages (quartz, muscovite, K-feldspar, apatite, ilmenite, rutile) indicate a continental crustal origin. The zircons have SIMS U-Pb ages that are generally much older than the host ophiolite (total range: 90 to 2500 Ma). The presence of numerous crustal minerals, particularly zircon, suggests derivation from metasedimentary rocks subducted into the mantle. The preservation of UHP, highly reduced and crustal-type minerals in chromitites implies effective isolation from the mafic melts that formed the ophiolites and chromitites. Clearly, the formation of ophiolites and podiform chromitites must be a complex, multistage process involving crystallization of magnesiochromite grains at depth in the upper mantle, upwelling of the host peridotites and chromitites, capture of mantle wedges above suprasubduction zones, further crystallization and modification of magnesiochromite grains, allowing incorporation of crustal-type minerals from the underlying subducting slab. Slab rollback and/or slab tear may facilitate uprise of mantle peridotites leading to concentration of podiform chromitites within individual ophiolitic blocks.

  9. The carbon isotope composition of natural SiC (moissanite) from the Earth's mantle: New discoveries from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, Robert B.; Yang, Jing-Sui; Robinson, Paul T.; Di Pierro, Simonpietro; Vennemann, Torsten; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Moissanite (natural SiC) has been recovered from podiform chromitites of several ophiolite complexes, including the Luobusa and Donqiao ophiolites in Tibet, the Semail ophiolite in Oman and the United Arab Emirates, and the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals, Russia. Taking these new occurrences with the numerous earlier reports of moissanite in diamondiferous kimberlites leads to the conclusion that natural SiC is a widespread mineral in the Earth's mantle, which implies at least locally extremely low redox conditions. The ophiolite moissanite grains are mostly fragments (20 to 150 µm) with one or more crystal faces, but some euhedral hexagonal grains have also been recovered. Twinned crystals are common in chromitites from the Luobusa ophiolite. The moissanite is rarely colorless, more commonly light bluish-gray to blue or green. Many grains contain inclusions of native Si and Fe-Si alloys (FeSi 2, Fe 3Si 7). Secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis shows that the ophiolite-hosted moissanite has a distinctive 13C-depleted isotopic composition (? 13C from - 18 to - 35‰, n = 36), much lighter than the main carbon reservoir in the upper mantle (? 13C near - 5‰). The compiled data from moissanite from kimberlites and other mantle settings share the characteristic of strongly 13C-depleted isotopic composition. This suggests that moissanite originates from a separate carbon reservoir in the mantle or that its formation involved strong isotopic fractionation. The degree of fractionation needed to produce the observed moissanite compositions from the main C-reservoir would be unrealistically large at the high temperatures required for moissanite formation. Subduction of biogenic carbonaceous material could potentially satisfy both the unusual isotopic and redox constraints on moissanite formation, but this material would need to stay chemically isolated from the upper mantle until it reached the high- T stability field of moissanite. The origin of moissanite in the mantle is still unsolved, but all evidence from the upper mantle indicates that it cannot have formed there, barring special and local redox conditions. We suggest, alternatively, that moissanite may have formed in the lower mantle, where the existence of 13C-depleted carbon is strongly supported by studies of extraterrestrial carbon (Mars, Moon, meteorites).

  10. On the limits and limitations of the ophiolite - mid-ocean ridge analogy: Oman vs the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Christopher J.; Lissenberg, C. Johan

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the near half century since Ian Gass proposed that ophiolite complexes formed by a process directly analogous to seafloor spreading, the study of ophiolites has been central to the development of our conceptual understanding of the mechanisms of formation of oceanic lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges. This role has been affected little by the recognition - on the basis of their geochemistry - that most ophiolites must have formed by spreading above subduction zones rather than at 'proper' open-ocean mid-ocean ridges. Why? - because we will never be able to gain access to the internal structure of modern ocean lithosphere to the extent we can by walking over the largest and best-preserved ophiolites (e.g. Cyprus, Oman, Newfoundland etc.). Ophiolites will always provide vital insights into the mechanisms of formation of lithosphere formed at submarine volcanic spreading centres. To what extent, however, can we be confident that what we learn from ophiolite studies is directly applicable to modern open-ocean mid-ocean ridges? Exactly how far can we press the analogy? To a first order it is reasonable to assume that the physical processes of crustal formation at an open-ocean mid-ocean ridge and at a supra-subduction zone spreading centre should be closely comparable: the presence of an organised sheeted dyke complex, representing 100% extension accompanied by magmatism, is convincing evidence for seafloor spreading. But does this mean the processes of crustal formation are identical in these different geodynamic environments? In this presentation we compare the 'crown jewel' of ophiolites, Oman, with the East Pacific Rise to explore the veracity of the widely-held belief that Oman represents a direct analogue for lithosphere formed at a fast-spreading (open-ocean) mid-ocean ridge. Whereas the mantle source of the axial volcanic suite in Oman is very similar to that of mid-ocean ridge basalt, we have recently shown (MacLeod et al. 2013, Geology v.41, p.459-462) that the magmas were generated in the presence of water, from which we deduce that the ophiolite was very probably formed by a short-lived spreading episode immediately following subduction initiation. We here compare and contrast more than 25 years of our own observations and data from Oman with a unique suite of samples we recently collected from the Hess Deep rift valley (the first ever complete crustal section recovered from a modern fast-spreading ridge), examining the extent to which the presence of water and the unstable geodynamic environment during the generation of the Oman ophiolite have had a material effect on the internal structure and composition of the crust thus produced. We here demonstrate that, although the physical processes of crustal generation at the Oman and East Pacific Rise spreading ridges are similar overall, systematic differences in crustal structure exist. We discuss the significant implications these have for our models of crustal accretion based solely on ophiolite observations.

  11. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and location of ophiolites in NW India and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen basins formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between India and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen Basin may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante basins accommodated motion between India and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-India convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW India and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW India-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW India ophiolites have no relationship with India-Asia motion or collision but result from relative India-Africa/Arabia motions instead.

  12. New paleomagnetic data from the Wadi Abyad crustal section and their implications for the rotation history of the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Matthew; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark; MacLeod, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Oman ophiolite is an important natural laboratory for understanding the construction of oceanic crust at fast spreading axes and its subsequent tectonic evolution. Previous paleomagnetic research in lavas of the northern ophiolitic blocks (Perrin et al., 2000) has demonstrated substantial clockwise intraoceanic tectonic rotations. Paleomagnetic data from lower crustal sequences in the southern blocks, however, have been more equivocal due to complications arising from remagnetization, and have been used to infer that clockwise rotations seen in the north are internal to the ophiolite rather than regionally significant (Weiler, 2000). Here we demonstrate the importance and advantages of sampling crustal transects in the ophiolite in order to understand the nature and variability in magnetization directions. By systematically sampling the lower crustal sequence exposed in Wadi Abyad (Rustaq block) we resolve for the first time in a single section a pattern of remagnetized lowermost gabbros and retention of earlier magnetizations by uppermost gabbros and the overlying dyke-rooting zone. Results are supported by a positive fold test that shows that remagnetization of lower gabbros occurred prior to the Campanian structural disruption of the Moho. NW-directed remagnetized remanences in the lower units are consistent with those used by Weiler (2000) to infer lack of significant rotation of the southern blocks and to argue, therefore, that rotation of the northern blocks was internal to the ophiolite. In contrast, E/ENE-directed remanences in the uppermost levels of Wadi Abyad imply large, clockwise rotation of the Rustaq block, of a sense and magnitude consistent with intraoceanic rotations inferred from extrusive sections in the northern blocks. We conclude that without the control provided by systematic crustal sampling, the potential for different remanence directions being acquired at different times may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretation.

  13. Ages and Nd, Sr isotopic systematics in the Sierran foothills ophiolite belt, CA: the Smartville and Feather River complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H.F.; Niemeyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd dating has shown the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite to be approx. 480 My old. Its Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions require an unusually old depleted mantle source. Samples from the Smartville and Feather River complexes have been analyzed in a search for similar highly depleted, early Paleozoic ophiolites in the northern foothills ophiolite belt. Six whole rocks from Smartville, encompassing representative lithologies, plus plagioclase and pyroxene mineral separates define a 183 +/- 22 My Sm-Nd isochron. This age, interpreted as the igneous age, is older than, but within error of, approx. 160 My U-Pb ages previously obtained from plagiogranite zircon analyses. One diabase with unusually high Rb/Sr yields a depleted mantle Sr model age of 200 +/- 25 My, consistent with the Sm-ND age. These compositions are clearly oceanic in character but do not discriminate among possible tectonic settings for the formation of the Smartville complex. Sm-Nd data for flaser gabbros and related rocks from Feather River scatter about an approx. 230 My errorchron with element of/sub Nd/(T) = +6.3 to +8.7. Initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ranges from 0.7028 to 0.7031. These results indicate a complex history with initial isotopic heterogeneities and/or disturbances of the isotopic systems. If primary, the element of/sub Nd/ (T) values are somewhat low, suggesting a possible arc origin for these rocks. Neither the Smartville nor Feather R. complexes appear to be related to the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite which, so far, is unique among foothill ophiolites in having an early Paleozoic age and a clear MORB, as opposed to arc or marginal basin, isotopic signature.

  14. New Paleomagnetic Data from the Wadi Abyad Crustal Section and their Implications for the Rotation History of the Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite is an important natural laboratory for understanding the construction of oceanic crust at fast spreading axes and its subsequent tectonic evolution. Previous paleomagnetic research in lavas of the northern ophiolitic blocks (Perrin et al., 2000, Mar. Geophys. Res.) has demonstrated substantial clockwise intraoceanic tectonic rotations. Paleomagnetic data from lower crustal sequences in the southern blocks, however, have been more equivocal due to complications arising from remagnetization, and have been used to infer that clockwise rotations seen in the north are internal to the ophiolite rather than regionally significant (Weiler, 2000, Mar. Geophys. Res.). Here we demonstrate the importance and advantages of sampling crustal transects in the ophiolite in order to understand the nature and variability in magnetization directions. By systematically sampling the lower crustal sequence exposed in Wadi Abyad (Rustaq block) we resolve for the first time in a single section a pattern of remagnetized lowermost gabbros and retention of earlier magnetizations by uppermost gabbros and the overlying dyke-rooting zone. Results are supported by a positive fold test that shows that remagnetization of lower gabbros occurred prior to the Campanian structural disruption of the Moho. NW-directed remagnetized remanences in the lower units are consistent with those used by Weiler (2000, Mar. Geophys. Res.) to infer lack of significant rotation of the southern blocks and to argue, therefore, that rotation of the northern blocks was internal to the ophiolite. In contrast, E/ENE-directed remanences in the uppermost levels of Wadi Abyad imply a large, clockwise rotation of the Rustaq block, of a sense and magnitude consistent with intraoceanic rotations inferred from extrusive sections in the northern blocks. We conclude that without the control provided by systematic crustal sampling, the potential for different remanence directions being acquired at different times may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretation.

  15. Rapid crustal accretion and magma assimilation in the Oman-U.A.E. ophiolite: High precision U-Pb zircon geochronology of the gabbroic crust

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Matthew

    New high-precision U/Pb zircon geochronology from the Oman-United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) ophiolite provides insight into the timing and duration of magmatism and the tectonic setting during formation of the lower crust. ...

  16. Tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite: High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth and emplacement

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Matthew

    New high-precision single grain U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole rock Nd isotopic data provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite. The analyzed rocks can be broadly divided into ...

  17. Talc-carbonate alteration of ultramafic rocks within the Leka Ophiolite Complex, Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerga, A.; Konopásek, J.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of partly and completely serpentinized and carbonated peridotites within the ultramafic section of the Leka Ophiolite Complex have been used to elucidate the evolution of alterations and identify possible fluid sources. The alterations show no evidence for any major deformation and are located along low-angle structures that were formed in a late stage of the structural evolution of the ophiolite complex. Modeling of mineral equilibria in the SiO2-MgO-FeO-Fe2O3-CaO-H2O ± CO2 system has been utilized to constrain the conditions during serpentinization and carbonation. The partly altered peridotites consist of the mineral assemblage olivine-clinopyroxene-serpentine-magnetite-brucite and formed at temperatures < 410 °C by infiltration of aqueous fluids. Completely serpentinized rocks with the mineral assemblage serpentine-magnesite-magnetite-dolomite formed at temperatures < 500 °C and low XCO2 (? 0.05) by the breakdown of the minerals in the partly altered peridotites. Talc-carbonate rocks formed by the breakdown of the serpentine in the previously formed serpentinite rock at temperatures < 550 °C and elevated XCO2, which resulted in the stabilization of the assemblage talc-magnesite-magnetite-dolomite. Carbon isotope values determined for dolomite from crosscutting carbonate lenses within the talc-carbonate rock yield ?13C values of ~- 5 indicative of a mantle source for the carbon required for the carbonation. Oxygen isotope values ?SMOW18O of ~ 10.8-11.3‰ together with initial 87Sr/86Sri = 400Ma values of 0.7029 and 0.7063, suggest dehydration of rocks with mantle affinity as a source for the fluids. Based on analytical results and field observations we propose that the formation of the talc- and carbonate-bearing alteration zones is caused by the focused infiltration of fluids that originated at the bottom of already partly serpentinized ophiolite complex during extension-driven burial at the late stage of the Caledonian orogeny.

  18. Genesis of Diamond-bearing and Diamond-free Podiform Chromitites in the Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Xiong, F.; Xu, X.; Robinson, P. T.; Dilek, Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Micro-diamonds, moissanite and many highly reduced minerals, such as native Fe, Cr, Ni, Si, Al, and metallic alloys, have been reported previously from podiform chromitites and peridotites of the Luobusa ophiolite in the eastern segment of the Yarlung-Zangbo suture of southern Tibet.. Similar mineral associations have now been confirmed in mantle peridotites or chromitites of 11 other ophiolites in 5 orogenic belts, in Tibet, Myanmar, North China and the Polar Urals. However, detailed studies of the Luobusa ophiolite show that not all chromitites contain these UHP and highly reduced minerals. Diamond-bearing chromitites are chiefly massive bodies composed of over 95 modal% magnesiochromite with Cr#s [100Cr/(Cr+Al)] of 77-83 and Mg#s [100Mg/(Mg+Fe)] of 71-82. Most of these bodies have sharp contacts with the host harzburgites and are only rarely enclosed in dunite envelopes. Many magnesiochromite grains in the massive chromitites contain inclusions of forsterite and pyroxene. Forsterite inclusions have Fo numbers of 97-99 and NiO contents of 1.11-1.29 wt%. Mg#s of clinopyroxene inclusions are 96-98 and those of orthopyroxene are 96-97. X-ray studies show that the olivine inclusions have very small unit cells and short cation-oxygen bond distances, suggesting crystallization at high pressure. In contrast, diamond-free chromitites typically occur as layers within thick dunite sequences or as irregular patches surrounded by dunite envelopes. They consist of variable proportions of magnesiochromite (Cr# = 76-78; Mg# = 58-61) and olivine, and have banded, nodular and disseminated textures. The dunite envelopes consist chiefly of granular olivine with a few relatively large, amoeboidal grains of magnesiochromite, and typically grade into the host peridotites with increasing pyroxene. Unlike those in the massive ores, magnesiochromite grains in nodular and disseminated chromitites lack pyroxene inclusions, and their olivine inclusions have relatively low Fo (94-96) and NiO (0.35-0.58 wt%). We propose that the diamond-bearing chromitite ores formed within the deeper parts of the upper mantle and were emplaced at an oceanic spreading ridge, whereas the diamond-free chromitites formed at shallow levels by melt/rock reaction, most likely in a SSZ environment.

  19. Possible polyphase metamorphic evolution of high grade metabasic rocks from the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Danling

    2014-05-01

    The Proterozoic Songshugou ophiolite consists of a series of ultrabasic and tholeitic metabasic rocks. They were emplaced as a lense shaped body into the southern margin of the Qinling Group. Isotope composition and trace element geochemistry display an E-MORB and T-MORB signature for the mafic rocks (Dong et al., 2008). Within the ophiolite sequence some rudimental fresh peridotites (dunites and harzburgites) within serpentines display low CaO (<0.39 wt.%) and Al2O3 (<0.51 wt.%) as well as high MgO (41-48 wt.%) contents, which can be classified as depleted non-fertile mantle rocks. The metabasic rocks comprise the mineral assemblage garnet, amphibole, symplectitic pyroxenes, ilmenite, apatite, ±zoisite, ±sphene and show a strong retrograde metamorphic overprint. Garnet typically contains many inclusions within the core but are nearly inclusion free at the rim. The cores have sometimes snowball textures indicating initially syndeformative growth. Albite and prehnite were found in central parts of garnet. In the outer portions, pargasitic amphibole, rutile and a bluish amphibole, probably glaukophane were found. Garnet zoning pattern clearly show a discontinous growth seen in an sudden increase in grossular and decrease in almandine components. The symplectitic pyroxenes are of diopsidic composition which enclose typically prehnite and not albite, as common in retrograde eclogitic rocks. Different stages of garnet breakdown to plagioclase and amphibole, from thin plagioclase rims surrounding the garnets to plagioclase rich pseudomorphs, can be observed in different samples. Based on symplectitic pyroxenes a high pressure metamorphic event can be concluded (Zhang, 1999). The garnet breakdown to plagioclase and the symplectites clearly indicate a rapid exhumation phase. The age of the metamorphic event is probably related to the closure of the Shangdan ocean during the early Paleozoic. It is unclear if the garnet rims grew during a later stage of the metamorphic cycle or developed during a separate event. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully acknowledged. Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Science 32 (5-6), 325-335. Zhang, Z.J., 1999. Metamorphic evolution of garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole rocks from the Proterozoic Songshugou mafic-ultramafic complex, Qinling Mountains, central China. The Island Arc, 8, 259-280.

  20. Plume type ophiolites in Japan, East Russia and Mongolia: Peculiarity of the Late Jurassic examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Akira; Ichiyama, Yuji; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan

    2013-04-01

    Dilek and Furnes (2011; GSAB) provided a new comprehensive classification of ophiolites. In addition to the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) types that are known for decades, they introduced rift-zone (passive margin) type, volcanic arc (active margin) type, and plume type. The last type is thought to be originated in oceanic large igneous provinces (LIPs; oceanic plateaus), and is preserved in the subduction-accretion complexes in the Pacific margins. The LIP-origin greenstones occur in the Middle Paleozoic (Devonian) accretionary complex (AC) in central Mongolia (Ganbat et al. 2012; AGU abst.). The Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic plume-type ophiolites are abundant in Japan. They are Carboniferous greenstones covered by thick limestone in the Akiyoshi belt (Permian AC, SW Japan; Tatsumi et al., 2000; Geology), Permian greenstones in the Mino-Tamba belt (Jurassic AC, SW Japan; Ichiyama et al. 2008; Lithos), and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone in the Sorachi (Hokkaido; Ichiyama et al, 2012; Geology) and Mikabu (SW Japan; this study) belts. The LIP origin of these greenstones is indicated by abundance of picrite (partly komatiite and meimechite), geochemical features resembling HIMU basalts (e.g. high Nb/Y and Zr/Y) and Mg-rich (up to Fo93) picritic olivines following the "mantle array", suggesting very high (>1600oC) temperature of the source mantle plume. The Sorachi-Mikabu greenstones are characterized by the shorter time interval between magmatism and accretion than the previous ones, and are coeval with the meimechite lavas and Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions in the Jurassic AC in Sikhote-Alin Mountains of Primorye (E. Russia), that suggest a superplume activity in the subduction zone (Ishiwatari and Ichiyama, 2004; IGR). The Mikabu greenstones extend for 800 km along the Pacific coast of SW Japan, and are characterized by the fragmented "olistostrome" occurrence of the basalts, gabbros and ultramafic cumulate rocks (but no mantle peridotite), suggesting tectonism in a sediment-starved subduction zone or a transform fault zone that transected the thick oceanic LIP crust. The Sorachi greenstones are associated with depleted mantle peridotite, and are covered by the thick Cretaceous turbidite formation (Yezo Group), and Takashima et al. (2002; JAES) concluded the marginal basin origin for the "Sorachi ophiolite". We know that some oceanic LIPs were developed into marginal basins (e.g. Caribbean basin). The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone belts of Japan and eastern Russia may represent relics of a 2000 km-size superplume activity that hit the subduction zone and the adjacent ocean floor in NW Pacific.

  1. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D., Brozzo, G., Canepa, M., Cipolli, F., Marini, L., Ottonello, G., Zuccolini, M., 2002. Natural hexavalent chromium in groundwaters interacting with ophiolitic rocks. Environmental Geology 42, 871-882. Lelli, M., Grassi, S., Amadori, M., Franceschini, F., 2013. Natural Cr(VI) contamination of groundwater in the Cecina coastal area and its inner sectors (Tuscany, Italy). Environmental Earth Sciences 71, 3907-3919. Oze, C., Fendorf, S., Bird, D.K., Coleman, R.G., 2004. Chromium geochemistry of serpentine soils. International Geology Review 46, 97-126. Stephen, M.T., James, A.J., 2004. Overview of chromium (VI) in the environment. Chromium (VI) Handbook. CRC Press, pp. 21.

  2. Origin of wehrlite cumulates in the Moho transition zone of the Neoproterozoic Ras Salatit ophiolite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: crustal wehrlites with typical mantle characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisham A. Gahlan; Shoji Arai; Fawzy F. Abu El-Ela; Akihiro Tamura

    Ultramafic cumulates, mainly crustal true wehrlites, were discovered and described in the mantle–crust transition zone (MTZ)\\u000a and the extremely lower layered gabbro sequence of the Ras Salatit ophiolite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. They form either\\u000a boudinaged lensoidal tabular bodies or interdigitated layers often concordant with the planolinear fabrics of the Ras Salatit\\u000a ophiolite rocks. The contact between wehrlites and the

  3. Differentiation of Neotethyan ophiolitic mélange and an approach revealing its surficial chromite deposits using ASTER image and spectral measurements (Sivas, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavak, Kaan ?evki; Töre, Yavuz; Temiz, Haluk; Parlak, Osman; Ç??la, Hande; Yakan, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    This work is aimed at differentiation of ophiolitic mélange rocks which were outcropped 60 km far from Sivas city center using image processing and spectral measurement methods. These rocks are known as oceanic crust remnants which were made up of different rocks. Turkey hosts several paleo-oceans and their realms in Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The Neotethyan ophiolites in Turkey are characterized by supra subduction zone (SSZ-type) ophiolites. Ophiolitic rocks are generally coloured with greenish tones and human eye could not separate these tone differences. But satellite images such as ASTER can realize these separation utilizing spectral enhancement methods such as classification and decorrelation stretching. Chromite is a valuable mineral and is formed in only ophiolitic rocks. Dunites and harzburgites named as also ultramafic tectonits of ophiolitic serie mainly contain these deposits in study area. In this study, an approach was also realized to find target regions of chromite deposits with the aid of spectral methods. Spectral measurements were realized to determine boundaries between different mélange rocks using spectroradiometer. Reflectance curves collected from field and laboratory analysis were evaluated together and compared with ASTER image of the study area respectively. A detailed differentiation generally was accompanied with petrographic and geochemical analyses.

  4. High-pressure highly reduced nitrides and oxides from chromitite of a Tibetan ophiolite

    PubMed Central

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F.; Wirth, Richard; Yang, Jingsui; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Green, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest rocks known from within Earth are fragments of normal mantle (?400 km) and metamorphosed sediments (?350 km), both found exhumed in continental collision terranes. Here, we report fragments of a highly reduced deep mantle environment from at least 300 km, perhaps very much more, extracted from chromite of a Tibetan ophiolite. The sample consists, in part, of diamond, coesite-after-stishovite, the high-pressure form of TiO2, native iron, high-pressure nitrides with a deep mantle isotopic signature, and associated SiC. This appears to be a natural example of the recently discovered disproportionation of Fe2+ at very high pressure and consequent low oxygen fugacity (fO2) in deep Earth. Encapsulation within chromitite enclosed within upwelling solid mantle rock appears to be the only vehicle capable of transporting these phases and preserving their low-fO2 environment at the very high temperatures of oceanic spreading centers. PMID:19880742

  5. Acadian remobilization of a Taconian ophiolite, Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwood, P.A. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns's (Canada))

    1989-03-01

    The Hare Bay fault is a major subhorizontal detachment at the base of the ophiolitic St. Anthony Complex in the Hare Bay allochthon, northwestern Newfounland. The fault is a postmetamorphic brittle detachment that truncates footwall structures related to both initial Ordovician (Taconian) assembly of the allochthon and subsequent Silurian-Devonian (Acadian) deformation. Although previously mapped as a thrust, the fault has an extensional rather than a contractional geometry; it cuts downsection to the west in the direction of transport, and it juxtaposes a hanging-wall sequence that contains little or no Acadian deformation against a footwall sequence that was pervasively deformed during the Acadian orogeny. The St. Anthony Complex lies on the western margin of the Acadian deformed zone. Its final emplacement, through movement on the Hare Bay fault, probably occurred through extensional faulting during gravitational collapse of the Acadian mountain front.

  6. PALLADIUM, PLATINUM, RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM AND IRIDIUM IN PERIDOTITES AND CHROMITITES FROM OPHIOLITE COMPLEXES IN NEWFOUNDLAND.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Talkington, Raymond W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of spinel lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite, and chromitite from the Bay of Islands, Lewis Hills, Table Mountain, Advocate, North Arm Mountain, White Hills Periodite Point Rousse, Great Bend and Betts Cove ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru and Ir. The ranges of concentration (in ppb) observed for all rocks are: less than 0. 5 to 77 (Pd), less than 1 to 120 (Pt), less than 0. 5 to 20 (Rh), less than 100 to 250 (Ru) and less than 20 to 83 (Ir). Chondrite-normalized PGE ratios suggest differences between rock types and between complexes. Samples of chromitite and dunite show relative enrichment in Ru and Ir and relative depletion in Pt and Pd.

  7. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  8. MORB to supra-subduction geochemical transition in the extrusive sequences of major upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, H. A.; Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Moslempour, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the geochemical patterns and tectonomagmatic setting of the extrusive sequences in the Khoy, Kermanshah, Fannuj, Nosratabad, Dehshir, south and north Fariman, and Sabzevar ophiolite massifs of Iran. These sequences include pillow lava, sheet flow, hyaloclastite, hyaloclastic breccia, and interbeds of chert and pelagic limestone with Late Cretaceous micro fauna. The Khoy, north Fariman, and Sabzevar massifs also include Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene supra-ophiolitic volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks that formed in a trough near the extrusive sequence. The Khoy pillow lava displays T-MORB characteristics but no chemical contribution from the components released from the subducted slab. On the other hand, the diabase dikes that cut the Khoy extrusive sequence show signatures of subduction zone magmatism and contribution from the melt released through the partial melting of the subducted slab. While lava in the Harsin (Kermanshah) extrusive sequence in west Iran displays E-MORB and P-MORB characteristics, the pillows in the Fannuj, north Fariman, Dehshir, and Sabzevar extrusive sequences indicate the contribution of both fluids and melt from the subducted slab. The Nosratabad and south Fariman ophiolites also show evidence for either melt or fluids, respectively. Partial melting of the subducted slab sedimentary cover may have formed the acidic pillow lava and sheet flow in the Fannuj and Nosratabad extrusive sequence, respectively. Some pillows in the Nosratabad, Sabzevar, north Fariman, and to a lesser extent, Dehshir extrusive sequence display the OIB geochemical characteristics. Mantle plumes or asthenospheric flow that probably moved up through weak zones of the subducted slab may have affected the partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab. The combined OIB and supra-subduction characteristics suggest the role of the roll-back of the subducted slab in the magmatism of the northeast Iranian ophiolites. The clear MORB-like geochemical characteristics in the extrusive sequence of the ophiolites in northwest and west Iran, and supra-subduction zone characteristics in the extrusive sequence of the ophiolites in southeast and east Iran, west of the Lut Block, and northeast Iran may represent a major Late Cretaceous transition from the MORB to a supra-subduction zone setting.

  9. Geochemical evidence for Late Cretaceous marginal arc-to-backarc transition in the Sabzevar ophiolitic extrusive sequence, northeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari Jafari, Morteza; Babaie, Hassan A.; Gani, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    The ophiolitic extrusive sequence, exposed in an area north of Sabzevar, has three major parts: a lower part, with abundant breccia, hyaloclastic tuff, and sheet flow, a middle part with vesicular, aphyric pillow lava, and an upper part with a sequence of lava and volcanic-sedimentary rocks. Pelagic limestone interlayers contain Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian-Late Maastrichtian) microfauna. The supra-ophiolitic series includes a sequence of turbidititic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks with lava flow, aphyric and phyric lava, and interlayers of pelagic limestone and radiolarian chert. Paleontological investigation of the pelagic limestone and radiolarite interlayers in this series gives a Late Cretaceous age, supporting the idea that the supra-ophiolitic series formed in a trough, synchronous with the Sabzevar oceanic crust during the Late Cretaceous. Geochemical data indicate a relationship between lava in the upper part of the extrusive sequence and lava in the supra-ophiolitic series. These lavas have a calc-alkaline to almost alkaline characteristic, and show a clear depletion in Nb and definite depletions in Zr and Ti in spider diagrams. Data from these rocks plot in the subduction zone field in tectonomagmatic diagrams. The concentration and position of the heavy rare earth elements in the spider diagrams, and their slight variation, can be attributed to partial melting of the depleted mantle wedge above the subducted slab, and enrichment in the LILE can be attributed to subduction components (fluid, melt) released from the subducting slab. In comparison, the sheet flow and pillow lava of the lower and middle parts of the extrusive sequence show OIB characteristics and high potassium magmatic and shoshonitic trends, and their spider diagram patterns show Nb, Zr, and Ti depletions. The enrichment in the LILE in the spider diagram patterns suggest a low rate of partial melting of an enriched, garnet-bearing mantle. It seems that the marginal arc basin, in which the Sabzevar ophiolite was forming, experienced lithospheric extension in response to slab rollback. This process, which formed a backarc basin, may have aborted the embryonic arc, stopped arc magmatism, and led to the rise of mantle diapirs. The extrusive ophiolite sequence, north of Sabzevar probably formed during the transition from a marginal arc basin to a backarc basin during the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Microbial life associated with low-temperature alteration of ultramafic rocks in the Leka ophiolite complex.

    PubMed

    Daae, F L; Økland, I; Dahle, H; Jørgensen, S L; Thorseth, I H; Pedersen, R B

    2013-07-01

    Water-rock interactions in ultramafic lithosphere generate reduced chemical species such as hydrogen that can fuel subsurface microbial communities. Sampling of this environment is expensive and technically demanding. However, highly accessible, uplifted oceanic lithospheres emplaced onto continental margins (ophiolites) are potential model systems for studies of the subsurface biosphere in ultramafic rocks. Here, we describe a microbiological investigation of partially serpentinized dunite from the Leka ophiolite (Norway). We analysed samples of mineral coatings on subsurface fracture surfaces from different depths (10-160 cm) and groundwater from a 50-m-deep borehole that penetrates several major fracture zones in the rock. The samples are suggested to represent subsurface habitats ranging from highly anaerobic to aerobic conditions. Water from a surface pond was analysed for comparison. To explore the microbial diversity and to make assessments about potential metabolisms, the samples were analysed by microscopy, construction of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries, culturing and quantitative-PCR. Different microbial communities were observed in the groundwater, the fracture-coating material and the surface water, indicating that distinct microbial ecosystems exist in the rock. Close relatives of hydrogen-oxidizing Hydrogenophaga dominated (30% of the bacterial clones) in the oxic groundwater, indicating that microbial communities in ultramafic rocks at Leka could partially be driven by H2 produced by low-temperature water-rock reactions. Heterotrophic organisms, including close relatives of hydrocarbon degraders possibly feeding on products from Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, dominated in the fracture-coating material. Putative hydrogen-, ammonia-, manganese- and iron-oxidizers were also detected in fracture coatings and the groundwater. The microbial communities reflect the existence of different subsurface redox conditions generated by differences in fracture size and distribution, and mixing of fluids. The particularly dense microbial communities in the shallow fracture coatings seem to be fuelled by both photosynthesis and oxidation of reduced chemical species produced by water-rock reactions. PMID:23551703

  11. Structure, Age, and Tectonic Development of the Huoshishan-Niujuanzi Ophiolitic MÉLANGE, Beishan, Southernmost Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, W.; Tian, Z.; Windley, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Huoshishan-Niujuanzi ophiolitic mélange (HNO) is located near the central part of the Beishan orogenic belt in the southernmost Altaids. The HNO consists of ultramafic rocks, cumulate gabbros, gabbros, plagiogranites, diorites, diabases, basalts, andesites, rhyolitic volcaniclastic rocks and siliceous sedimentary rocks, many of which are in a schist matrix (Gongpoquan Group). Geochemical data of the mafic rocks indicate a calc-alkaline or mixture of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic rocks with negative Nb, Ta and positive Pb, Ba and La anomalies, suggesting formation in an island arc or supra-subduction zone setting. A gabbro from a block in the mélange in the Niujuanzi area has a zircon age of 435.0 × 1.9 Ma and a plagiogranite with an age of 444.3 × 1.9 Ma, and another gabbro from the Huoshishan area has an age of 410.5 × 3.7 Ma. The schist matrix has a zircon age of 512×5.3 Ma and contains Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous fossils, thus the mélange formed in the late Carboniferous or younger. Our structural analysis of fault planes in the HNO, the crenulation cleavages (S2) of the schist, and fold axial planes of early Permian sandy limestone/quartz veins and late Permian sandstones indicates that the mélange underwent a north-to-south compression, and the orientation of stretching lineations, slickensides and fold hinge lines implies that the HNO experienced top-to-the north (or -northwest) movement. The entire planar and linear structural data set suggests that the subduction polarity was probably to the south in the late Paleozoic. The emplacement age of the HNO was probably near the end-Permian based on the age of the youngest rocks in the ophiolitic mélange, and by the presence of a late Permian unconformity. From our work, integrated with published regional data, we outline a comprehensive geodynamic model for the central BOC. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41230207, 41190070, 41190075)

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of the Saga and Sangsang ophiolitic massifs, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Southern Tibet: Evidence for an arc-back-arc origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, É.; Hébert, R.; Guilmette, C.; Lesage, G.; Wang, C. S.; Dostal, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Saga and Sangsang ophiolites are located about 600 and 450 km west of Lhasa and represent a western extention of the central portion of the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ) ophiolite belt. The Saga massif comprises fresh mantle lherzolite and cpx-harzburgite, an ophiolite mélange (± amphibolite), metamorphosed mafic crustal rocks (meta-gabbro, meta-basalts and amphibolites) and a sequence of uppermost crustal rocks (chert, basaltic lavas, diabase sills and dikes). The Sangsang ophiolite consists of an ophiolite mélange (harzburgite) and upper mantle harzburgite with minor lavas and gabbro. Peridotites from both massifs show variable degrees of serpentinization. Their Mg# varies between 0.89 and 0.91. All peridotites show distinct flat REE (rare earth elements) patterns with La/Yb N ratios close to 1, probably indicative of a refertilized mantle. The Olivine-Spinel equilibrium and the spinel chemistry for the Saga (Cr# ~ 0.10-0.22) and Sangsang (Cr# ~ 0.30-0.55) peridotites suggest that the Saga peridotites have a deeper mantle provenance (> 20 kbar) and have undergone lower degrees of partial melting (5-12%) than the Sangsang peridotites (< 15 kbar; 17-30%). The composition of the Saga peridotites is similar to the composition of pre-oceanic peridotites while peridotites from the Sangsang massif resemble abyssal and subduction-related peridotites. Mafic rocks from both ophiolites have basalt and basaltic andesite compositions. They are slightly depleted in light REE with respect to the heavy REE, with La/Yb N between 0.5 and 0.8 and with a small negative Ta-Nb anomaly suggesting the presence of a subduction component. The abundances of incompatible elements in these mafic rocks are similar to N-MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt) or back-arc-basin basalts (BABB). Our data suggest that the Saga and Sangsang ophiolites belong to an intraoceanic suprasubduction zone segment as postulated for other ophiolitic massifs in the eastern portion of the YZSZ. However, the geochemistry of mantle rocks from these two massifs is different compared to each other (fertile vs. refractory) and compared to other YZSZ ophiolites suggesting different petrogenetic histories. Field relationships and geochemical data furthermore suggest that the Saga and Sangsang ophiolites were formed in a complex arc-back-arc setting where at least two subducting slabs must have been active. This study places one more piece in the YZSZ puzzle and lead to a better understanding of the morphology of the convergence zone before the final stage of collision which led to the present configuration of the suture zone.

  13. The effects of partial melting, melt-mantle interaction and fractionation on ophiolite generation: Constraints from the late Cretaceous Pozant?-Karsant? ophiolite, southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Samet; Uysal, Ibrahim; Akmaz, Recep Melih; Kaliwoda, Melanie; Hochleitner, Rupert

    2014-08-01

    The Pozant?-Karsant? ophiolite consists of a mantle unit and overlying crustal rocks. The mantle peridotite is composed of harzburgitic to dunitic rocks that are depleted in Al2O3 and CaO compared to primitive mantle. The low whole-rock Al and Ca values are consistent with the high Cr# [= 100 × Cr/(Cr + Al)] values of spinel that range from 44 to 70. These spinels generally have low TiO2 (< 0.06 wt.%) concentrations, although spinels with high-Cr compositions in certain samples exhibit enrichments of up to 0.16 wt.% TiO2. The concentrations of chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) indicate depletion toward heavy to middle REEs. However, the entire mantle peridotite samples exhibit marked enrichment in light REEs and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) compared to middle REEs. The heavy REE patterns of some peridotite samples are comparable to the calculated melting curves representing various degrees of melting and are modeled by ~ 24% to 30% melting in the spinel stability field. However, some samples are more depleted in the middle REEs than heavy REEs. The patterns of heavy to middle REEs do not follow the melting lines produced by various degrees of melting in the spinel stability field. The heavy REE composition of these peridotite samples suggests that partial melting began in the garnet stability field and continued into the spinel stability field; they represent ~ 22% to 26% melting under various pressure conditions. High anorthite content of plagioclase as well as Nb-depleted composition of mafic cumulates and isotropic gabbros indicate that the crustal rocks of the Pozant?-Karsant? ophiolite formed from a melt that has been produced by melting of depleted source. This melt is thought to have enriched in light REE and fluid mobile elements that were released from the subducting slab during the subduction of Neotethyan ocean. The whole-rock light REE and LILE enrichments and the higher TiO2 concentrations of the high-Cr# spinels in some mantle peridotite samples cannot be explained by simple melt extraction in a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environment and require melting and enrichment processes in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting. However, these features of the peridotites can be explained by the interaction of light REEs and TiO2-rich melts and fluids with peridotites that were depleted during melting events in an MOR environment. This interaction, took place in a supra-subduction zone environment, may have increased the light REE concentrations in the peridotites and caused the re-equilibration of the Ti-depleted spinel to produce Ti-richer spinel and therefore explains the geochemical signatures of the Pozant?-Karsant? peridotites.

  14. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  15. Upper mantle lower crust dikes of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (Philippines): distinct short-lived, subduction-related magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Faustino, D. V.; de Jesus, J. V.

    1998-09-01

    The residual harzburgite-lherzolite suites in the Coto and Acoje blocks of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex are cut by numerous dikes that range from clinopyroxenites to diabases, gabbros and diorites. Diabase dikes extensively cut the Coto block harzburgites while some clinopyroxenite to gabbro dikes are noted in the Acoje block lherzolite-harzburgite-dunite suite. The upper mantle-lower crust dikes in both blocks do not extend to their respective overlying sheeted dike-sill complexes. The whole-rock geochemistry of the mafic dikes intruded into the Coto and Acoje block peridotites show subduction-related signatures. These island-arc dikes are not unextracted frozen melts from their respective abyssal peridotite-like country rocks. They represent post-ophiolite, short-lived magmatic events that tapped geochemically different mantle source regions in a subduction-related marginal basin setting.

  16. Rapid exhumation of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite deduced from high-precision Sm Nd and Rb Sr geochronology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Amato; Clark M. Johnson; Lukas P. Baumgartner; Brian L. Beard

    1999-01-01

    SmNd isotope data from garnets in ultrahigh-pressure (coesite-bearing) eclogite from the Western Alps were obtained to determine the age of peak metamorphism and exhumation rates of deeply buried oceanic crust in the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite complex. We report an exceptionally well-constrained SmNd isochron age of 40.6±2.6 Ma from the Lago di Cignana eclogite. Difficulties in dating Alpine eclogites using this method

  17. Upper crustal structure beneath the Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Luzon, Philippines inferred from integrated gravity, magnetic and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salapare, Ricky C.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Yumul, Graciano P.

    2015-06-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in the western portion of Luzon Island, Philippines represents a typical exposure of an emplaced crust-upper mantle section of an ancient lithosphere. The ZOC is divided into the Acoje and Coto Blocks based on petrological, geochemical and age disparities, thus implying diverse and complex origins for the archipelago's lithospheric sources. We used gravity and magnetic data to reveal differences in the subsurface characteristics of the two ophiolite blocks for the first time. Low Bouguer gravity (<135 mGal) and magnetic (<69 nT) anomalies characterize the ophiolitic units in the Acoje Block whereas high Bouguer gravity (>150 mGal) and magnetic (>110 nT) anomalies typify the Coto Block. Such contrasting signatures further extend at greater depths which reflect the disparities in the crustal density, the basement structure, and the depth to Moho. Petrophysical characteristics such as density, magnetic susceptibility and natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities correlate well with the interpreted Bouguer gravity and magnetic anomalies. Densities of gabbros and peridotites from the Acoje and Coto Blocks reveal mean values ranging from 2640 to 2810 kg m-3 and 2570 to 2690 kg m-3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility (>4.43 × 10-3 SI) and NRM (>0.69 A m-1) data are also generally higher over the Coto Block. Both Bouguer gravity and magnetic anomaly maps reveal a prominent steep gradient that potentially marks the structural contact between Acoje and Coto Blocks. We further infer that the steep anomaly gradient validates the presence of the Lawis Fault Zone which separates the two ophiolite blocks in the Masinloc Massif. Recent field evidence from rock exposures in Coto reveals both right lateral and vertical displacements along the fault zone.

  18. Platinum-group minerals and other solid inclusions in chromite of ophiolitic complexes: Occurrence and petrological significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Talkington; D. H. Watkinson; P. J. Whittaker; P. C. Jones

    1984-01-01

    Summary Platinum-group mineral, silicate and other solid and fluid inclusions occur in disseminated and massive chromite in a variety of lithologies from ophiolitic and other mafic-ultramafic complex-types. The inclusions are small (<250 microns) and randomly distributed throughout their host. Silicate inclusions are modally more abundant than the other inclusion types. Platinum-group mineral phases are ruthenium-rich sulphides and PGE alloys are

  19. Strontium isotopes in the rocks of the ophiolite complex in the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Plyusnin; M. I. Kuzmin; G. P. Sandimirova; L. P. Zonenshayn

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of strontium isotopes has been examined in a section through the ophiolite complex of the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia). The basal parts of the complex consist of apo-dunites (⁸⁷Sr\\/⁸⁶Sr = 0.7118 - 0.7124), and higher up in the section there are pyroxenites (0.7064 - 0.7095) and gabbros (0.7034-0.7065). The upper parts of the complex consist of pillow lavas

  20. Proterozoic ophiolites and mafic ultramafic complexes marginal to the ?stanbul Block: An exotic terrane of Avalonian affinity in NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Erdin; Winchester, John A.; Yi?itba?, Erdinç; Ottley, Christopher J.

    2008-12-01

    Among the Proterozoic inliers in the ?stanbul Block, the lowest structural levels are exposed in the Sünnice Massif, north of Bolu. Amphibolite-facies mafic and subordinate ultramafic rocks of the Çele meta-ophiolite underlie the greenschist-facies Ediacaran calc-alkaline Yellice metavolcanics, which are intruded by the ˜ 565-576 Ma Dirgine granitoids. Hornblende gneisses of the Çele meta-ophiolite comprise island arc meta-tholeiites and transitional to calc-alkaline metabasalts which, together with minor serpentinite are disposed in a broadly antiformal structure. The meta-ophiolitic rocks are therefore the oldest ophiolites in NW Turkey, and are themselves thrust on to a putative pre-existing continental margin, now represented by the metasedimentary migmatites of the Demirci gneisses, which may thus be the oldest rocks of the complex. The ?stanbul Block is an exotic terrane. Unlike other western Turkish terranes, it lacks Variscan metamorphism: its different provenance, indicated by its geological record, faunal affinities, and inherited mid-Proterozoic isotopic dates, suggests a former link with Avalonian basement in England, NW Europe and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Hence, together with other terranes now situated further east than the Avalonian terranes of NW Europe, the ?stanbul Block may represent the easternmost extremities of Avalonia, which were detached during its end-Ordovician collision with the Bruno-Silesian Promontory on the SW margin of Baltica. Subsequent migration of the ?stanbul Block to its present location occurred by eastward displacement by sinistral transpression along the southern margin of Baltica to a point east of the Dobrogea and south of the Scythian Platform, followed by collision with the Sakarya Block in the Mesozoic and Late Cretaceous southward displacement with the opening of the Black Sea basin.

  1. Formation, obduction and provenance of the Støren-Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite, Central Norwegian Caledonides; constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, T.; Pin, C.; Roberts, D.; Kirkland, C. L.; Grenne, T.; Dunning, G.; Sauer, S.; Andersen, T.

    2012-04-01

    Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites are a characteristic feature of the Palaeozoic Caledonian-Appalachian orogenic belt, and mark the onset of convergence and closure of one or more oceans separating the Baltican, Laurentian and Avalonian continents, ending with continent-continent collision in the Mid Palaeozoic. The Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite in the Central Norwegian Caledonides is a variably tectonised ophiolite fragment, locally with an incomplete, but nevertheless well-preserved ophiolite pseudostratigraphy. Previous work has concluded that the ophiolite formed in an Early Ordovician suprasubduction-zone environment, most likely in an oceanic arc/back-arc basin system, but little is know about the evolution of the ophiolitic crust. There has also been some debate as to the whether obduction of the ophiolite upon the subjacent Gula Complex was onto Laurentia, Baltica, or a microcontinent of Baltican affinity. Here we present new, high-precision TIMS and SHRIMP zircon analyses from felsic rocks in the ophiolite. Combined with geochemical and Sm-Nd whole-rock and Lu-Hf zircon analyses from the same rocks, these data allow us to elucidate the timing of various stages in the evolution of the ophiolite. Plagiogranite bodies range in age from 493 to 480 Ma and have relatively juvenile isotopic compositions. Geochemical data suggest subduction-zone influence and we interpret this stage to represent formation of the ophiolite in an oceanic back-arc setting. At 480 Ma, a large granitoid body with an unradiogenic isotopic composition and strong subduction-zone geochemical signature intruded the ophiolite. We interpret this stage to reflect convergence in the back-arc basin and formation or migration of an oceanic arc. The unradiogenic isotopic composition probably reflects subduction of back-arc basin crust with sediments derived from the nearby continent or microcontinent. At 480-470 Ma, a greenstone-dominated conglomerate and an overlying volcaniclastic sequence was deposited unconformably on the eroded, metamorphosed ophiolite, indicating obduction between 480 and 470 Ma, either onto a microcontinent close to Baltica at intermediate to high latitudes or directly onto Laurentia. By Late Arenig (Dapingian) time, the sediments were hosting Laurentian faunas, and detrital zircon data from these rocks reveal a significant Archaean component, unlike tectonostratigraphically lower allochthonous, parautochthonous and autochthonous sedimentary rocks that generally lack Archaean input. This suggests that the volcaniclastic succession and its ophiolite base had reached the equatorial latitudes of Laurentia by this stage. At 469-467 Ma, the ophiolite and its sedimentary cover was intruded by trondhjemite dykes and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks with intermediate isotopic compositions. We interpret this magmatism to reflect the establishment of a magmatic arc close to the continental margin of Laurentia at this time. Data from other parts of the Central Norwegian Caledonides suggest this arc might have been active until Late Silurian collision between Laurentia and Baltica.

  2. Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Abelson, M; Baer, G; Agnon, A

    2001-01-01

    The lateral flow of magma and ductile deformation of the lower crust along oceanic spreading axes has been thought to play a significant role in suppressing both mid-ocean ridge segmentation and variations in crustal thickness. Direct investigation of such flow patterns is hampered by the kilometres of water that cover the oceanic crust, but such studies can be made on ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust accreted to a continent). In the Oman ophiolite, small-scale radial patterns of flow have been mapped along what is thought to be the relict of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we present evidence for broad-scale along-axis flow that has been frozen into the gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus (thought to be representative of a slow-spreading ridge axis). The gabbro suite of Troodos spans nearly 20 km of a segment of a fossil spreading axis, near a ridge-transform intersection. We mapped the pattern of magma flow by analysing the rocks' magnetic fabric at 20 sites widely distributed in the gabbro suite, and by examining the petrographic fabric at 9 sites. We infer an along-axis magma flow for much of the gabbro suite, which indicates that redistribution of melt occurred towards the segment edge in a large depth range of the oceanic crust. Our results support the magma plumbing structure that has been inferred indirectly from a seismic tomography experiment on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. PMID:11343114

  3. Rodingitization and hydration of the oceanic lithosphere as developed in the Leka ophiolite, north central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austrheim, H.; Prestvik, T.

    2008-08-01

    Ophiolite complexes in mountain chains may give supplementary information on the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere to that obtained from dredged and drilled samples from the ocean floor. The ultramafic (mantle) and the layered ultramafic to anorthositic (crustal) sequences of the Cambrian (497 Ma) Leka ophiolite are variably serpentinized and chloritized. Grossular-rodingite (rodingite s.s.) has been found over a c.500 m long and tens of meters wide zone in the layered, crustal section of the complex and is developed in both pyroxenites and gabbro/anorthosite layers. Shear zones and meter wide fracture zones, where the rock has developed a fracture cleavage, are oriented at high angel to the layering and these zones were the main conduits for transport of fluid and solute between the various lithologies. Some 5-15 cm thick layers of anorthosite (or leucogabbro) have been rodingitized around such a fractures zone, with the development of three distinct metasomatic zones along the plagioclase layer. A central grossular-dominated zone with clinopyroxene, clinozoisite, prehnite, chlorite and minor titanite (rodingite zone) extends for up to 3 m along strike and gives way to a clinozoisite-dominated zone (typically 0.5 m wide) with additional grossular, clinopyroxene and chlorite which is followed outward by a LILE-enriched zone (LILE-zone) with clinozoisite, phlogopite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and preiswerkite. The LILE-zone extends more than 3 m out from the clinozoisite-dominated zone (Clz-zone). Assuming constant volume, the rodingite formed from the plagioclase layer by addition of 20 g of CaO per 100 g of rock. All Na 2O (c. 2 g) was removed from both rodingite- and Clz-zones. Ti and V increase almost 10× in the rodingite compared to its protolith. K, Ba, Rb and Cs are strongly enriched in the LILE-zone compared to the protolith and suggest interaction with sea water. The lithologies alternating with the plagioclase layers (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite, websterite and dunite) display textures indicating a number of Ca-releasing (Cpx ? Chl, Cpx ? Srp, Cpx ? Amph) and Ca-consuming (Opx ? Cpx2, Ol ? Cpx2, Cpx1 ? Cpx2) reactions. The replacement textures are distributed around fracture and shear zones, with the Ca -releasing reactions in the core and the Ca -consuming reactions in distal parts, forming a metasomatic column out from the fluid pathways. Serpentinization and chloritization of clinopyroxene was the main Ca-source for the rodingitization process. This first description of rodingite in a layered sequence of an ophiolite complex indicates that the hydration of the oceanic lithosphere occurred at various structural levels and was associated with Ca-metasomatism also in places where rodingite s.s. is lacking. The different lithologies exchanged elements through transport on shear and fracture zones.

  4. Nitrogen cycling in Ophiolite-hosted and Fault-associated Hydrothermal Systems; Spacial and Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Gulecal, Y.; Loiacono, S. T.; Cardace, D.; Uzunlar, N.; Temel, M.

    2011-12-01

    Gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, or community shifts over time or with seasons. Previous work has shown that nitrogen cycling in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring, "Bison Pool", and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of nitrogen isotopes and sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at "Bison Pool" revealed that nitrogen fixation and denitrification varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1-3], and high temperature activity of nifH genes has been shown for another nearby feature [4]. Other recent studies have explored the diversity of nifH and archaeal amoA genes in various terrestrial hydrothermal systems [5-8]. Despite these advances, we are still ignorant of changes in N-cycling over time in the same sample location, and in particular during seasonal climate changes. Further, the role of N-cycling in deeply-sourced fluids associated with ophiolites, which represent deep biosphere processes, is unknown. This study will compare evidence of N-cycling in terrestrial hydrothermal and ophiolite-hosted springs, focusing on the role of microbes as environmental conditions vary over space and time. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], amoA [ammonia oxidation], narG, nirKS, and nosZ [denitrification] genes in a variety of hydrothermal environments in Yellowstone and Turkey, representing fault-associated and deeply-sourced fluids. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for N-cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Fault-associated and ophiolite-hosted springs in Turkey were sampled over several seasons, and the presence and diversity of N-cycle related genes appears to shift temporally. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in these ecosystems. [1]Havig et al., 2010. JGR-Biogeo (in press). [2]Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3]Swingley et al., submitted to PLoS One. [4]Loiacono et al., submitted. FEMS Microbiol Ecol [5]Hall et al., 2008. AEM 74:4910-4922. [6]Steunou et al., 2006. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [7]Hamilton et al., 2011. Env. Micro. DOI 10.1007/s00248-011-9824-9. [8]Zhang et al. 2008, AEM 74:6417-6426.

  5. New isotopic constraints on age and magma genesis of an embryonic oceanic crust: The Chenaillet Ophiolite in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2013-02-01

    The Chenaillet Ophiolite is one of the best-preserved remnants of the Piemont-Liguria oceanic basin, a branch of the Central Atlantic that opened during the separation of Adria/Africa from Europe. Despite numerous studies of structure, petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the timing and genesis of various magmatic rocks within the Chenaillet Ophiolite are still controversial. We provide in this study integrated in situ analyses of zircon U-Pb age and O-Hf isotopes for the troctolite and albitite within the Chenaillet Ophiolite. Our new results indicate that the troctolite and albitite crystallized synchronously at ~ 165 Ma. Zircons from the troctolite have homogeneous Hf and O isotopic compositions, with ?Hf(T) = + 13.5 ± 1.0 (2SD) and ?18O = 5.4 ± 0.4‰ (2SD), indicating crystallization from magmas that were derived from a depleted, MORB-like mantle. The albitite zircons give consistent ?Hf(T) values (+ 13.0 to + 13.5) within errors with those of troctolite zircons, but variable ?18O values. The altered zircon domains have relatively low ?18O values of 4.7 ± 0.6‰ (2SD) due to subsolidus hydrothermal alteration, whilst the least-altered zircon domains give ?18Ozir values of 5.1 ± 0.4‰ (2SD), indistinguishable within errors with the troctolite zircons and the igneous zircons from the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges gabbros, norites, and plagiogranites of modern oceanic crust. In situ zircon O-Hf isotopic data suggest that the troctolites and albitites are most likely cogenetic, with the albitites being formed by extreme fractional crystallization from the basaltic magma. Based on our new age results and compilation of the reliable literature U-Pb age data, the ophiolitic gabbros from Eastern, Central and, Western Alps, Liguria and Corsica crystallized nearly synchronously at 158-166 Ma, suggesting a short life span of < 11 m.y. for the formation of the Piemont-Liguria oceanic domain, rather than a ~ 30 m.y. life span as previously thought. The Chenaillet ophiolite is likely a remnant of embryonic oceanic crust, rather than a piece of "mature" oceanic crust. Provided the spreading velocities of < 3 cm/yr full rate for magma-poor MOR sequences, the maximum width to the Piemont-Liguria oceanic floor would have been in the order of 300 km.

  6. Alteration and mineralization of an oceanic forearc and the ophiolite-ocean crust analogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Brewer, T.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Halliday, A.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic (O, C, S, and Sr) analyses were performed on minerals and bulk rocks from a forearc basement section to understand alteration processes and compare with mid-ocean ridges (MOR) and ophiolites. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 786B in the Izu-Bonin forearc penetrates 103 m of sediment and 725 m into volcanic flows, breccias, and basal dikes. The rocks comprise boninites and andesites to rhyolites. Most of the section was affected by low-temperature (<100??C) seawater alteration, with temperatures increasing downward. The rocks are partly (5-25%) altered to smectite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite, and phillipsite, and exhibit gains of K, Rb, and P, loss of Ca, variable changes in Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Sr, and Y, and elevated ??18O and 87Sr/86Sr. Higher temperatures (???150??C) in the basal dikes below 750 m led to more intense alteration and formation of chlorite-smectite, corrensite, albite, K-feldspar, and quartz (??chlorite). A 5 m thick hydrothermally altered and pyritized zone at 815 m in the basal dikes reacted with mixtures of seawater and hydrothermal fluids to Mg-chlorite, albite, and pyrite, and gained Mg and S and lost Si and Ca. Focused flow of hydrothermal fluids produced sericitization halos (Na-K sericite, quartz, pyrophyllite, K-feldspar, and pyrite) along quartz veins at temperatures of 200??-250??C. High 87Sr/86Sr ratios of chloritized (???0.7055) and sericitized (???0.7065) rocks indicate involvement of seawater via mixing with hydrothermal fluids. Low ??34S of sulfide (???2 to -5.5???) and sulfate (12.5???) are consistent with input of magmatic SO2 into hydrothermal fluids and disproportionation to sulfide and sulfate. Alteration processes were generally similar to those at MORs, but the arc section is more intensively altered, in part because of the presence of abundant glassy rocks and mafic phases. The increase in alteration grade below 750 m and the mineralization in the basal dikes are analogous to changes that occur near the base of the volcanic section in MOR and the Troodos ophiolite.

  7. The Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet: a fossil oceanic forearc generated during subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J.; Wang, C.; Zhu, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Xigaze ophiolite is located at the central Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, southern Tibet representing the remnants of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. It displays well preserved sections from mantle to crustal rocks, together with overlying marine sediments. The Xigaze peridotites have low CaO and Al2O3 contents and U-shaped REE patterns, suggesting that they are residues after moderate to high degrees of partial melting and were modified by infiltration of LREE-enriched boninitic melts. Two of five massifs from the Xigaze pillow lavas display tholeiitic affinity, while other three massifs show calcalkalic characteristics. The latter lavas show more HFSE-depleted and LILE-enriched compositions than those of the former. The latest diabase dikes possess high SiO2 and low TiO2 contents and show flat to LREE enrichment patterns, indicating they are analogue with boninitic rocks. Tholeiitic lavas were formed via decompression melting of a fertile lherzolitic source, whereas calcalkalic lavas and latest stage dikes were generated by melting of residual harzburgite and were influenced by slab-derived fluids. Both mantle and crustal rocks were invaded by plagiogranite dikes. The first plagiogranite group invaded into the crustal rocks lies on a continuation of the chemical trends defined by the mafic rocks and show similar REE patterns with the lavas, indicating they were generated by shallow fractional crystallisation. The second plagiogranite group invaded into the mantle displays different trends on Harker and REE patterns with diabase dike and enclave, but show uniform LREE depletion similar with mafic rocks, suggesting that they might be the product of subducted mafic slabs melting. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses from the second plagiogranites reveal that they were generated between 125-122 Ma, indistinguishable from those of mafic rocks. The zircons possess positive ?Hf(t) values ranging from +12.3 to +16.4, suggesting they were derived from depleted source. Taking into account the geological and geochronological characteristics of the Xigaze ophiolite, we propose they were formed in a forearc setting through rapid slab rollback during subduction initiation between 127-122 Ma.

  8. Compositional heterogeneities in upper mantle peridotites from the Zambales Range Ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Cynthia; Hawkins, James W.

    1989-10-01

    The Zambales Range of western Luzon, Philippines, is formed largely of mafic and ultramafic rocks that constitute a classic ophiolite assemblage. We recognize two distinct blocks, Acoje and Coto, on the basis of mineralogy, chemistry and the thickness of crustal sections. We interpret these ophiolite units as remnants of crust and mantle from supra-subduction zone settings—the Coto block from a backarc basin and the Acoje block from a nascent island arc (Hawkins and Evans, 1983; Evans, 1983). We present data to contrast the peridotite sections of the two different blocks and discuss their origin. Both peridotite units are primarily harzburgite with minor dunite; in both units there are large concentrations of chromite that form ore deposits. There are subtle changes in lithology and mineralogy in each unit that are correlated with depth below the crustal section. Dunite, orthopyroxene-poor harzburgite and chromite increase in abundance upward toward the "geological Moho" and the base of cumulate ultramafic rocks of the lower crustal section. The upward changes in lithology are matched by changes in modal abundance and composition of the minerals that document increasing (upward) depletion of the peridotite units in "basaltic" components. Mineral show an increase in Mg and Cr and a decrease in Fe, Ca and Al. These changes are best developed in the uppermost 1000 m of each peridotite unit. We attribute these compositional changes mainly to different extents of partial melting. To a lesser extent the changes reflect local exchange between mafic melts, in transit to the surface, and depleted mantle, and exchanges during metamorphic recrystallization. The crustal rocks of the Coto block resemble rocks from backarc basins; the uppermost levels of the peridotite comprise rocks similar to many abyssal peridotites. The Acoje block crustal rocks are best explained as remnants of a nascent island arc; the upper mantle peridotite from Acoje is more depleted than that from Coto having higher {Mg}/{(Mg + Fe)} in silicates, higher {Cr}/{(Cr + Al)} in chromites, a greater proportion of dunite and less clinopyroxene in the harzburgite. The more extensive depletion of the Acoje block (island arc) peridotite probably is due to the multiple melting events that were imposed on these rocks during their evolution in, first, generation of ocean crust and then, later, the generation of island arc crust.

  9. A possible difference in cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in peridotites from supra-subduction ophiolites and mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed for mafic and ultramafic rocks [1]. This new thermometer is based on temperature sensitive REE partition coefficients between coexisting pyroxenes and calibrated against laboratory partitioning data. Because REE diffusion rates in pyroxene are relatively slow, the thermometer reads a higher temperature than major element based pyroxene thermometers. The difference between major and trace element derived temperatures depends primarily on cooling rate. Here we report new trace element data for peridotites from Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and a modern supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite analogue (the Mariana trench) determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. We inverted temperatures from the new data and globally distributed ophiolitic peridotite from eight literature studies (Figure 1). Data quality was carefully monitored leaving temperatures from 65 samples. Individual ophiolites usually have temperatures clustered within a range of a few hundred degrees, but the temperature range for the global dataset is greater than 700°C (688-1401°C). Temperatures calculated for the same samples using the two pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler [2] are considerably lower (564-1049°C). REE temperatures are plotted against the major element temperatures [2] in Figure 1. Abyssal peridotites reported in [1] are shown by the peach field. Much of the ophiolite data plots farther from the blue 1:1 line than the abyssal peridotites, suggesting SSZ lithospheric mantle may cool more rapidly at those ophiolites. Fast cooling can be attributed to one or more dynamic differences between mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environments and supra-subduction environments, such as enhanced hydrothermal circulation, thinner oceanic crust, or rapid cooling due to basin closure and obduction. We note that several ophiolites appear to cool more slowly than the abyssal peridotites, however in those samples geochemical evidence suggests secondary overprinting by melt-rock reaction. By defining the thermometric extent of the global dataset we demonstrate surprising diversity among ophiolites and the potential utility of REE geothermometry to illuminate the dynamics of ophiolite formation and emplacement. [1] Liang et al. (2013), GCA 102, 246-260. [2] Brey and Köhler (1990), J. Pet. 31, 1353-1378.

  10. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Trehu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  11. Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Results From the Chenaillet Ophiolite (French/Italian Alps) and its Interpretation as a Former Oceanic Core Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlut, J. H.; Bonnemains, D.; Mevel, C.; Debret, B.; Cannat, M.; Escartin, J.; Manatschal, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Chenaillet ophiolite lies at the Franco-Italian border in the Alps and consists of a rather well-exposed, undeformed and complete ocean-floor sequence. This sequence was formed within the Alpine Tethys oceanic domain at about 160 Ma and was subsequently obducted during Europe-Adria convergence. Well preserved pillow lavas, gabbros and serpentinized mantle rocks can be found following a stratigraphic order. It has been recently suggested, based on stratigraphic observations, that Chenaillet could be a remnant Oceanic Core Complex (Manatschal et al., 2011). In order to have a better understanding of the nature of this ophiolite, a paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study was undertaken. Results are compared with a set of data from a recent (less than 1 Ma) serpentinized ultramafic complex at the Atlantic ridge (ODP leg 153) and from various ophiolites. Our results show that the magnetic behavior of the serpentinized section from Chenaillet is rather different than in most other ophiolites but shows strong similarities with that observed for the Atlantic set. This suggests that serpentinization at Chenaillet occurs in an environment which share similarities with slow spreading ridges. In addition preliminary paleomagnetic results show that the mantle section from the Chenaillet ophiolite may have been rotated during unroofing as observed in recent Oceanic Core Complexes.

  12. Mineral inclusions in corundum from the chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Yang, J.; Guo, G.; Xiong, F.

    2012-12-01

    Unusual mantle peridotites and chromitites with ultrahigh pressure (UHP) minerals have been identified in the Luobusa ophiolite of Tibet, suggesting a depth of formation >300 km. Heavy mineral separates from these rocks contain not only UHP minerals such as diamonds and moissanite but a wide range of mantle minerals including native Fe, Si, Ti; metal alloys such as Fe-Ni, Fe-Ni-Cr, and Mn-Ni; oxides such as FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, rutile, ilmenite and corundum; sulfides including pyrite, sphalerite, nickel sulfide, bismuth sulphide and tetrahedrite; and silicates, tungstates, phosphates and carbonates. Preliminary study of corundum grains from the chromitites shows that they contain abundant inclusions including native Ti, Ti-C, TiO2, Ti-Si, Si-Ti-Fe-Cr, Ti-B, Ti-N, Si-Ti-Fe, Ti-P-Si, silicates and silicates containing REEs. The inclusion mineral assemblage in the corundum is generally comparable to that derived by heavy mineral separation of the chromitites. Some of the unusual inclusions, such as Ti-N, Ti-C and Ti-B, range up to 50 ?m in size. TiN and BN were previously identified as inclusions coesite from the Luobusa chromitite (Dobrzhinetskaya, 2009). The new discovery of nitrides as inclusions corundum may offer a new window into the deep mantle and the distribution of nitrogen in Earth.

  13. The chemical characterization and tectonic significance of ophiolite terrains in southeastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ian E. M.

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of the southeastern Gondwana margin in the Papua New Guinea segment is manifested by ophiolites signifying plate collision, volcanic arcs marking subduction, and metamorphic core complexes that have developed during extensional events and exhumation associated with sea floor spreading in the Woodlark Basin to the east. In detail the Papuan Ultramafic Belt marks a well-documented collision between continental crust and a subduction system. However, to the southeast, an extensive sequence of basaltic rocks known as the Milne Terrain is more problematic. Geochemical data indicate that these upper Cretaceous and Eocene rocks have MORB-type affinities, and their most likely tectonic association is with the opening of the Coral Sea Basin. Milne Terrain rocks represent the lower plate in the obduction system along which the Papuan Ultramafic Belt was emplaced, and thus they are the structural equivalent of the continental crust which was separated from the Australian continental block by the opening of the Coral Sea. Spectacular uplift (>4 km) of the oceanic basaltic crust of the Milne Terrain may be due to the underlying presence of underplated material associated with a Late Miocene-Pliocene episode of subduction immediately prior to the encroachment of the Woodlark spreading center into the Papuan area.

  14. Oman Ophiolite Structural Constraints Complement Models of Crustal Accretion at the EAST Pacific RISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Jousselin, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2014-12-01

    This review documents significant similarities between East Pacific Rise (EPR), especially EPR at 9°-10°N and the Oman ophiolites. Both share comparable fast spreading rates, size and their dominant source of information that is mainly geophysical in EPR and structural in Oman. In these respects, they are remarkably complementary. Mantle upwelling zones at the EPR and mantle diapirs in Oman have a similar size and spacing. They punctually introduce basaltic melt and heat in the accreting crust, thus controlling elementary segments structure and activity. A tent-shaped magma chamber fits onto the diapir head, the top of which is a Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) that stores, modifies, and injects the modified melt into the upper Axial Melt Lens (AML) beneath the lid. This MTZ-AML connection is central in crustal accretion, as documented in Oman. Heat from the diapir is captured above the Moho by the magma chamber and escapes through its walls, into a thin thermal boundary layer that bounds the chamber. Beyond, seawater at lower temperatures feeds smokers on the seafloor.

  15. Hydrothermal discharge zones beneath massive sulfide deposits mapped in the Oman ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Haymon, R.M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA)); Koski, R.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Abrams, (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The area in the Oman ophiolite containing the volcanic-hosted Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide deposits exposes a cross section of ocean crust and reveals to an unprecedented extent the fossil zones of hydrothermal upwelling that fed these sea-floor deposits. The fossil discharge zones are elongate areas of alteration and mineralization characterized by numerous small (meters to tens of meters in length), linear, discontinuous gossans. The gossans result from oxidation of hydrothermal pyrite replacing primary igneous phases and filling voids and fractures in the altered host rocks. The two deposits have separate discharge zones that appear to be sub-sea-floor extensions of their stockworks. The Bayda zone extends through the volcanic section into the upper sheeted dike complex and is interpreted as having formed on the ridge crest above an axial magma chamber; the Aarja zone terminates against a plagiogranite pluton that intrudes the lower volcanic section and is thought to have formed after Bayda in an off-axis environment. Structural, stratigraphic, and compositional characteristics of the Bayda and Aarja massive sulfide bodies are consistent with this interpretation. The geometry of the discharge zones suggests that in both cases upflow occurred in broad zones (at least 400-600 m wide) that were elongated along strike (i.e., parallel to the spreading axis).

  16. Geology and origin of the late Proterozoic Darb Zubaydah ophiolite, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Darb Zubaydah ophiolite, north-central Arabian Shield, preserves a largely intact section consisting of ultramafic rocks, gabbro, diabase, granodiorite, and interbedded volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Formation of these rocks within or near an island arc is indicated by the absence of pelagic sediments and the abundance of pillow basalt, turbiditic sediments, lahar deposits, and basaltic to rhyolitic tuff. The oldest extrusive rocks formed in a young, relatively unevolved island arc or in a back-arc basin sufficiently close to an arc to receive calc-alkaline lava flows and coarse-grained, arc-derived detritus. Overlying turbidites and lahar deposits of the Kaffan sandstone point to the initiation of a rifting event. High-Ti basalts, which erupted above the Kaffan sandstone, and related diabase are interpreted to be magmatic products of incipient intra-arc rifting. Renewed arc volcanism produced calc-alkaline volcanic rocks that interfingered with the high-Ti basalt and later dominated the section as the volcanic apron of the arc prograded basinward. Extrusion of voluminous calc-alkaline tuff may have been contemporaneous with intrusion of granodiorite and gravity-driven landsliding. -from Author

  17. High-pressure highly reduced nitrides and oxides from chromitite of a Tibetan ophiolite.

    PubMed

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa F; Wirth, Richard; Yang, Jingsui; Hutcheon, Ian D; Weber, Peter K; Green, Harry W

    2009-11-17

    The deepest rocks known from within Earth are fragments of normal mantle ( approximately 400 km) and metamorphosed sediments ( approximately 350 km), both found exhumed in continental collision terranes. Here, we report fragments of a highly reduced deep mantle environment from at least 300 km, perhaps very much more, extracted from chromite of a Tibetan ophiolite. The sample consists, in part, of diamond, coesite-after-stishovite, the high-pressure form of TiO(2), native iron, high-pressure nitrides with a deep mantle isotopic signature, and associated SiC. This appears to be a natural example of the recently discovered disproportionation of Fe(2+) at very high pressure and consequent low oxygen fugacity (fO(2)) in deep Earth. Encapsulation within chromitite enclosed within upwelling solid mantle rock appears to be the only vehicle capable of transporting these phases and preserving their low-fO(2) environment at the very high temperatures of oceanic spreading centers. PMID:19880742

  18. Geochemical consequences of flow differentiation in a multiple injection dike (Trinity ophiolite, N. California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinopyroxene-rich dike of the Trinity ophiolite sheeted-dike complex shows three different magmatic pulses, probably injected in a short period of time (no well developed chilled margin) and important variations of the clinopyroxene and plagioclase percentages between its core (highly porphyritic) and margins (aphyric). This variation, interpreted as related to a flow differentiation phenomenon (mechanical phenocryst redistribution), has important geochemical consequences. It produces increases in the FeO, MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents from the margin to the core, together with increases in the clinopyroxene percentage, and decreases in the SiO2, Zr, Y, Nb and REE contents together with a decrease in the percentage of the fine-grained groundmass toward the core of the dike. This mineralogical redistribution, which also affects the incompatible trace element ratios because of the difference in plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral/liquid partition coefficients, illustrate the importance of fractionation processes outside of a magma chamber. ?? 1991.

  19. Assessment of Zambales Ophiolite formation as a viable site for CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magbitang, Riza; Lamorena-Lim, Rheo

    2015-04-01

    Studies involving carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations has been increasing over the years. Even though the developed countries are the ones pioneering the large scale storage studies, third world country such as the Philippines, which is one of the most vulnerable to the effects of elevated CO2 levels in the atmosphere, should also intensify CO2 storage research. In this study the potential of utilizing Ophiolite formations in Zambales province, Philippines, in CO2 storage was evaluated. The kinetics of the carbonation reaction was studied using batch reactor, at various temperature and pressure. The concentration of metals involved in the carbonation reaction was monitored by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow-through column reactors were used to simulate and study the gas storage in rock columns, hence leading the evaluation of rock mechanical properties. Moreover, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to characterize carbonated and non-carbonated rock samples, thereby resulting to the experimental determination of the amount of CO2 sequestered.

  20. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium in chromite- rich rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.; Pallister, J.S.; Brown, M.A.; Smewing, J.D.; Haffty, J.

    1982-01-01

    30 samples of chromitite and chromite-rich rocks from two stratigraphic sections, 250 km apart, through the basal ultramafic member of the Samail ophiolite were spectrographically analysed for platinum-group elements (PGE) and for Co, Cu, Ni and V. These data are reported as are Cr/(Cr + Al), Mg/(Mg + Fe) and wt.% TiO2 for most samples. The chromitite occurs as pods or lenses in rocks of mantle origin or as discontinuous layers at the base of the overlying cumulus sequence. PGE abundances in both sections are similar, with average contents in chromite-rich rocks: Pd 8 ppb, Pt 14 ppb, Rh 6 ppb, Ir 48 ppb and Ru 135 ppb. The PGE data, combined with major-element and petrographic data on the chromitite, suggest: 1) relatively larger Ir and Ru contents and highest total PGE in the middle part of each section; 2) PGE concentrations and ratios do not correlate with coexisting silicate and chromite abundances or chromite compositions; 3) Pd/PGE, on average, increases upward in each section; 4) Samail PGE concentrations, particularly Rh, Pt and Pd, are lower than the average values for chromite-rich rocks in stratiform intrusions. 2) suggests that PGEs occur in discrete alloy or sulphide phases rather than in the major oxides or silicates, and 4) suggests that chromite-rich rocks from the oceanic upper mantle are depleted in PGE with respect to chondrites. L.C.C.

  1. One-carbon (bio ?) Geochemistry in Subsurface Waters of the Serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Mccollom, Tom; Schrenk, Matt; Cardace, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Serpentinization - the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks - typically imparts a highly reducing and alkaline character to the reacting fluids. In turn, these can influence the speciation and potential for metabolism of one-carbon compounds in the system. We examined the aqueous geochemistry and assessed the biological potential of one-carbon compounds in the subsurface of the McLaughlin Natural Reserve (Coast Range Ophiolite, California, USA). Fluids from wells sunk at depths of 25-90 meters have pH values ranging from 9.7 to 11.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations) generally below 60 micromolar. Methane is present at concentrations up to 1.3 millimolar (approximately one-atmosphere saturation), and hydrogen concentrations are below 15 nanomolar, suggesting active consumption of H2 and production of CH4. However, methane production from CO2 is thermodynamically unfavorable under these conditions. Additionally, the speciation of DIC predominantly into carbonate at these high pH values creates a problem of carbon availability for any organisms that require CO2 (or bicarbonate) for catabolism or anabolism. A potential alternative is carbon monoxide, which is present in these waters at concentrations 2000-fold higher than equilibrium with atmospheric CO. CO is utilized in a variety of metabolisms, including methanogenesis, and bioavailability is not adversely affected by pH-dependent speciation (as for DIC). Methanogenesis from CO under in situ conditions is thermodynamically favorable and would satisfy biological energy requirements with respect to both Gibbs Energy yield and power.

  2. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  3. Reintrusion of silicic magma chambers by mafic dike complex: evidence from the northern Semail ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Stakes, D.S.; Shervais, J.; Ressetar, R.

    1985-01-01

    Late plagiogranite bodies in the Semail ophiolite have been previously suggested to represent late stage fractionates within an episodic spreading center magma chamber or the roots of seamount chains. Field and lab observations suggest that these late silicic magma chambers represent zones of repeated injection by dikes of intermediate to mafic composition. Multiple generations of intrusion, partial resorption and reintrusion are preserved in the plagiogranite as 1) relict phantom xenoliths, 2) angular xenoliths with quartz-rich margins, 3) deformed fine-grained dikes with distinct chilled margins, and 4) planes of rectangular blocks with cuspate margins or ellipsoids of similar fine grained mafic materials. The blocks and ellipsoids are actually dismembered mafic dikes that chilled by intruding a cooler silicic liquid and were either thermally fractured or pinched out. All of the dikes are hydrothermally altered to assemblages including amph., qtz., epi., preh., and chl. and are enriched in delta/sup 18/O. Extremely altered diabase from a copper sulfide-bearing normal fault is isotopically depleted (delta/sup 18/0=2.0 per mil) suggesting that such deep faults are high temperature hydrothermal conduits. Malachite and amphibole bearing veins along the margins of the plagiogranite suggest a genetic relationship between the silicic intrusions, the multiple diking events and copper sulfide deposition.

  4. Serpentinization of the Acoje massif, Zambales ophiolite, Philippines: hydrogen and oxygen isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Abrajano, T. A.; Murowchick, J. B.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1989-10-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in serpentine (lizardite-chrysotile) from the Acoje chromite mine (Zambales ophiolite, Philippines) and in regional meteoric water from the Zambales and Sierra Madre mountains have been measured to help determine the physical conditions and source of fluids during serpentinization. The measured range of ?18O in serpentine is + 2.3 to +5.9 and that of ?D is -119 to -83. The range of ?D in regional meteoric water (including published analyses from the Baguio gold district and the Tongonan, Leyte, geothermal system) is - 75 to -34. The isotopic data for Acoje serpentines are consistent with Serpentinization by regional meteoric water at temperatures between 30 ° and ~ 350 ° C (thermal stability limit of serpentine + brucite). The range of serpentine compositions suggests a Serpentinization process involving: (1) episodic infiltration by isotopically distinct meteoric waters and/or (2) progressive infiltration by a water having constant initial isotopic composition that undergoes isotopic fractionation as a function of reaction progress.

  5. The nature and significance of magma chamber margins in ophiolites: examples from the Norwegian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.

    1986-02-01

    Large-scale intrusive contacts with associated marginal series have been encountered within Norwegian ophiolite complexes at Karmøy, Solund and Leka. The contacts limit individual magma chambers and are found at different structural levels of the plutonic suites. Examples of magma chamber margins adjacent to interlayered ultramafic and gabbroic rocks, modally-layered gabbros, high-level gabbros and sheeted dykes, are described. The nature of the intrusive boundaries and the presence of partially resorbed xenoliths in the vicinity of the intrusive margins suggest that stoping and assimilation have been important mechanisms during the development of the magma chambers. Characteristic marginal series are developed along the intrusive boundaries. The thicknesses and appearance of these series vary with depth in the complexes. Whereas the marginal series are well developed within the uppermost levels of the plutonic complexes (exhibiting rock types such as microgabbro, massive gabbro and magnetite gabbro), the marginal series observed at lower levels are thinner and also devoid of chilled facies rocks and magnetite gabbros. The marginal series may be subdivided into border and roof series. The latter are characterized by an intimate relationship with sheeted dykes, which comprise dyke swarms formed both prior to, during, and subsequent to crystallization of the roof series. Based on these relationships the dykes can be subdivided into rooted and rootless dykes. A multiple magma chamber model, with magma chambers migrating from a low to a high level within the oceanic crust, is proposed on the basis of the observed features.

  6. Zircon dating of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian ophiolites in West Mongolia and implications for the timing of orogenic processes in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Jahn, Bor-ming; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Tomurhuu, Dondov; Liu, Dunyi

    2014-06-01

    We present new isotopic and trace element data to review the geochronological/geochemical/geological evolution of the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and find a fundamental geological problem in West Mongolia, which has traditionally been subdivided into northwestern early Paleozoic (formerly Caledonian) and southerly late Paleozoic (formerly Hercynian) belts by the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML). We resolve this problem with SHRIMP zircon dating of ophiolites and re-evaluation of much published literature. In Northwest Mongolia the Dariv-Khantaishir ophiolite marks the boundary between the Lake arc in the west and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent in the east. Zircons from a microgabbro and four plagiogranites yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 568 ± 5 Ma, 567 ± 4 Ma, 560 ± 8 Ma (Dariv), 573 ± 8 Ma and 566 ± 7 Ma (Khantaishir) that we interpret as reflecting the time of ophiolite formation (ca. 573-560 Ma). Metamorphic zircons from an amphibolite on a thrust boundary between the Khantaishir ophiolite and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent formed at 514 ± 8 Ma, which we interpret as the time of overthrusting. In South Mongolia the Gobi Altai ophiolite and the Trans-Altai Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc with an ophiolite basement were investigated. Zircons of a layered gabbro (lower ophiolite crust) and a leucogabbro (mid-upper crust) of the Gobi Altai ophiolite yielded crystallization ages of 523 ± 5 Ma and 518 ± 6 Ma. The age data constrain the formation time of ophiolite within ca. 523-518 Ma. Zircons from four samples of the Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc, with similar hybrid adakite-boninite affinities, yielded 519 ± 4 Ma for an anorthosite, ? 512 ± 4 Ma for a hornblendite and 520 ± 5 and 511 ± 5 Ma for two diorites. The ophiolite basement has an upper age limit of 494 ± 6 Ma, determined by dating a tonalite dike cutting the Zoolen ophiolite. Integrating available zircon ages as well as geochemical and geological data, we re-subdivide West Mongolia into: a latest Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian, arc-microcontinent collision zone north of the MML; a Cambrian Gobi Altai ophiolite-microcontinent collision zone and a Cambrian Trans-Altai forearc complex south of the MML. The central CAOB evolved in five phases: subduction initiation and arc formation (ca. 573 to > ca. 540 Ma); arc-microcontinent collision (ca. 535-524 Ma); a continuum of slab delamination, overthrusting, crustal thickening and surface uplift (ca. 519-482 Ma) in Northwest Mongolia; initiation of new subduction zones in South Mongolia (ca. 523-511 Ma); and continuing orogeny with local surface uplift. Overall, the current, documented timing of orogenic development in the central CAOB is largely consistent with a W/SW-Pacific style of evolution in terms of subduction initiation, short timescales of individual orogenies, and episodic subduction-collision during a continuing migration of subduction zones.

  7. The Vardar zone as a suture for the Mirdita ophiolites, Albania: Constraints from the structural analysis of the Korabi-Pelagonia zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Alain; Meshi, Avni; Deschamps, Thomas; Goulet, François; Goulet, Normand

    2015-02-01

    The Dinarides-Hellenides result from underthrusting of the Adriatic margin during Africa-Europe convergence. In Albania, they consist of (1) a western zone of nappes derived from Adria; (2) a central belt made up of the Mirdita ophiolites; and (3) an eastern zone, the Korabi-Pelagonia zone, of Variscan basement overlain by Permian to Mesozoic rift deposits and carbonates. Some authors interpret the Korabi-Pelagonia zone as a microcontinent between the Mirdita-Pindos oceanic basin to the west and the eastern Vardar oceanic basin to the east; other regard the Korabi-Pelagonia zone as a tectonic window below a single ophiolitic nappe. This contribution argues for a far-traveled thrust sheet. The Mirdita ophiolites are 165-160 Ma. The metamorphic sole yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 171 to 162 Ma. The Korabi-Pelagonia zone is subdivided into the Korabi and Gjegjan subzones. The structural analysis of these rocks supports the rooting of the Mirdita ophiolites in the Western Vardar zone. The post-Variscan cover sequence of the Korabi subzone records two phases of deformation: D1 is associated with a SE dipping to flat-lying schistosity axial planar to NW verging folds and thrust faults, related to ophiolite obduction; D2 is a postobduction NNE trending crenulation cleavage. Published zircon fission track analyses yielded 150-125 Ma, suggesting that regional metamorphism is Early Cretaceous or older. K-Ar mica ages from correlative rocks of Macedonia cluster between 148 and 130 Ma, indicating that D1 is Late Jurassic. A west directed obduction is favored, as is a rooting east of the Mirdita ophiolites because of the top-to-the-west structural polarity of obduction-related deformation.

  8. Tracking the Oman Ophiolite to the surface - New fission track and (U-Th)/He data from the Aswad and Khor Fakkan Blocks, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Joachim; Thomas, Robert J.; Ksienzyk, Anna K.; Dunkl, István

    2015-03-01

    The Oman Ophiolite in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was formed in a supra-subduction zone environment at about 95 Ma and was almost immediately obducted onto the eastern margin of Arabia. The timing of obduction is well constrained, but the post-obduction tectonic, uplift and exhumation history of the ophiolite and associated rocks are less well understood. We present twenty-one new fission track and (U-Th)/He analyses of apatite and zircon from the Hajar Mountains. The data show that the Oman Ophiolite had a complex exhumation history to present exposure levels in the Khor Fakkan and Aswad Blocks, resulting from at least three distinct exhumation events: 1) initial ophiolite obduction between ca. 93 and 83 Ma is characterised by tectonic exhumation and rapid cooling, as revealed by zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission-track data, but it is not associated with major erosional exhumation; 2) data from the lower part of the ophiolite and the metamorphic sole document a second exhumation event at ca. 45-35 Ma, interpreted to represent an early phase of the Zagros orogeny that led to reactivation of pre-existing structures and the differential exhumation of the Khor Fakkan Block along the Wadi Ham Shear Zone. This event led to significant erosional exhumation and deposition of a thick sedimentary succession in the Ras Al Khaimah foreland basin; and 3) Neogene exhumation is recorded by ca. 20-15 Ma apatite (U-Th)/He data and a single apatite fission track date from the lowermost part of the metamorphic sole. This event can be linked to the main phase of the Zagros orogeny, which is manifested in large fans with ophiolite-derived debris (Barzaman Formation conglomerates). During this period, the metamorphic sole of the Masafi window stayed at temperatures in excess of ca. 120 °C, corresponding to ca. 4 km of overburden, only later to be eroded to present day levels.

  9. Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Liu, Binqiang; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Weimin; Liu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    Jifeng ophiolitic mélange (ultramafic rocks, meta-basalts and gabbros) crops out in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range, the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which marks the closure of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean associated with the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. In order to investigate the formation age and magma source of the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange, the gabbros from newly discovered the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange are studied with zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating from the ophiolitic gabbros yields U-Pb age of 647 ± 5.3 Ma, which may represent the formation age of the ophiolitic mélange. The gabbros display low SiO2, TiO2, K2O contents, high Na2O, LREE contents and indistinctive REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 1.97-2.98]. It shows an E-MORB-like affinity, while the element concentrations of the Jifeng samples are lower than that of E-MORB. More importantly, Nb displays negative anomaly in comparison with Th, which shows a transitional SSZ-type ophiolite signature. Moreover, the ? Hf (t) values of ~647 Ma zircons in the gabbros range from +8.4 to +13.4, and the corresponding Hf single-stage ages (T DM1) are between 687 and 902 Ma, which is obviously older than the crystallization age of 647 Ma. These geochemical features can be explained as melts from the partial melting of a depleted mantle source meta-somatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. Accordingly, we conclude that the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange is probably related to transitional SSZ-type ophiolite and developed in an intra-oceanic subduction, which indicates that an ocean (the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean) existed between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. The Ocean's formation might be no later than the Neoproterozoic (647 Ma), and it was closed in the Late Cambrian because of the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block.

  10. Petrogenetic and geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic suprasubduction mantle as revealed by the Wizer ophiolite complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, E. S.; Hoinkes, G.; Mogessie, A.

    2011-10-01

    Ophiolite complexes, formed in a suprasubduction zone environment during Neoproterozoic time, are widely distributed in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Their mantle sections provide important information on the origin and tectonic history of ocean basins these complexes represent. The geochemistry and mineralogy of the mantle section of the Wizer ophiolite complex, represented by serpentinites after harzburgite containing minor dunite bodies, are presented. Presence of antigorite together with the incipient alteration of chromite and absence of chlorite suggests that serpentinization occurred in the mantle wedge above a Neoproterozoic subduction zone. Wizer peridotites have a wide range of spinel compositions. Spinel Cr# [100Cr/(Cr + Al)] decrease gradually from dunite bodies (Cr# = 81-87) and their host highly depleted harzburgites (Cr# = 67-79) to the less depleted harzburgites (Cr# = 57-63). Such decreases in mantle refractory character are accompanied by higher Al and Ti contents in bulk compositions. Estimated parental melt compositions point to an equilibration with melts of boninitic composition for the dunite bodies (TiO2 = ~<0.07-0.22 wt%; Al2O3 = 9.4-10.6 wt%), boninitic-arc tholeiite for the highly depleted harzburgites (TiO2 = <0.09-0.28 wt%; Al2O3 = 11.2-14.1 wt%) and more MORB-like affinities for the less depleted harzburgites (TiO2 = ~<0.38-0.51 wt%; Al2O3 = 14.5-15.3 wt%). Estimated equilibrium melts are found in the overlying volcanic sequence, which shows a transitional MORB-island arc geochemical signature with a few boninitic samples. Enrichment of some chromites in TiO2 and identification of sulfides in highly depleted peridotites imply interaction with an impregnating melt. A two-stage partial melting/melt-rock reaction model is advocated, whereby, melting of a depleted mantle source by reaction with MORB-like melts is followed by a second stage melting by interaction with melts of IAT-boninitic affinities in a suprasubduction zone environment to generate the highly depleted harzburgites and dunite bodies. The shift from MORB to island arc/boninitic affinities within the mantle lithosphere of the Wizer ophiolite sequence suggests generation in a protoarc-forearc environment. This, together with the systematic latitudinal change in composition of ophiolitic lavas in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt from IAT-boninitic affinities to more MORB-like signature, implies that the CED could represent a disrupted forearc-arc-backarc system above a southeast-dipping subduction zone.

  11. Uranium-lead isotopic ages of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, with applicatons to Tethyan ocean ridge tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, G.R.; Hopson, C.A.; Wright, J.E.

    1981-04-10

    Plagiogranites are a minor but widespread component of the Samail ophiolite plutonic member. They crystallized from the most fractionated melts generated by magmatic crystallization and differentiation of a steady state magma chamber beneath the Tethyan spreading ocean ridge, and their ages are thought to mark the time of ocean crust formation. Isotopic U--Pb ages of zircons from 13 plagiogranites collected along a 270-km segment of the Samail ophiolite subparallel to the regional trend of the sheeted dike complex (the former spreading ridge axis direction) define a narrow time interval of 93.5--97.9 m.y., with a pronounced clustering about 95 m.y. The zircon ages of the plagiogranites agree remarkably well with the early Cenomanian to early Turonian biostratigraphic ages of sediments that are intercalated within the ophiolite pillow lavas and that lie just above them (Tippit et al., 1981). The agreement of radiometric and biostratigraphic ages provides strong support for the conclusion that the plagiogranite U--Pb ages closely date the time span of ocean crust formation. No step changes in age patterns are observed along the ridge axis (sheeted dike) direction, suggesting that there are no major internal offsets of the ophiolite by transform or other faults along most of the traverse. One possible exception occurs at the southeastern end of the sampled interval (Ibra area), where a 3 m.y. discontinuity might be caused by an unmapped fault. Assuming that the regional trend of the sheeted dikes (N10 /sup 0/--25 /sup 0/W) marks the direction of the former spreading ridge axis, the present array of sample localities spans a distance of 130 to 195 km normal to that axis (i.e., in the spreading direction). The data as a whole do not define a clear-cut age trend normal to the spreading axis, but by eliminating samples that may be aberrant due to faulting, the data array suggests a pattern of increasing ages from east to west.

  12. Fragment of the Coast Range ophiolite and the Great Valley sequence in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Garver, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-10-01

    The Decatur terrane is a small, allochthonous fragment of Upper Jurassic oceanic crust with an overlying blanket of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the San Juan Islands. The stratigraphy and petrotectonic elements are dissimilar to those of coeval sequences in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia), but are virtually identical to those of the Coast Range ophiolite and overlying Great Valley sequence south of San Francisco, California. This stratigraphic correlation, together with regional considerations, suggests that the Decatur terrane was detached and transported during Cretaceous time. The resultant displacement is in excess of 1000 km.

  13. Ophiolites in ocean-continent transitions: From the Steinmann Trinity to sea-floor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernoulli, Daniel; Jenkyns, Hugh C.

    2009-05-01

    Before the theory of plate tectonics took hold, there was no coherent model for ocean-continent transitions that included both extant continental margins and fragmentary ancient examples preserved in orogenic belts. Indeed, during the early 1900, two strands of thought developed, one relying on the antiquity and permanence of continents and oceans, advocated by the mainstream of the scientific community and one following mobilist concepts derived from Wegener's hypothesis (1915) of continental drift. As an illustration of the prevailing North-American view, the different composition and thickness of continental and oceanic crust and the resulting isostatic response showed "how improbable it would be to suppose that a continent could founder or go to oceanic depth or that ocean floor at ± 3000 fathoms could ever have been a stable land area since the birth of the oceans" [H.H. Hess, Trans. R. Soc. London, A 222 (1954) 341-348]. Because of the perceived permanence of oceans and continents, mountain chains were thought to originate from narrow, elongated, unstable belts, the geosynclines, circling the continents or following "zones of crustal weakness" within them, from which geanticlines and finally mountain belts would develop. This teleological concept, whereby a geosyncline would inevitably evolve into a mountain chain, dominated geological interpretations of orogenic belts for several decades in the mid-twentieth century. However, the concept of permanence of oceans and continents and the concept of the geosyncline had already met with the critiques of Suess and others. As early as 1905, Steinmann considered the association of peridotite, "diabase" (basalt/dolerite) and radiolarite (a typical ocean-continent transition assemblage), present in the Alps and Apennines, as characteristic of the deep-ocean floor and Bailey (1936) placed Steinmann's interpretation into the context of continental drift and orogeny. Indeed, in both authors' writings, the concept of ophiolites as ocean crust is apparent. Between 1920 and 1930, the stage was thus potentially set for modern mobilist concepts that were, however, to prove attractive to only a small circle of Alpine and peri-Gondwanian geologists. After the Second World War, the 1950s saw the rapid progress of the geophysical and geological exploration of oceans and continental margins that provided the data for a reevaluation of the geosynclinal concept. Actualistic models now equated the former preorogenic miogeosyncline of Stille (1940) and Kay (1951) with passive continental margins [C.L. Drake, M. Ewing, G.H. Sutton, Continental margin and geosynclines: the east coast of North America, north of Cape Hatteras, in: L. Ahrens, et al. (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 3, Pergamon Press, London, 1959, pp. 110-189], the (American version of the) eugeosyncline and its igneous rocks with "collapsing continental rises" [R.S. Dietz, J. Geol. 71 (1963) 314-333] and the ophiolites, the Steinmann Trinity, of the (European) eugeosyncline with fragments of oceanic lithosphere [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620]. The concept of sea-floor spreading [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620; H.H. Hess, Mid-oceanic ridges and tectonics of the sea-floor, in: W.F. Whittard, R. Bradshaw (Eds), Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Colston Papers 17, Butterworths, London, 1965, pp. 317-333] finally eliminated the weaknesses in Wegener's hypothesis and, with the coming of the "annus mirabilis" of 1968, the concept of the geosyncline could be laid to rest. Ocean-continent transitions of modern oceans, as revealed by seismology and deep-sea drilling, could now be compared with the remnants of their ancient counterparts preserved in the Alps and elsewhere.

  14. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (< 1-5 km) deposits. Individual deposits are a composite of syngenetic massive sulphide and underlying epigenetic stockwork-vein mineralization. The massive sulphide occurs as concordant tabular, lenticular, or saucer-shaped bodies in pillow lavas and pillow-lava breccia; massive lava flows, hyalcoclastite, tuff, and bedded radolarian chert are less commonly associated rock types. These massive sulphide zones are as much as 700 m long, 200 m wide, and 50 m thick. The pipe-, funnel-, or keel-shaped stockwork zone may extend to a dehpth of 1 km in the sheeted-dike complex. Several deposits in Cyprus are confined to grabens or the hanging wall of premineralization normal faults. Polymetallic massive sulphide deposits and active hydrothermal vents at medium- to fast-rate spreading centres (the East Pacific Rise at lat. 21??N, the Galapagos Spreading Centre at long. 86??W, the Juan de Fuca Ridge at lat. 45??N., and the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California) have interdeposit spacings on a scale of tens or hundreds of metres, and are spatially associated with structural ridges or grabens within the narrow (< 5 km) axial valleys of the rift zones. Although the most common substrate for massive sulphide accumulations is stacked sequences of pillow basalt and sheet flows, the sea-floor underlying numerous deposits in Guaymas Basin consists of diatomaceous ooze and terrigenous clastic sediment that is intruded by diabase sills. Mound-like massive sulphide deposits, as much as 30 m wide and 5m high, occur over actively discharging vents on the East Pacific Rise, and many of these deposits serve as the base for narrow chimneys and spires of equal or greater height. Sulphides on the Juan de Fuca Ridge appear to form more widespread blanket deposits in the shallow axial-valley depression. The largest deposit found to date, along the axial ridge of the Galapagos Spreading Centre, has a tabular form and a length of 1000 m, a width of 200 m, and a height of 30 m. The sulphide assemblage in both massive and vein mineralization in Cyprus type deposits is characteristically simple: abundant pyrite or, less commonly, pyrrhotite accompanied by minor marcasite, chalcopyrite

  15. Magnetic studies of magma-supply and sea-floor metamorphism: Troodos ophiolite dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Gauthier, D.

    2006-05-01

    Dikes of the eastern Troodos ophiolite of Cyprus intruded at slow ocean-spreading axes with dips ranging up to 15° from vertical and with bimodal strikes (now NE-SW and N-S due to post-88 Ma sinistral microplate rotation). Varied dike orientations may represent local stress fields during dike-crack propagation but do not influence the spatial-distributions or orientation-distributions of dikes' magnetic fabrics, nor of their palaeomagnetic signals. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) integrates mineral orientation-distributions from each of 1289 specimens sampled from dikes at 356 sites over ˜400 km 2 in the eastern Troodos ophiolite of Cyprus. In 90% of dikes, AMS fabrics define a foliation ( kMAX- kINT) parallel to dike walls and a lineation ( kMAX) that varies regionally and systematically. Magma-flow alignment of accessory magnetite controls the AMS with a subordinate contribution from the mafic silicate matrix that is reduced in anisotropy by sea-floor metamorphism. Titanomagnetite has less influence on anisotropy. Occasionally, intermediate and minimum susceptibility axes are switched so as to be incompatible with the kinematically reasonable flow plane but maximum susceptibility ( kMAX) still defines the magmatic flow axis. Such blended subfabrics of kinematically compatible mafic-silicate and misaligned multidomain magnetite subfabrics; are rare. Areas of steep magma flow ( kMAX plunge ? 70°) and of shallow magma-flow alternate in a systematic and gradual spatial pattern. Foci of steep flow were spaced ˜4 km parallel to the spreading axes and ˜6 km perpendicular to the spreading axes. Ridge-parallel separation of steep flow suggest the spacing of magma-feeders to the dikes whereas ridge-perpendicular spacing of 6 km at a spreading rate of 50 mm/a implies the magma sources may have been active for ˜240 Ka. The magma feeders feeding dikes may have been ? 2 km in diameter. Stable paleomagnetic vectors, in some cases verified by reversal tests, are retained by magnetite and titanomagnetite. In all specimens, the stable components were isolated by three cycles of low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) followed by ? 10 steps of incremental thermal demagnetization (TD). 47% of primary A-components [338.2 /+ 57.2 n = 207, ?95 = 3.9; mean TUB = 397 ± 8 °C] are overprinted by a B-component [341.4 /+ 63.5, n = 96, ?95 = 8.7; mean TUB = 182 ± 11 °C]. A- and B-components are ubiquitous and shared equally by the N-S and NE-SW striking dikes. A-component unblocking temperatures ( TUB) are zoned subparallel to the fossil spreading axis. Their spatial pattern is consistent with chemical remagnetization at some certain off-axis distance determined by sea-floor spreading. A-components indicate less microplate rotation and more northerly palaeolatitudes that are consistent with metamorphic remagnetization after some spreading from the ridge-axis. Thus, their magnetizations are younger than those of the overlying volcanic sequence for which ChRMs are commonly reported as ˜274 /+ 33 (88 Ma).

  16. Where and what is the Deep Off-Axis Magmatism in the Oman Ophiolite (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousselin, D.; Reisberg, L. C.; Nicolas, A. A.; Nicolle, M.; Bosch, D.; Boudier, F. I.

    2013-12-01

    We present a review of structures in the Oman ophiolite that can be related to off-axis magmatism in the lower crust and uppermost mantle at fast spreading ridges. First, we show evidence that a ridge axis is preserved within the ophiolite. As this axis can be used as a reference frame, we distinguish three cases of off-axis magma injection near the Moho or in the lower crust. The first two cases, though partly situated off-axis, are related to excess magmatism caused by mantle diapirs rising beneath the ridge axis, while the third is linked to the emplacement of a diapir far from the axis. (1) The Moho transition zone (MTZ) beneath the ridge axis is normally a few meters thick, but increases up to several hundred meters thick above mantle diapirs, within a ten Km radius. It forms from underplating of successive melt pulses. Once melt ponds at the base of the MTZ, it transforms harzburgite into dunite; then most of the melt is compacted and injected into the crust, but a portion forms plurimetric gabbro lenses within the dunite. Eight to ten Km away from the axis, the MTZ thickness is greatly reduced, thus on-axis diapiric emplacement may not induce off-axis magmatism at this level further than 10 Km away from the axis. (2) Pseudo "wehrlites" that form up to 30% of the lower crust define a second type of off-axis melt body. These intrusions are rooted in the MTZ where dunite is turned into an olivine-rich mush upon melt delivery, so they may be considered as chunks of MTZ intruded into the crust. Though many of these intrusions are tectonically transposed by the magmatic flow that affects lower crustal gabbros, showing that they were injected within the magma chamber, others are undeformed intrusions, showing that it was emplaced in an off-axis melt-poor crust, probably away from the crustal seismic low velocity zone. (3) We mapped an off-axis diapir located 30 km from the ridge axis that may be the root of an incipient seamount. The overlying MTZ is up to a thousand meters thick and contains pyroxenite instead of gabbro lenses in dunite. Above, and at the diapir periphery, melt intrudes a cooled lithosphere and forms amphibole-rich-microgabbro intrusions. Low ?Nd may suggest that off-axis melting occurred because of a compositional anomaly such as enriched veins. However, at the MTZ we find low incompatible element contents and LREE depletion more marked than that of typical MORB. We explain this compositional paradox using geological evidence of assimilation and mixing between incoming melt and the pre-existing depleted and hydrated off-axis lithosphere that drifted from the rise axis.

  17. Oman Ophiolite: Petrological and Geochemical Investigation of Fast-Spreading Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Schuth, S.; Wolff, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We undertook a detailed field campaign in the Wadi Gideah, which is located in the Wadi-Tayin Massif in the southern part of the Oman Ophiolite, to sample a complete section of fast-spreading oceanic crust. Our concept of performing different analytical and structural investigations on the same samples enabled us to create a coherent data set. The thickness of the layered and virtually undeformed oceanic crust, containing pillow lavas and sheeted dikes as well as varitextured, foliated and layered gabbros resting on a relatively thin MOHO transition zone, was recalculated to approximately 6km. Here we present our data focusing on the petrological and geochemical logs obtained. Samples from the layered gabbro sequence show modal compositions of ~50 vol% plagioclase, ~40 vol% clinopyroxene and ~10 vol% olivine in average. The samples from the foliated gabbro sequence display a slightly higher amount of plagioclase. In very few samples up to 20 vol% of orthopyroxene is present. The layered gabbro sequence display Mg# 71-82 for olivine, Mg# 75-83 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 71-93 mol%. The foliated gabbro sequence display Mg# 67-79 for olivine, Mg# 76-85 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 58-85 mol%. The varitextured gabbro sequence display Mg# 74-80 for clinopyroxene and An% 59-86 in plagioclase mol%. The generally evolving trends in mineral major element composition from bottom to top of the profile are also observed for bulk rock major and trace element data. The average Sr87/Sr86 ratio is 0.7033 ± 0.0002 for the entire foliated and layered gabbro with significantly higher values for samples from fault zones cutting the gabbros at all crustal level which here are interpreted as possible hydrothermal pathways for cooling of the deep crust. We calculated the Wadi Gideah bulk crust composition and modeled possible fractionation paths, implying significant crystallization in the deep crust.

  18. Forearc geochemical signatures in volcanic rocks, Llanada and Black Mountain remnants, Coast Range Ophiolite, California

    SciTech Connect

    Giaramita, M.J.; Macpherson, G.J. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States)); Phipps, S.P. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The Middle Jurassic Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) of California consists of numerous petrologically diverse remnants overlain by forearc-basin sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Group. The new data from the basaltic volcanic sections of the Black Mountain (BM) and Llanada (LL) remnants show that there are striking differences between the two. BM basalts are MORB-like whereas LL basalts have boninitic affinities. BM basalts have higher Ti/V ratios than LL basalts, TiO[sub 2] in the BM rocks is in the range 1.3--2.2 wt.%, and increases with fractionation, the LL rocks generally have 0.6--1.1 wt.% TiO[sub 2]. LL basalts have distinctive high Cr and Ni, but have lower MgO and SiO[sub 2] and higher TiO[sub 2] than true boninites. BM basalts have lower Cr and Ni concentrations than LL basalts. LL silicic rocks have very low Ni and Cr. Mineralogical and textural differences in the two suites reflect their geochemical dissimilarity. Rocks from both areas contain relict pyroxene and partially to completely albitized plagioclase. BM basalts contain abundant variably altered Ti-magnetite grains throughout the section; the least fractionated LL basalts contain abundant small Cr-rich spinel grains and [mu]m-sized interstitial Fe-Ti oxides. Cr-spinel decreases with increased fractionation, whereas Fe-Ti oxides increase in size and abundance to maxima in the Cr-spinel-free silicic rocks. Most basalts from both BM and LL are characterized by intersertal to intergranular, seriate textures. Rocks from both areas contain secondary silica, zeolites, calcite, sulfides, pumpellyite, chlorite, and clay minerals; andradite occurs in amygdules in some BM samples. The authors interpret the petrologically diverse CRO to have been formed and assembled in an oceanic forearc.

  19. A stable isotope study of serpentinization in the Fengtien ophiolite, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tzen-Fu Yui; Hsueh-Wen Yeh (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Chihming Wang Lee (National Taiwan Univ. (Taiwan))

    1990-05-01

    Detailed H- and O-isotopic studies of serpentinites of Fengtien ophiolite have been made in order to enhance our knowledge on the process of serpentinization. Pseudomorphic lizardites have {delta}{sup 18}O = +3.6{per thousand} and {delta}D = {minus}48 to {minus}49{per thousand}; bladed-mat and foliated antigorites have {delta}{sup 18}O = +3.5 to +5.8{per thousand} and {delta}D = {minus}45 to {minus}69{per thousand}; slickensided antigorites have {delta}{sup 18}O = +4.1 to +4.9{per thousand} and {delta}D = {minus}46 to {minus}50{per thousand}; picrolites have {delta}{sup 18}O = +4.2 to +4.3{per thousand} and {delta}D = {minus}65 to {minus}67{per thousand}; and slickensided chrysotiles have {delta}{sup 18}O = +4.1 to +4.5{per thousand} and {delta}D = {minus}80{per thousand}. It is suggested that lizardite might have formed in an oceanic environment, whereas antigorite and chrysotile have formed in continental environments. These results depict complicated multiple serpentinization processes. Isotopic temperatures calculated using {delta}{sup 18}O values of coexisting fissure-filling minerals range from 325 to 370{degree}C, which are consistent with those derived from phase equilibria involving serpentines. The narrow range of {delta}{sup 18}O and wide range of {delta}D values for antigorite and chrysotile also demonstrate that water/rock ratios during these serpentinizations should not have been high. These Fengtien serpentines fall outside either of the continental domains described by Wenner and Taylor (1973, 1974); and fall within their oceanic domain. We suggest that the domains proposed by Wenner and Taylor (1973, 1974) should be extended and that the terms, especially the continental antigorite and the continental lizardite-chrysotile, should be purely occurrence-descriptive.

  20. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  1. Modeling the Evolution of a Transform Fault in the Mantle Section of the New Caledonia Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, S. J.; Davis, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Bogota Peninsula shear zone has been interpreted as a paleotransform fault in the mantle section of the New Caledonia ophiolite. The shear zone was originally identified based on stronger fabric development on the Bogota Peninsula and the rotation of foliation from shallow NW-striking outside the shear zone to subvertical NNE-striking inside the shear zone. This rotation is generally symmetric and occurs across a 50 km-wide region centered on a 3 km-wide high strain core. To better understand the evolution of this dextral transform fault, we develop a kinematic model constrained by several types of field and laboratory data. Field fabrics were used to empirically define three distinct domains within the shear zone: a farfield, nearfield, and central high-strain core. Our model assumes that the shear zone localized during its development so that farfield features preserve the first increment of deformation and the center records the last increment. We specify the orientation of the shear zone boundary based on the lattice preferred orientation of olivine within the center. For each increment of deformation, the orientation of the finite strain ellipsoid is constrained by foliation and lineation while the magnitude is constrained the shape preferred orientation of macroscopic orthopyroxene. Our modeling also incorporates the changing orientation of orthopyroxene dikes that, like field fabrics, rotate systematically across the shear zone. Because many dikes also show increasing boudinage towards the center of the shear zone, we estimate stretches recorded by these dikes using the length, width, and separation between boudins along a variety of outcrop surfaces. This data-rich approach to modeling is challenging, but may ultimately provide more insight into the development of a transform fault at a deeper lithospheric level than is commonly observed.

  2. Extremely thin oceanic crust in the Proto-Indian Ocean: Evidence from the Masirah Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Tjerk; Mercolli, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    The Masirah Ophiolite is a good example of thin oceanic crust. Below pillow lavas and a sheeted dike complex with a relatively normal thickness of 1-1.5 km, the gabbroic lower crust barely exceeds 500 m in thickness. In spite of this reduced thickness, the oceanic crust preserves all members of a model ophiolite in a coherent lithostratigraphic sequence. The crust was formed during the uppermost Jurassic (circa 150 Ma) when the Indian-Madagascar plate separated from the African-Arabian plate and is therefore related to the opening of the coeval Somali basin. Geological relationships indicate that this portion of oceanic crust was formed at a ridge-transform intersect. The peculiarly reduced thickness of the gabbro layer is interpreted as the result of a weak magma supply at the edge of a ridge segment, rather than the consequence of a tectonic thinning. The cooling effect due to the vicinity of two large continental lithospheric blocks (Indian-Madagascar and African-Arabian plates) during this initial stage of the oceanization might have been an additional factor contributing to the reduction of the crustal thickness.

  3. Mineralization, alteration, and hydrothermal metamorphism of the ophiolite-hosted Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Seyfried, W.E., Jr.; Koski, R.A.; Strickler, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Turner-Albright sulfide deposit, part of the Josephine ophiolite, formed on and below the seafloor during Late Jurassic volcanism at a back arc spreading center. Ore fluids were probably localized by faults which were active on the seafloor at the time of sulfide deposition. The uppermost massive sulfide formed on the seafloor at hydrothermal vents. The bulk of the sulfide mineralization formed below the seafloor within olivine basalt hyaloclastite erupted near the time of mineralization. Infiltration of hydrothermal fluid into the hyaloclastite altered the rock. The fluid responsible for the hydrothermal alteration was evolved seawater with low pH and Mg and high Fe. The average value of sulfide and the difference between sulfide and contemporaneous seawater sulfate values are similar to ophiolite-hosted sulfide deposits in Cyprus. Mudstone and clinopyroxene basalt above the sulfide horizons were not altered by the ore-transporting hydrothermal fluid, but these rocks were hydrothermally metamorphosed by altered seawater heated by deep circulation into hot oceanic crust. This subseafloor metamorphism produced a mineral assemblage typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. Exchange with altered seawater increased the whole-rock ??18O of the basalts to values of 9.4-11.2%. -from Authors

  4. Geochemistry of mafic rocks from the Coto Block, Zambales ophiolite, Philippines: trace element evidence for two stages of crustal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Kay, R. W.; Reynolds, J. C.; Kay, S. M.

    1989-10-01

    Slightly to pervasively metamorphosed basaltic, diabasic and gabbroic rocks from the central eastern (Coto Block) portion of the Zambales ophiolite and fresh basalts from the Mariana Trough provide new evidence than the Coto Block did not form in a simple, evolved back-arc basin setting. Although the majority of the Zambales basalts and diabases have slight LREE depletions [ ( {La}/{Sm}) ch < 1 ], REE abundances 4-15 × chondrites, and magmatic concentrations of Sr Y. Hf, Th and TiO 2 similar to back-arc spreading center basalts (N-MORB), other data, including bimodal Cr and Ni abundances and wide ranges in some incompatible element ratios (e.g., ( {La}/{Ta}) n = 0.2-21.0 ) are not typical geochemical characteristics of basalts dredged from modern back-arc basins. Furthermore, comparison of the Zambales trace element data to fresh basalts from the Mariana Trough and other ocean basins shows that such geochemical differences are not the result of low grade, sub-seafloor metamorphism. Synthesis of these geochemical findings with the currently available geological data indicates that the Coto Block of the Zambales ophiolite has experienced a two-stage crustal history. During the initial stage, dominantly N-MORB type ocean crust was formed at a large or back-arc basin spreading center but soon thereafter Coto Block crust was chemically modified by incipient island arc magmatism, most probably in a proto-forearc setting.

  5. Translation and docking of an arc terrane: geological and geochemical evidence from the southern Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumul, G. P.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Faustino, D. V.; De Jesus, J. V.

    1998-08-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex is made up of three massifs: the Masinloc, Cabangan and San Antonio Massifs. Field, petrographic and geochemical analyses show that the Cabangan and San Antonio Massifs are genetically related to the Coto (transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc) and Acoje (island arc) blocks of the Masinloc Massif, respectively. The Subic Bay Fault Zone, a left-lateral fault zone, separates the San Antonio Massif island arc terrane from the transitional mid-ocean ridge-island arc-like sheeted diabase dikes-pillow basalts of the Cabangan Massif. The San Antonio Massif is a rifted terrane from the Acoje block which was translated southward to its present position through the West Luzon Shear-Subic Bay Fault Zone. Tectonized clinopyroxenite and gabbronorite hills, which mimic the physical and geochemical characteristics of the Acoje block and the San Antonio Massif ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks, were left behind along the western side of the Cabangan Massif during the translation of the arc massif southward. This scenario can account for the present-day configuration of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex.

  6. Origin of primary PGM assemblage in ?hromitite from a mantle tectonite at Harold's Grave (Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Lord, Richard A.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present textural and mineral chemistry data for a PGM inclusion assemblage and whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of chromitite from Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a dunite pod in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC), Scotland. The study utilized a number of analytical techniques, including acid digestion and isotope dilution (ID) ICP-MS, hydroseparation and electron microprobe analysis. The chromitite contains a pronounced enrichment of refractory PGE (IPGE: Os, Ir and Ru) over less refractory PGE (PPGE: Rh, Pt and Pd), typical of mantle hosted `ophiolitic' chromitites. A `primary' magmatic PGM assemblage is represented by euhedrally shaped (up to 60 ?m in size) single and composite inclusions in chromite. Polyphase PGM grains are dominated by laurite and osmian iridium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (Can Mineral 40: 1705-1716, 2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200-1250 °C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07.

  7. Interactions between magma and hydrothermal system in Oman ophiolite and in IODP Hole 1256D: Fossilization of a dynamic melt lens at fast spreading ridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Ildefonse; Juergen Koepke

    2009-01-01

    The transition between the small melt lens observed on top of fast spreading ridge magma chambers and the overlying sheeted dike complex marks the interface between magma and the hydrothermal convective system. It is therefore critical to our understanding of fast spreading ridge accretion processes. We present maps of two areas of the Oman ophiolite where this transition zone is

  8. The high temperature reaction zone of the Oman ophiolite: new field data, microthermometry of fluid inclusions, PIXE analyses and oxygen isotopic ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Juteau; Gilles Manac'h; Olivier Moreau; Christophe Lécuyer; Claire Ramboz

    2000-01-01

    The present study is focused on the so-called High Temprature Reaction Zone of the Oman ophiolite, a thin zone located between the roots of the sheeted dyke complex and the high-level gabbros marking the roof of the fossil magma chambers. The distribution of diabases, chloritised dykes, spilitized dykes and epidosites (in the order of increasing hydrothermal alteration) was studied along

  9. Igneous and Metamorphic Processes Associated With the Formation of Chilean Ophiolites and Their Implication for Ocean Floor Metamorphism, Seismic Layering, and Magnetism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Stern; Maarten J. de Wit; James R. Lawrence

    1976-01-01

    A metamorphic overprint on the pseudostratigraphy of ophiolite complexes in southern Chile shows an extremely steep vertical metamorphic gradient passing downward from zeolite to amphibolite facies in 2 km, followed by a transition to fresh gabbros. Burial metamorphism does not explain either the steep metamorphic gradient or the abrupt termination of this metamorphic effect. A combination of hydrothermal and contact

  10. Precambrian accretionary tectonics in the Bou Azzer-El Graara region, Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Saquaque; Hassan Admou; Jeffrey Karson; Kevin Hefferan; Ingrid Reuber

    1989-01-01

    Ophiolites of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco occur as highly dismembered slivers of mafic and ultramafic rocks sandwiched between a Precambrian craton and a magmatic arc. Tectonic slices of accretionary melange, ophiolites, and forearc basins have been juxtaposed by oblique subduction and transpression in the forearc region of a Late Proterozoic subduction zone. Synkinematic to postkinematic calc-alkalic magmatism in these terranes

  11. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE ALADA? MOUNTAINS IN THE N??DE - ÇAMARDI REGION (EASTERN TAURIDES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper GÜRBÜZ

    The Alada? mountains exhibit a napped structure in the west end of the Eastern Taurides that occurred during the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene period. The tectono-stratigraphic units of the Alada? mountains are called from bottom to top as Yahyali, Siyah Alada?, Çobanda?i, Minaretepeler, Çataloturan, Beyaz Alada?, ophiolitic melange and Alada? ophiolite nappes. The study area consists mainly of lithological units

  12. Neoproterozoic arc-back-arc system in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: Evidence from supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Ophiolites are widely distributed in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt, occurring as clusters in the northern (NCEDO) and southern (SCEDO) segments. Mineralogical and geochemical data on the volcanic sections of Wizer (WZO) and Abu Meriewa (AMO) ophiolites as representatives of the NCEDO and SCEDO, respectively, are presented. The WZO volcanic sequence comprises massive metavolcanics of MORB-like compositions intruded by minor boninitic dykes and thrust over island-arc metavolcanic blocks in the mélange matrix. Such transitional MORB-IAT-boninitic magmatic affinities for the WZO metavolcanics suggest that they most likely formed in a protoarc-forearc setting. Chemical compositions of primary clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel relicts from the WZO volcanic section further confirm this interpretation. The compositional variability in the WZO volcanic sequence is comparable with the associated mantle rocks that vary from slightly depleted harzburgites to highly depleted harzburgites containing small dunite bodies, which are residues after MORB, IAT and boninite melt formation, respectively. Source characteristics of the different lava groups from the WZO indicate generation via partial melting of a MORB source which was progressively depleted by melt extraction and variably enriched by subduction zone fluids. MORB-like magma may have been derived from ~ 20% partial melting of an undepleted lherzolite source, leaving slightly depleted harzburgite as a residuum. The generation of island-arc magma can be accounted for by partial melting (~ 15%) of the latter harzburgitic mantle source, whereas boninites may have been derived from partial melting (~ 20%) of a more refractory mantle source previously depleted by melt extraction of MORB and IAT melts, leaving ultra-refractory dunite bodies as residuum. The AMO volcanic unit occurs as highly deformed pillowed metavolcanic rocks in a mélange matrix. They can be categorized geochemically into LREE-depleted (La/Yb CN = 0.41-0.50) and LREE-enriched (La/Yb CN = 4.7-4.9) lava types that show an island arc to MORB geochemical signature, respectively, signifying a back-arc basin setting. This is consistent, as well, with their mantle section. Source characteristics indicate depleted to slightly enriched mantle sources with overall slight subduction zone geochemical affinities as compared to the WZO. Generally, CED ophiolites show supra-subduction zone geochemical signature with prevalent island arc tholeiitic and minor boninitic affinities in the NCEDO and MORB/island-arc association in the SCEDO. Such differences in geochemical characteristics of the NCEDO and SCEDO, along with the abundance of mature island arc metavolcanics which are close in age (~ 750 Ma) to the ophiolitic rocks, general enrichment in HFSE of ophiolites from north to south, and lack of a crustal break and major shear zones, is best explained by a geotectonic model whereby the CED represents an arc-back-arc system above a southeast-dipping subduction zone.

  13. Origin of ophiolite complexes related to intra-oceanic subduction initiation: implications of IODP Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin fore arc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Carvallo, Claire; Christeson, Gail; Ferré, Eric; Kurz, Walter; Kutterolf, Steffen; Morgan, Sally; Pearce, Julian; Reagan, Mark; Sager, William; Shervais, John; Whattam, Scott; International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 352 (Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc), the Scientific Party of

    2015-04-01

    Ophiolites, representing oceanic crust exposed on land (by whatever means), are central to the interpretation of many orogenic belts (e.g. E Mediterranean). Based mostly on geochemical evidence, ophiolites are widely interpreted, in many but by no means all cases, as having formed within intra-oceanic settings above subduction zones (e.g. Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus). Following land geological, dredging and submersible studies, fore arcs of the SW Pacific region became recognised as likely settings of supra-subduction zone ophiolite genesis. This hypothesis was tested by recent drilling of the Izu-Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that three of the sites are located in fault-controlled sediment ponds that formed in response to dominantly down-to the-west extensional faulting (with hints of preceding top-to-the-east compressional thrusting). The sediments overlying the igneous basement, of maximum Late Eocene to Recent age, document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds. At the two more trenchward sites (U1440 and U1441), mostly tholeiitic basalts were drilled, including massive and pillowed lavas and hyaloclastite. Geochemically, these extrusives are of near mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition (fore arc basalts). Subtle chemical deviation from normal MORB can be explained by weakly fluid-influenced melting during decompression melting in the earliest stages of supra-subduction zone spreading (not as 'trapped' older MORB). The remaining two sites, c. 6 km to the west (U1439 and U1442), penetrated dominantly high-magnesian andesites, known as boninites, largely as fragmental material. Their formation implies the extraction of highly depleted magmas from previously depleted, refractory upper mantle in a supra-subduction zone setting. Following supra-subduction zone spreading, the active modern arc formed c. 200 km westwards of the trench. The new drilling evidence proves that both fore arc-type basalt and boninite formed in a fore arc setting soon after subduction initiation (c.52 Ma). Comparisons with ophiolites reveal many similarities, especially the presence of fore arc-type basalts and low calcium boninites. The relative positions of the fore arc basalts, boninites and arc basalts in the Izu Bonin and Mariana forearc (based on previous studies) can be compared with the positions of comparable units in a range of ophiolite complexes in orogenic belts including the Troodos, Oman, Greek (e.g. Vourinos), Albanian (Mirdita), Coast Range (California) and Bay of Islands (Newfoundland) ophiolites. The comparisons support the interpretation that all of the ophiolites formed during intra-oceanic subduction initiation. There are also some specific differences between the individual ophiolites suggesting that ophiolites should be interpreted individually in their regional tectonic settings.

  14. Assessing Hydrothermal Contributions to Global Biogeochemial Cycles; Insights From the Macquarie Island Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, R. M.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Davidson, G.; Alt, J.; Brewer, T. S.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is an important component of global biogeochemical cycles. Chemical exchange between seawater and the ocean crust affects the composition of the oceans, the ocean crust, and via subduction the composition and heterogeneity of the mantle. Despite 50 years of scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate goal of drilling a continuous in-situ section through the entire ocean crust has not yet been achieved. The absence of complete oceanic crustal sections makes full quantification of the hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles difficult. In particular, our knowledge of the nature and extent of fluid-rock interaction in the lower crust is limited by the absence of accessible submarine exposures or drill core. Macquarie Island, approximately 1500 km south of New Zealand, is the only sub-aerial exposure of a complete section of ocean crust in the ocean basin in which it formed. The crust formed during a phase of slow spreading along a short segment of mid-ocean ridge ~11 Myr ago and was uplifted during recent transpression along the Pacific Australian plate boundary. Hydrothermally altered rocks from Macquarie Island therefore provide a time-integrated record of the chemical changes due to fluid-rock exchange through a complete section of ocean crust. We exploit the immobile behavior of some elements during hydrothermal alteration to determine the precursor compositions to altered Macquarie whole rock samples, and then evaluate the changes in bulk rock chemistry due to fluid-rock interaction throughout the Macquarie crust. We combine these data with stratigraphic reconstructions through the Macquarie crust to determine its net hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles. The Macquarie crust was a net sink for Mn, Mg, Na, K, Cs and Ba and a net source of Fe, Ca, Cu and Sr to the oceans. To assess the role of hydrothermal circulation in global geochemical cycles we compare the calculated Macquarie hydrothermal fluxes to published estimates of the hydrothermal contributions from (i) drilled sections of in-situ upper ocean crust produced at slow, intermediate and fast spreading rates and of differing crustal ages; and (ii) supra-subduction zone ophiolites, which consistently record a greater extent of fluid-rock exchange than crust from mid-ocean ridges.

  15. Evidence of Melt percolation and Mantle Wedge Deformation in the Marum Ophiolite (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, M. A.; Jonda, L.; Davies, H. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Marum ophiolite in Papua New Guinea described an ultra-depleted mantle made by dunite and harzburgite showing compositions of supra-subduction zone peridotite. This depleted mantle has been fertilised by diffuse crystallisation of a low proportion of clinopyroxene in the dunite and formation of ol-websterite and ol-clinopyroxenite at cm scale cross-cutting the foliation and the primary pyroxenite layering. This percolating melt shows silica-rich magnesian affinities (boninite-like) related to supra-subduction zone in a fore-arc environment. The peridotite has also been percolated by a melt with more tholeiite affinities precipitating plagioclase-rich wehrlite and thin gabbroic veins. Crystallographic preferred orientations of minerals show that clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in the harzburgite and orthopyroxenite veins crystallized under the same deformation constraints as the depleted dunite. However, for low melt proportion, such as the clinopyroxenes in the dunite, their crystallization can be governed by epitaxial growth. Epitaxial growth is also possible in the ol-websterite where an area with low melt fraction (5% of clinopyroxenes), clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene <001> axes are parallel to olivine <100> axes, while in an area with higher melt fraction (28% of clinopyroxenes) clinopyroxenes record their own orientation with <001> axes at nearly 90? to the olivine <100> axes suggesting a reorientation of the constraints. The same relationship has been observed within the plagioclase-rich wehrlite suggesting the same deformation conditions during percolation of boninitic affinities melt and a more tholeiitic affinities melt. The major inferred slip system in olivine is (001)[100] E-type slip with the possible activation of both (001)[100] E-type and (010)[100] A-type slip systems, which are activated at high-temperature low-stress conditions. Olivine E-type slip is predicted to operate within the mantle wedge in a back-arc position however the Marum peridotite has a fore-arc geodynamic position and chemical composition similar to mantle from SSZ. As a consequence, the Marum peridotite is considered as mantle in front of the arc located near the E-type to B-type transition.

  16. An evolved axial melt lens in the Northern Ibra Valley, Southern Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The axial melt lens (AML) is a common feature lying at the base of the upper crust at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges. It is thought to play a major role in the evolution of MORB and, potentially, accretion of the plutonic lower crust. In order to better understand the petrological processes that operate in AMLs we have examined the nature and variability of the horizon equivalent to the AML preserved in the Oman ophiolite. We present the results of a detailed investigation of a section east of Fahrah in the Ibra Valley. Here, a suite of 'varitextured' gabbros separates the sheeted dykes above from foliated gabbros below. It comprises 3 distinct units: an ophitic gabbro with pegmatitic patches (patchy gabbro; 70 m thick), overlain by a spotty gabbro (50 m), capped by a quartz-diorite (120 m). The sheeted dykes are observed to root in the quartz-diorite. Contacts between the plutonic units are gradational and subhorizontal. All of the units are isotropic. A total of 110 samples were collected for detailed petrographic and chemical analysis. With the exception of a small number of the diorites, all of the samples have a 'cumulate' component. Primary igneous amphibole is ubiquitous, present even as a minor phase in the foliated gabbros beneath, and indicating extensive differentiation and/or the presence of water in the primary liquid. France et al. (2014, Lithos) report patches of granoblastic material from this horizon in the Fahrah area, and suggest they represent the restites of partially melted pieces of the sheeted dykes. We did not, however, find any such granoblastic material, nor can the quartz-diorites represent partial melt; instead, preliminary geochemical modeling suggests that all of the units can be related by simple progressive fractional crystallization of an Oman axial ('V1' or 'Geotimes') melt. Along with the field relationships, as well as the basaltic andesite to dacite composition of the overlying sheeted dykes, this suggests that the AML was the locus of formation of the highly evolved melts. This contrasts with the more primitive AML and sheeted dyke complex documented in Wadi Abyad. From this we conclude that there is significant lateral variability in AML compositions along the Oman ridge axis.

  17. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Lower Oceanic Crust: Sr Isotopic Constraints from the CCSP CY-4 Drill Hole, Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L. E.; Teagle, D. A.; Cooper, M. J.; Alt, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Our understanding of the structure and geometry of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems is severely hindered by a dearth of continuous samples into the plutonic complexes of the ocean crust as it is this region that provides the power to drive hydrothermal circulation and preserves a record of magma chamber processes. Although the Troodos ophiolite most probably formed in a supra-subduction zone environment, its well-preserved outcrops have made an invaluable contribution to our understanding of ocean ridge processes. CY-4 drilled as part of the Cyprus Crustal Study Project provides a unique continuous sample of 2263 m of the lower Troodos crust. The hole was initiated in sheeted dikes before grading into isotropic gabbros around 675 m. An intrusive transition is evident at 1330 m between the isotropic gabbros and lower layered gabbros, pyroxenites and crustal peridotites. Petrographic observations and strontium isotopic analyses presented here investigate the incursion of seawater derived hydrothermal fluids into the lower oceanic crust. Previous studies of the Troodos ophiolite have determined the primary igneous composition of the magmas (87Sr/86Sr =0.7032-0.7040) and the range of hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr =0.7047-0.7059). Samples from the sheeted dike complex are variably altered with strontium isotopic compositions elevated above the primary igneous signatures of the Troodos magmas but generally lower than the restricted hydrothermal range observed for dikes throughout the rest of the ophiolite. Samples proximal to the sheeted dike - gabbro boundary do yield strontium isotope ratios within the hydrothermal fluid range. Within a few hundred metres below the dike-gabbro transition most samples yield near primary strontium isotopic ratios suggesting only limited pervasive penetration of seawater-derived Sr. Most samples down to the bottom of the hole show little increase in Sr ratios. Rare hydrothermally altered samples with associated veins and secondary halos have 87Sr/86Sr elevated towards hydrothermal values indicating significant channelling of hydrothermal fluids at deeper levels in the Troodos crust.

  18. Compositional and mineralogic constraints on the genesis of ophiolite hosted nickel mineralization in the Pevkos area, Limassol Forest, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Economou, M.; Panayiotou, A.

    1985-01-01

    Mineralization composed dominantly of primary troilite, maucherite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, and secondary valleriite occurs in serpentinized transition zone rocks of the Limasol Forest segment of the Troodos ophiolite complex, Cyprus. Whole-rock and electron microprobe analyses of this mineralization gives ranges of Cu/(Cu+Ni)=0.16 to 0.47, Pt/(Pt+Pd)=0.66 to 0.51, Ni/Co=6.33 to 13.4, and chondrite normalized plots with low concentrations of Rh, Pt, and Pd, but relatively high Au. Estimated distribution coefficients of nickel and iron between olivine and ore range from 0.5 to 7.4. Most of these data are unlike values from magmatic sulfide deposits and indicate either a complete alteration of a preexisting magmatic sulfide concentration or, more likely, a nonmagmatic origin for this mineralization. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Magma system along fast-spreading centers controlled by ridge segmentation: Evidence from the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Sumio; Adachi, Yoshiko

    2013-04-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are segmented at various scales with a hierarchy, from the biggest 1st- order to the smallest 4th-order segments. These segment structures control magmatic processes beneath the mid-ocean ridges such as mantle upwelling, partial melting of the upper mantle, and magma delivery system to form the oceanic crust (Macdonald, 1998). However, systematic studies on the segment control for magmatic processes are rare at modern mid-ocean ridges due to the difficulty of obtaining in-situ samples from different crustal-lithospheric depths. Sampling at ocean floors is generally exclusively limited only to the surface (i.e. the seafloor). Furthermore, the samples obtained from the surface of the ocean floor may likely represent the products of off-axis magmatism (Kusano et al., 2012). Therefore, studies of ocean ridge segmentation in ophiolites provide important constraints for the magmatic processes beneath seafloor spreading centers, because the precise 3-D architecture of the upper mantle and the crust (all the way to the uppermost extrusive layer) and their lateral variations could be observed and investigated in ophiolites. We have studied the northern Oman ophiolite where a complete succession from the upper mantle peridotites to the uppermost extrusive rocks is well exposed. Miyashita et al. (2003), Adachi and Miyashita (2003) and Umino et al. (2003) proposed a segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite; the Wadi Fizh area is regarded as a northward propagating tip of a mid-ocean ridge based on geological evidence (Adachi and Miyashita. 2003). On the other hand, the Wadi Thuqbah area, about 25 km south of Wadi Fizh, is regarded as a segment center based on the thickest Moho transition zone, well developed EW-trending lineations in the MTZ and layered gabbro, and the comparatively primitive compositions of the layered gabbros. Furthermore, the southern margin of the Hilti block (Salahi block), about 40 km south of Wadi Thuqbah, is inferred to be the segment-end, based on the compositional variations within the sheeted dike complex (Miyashita et al., 2003). In this presentation, we document the occurrence of along-axis variations along the Moho transition zones, the wehrlite intrusions, the extrusive sequence and the upper gabbro unit, and discuss the significance of ridge segmentation as a major controlling factor of magmatic systems beneath mid-ocean ridges. Adachi, Y. and Miyashita, S., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8619, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000272. Kusano, Y., Adachi, Y., Miyashita, S. and Umino, S., 2012,Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 13, 2012 Q05012, doi:10.1029/2011GC004006. Macdonald, K. C., 1998, Geophys. Monograph, 106, 27-58. MacLeod, C. J. and Yaouancq, G., 2001, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 176, 357-373. Miyashita, S., Adachi, Y. and Umino. S., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8617, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000235. Umino, S., Miyashita, S., Hotta, F. and Adachi, Y., 2003, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8618, DOI 10.1029/2001GC000233.

  20. Strain localization and fluid infiltration during subduction initiation: the record from sheared mafic amphibolites at the base of the New Caledonian ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Monié, Patrick; Chauvet, Alain; Whitechurch, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Most of our knowledge on subduction inception and obduction processes comes from metamorphic soles structurally associated with peridotite tectonites at the base of many ophiolites, and from early-obduction, rarely deformed, magmatic dikes emplaced at different level of the mantle sequence. These dikes record a partial refertilization of obducted ophiolites through subduction-derived fluids. However, these dikes are rarely deformed and/or metamorphosed. Here, we study the base of the New Caledonian ophiolite, using a combination of structural field studies and petrological-geochemical-geochronological analysis, with the aim of linking deformation and metasomatism through fluid infiltration and recrystallization. We report the existence of strongly sheared mafic amphibolites within the base of the New Caledonian obducted ophiolite, ~ 50-100 m above the basal thrust contact and < 1000 m below the mantle-crust transition. These ~ N150-striking, hm-long and m- to several m-thick shear bands correspond to former small-scale intrusions (and surrounding peridotites), highly boudinaged and amphibolitized at high temperatures (750-800 °C), providing evidence that strain localized at the base of the ophiolite. Mafic protoliths of these amphibolites consisted of plagioclase and orthopyroxene (± olivine and calcic amphibole in places). We show that deformation is intimately associated to at least three major stages of fluid infiltration on mafic intrusions. The first stage of deformation and metasomatism coincides with amphibolitization and controlled the later channelization of fluids. The formation of calcic amphiboles records the percolation of Ca and Al-rich aqueous fluids. Amphibole-plagioclase geothermobarometry indicates high temperature and low pressure conditions (i.e. 750-800 °C; 3-5 kbar). Thermochronological data from hornblende (40Ar/39Ar) suggest that this deformation episode occurred at ~ 55 Ma, coinciding with E-dipping subduction initiation and incipient obduction. The main metasomatic stage is evidenced by a phlogopite-rich matrix wrapping peridotite and amphibolite boudins. The formation of phlogopite records the percolation of alkali-rich aqueous fluids at still high temperature (700-750 °C). The last metasomatic stage is characterized by infiltration of aqueous fluids at lower temperature (< 500 °C), in the stability field of talc, chlorite and serpentine, and results in the formation of deformed veinlets wrapping and cross-cutting peridotites boudins. This study documents a valuable record of refertilization (by successive fluid influx) and progressive deformation to better understang the mechanisms controlling subduction initiation and early obduction of the New Caledonian ophiolite.

  1. Modelling Chemical Diffusion with Extraction - Application to Observed Geochemical Gradients in the Trinity Ophiolite of Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsui, A. T.; Lundstrom, C. C.

    2002-12-01

    The Trinity Ophiolite contains numerous outcrops of dunite progressively surrounded by harzburgite, spinel lherzolite, and plagioclase lherzolite. The dunites are interpreted as pathways of focussed melt ascent with incompatible trace element contents decreasing closer to the dunite resulting from melt extraction (Kelemen et al. 1992); Lundstrom (Nature, 2000) has proposed that alkali elements diffuse from dunite into the surrounding peridotite increasing the degree of melting. Three dunite to plagioclase lherzolite transects in this ophiolite all show a trough in Li isotopic ratio as a function of distance away from dunite. Although a simple diffusion model accounting for the difference in the diffusion rates of 6Li and 7Li can explain the existence of the trough, it cannot explain the decreasing concentrations of many incompatible elements towards the dunite-harzburgite boundary. Explaining both the incompatible element profile and the Li isotope changes requires a combined model of diffusion and melt extraction. We developed a mathematical model to investigate the combined effect of diffusion and extraction. Here, a phenomenological model with an extraction strength decreasing away from the ascending magma is used to simulate the extraction effects. Consequently, extraction becomes a compositional sink with a parameterised and spatially varying strength. Based on fluid dynamic considerations, an exponentially decaying sink appears appropriate, and the effects of different extraction models can be examined by simply varying the exponent of the sink function. To account for the isotopic fractionation and extraction simultaneously, diffusion of the Li isotopes must be treated as a coupled system to be solved numerically. Our results show that a coupled diffusion and extraction model is able to account for the observed trough in Li isotopic ratio and the decreasing incompatible element concentrations closer to the dunite. The model also produces a slightly higher 7Li to 6Li ratio on the far side of the trough. This occurs due to a reversal in diffusion direction in response to the Li extraction. Unfortunately, existing data cannot resolve this feature at the present time.

  2. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic time.

  3. Modeling a CO2 mineralization experiment of fractured peridotite from the Semail ophiolite/ Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Nadja; Zhang, Guoxiang; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris; Ten Grotenhuis, Saskia; Hoedeman, Gerco

    2010-05-01

    Most geologic CO2 sequestration technologies focus on sedimentary rocks, where the carbon dioxide is stored in a fluid phase. A possible alternative is to trap it as a mineral in the subsurface (in-situ) in basaltic or even (ultra)mafic rocks. Carbon dioxide in aqueous solution reacts with Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-bearing silicate minerals, precipitates as (MgCa,Fe)CO3 (carbonate), and can thus be permanently sequestered. The cation donors are silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene which are abundant in (ultra)mafic rocks, such as peridotite. Investigations are underway to evaluate the sequestration potential of the Semail Ophiolite in Oman, utilizing the large volumes of partially serpentinized peridotite that are present. Key factors are the rate of mineralization due to dissolution of the peridotite and precipitation of carbonate, the extent of the natural and hydraulic fracture network and the accessibility of the rock to reactive fluids. To quantify the influence of dissolution rates on the overall CO2 mineralization process, small, fractured peridotite samples were exposed to supercritical CO2 and water in laboratory experiments. The samples are cored from a large rock sample in the dimension of small cylinders with 1 cm in height and diameter, with a mass of ~2g. Several experimental conditions were tested with different equipment, from large volume autoclave to small volume cold seal vessel. The 650 ml autoclave contained 400-500g of water and a sample under 10 MPa of partial CO2 pressure up to 150. The small capsules in the cold seal vessel held 1-1.5g of water and the sample under CO2 partial pressure from 15MPa to 70 MPa and temperature from 60 to 200°C. The samples remained for two weeks in the reaction vessels. In addition, bench acid bath experiments in 150 ml vials were performed open to the atmosphere at 50-80°C and pH of ~3. The main observation was that the peridotite dissolved two orders of magnitude slower in the high pressure and temperature cell of the cold seal vessel than comparative experiments in large volume autoclaves and bench acid bath vials under lower and atmospheric pressure conditions. We attributed this observation to the limited water availability in the cold seal vessel, limiting the aqueous reaction of bi-carbonate formation and magnesite precipitation. To test this hypothesis, one of the cold seal vessel experiments at 20 MPa and 100°C was simulated with a reactive transport model, using TOUGHREACT. To simulate the actual experimental conditions, the model used a grid on mm and 100's of ?m scale and a fractured peridotite medium with serpentine filling the fractures. The simulation produced dissolution comparable to the experiment and showed an effective shut down of the bi-carbonation reaction within one day after the start of the experiment. If the conditions of limited water supply seen in our experiments are applicable in a field setting, we could expect dissolution may be limited by the buffering of the pH and shut down of the bi-carbonate formation. Under field conditions water and CO2 will only flow in hydraulic induced fractures and the natural fracture network that is filled with serpentine and some carbonate. The simulation result and potential implication for the field application will require further experimental investigation in the lab or field in the future.

  4. Tectonic mélanges and the exhumation of HP ophiolites: a case-study from the Ligurian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Laura; Crispini, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Capponi, Giovanni; Malatesta, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Mélanges form in a variety of geodynamic settings and can be related to either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric processes, or a combination of them. We studied in detail a 100 m-scale tectonic mélange formed in the context of the alpine subduction/collision and we tested if the local-scale pattern could be applicable at larger scale in the Ligurian Western Alps. The studied mélange crops out inside metamorphic serpentinites belonging to the high-pressure (HP), meta-ophiolitic Voltri Massif (southern end of the Western Alps). It is made up of a foliated chlorite-actinolite greenschist matrix enclosing 10m-scale lenses of metabasites and metasediments. These blocks appear to be exotic because similar rocks do not outcrop in the surrounding HP-units. The matrix records three sets of superposed folds from blueschist to greenschist-facies conditions. The metabasite lenses preserve internal HP schistosities forming high angles with the greenschist matrix foliation. The lenses equilibrated at different peak metamorphic conditions (ranging from eclogite- to blueschist-facies). The matrix is widely retrogressed in greenschist facies, but it contains rare relics of Na-amphibole. Individual lenses display different segments of typical subduction PT paths which apparently converge in the blueschist facies. Moreover, geochronological data for the different HP blocks show that two undistinguishable blueschist samples display distinct peak ages of 43 and 40 Ma. One blueschist age is contemporaneous with the eclogitic equilibration of another block (43.2 ± 0.5 Ma) (Federico et al., 2007). The described structural, metamorphic and geochronological features suggest that this mélange formed at depth in a subduction channel and was active at least from blueschist- to greenschist-facies conditions, but possibly also at higher pressures. The subduction channel formed between the overriding and the subducting plates, as a consequence of progressive hydration of the mantle wedge by fluids released from the slab (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002). Here a forced flow inside serpentinites sampled different HP lenses from different depths and forced them to flow towards surface. The pattern of the studied mélange could be applicable at larger scale in the Ligurian Alps, where various HP units may be larger-scale equivalents of blocks, and may have been exhumed in a subduction channel inside serpentinites. Different units of the Voltri massif display metamorphic peaks at conditions ranging from eclogite- to blueschist-facies and available geochronological constraints reveal the heterogeneous timing of eclogite- facies metamorphic re-equilibrations (Federico et al., 2005; Rubatto & Scambelluri, 2003). However, pervasive retrograde - stage tectonics and greenschist imprint (Capponi & Crispini, 2002) mask structural relationships among units acquired at high pressure conditions. As a consequence, we discuss formation of the studied mélange and the feasibility of the subduction channel mode of exhumation at larger scale, in the Voltri massif, as already invoked for the Monviso Massif of the Western Alps (Guillot et al., 2004). Capponi, G., Crispini, L. - 2002 - Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, v. 95, 31-42. Federico, L., Capponi, G., Crispini, L., Scambelluri, M., & Villa, I.M. - 2005 - EPSL, 240, 668-680 Federico L., Crispini L., Scambelluri M. & Capponi G. - Geology, 35 (6), 499 - 502. Gerya, T.V., Stockhert, B. & Perchuk, A.L. - 2002 - Tectonics, 21(6), 1056. Guillot, S., Schwartz, S., Hattori, K., Auzende, A.L. & Lardeaux, J.M. - 2004 - in Beltrando, M., Lister, G., Ganne, J., and Boullier, A., eds., Evolution of the western Alps: Insights from metamorphism, structural geology, tectonics and geochronology, Journal of the Virtual Explorer, Electronic Edition, ISSN 1441-8142, v. 16, Paper 3. Rubatto D., Scambelluri M. - 2003 - Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 146 (3), 341- 355.

  5. Initiating intermediate-depth earthquakes: Insights from a HP-LT ophiolite from Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.

    2014-10-01

    The hypocentres of intermediate-depth earthquakes have been shown to overlap with the regions in subducting slabs that contain high abundances of hydrous minerals. This relationship was initially revealed using geophysical and numerical modelling and until recently has lacked corroboration from direct field-based research. We evaluated the relationship of the coincidence of intermediate-depth earthquakes with hydrous minerals in the slab by undertaking detailed geochemical analyses of blueschist to lawsonite to eclogite facies pseudotachylytes and their hostrocks located within an exhumed ophiolite, the Eocene Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica. These units comprise incompletely metamorphosed metagabbro and peridotite. The wallrocks of the pseudotachylytes contain variable amounts of hydrous minerals: tremolite, Mg-hornblende, glaucophane in the metagabbro, and serpentine, tremolite and chlorite in the peridotite. Back-scatter-electron images show that the hydrous minerals entrained in the melt undergo fusion rather than dehydration. Vesicular and H2O-rich melt veins are observed cross-cutting partially molten pseudotachylyte fault veins and show evidence of H2O exsolution during melt solidification. The crystallisation products of these melts indicate formation under high temperature, high pressure conditions (1400-1700 °C; 1.5 GPa). The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes crystallised olivine, orthopyroxene and diopside, which are surrounded by interstitial Al- and H2O-rich glass. The metagabbro pseudotachylyte is dominated by Al-rich omphacite, ilmenite and high-Fe anorthite. XRF bulk analyses of the wallrock of the pseudotachylyte and electron microprobe analyses of the pseudotachylyte matrix, entrained survivor clasts and the crystallisation products show that near-total disequilibrium melting took place. The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylyte composition is skewed strongly towards chlorite; however, the preservation of delicate dendritic diopside and olivine hopper crystals suggests that the pseudotachylyte is unaltered, indicating that preferential fusion of chlorite took place. The metagabbro-hosted pseudotachylyte matrix composition is very similar to the bulk wallrock composition but slightly skewed by the preferential melting of Mg-hornblende and tremolite. Not all the pseudotachylytes are hydrous as the H2O content of the melts is highly variable; the metagabbro-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 4 wt.% and the peridotite-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 14 wt.%. The range in H2O content of the pseudotachylytes has lead us to conclude that the localised dehydration of hydrous minerals may be a second order factor in initiating intermediate-depth seismicity. However, we have observed that the pseudotachylytes with the most chaotic vein networks, thickest fault veins and most comminuted material have the highest abundances of hydrous wallrock minerals, possibly owing to repeated fluid ingress in between pseudotachylyte-generating events. This implies that free fluids enhance pseudotachylyte generation and possibly seismicity, but are not a first order requirement. Microtextural and geochemical results from this study suggest that the presence of abundant H2O-rich minerals in the slab exerts a strong rheological control during high strain-rate deformation, facilitating thermally-triggered localising shear instabilities. These field-based observations allow us to explore the assumption of the causal link between slab hydration and earthquake nucleation, and offer fresh insight into the debate of how intermediate-depth earthquakes take place.

  6. Peridote-water interaction generating migration pathways of H2-rich fluids in subduction context: Common processes in the ophiolites of Oman, New-Caledonia, Philippines and Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Deville; A. Prinzhofer; D. Pillot; C. Vacquand; O. Sissmann

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of H2 flows which were punctually known notably in the ophiolites of Oman, Zambales (Philippines) and Antalya (Turkey) appears to be a widespread phenomenon in these major peridotite massifs associated with ancient or active subduction processes. Similar H2-rich gas flows have been discovered also in the peridotite of New-Caledonia. H2 concentrations are locally high (commonly 60 to90% in

  7. Jurassic formation and Eocene subduction of the Zermatt–Saas-Fee ophiolites: implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Central and Western Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Rubatto; Dieter Gebauer; Mark Fanning

    1998-01-01

    The Zermatt–Saas-Fee ophiolites (ZSFO) are one of the best preserved slices of eclogitic oceanic crust in the Alpine chain.\\u000a They formed during the opening of the Mesozoic Tethys and underwent subduction to HP\\/UHP conditions during Alpine compression. A cathodoluminescence-based ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of different zircon domains\\u000a from metagabbros and oceanic metasediments was carried out to constrain the timing of

  8. Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implication for fluid interaction in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.

    2014-11-01

    The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of the Neoproterozoic. This juvenile crust is composed of intra-oceanic island arc/back arc basin complexes and micro-continents welded together along sutures as the Mozambique Ocean was closed. Some of these sutures are marked by ophiolite decorated linear belts. The Sol Hamed ophiolite (808 ± 14 Ma) in southeastern Egypt at the Allaqi-Heiani-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu arc-arc suture represents an uncommon example of rocks that might be less deformed than other ophiolites in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In order to understand fluid-rock interactions before and during arc-arc collision, petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies were applied to the Sol Hamed serpentinized ophiolitic mantle fragment. These studies reveal that the protolith had a harzburgite composition that probably originated as forearc mantle in the subducted oceanic slab. We propose that these rocks interacted with Ti-rich melts (boninite) in suprasubduction zone, which latter formed the Sol Hamed cumulates. Spinel's Cr# associated with the whole rock V-MgO composition suggest that the harzburgites are highly refractory residues after partial melting up to 29%. The melt extraction mostly occurred under reducing conditions, similar to peridotites recovered from the subducted lithosphere. Protolith alteration resulted from two stages of fluid-rock interaction. The first stage occurred as a result of infiltration of concentrated CO2-rich fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The alteration occurred during isobaric cooling at a pressure of 1 kbar. The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of fluid-rock interactions took place through prograde metamorphism. The increase in pressure during this stage occurred as a result of thrusting within the oceanic crust. In this process the forearc crust was loaded by roughly 20-30 km of overthrust rocks.

  9. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.

    2014-12-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological study as well as resource exploration.

  10. Eclogitic breccia from the Monviso ophiolite complex: new field and petrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Michele; Verlaguet, Anne; Federico, Laura; Agard, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The Monviso meta-ophiolite complex (Northern Italy, Western Alps) represents a coherent portion of oceanic lithosphere metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during the Alpine orogeny (2.6 GPa - 550°C, Lago Superiore Unit, Angiboust et al., 2011), and exhibits from bottom to top a thick serpentinite sole locally capped by metasediments, Mg-Al-rich metagabbros, then Fe-Ti-metagabbros capped by metabasalts. This section is disrupted by three main shear zones. Our study focusses on the Lower Shear Zone (LSZ), situated between the serpentinite sole (to the East) and the Mg-metagabbro bodies (to the West), and composed of blocks of both Fe-Ti and Mg-Al metagabbros embedded in a talc and tremolite-rich serpentinite matrix. Among these blocks, some were described as eclogitic breccias and interpreted as the result of a seismic rupture plane (Angiboust et al., 2012). These breccias correspond to blocks of Fe-Ti-metagabbros that were brecciated in eclogitic facies conditions (as attested by the omphacite + garnet ± lawsonite cement of the breccia) in a fluid-rich environment, as suggested by the abundance of lawsonite in the cement. Here we present new field data on the distribution and petrographic characterization of these eclogitic blocks in the LSZ. The aim of this work is twofold: (I) detailed mapping of the eclogitic block distribution along the LSZ, in order to determine precisely the extent and representativity of the breccias and (II) characterization of the brecciated blocks, at the outcrop scale, to explore the brecciation processes and structures. Between Pian del Re and Colle di Luca localities, the occurrence of eclogite blocks is uniform along the strike of the shear-zone, resulting in a 16 km-long belt of outcropping eclogitic bodies embedded in serpentinite matrix. The shear-zone width, by contrast, varies from 1.3 km to 0.8 km. Three types of eclogitic blocks can be distinguished: (1) intact (i.e., not brecciated) blocks of Fe-Ti-metagabbros restricted to the lower part of the shear zone, close to the serpentinite sole; (2) numerous brecciated Fe-Ti-metagabbros scattered in the intermediate to upper levels of the LSZ; (3) blocks showing compositional variations and complex structures, with boudins of intact Fe-Ti-metagabbros embedded in highly foliated and folded Mg-rich rocks bounded on one side by Fe-Ti-breccia planes. In some cases the full transition from intact to highly brecciated rock is recorded in the same block. Here, the contacts between intact metagabbros and breccia are characterized by about 1m-wide zones of non rotated clasts with diameter up to 80 cm, almost matrix-absent. The amount of matrix vs clast increases, associated with a reduction in the clast size and increasing clast rotation, over a few meters up to the end of the bodies. These particular blocks give us a unique opportunity to better characterize the brecciation processes. Different kinds of measurements were realized on the brecciated blocks: (1) block size, (2) clasts vs. matrix relative volumetric abundances, (3) dimension and shape ratio of clasts, and angle of misorientation between their elongation axis or internal foliations (for five selected blocks). Preliminary results show that the majority (82%) of mapped blocks have a diameter of less than 10 meters, with only 8% being larger than 20 meters. In the brecciated Fe-Ti gabbros the average content of matrix is 28%, while for blocks showing compositional variation it varies from zero to 30%. The angle of misorientation between clasts' foliation shows, instead, a chaotic distribution. Preliminary field data thus demonstrate that breccia blocks have to be considered as a constant feature along the LSZ rather than as an exception, and that further work is needed to determine whether they formed through pervasive brecciation (and potentially multiple events) or through a localized event and were later disrupted by ductile deformation along the LSZ.

  11. Evidence for the formation of boninitic melt in the base of the Salahi mantle section, the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Y.; Takazawa, E.

    2013-12-01

    The boninites in the Oman ophiolite occur as lavas and dikes of the Alley volcanic sequence (Ishikawa et al., 2002). Moreover, Yamazaki and Miyashita (2008) reported about boninitic dike swarms in the Fizh crustal section. The boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high temperature and low pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic lithosphere, which previously experienced MORB melt extraction. In this study, we report an ultramafic complex mainly composed of dunite which is in equilibrium with chemical composition of boninites in the southwestern part of the Salahi mantle section in the northern Oman ophiolite. Based on the study by Nomoto and Takazawa (2013) the complex consists mainly of massive dunite associated with minor amounts of harzburgite, pyroxenites and wehrlite. We use spinel Cr# (=Cr/[Cr+Al] atomic ratio) as an indicator of extent of melt extraction in harzburgites. For dunites spinel Cr# varies as a function of extent of reaction and of melt composition (Dick and Bullen, 1984; Arai, 1994; Ozawa, 2008). The spinels in the dunites from the complex have Cr# greater than 0.7 indicating highly refractory signature. The range of spinel Cr# is similar to those of spinels in boninites reported worldwide (Umino, 1986; van der Laan et al., 1992; Sobolev and Danyushevsky, 1994; Ishikawa et al., 2002). The complex might be a section of dunite channel that formed by flux melting of harzburgites as a result of infiltration of a voluminous fluid from the basal thrust. We determined the abundances of rare earth elements (REE) in the peridotite clinopyroxenes (cpxs) by LA-ICP-MS to estimate the compositions of the melts in equilibrium with these clinopyroxenes. The chondrite-normalized patterns for clinopyroxenes in the dunites are characterized by enrichments in light REE (LREE) relative to those of the harzburgite clinopyroxenes. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the calculated melts in equilibrium with clinopyroxenes in the dunites do not resemble to the pattern of N-MORB (Sun and McDonought, 1989) but fit very well to the patterns of the boninites (Cameron et al., 1983; Cameron, 1985; Taylor et al., 1994; Ishikawa et al., 2005). With increasing the spinel Cr# from harzburgite to dunite, the Yb content of clinopyroxenes decreases whereas the Ce content increases. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of clinopyroxenes in dunites indicate that the dunites are not a residue of closed system melting but a product of open system melting with addition of a LREE-enriched fluid. Our results supports a hypothesis that the dunites formed as residue after flux melting of harzburgite accompanied with LREE-enriched fluid infiltrated from the base of the ophiolite. The pyroxenites frequently occur in the periphery of the voluminous dunite mass. These pyroxenites were considered as crystal cumulates from the boninitic melt.

  12. Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene Hekimhan Basin (Central Eastern Turkey) as a supra-ophiolite sedimentary/magmatic basin related to the later stages of closure of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Matthew G.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Tasli, Kemal; ?nan, Nurdan

    2014-11-01

    The Hekimhan Basin is here put forward as a type example of a globally important class of basin, known as a supra-ophiolite basin. Such basins form after the emplacement of ophiolitic (i.e. oceanic) rocks onto a passive continental margin, but long prior to continental collision. The Hekimhan Basin developed as part of the northern margin of the Tauride microcontinent during the collision and suturing of two Neotethyan oceans to the north, namely the Inner Tauride Ocean and the ?zmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean. The basin records two main stages of tectonic development, during latest Cretaceous to Late Eocene time. The first phase of basin development during the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) began with the erosion of emplaced ophiolitic rocks, resulting in non-marine clastic sedimentation. Subsequently, the basin rapidly subsided, in response to inferred regional crustal extension, resulting in the deposition of hemipelagic marls and local sapropelic mudstones. The axial parts of the basin experienced alkaline, within-plate-type, basaltic volcanism. The Late Maastrichtian culminated in deposition of shallow-marine carbonates. Overlying Paleocene sediments are restricted to thin, localised, marine evaporates, associated with a low-angle unconformity. The second stage of basin development began during the Early Eocene with deposition of shallow-marine carbonates, coupled with localised basaltic volcanism, again of extensional type. The basin emerged during the Mid-Late Eocene in a late-stage collisional to post-collisional setting. Compressional deformation largely reflects post-suture tightening. A short-lived marine transgression occurred during the Mid-Miocene. The basin was later deformed by both left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip. Several different tectonic models are considered, notably extension related to the northward pull of a still-subducting oceanic slab, and back-arc extension related to northward subduction of Neotethys (to the south). The first alternative is consistent with the development of adjacent supra-ophiolite basins (e.g. Ülük??la and Darende Basins), and also with supra-ophiolite basins elsewhere (e.g. SE Turkey; Balkans; Oman).

  13. Os Isotopic Composition and Highly Siderophile Elements: Tracers of Mantle Melting and Melt Percolation Processes (Voykar Complex, Polar Ural Ophiolites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanova, V.; Bruegmann, G.; Savelieva, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Voykar complex is located in the Northern part of the Uralian ophiolite belt and represents Early Devonian lithosphere formed in a suprasubduction environment (e. g. (1)). It is unique in that the mantle peridotites are very well preserved and virtually free of serpentine, and it provides excellent exposures. The mantle section of Voykar complex is composed of harzburgite which is intruded by numerous dunite and pyroxenite channels and contains chromitite ore deposits. The distribution of highly siderophile elements (HSE) in harzburgite and dunite channels can be explained by melt-peridotite reaction processes. The harzburgites (Cr/(Cr+Al) of cr-spinel = 0.3-0.4) show two types of HSE patterns. One is depleted in Pd, Pt and Re relatively to Os, Ir, Ru with (Pt/Ir)N=0.3, the second pattern is flat with (Pt/Ir)N=0.9. The first type of harzburgite has lower ratios of 187Os/188Os (0.1149) compared to the second (0.1236). Dunite and associated orthopyroxenite are significantly enriched in 187Os (187Os/188Os=0.1279 - 0.1327), hence shifted towards lava compositions. Their HSE patterns also show the influence of mantle melts, because they are enriched in Pd ((Pt/Ir)N=5-6). The clinopyroxenite has the highest ratio of 187Os/188Os up to 32.38 and shows even stronger depletion of Os, Ir, Ru relative to Pt, Pd, Re ((Pt/Ir)N=20). They could represent crystallization products of percolating melts. Chromitites have variable 187Os/188Os=0.1244-0.1352, and their HSE concentrations overlap with the range observed in chromitites world-wide. Osmium isotope data show evidence for at least two significant events in the magmatic history of the Voykar ophiolite mantle section: an ancient (2.1-1.9 Ga) melting event formed the depleted spinel harzburgite; a younger melt percolation event (0.6-0.5 Ga) led to the formation of pyroxenite veins, dunite channels and chromitites. The age of melt percolation events based on Os isotopic data coincides with the U-Pb age of zircons found in chromitites (2). The conservation of old ages (older than 1.9 Ga) in mantle sections more recently infiltrated by mantle melts indicate the long-time preservation of local-scale (less than100 m) isotope heterogeneities. References: 1. G. N. Savelieva, R. W. Nesbitt, Journal of the Geological Society 153, 525 (1996). 2.G. N. Savelieva, P. V. Suslov, A. N. Larionov, N. G. Berejnaya, Doklady Akademii Nauk in press (2006).

  14. A Li Isotope Profile in a Dunite to Lherzolite Transect Within the Trinity Ophiolite: Evidence for Isotope Fractionation by Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, C. C.; Chaussidon, M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2001-12-01

    Recent experimental work suggests that alkali elements will diffuse from ascending magmas into surrounding peridotite wallrock due to gradients in alkali activities (Lundstrom, Nature, 2000). However, no observational evidence for this process occurring yet exists. In order to seek evidence for alkali diffusion as well as to test whether Li isotopes might be fractionated by diffusion, we have measured Li isotopes by ion microprobe (CRPG-Nancy) in ophiolite samples and piston cylinder experiments. Because geochemical signatures argue that dunites are former pathways of melt ascent (Kelemen et al., Nature,1995), Li isotope ratios were measured in clinopyroxenes as a function of distance from dunite in a transect of dunite to plagioclase lherzolite in the Trinity Ophiolite (northern CA; transect TP90-9, with a gradient in REE in CPX, Kelemen et al., Nature, 1992). 3-10 analyses were made on CPX from the same thin section at a given location producing external precision of \\sim2 \\permil. \\delta7Li is similar to MORB in the dunite (+4), decreases to lower values (0 to -5) for 1 m into the adjacent harzburgite, then increases back to positive values far from the dunite (5 to 12). Seawater has \\delta7Li =+30 so that alteration cannot account for the trough observed. The observed profile is consistent with a simple model of Li isotope fractionation by diffusion in which the 6Li melt diffusion coefficient is slightly greater than that of 7Li, reflecting the 16% mass difference in Li isotopes. Further profiles will be measured to determine if the trough observation is robust. A caveat is that the length scale of the \\delta7Li gradient is similar to the length scale of the REE gradient. If the \\delta7Li gradient is due to diffusion, then diffusivities of Li and REE are similar, or REE concentrations result from advective porous flow of melt. A piston cylinder experiment at 1250 C and 0.9 GPa simulated a melt conduit-harzburgite boundary by juxtaposing basanite enriched in 6Li with a harzburgite containing 20% melt for 7 minutes. The resulting Li isotopic profile is smooth and fit by DLi of 10-6 cm2/s. However, the steep portion of the curve is not centered at the original interface but significantly shifted into harzburgite portion of the experiment, consistent with 6Li diffusing faster than 7Li.

  15. Melt extraction and metasomatism recorded in basal peridotites above the metamorphic sole of the northern Fizh massif, Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masako; Python, Marie; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Takazawa, Eiichi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ueda, Akira; Sato, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    The Oman ophiolite is one of the best preserved sections of oceanic crust and upper mantle worldwide, and consists of multiple massifs that lie along more than 400 km of the Arabian coast. In the northernmost massifs, the oceanic crust preserves a record of polygenetic magmatism from mid-ocean ridge to subduction-related stages. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene (Cpx)-rich harzburgites of the Fizh block are located a few tens to a hundred meters above the metamorphic sole of the ophiolite and the geochemistry of these Cpx-rich peridotites provides evidence of a genetic link between oceanic crust and mantle. These Cpx-rich peridotites contain olivine with a restricted range of forsterite contents (90-91), but variable Cr-spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) values (0.12-0.33), suggesting that these Cpx-rich peridotites have undergone variable degrees of melt extraction. Cpxs within the Cpx-rich peridotites have chondrite-normalised trace element variation patterns that slope either gently or steeply between the heavy rare earth elements (REEs) and the middle REEs ((Sm/Yb)N = 0.08-0.55, where N chondrite-normalised) and are enriched in highly incompatible elements such as Rb, Ba and Nb. This Cpx chemistry can be explained by a polygenetic evolution whereby an initial 4-12% of melt was extracted from the depleted mantle source before this mantle was metasomatised by interaction with fluids derived from dehydration of the metamorphic sole during subduction initiation and obduction. A comparison between 143Nd/144Nd versus 147Sm/144Nd for Cpx in the Fizh basal Cpx-rich peridotites and a mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron for a gabbro from the same massif suggests a genetic link between crustal and mantle rocks in this area. In addition, Cpxs within the basal Cpx-rich peridotites have highly variable Sr isotopic compositions that are indicative of a significant contribution of seawater from the metamorphic sole, originally derived from subducted oceanic crustal material.

  16. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacuta, G.C., Jr.; Kay, R.W.; Gibbs, A.K.; Lipin, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in ore-grade concentration in some of the chromite deposits related to the ultramafic section of the Acoje Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex. The deposits are of three types: Type 1 - associated with cumulate peridotites at the base of the crust; Type 2 - in dunite pods from the top 1 km of mantle harzburgite; and Type 3 - like Type 2, but in deeper levels of the harzburgite. Most of the deposites have chromite compositions that are high in Cr with Cr/(Cr + Al) (expressed as chromium index, Cr#) > 0.6; high-Al (Cr# Pd, thought to be characteristic of PGE-barren deposits) and positive slope (Ir < Pd, characteristic of PGE-rich deposits). Iridium, Ru and Os commonly occur as micron-size laurite (sulfide) inclusions in unfractured chromite. Laurite and native Os are also found as inclusions in interstitial sulfides. Platinum and Pd occur as alloy inclusions (and possibly as solid solution) in interstitial Ni-Cu sulfides and as tellurobismuthides in serpentine and altered sulfides. Variability of PGE distribution may be explained by alteration, crystal fractionation or partial melting processes. Alteration and metamorphism were ruled out, because PGE contents do not correlate with degree of serpentinization or the abundance and type (hydroxyl versus non-hydroxyl) of silicate inclusions in chromite. Preliminary Os isotopic data do not support crustal contamination as a source of the PGEs in the Acoje deposits. The anomalous PGE concentrations in Type 1 high-Cr chromite deposits are attributed to two stages of enrichment: an early enrichment of their mantle source from previous melting events and a later stage of sulfide segregation accompanying chromite crystallization. High-Al chromite deposits which crystallized from basalts derived from relatively low degrees of melting owe their low PGE content to partitioning of PGEs in sulfides and alloys that remain in the mantle. High-Cr deposits crystallized from melts that were previously enriched with PGEs during early melting events of their mantle source; Pt and Pd ore concentrations (ppm levels) are attained by segregation of magmatic sulfides. The Acoje deposits indicate that ophiolites are a potential economic source of the PGEs. ?? 1990.

  17. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg?1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg?1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg?1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  18. Tectonic Evolution of the Careón Ophiolite (Northwest Spain): A Remnant of Oceanic Lithosphere in the Variscan Belt.

    PubMed

    Díaz García F; Arenas; Martínez Catalán JR; González del Tánago J; Dunning

    1999-09-01

    Analysis of the Careón Unit in the Ordenes Complex (northwest Iberian Massif) has supplied relevant data concerning the existence of a Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere, probably related to the Rheic realm, and the early subduction-related events that were obscured along much of the Variscan belt by subsequent collision tectonics. The ophiolite consists of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite in the lower section and a crustal section made up of coarse-grained and pegmatitic gabbros. An Early Devonian zircon age (395+/-2 Ma, U-Pb) was obtained in a leucocratic gabbro. The whole section was intruded by numerous diabasic gabbro dikes. Convergence processes took place shortly afterward, giving rise to a mantle-rooted synthetic thrust system, with some coeval igneous activity. Garnet amphibolite, developed in metamorphic soles, was found discontinuously attached to the thrust fault. The soles graded downward to epidote-amphibolite facies metabasite and were partially retrogressed to greenschist facies conditions. Thermobarometric estimations carried out at a metamorphic sole (T approximately 650 degrees C; P approximately 11.5 kbar) suggested that imbrications developed in a subduction setting, and regional geology places this subduction in the context of an early Variscan accretionary wedge. Subduction and imbrication of oceanic lithosphere was followed by underthrusting of the Gondwana continental margin. PMID:10504137

  19. Shallow intrusive directions of sheeted dikes in the Troodos ophiolite: Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and structural data

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Gee, J.; Tauxe, L. (Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Varga, R.J. (College of Wooster, OH (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Sheeted dikes play a central role in the formation of oceanic crust. It is commonly assumed that sheeted dikes intrude vertically upward, from elongated mid-ocean ridge (MOR) magma chambers, but there are no direct observational data bearing on this hypothesis. This assumption contrasts with the intrusive behavior of subaerial volcanoes where magmas rise into shallow central magma chambers that laterally feed vertically oriented dikes. The authors have studied intrusive directions of sheeted dikes in a structural analogue to oceanic crust, the Troodos ophiolite. Structural and magnetic fabric data of 65 dikes provide consistent results and suggest a broad distribution of shallow (< 20[degree]) to nearly vertical, upward magma-transport directions. These data suggest that horizontal emplacement has to be considered for sheeted dikes at MORs, implying more centralized MOR plumbing systems than previously thought. Such plumbing systems provide ample opportunity for complex mixing, fractionation, and contamination of MOR lavas in magma chambers and tabular magma-storage volumes. Whether the MOR magma supply is linear or centralized also has a fundamental effect on crustal accretion processes and the geometry of hydrothermal convection systems.

  20. Strontium isotopes in the rocks of the ophiolite complex in the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia)

    SciTech Connect

    Plyusnin, G.S.; Kuz'min, M.I.; Sandimirova, G.P.; Zonenshayn, L.P.

    1980-08-01

    The distribution of strontium isotopes has been examined in a section through the ophiolite complex of the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia). The basal parts of the complex consist of apo-dunites (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr = 0.7118 - 0.7124), and higher up in the section there are pyroxenites (0.7064 - 0.7095) and gabbros (0.7034-0.7065). The upper parts of the complex consist of pillow lavas (0.7068-0.7071), the conduits for which were a series of laminar dikes (0.7057-0.7087). An analysis of petrological and geochemical information with a selection of isotope data suggests that during the formation of the rocks of the Khan-Tayshiri Complex, three components, different in nature and chemical composition, were involved: the remains of the Earth's protolithosphere in the form of apo-dunites, a mantle quartz-tholeiite magma, and seawater. Variations in the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio are associated both with the isotope composition of the original magma, and also with the conditions of its emplacement. The ultrabasic rocks are regarded as relicts of the ancient ultrabasic layer or protolithosphere of the Earth.

  1. Formation of anorthosite-Gabbro rhythmic phase layering: an example at North Arm Mountain, Bay of Isands ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.; Elthon, D.

    1990-01-01

    Rhythmically layered anorthosite and gabbro are exposed in a 4-10-m thick interval at the base of the layered gabbro unit on North Arm Mountain, one of four massifs that compose the Bay of Islands ophiolite, Newfoundland. The rhythmically layered interval is sandwiched between thick layers of adcumulate to orthocumulate uniform gabbro. Calculated fractional crystallization paths and correlated cryptic variation patterns suggest that uniform and rhythmically layered gabbros represent 20-30% in situ crystallization of two distinct magma batches, one more evolved and the other more primitive. When the more primitive magma entered the crystallization site of the NA300-301 gabbros, it is estimated to have been ~40??C hotter than the resident evolved magma, and may have been chilled by contact with a magma chamber margin composed of uniform gabbro. In this model, chilling caused the liquid to become supercooled with respect to plagioclase nucleation temperatures, resulting in crystallization of gabbro deficient in plagioclase relative to equilibrium cotectic proportions. Subtraction of a plagioclase-poor melagabbro enriched the liquid in normative plagioclase, which in turn led to crystallization of an anorthosite layer. -from Authors

  2. Magnetic properties of the Bay of Islands ophiolite suite and implications for the magnetization of oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, B. Ann; Johnson, H. Paul

    1984-01-01

    Rock magnetic properties, opaque mineralogy, and degree of metamorphism were determined for 101 unoriented samples from the North Arm and Blow-Me-Down massifs of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex, Newfoundland. The weathered and metamorphosed extrusive basalt samples have a weak, secondary magnetization arising from oxidation and exsolution of ilmenite of unknown origin. The initial magnetization of the underlying sheeted dike complex appears to have been destroyed by hydrothermal alteration soon after formation. The magnetic intensity of the gabbroic samples increases as the degree of alteration increases, with the highly altered upper metagabbros having an average intensity of 3×10?3 emu/c3. Because magnetization of the metagabbro samples is related to nonpervasive, variable alteration, these crustal units are unlikely to make a significant contribution to lineated magnetic anomalies. A compilation of our results and other studies suggests a model in which oceanic crust magnetization results from an upper extrusive basalt source layer, roughly 600 m thick, with no contribution from a deeper source layer recognizable from these Bay of Islands data.

  3. Supra-subduction and abyssal mantle peridotites of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Initiation of Franciscan subduction along a large-offset fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. H.; Shervais, J. W.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) of California is one of the most extensive tracts of oceanic crust preserved in the Cordillera, but its origin has long remained controversial. We present here new data on mineral compositions in mantle peridotites that underlie crustal sections of ophiolite, and show that these are dominantly refractory harzburgites related to high apparent melting in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) setting. Abyssal peridotite occurs at one location, Stonyford, in the CRO where it is associated with SSZ mantle peridotite and volcanic rocks with both oceanic and arc-like geochemistry. SSZ mantle peridotites are associated with crustal sections containing arc-related volcanics, including boninites. This convergence between conclusions based on crustal lithologies and their underlying mantle sections confirms previous proposals that link the CRO to SSZ processes, and seriously undermines hypotheses that call on formation of the ophiolite at a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. We also report on the radiogenic isotope characteristics of peridotite clinopyroxenes. Based on the Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions and estimated temperatures, we suggest that the abyssal peridotite block represents a remnant of large-offset transform oceanic lithosphere at >172 Ma. East-dipping, proto-Franciscan subduction is likely to have been initiated along this fault zone, which produced the supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites in the CRO. We propose that the remnant abyssal peridotites represent a snapshot of the mantle wedge composition prior to overprinting of large sectors by hydrous melting during the subsequent subduction-controlled SSZ processes.

  4. Emplacement of serpentinites in the Chohar Gonbad-Gugher-Baft ophiolitic mélange, southeast Iran: examination of the mineral-chemical, petrologic, and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, N.; Ahmadipour, H.; Lentz, D. R.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.

    2015-05-01

    The Chohar Gonbad-Gugher-Baft ophiolite mélange, located along the major Baft and Shahr-e-Babak fault zones, southeast Iran, represents remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. This mélange contains blocks of harzburgite, dunite, lherzolite, basalt, and other ophiolite-related lithologies tectonically mixed with and embedded in a serpentinite matrix. Field, petrographic, and geochemical data show that peridotites in this mélange belong to the upper mantle. They seem to have undergone up to ~20 % partial melting in a supra-subduction zone setting, based on their spinel Cr# values (0.21-0.53). Chemical compositions and textures in the serpentinites indicate that they were partially hydrated during emplacement and further mobilized diapirically to the surface. The different deformation stages occurred in an accretionary wedge environment. Petrographic evidence shows that the first serpentinization event produced mesh-textured serpentinites formed under static conditions in an ocean floor environment (Nain-Baft ocean crust), where the initial lizardite, bastite, and chrysotile veins formed. Plastic deformation occurred due to the subduction of Nain-Baft oceanic lithospheric beneath the central Iranian microcontinent, with antigorite-bearing flare-textured serpentinites produced. During progressive exhumation of the Nain-Baft ophiolite mélange, the serpentinites were affected by ductile, ductile-brittle, and brittle deformation, respectively. Accretion and resultant diapirism are the most important processes in the emplacement of serpentinite, which is a consequence of hydration of the ocean crust. In this example, late-stage emplacement via thrusting occurred along the northern extent of the southern Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (S-SZ).

  5. Rheic Ocean ophiolitic remnants in southern Iberia questioned by SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages on the Beja-Acebuches amphibolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, A.; Rubatto, D.; Simancas, J. F.; GonzáLez Lodeiro, F.; MartíNez Poyatos, D.; MartíN Parra, L. M.; Matas, J.

    2008-10-01

    The Rheic Ocean was a major oceanic domain between Avalonia and Gondwana in Ordovician-Silurian times. Most of the Paleozoic plate reconstructions assume that the Rheic Ocean suture lies within southern Iberia, coinciding with the contact between the South Portuguese Zone and the Ossa-Morena Zone. This paper reports four Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro-Probe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon ages from mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-featured rocks of the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit, which crops out along the boundary between the Ossa-Morena and the South Portuguese Zone, and is considered its most conspicuous suture unit. The obtained ages range from 332 ± 3 to 340 ± 4 Ma, corresponding to the crystallization of the mafic protoliths. These Early Carboniferous ages for the Beja-Acebuches amphibolites imply that this unit can no longer be viewed as an ophiolite belonging to the Rheic Ocean suture, since this oceanic domain was presumably closed in Devonian times. Tectonic reconstructions joining in a single suture line the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit in southern Iberia to either the Devonian Lizard ophiolite in southern England or the root zone of the Devonian/Ordovician ophiolitic units in northwest Iberia must be therefore reconsidered because of the age difference. We interpret the Beja-Acebuches Amphibolite unit to represent a narrow and very ephemeral realm of oceanic-like crust that opened in Early Carboniferous times, after total consumption of the Rheic Ocean. We suggest that a mantle plume underneath southern Iberia in Early Carboniferous times is the most plausible large-scale geodynamic scenario for the formation of these MORB-featured rocks.

  6. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, A.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2015-06-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin. This piggy-back basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units. The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (caotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group. The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ∼ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during of shortly after the emplacement of the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc onto the continental margin.

  7. The Relationships of Plate Triple-junction Evolution, Trench-Arc Lengthening, Boninite Generation, and SSZ Spreading Centers to Ophiolite Formation, High-Temperature Soles, and Obduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J.; Dewey, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A review of modern-day island arcs, the locations of boninite eruptions, the conditions necessary for hot upper plate spreading, potential regions of shallow SSZ flux melting, and formation of high-temperature metamorphic soles along the subduction channels indicates that many future, recent and ancient large slab ophiolite obduction events can be related to triple junctions that link SSZ spreading centers with trenches. These subduction systems leading to large slab ophiolite obduction events typically face stable continental margins. Boninitic melt generation requires hydrous melting of refractory mantle peridotite under an extremely high-temperature and low-pressure condition. This condition is generally explained by the addition of slab-derived fluids into a hot young oceanic mantle asthenosphere and lithosphere, which previously likely experienced melt extraction. Metamorphic conditions associated with metamorphic soles formation likewise require a hot upper plate lithosphere that, based on sole protolith, geochronologic and thermochronologic data, rapidly heats and then refrigerates and decompresses MORB-OIB type subcreted lithosphere. Numerous examples of present-day and recent SSZ spreading centers that link with two trenches or a trench and transform are considered ideal sites for ophiolite and boninite generation. The SZZ fore-arc spreading centers that link to the trench lines and triple junctions at the front of the arc may also continue towards the arc and back arc, creating no distinction between fore-arc and back-arc spreading episodes or to the transform-linked spreading centers from fore-arc to back arc. These SSZ spreading centers, which may be transiently produced during arc evolution over short or protracted time periods, act to open gaps in the arc massif and lengthen the trench, fore-arc and the arc crustal massif. They lead to an evolving arc magmatic front that begins in the infant fore-arc where ophiolite generation occurs at, near or in the trench, followed then by migration to sites distal from the trench line where a new arc massif is established on newly created oceanic lithosphere. Modern and ancient analogues of these setting are reviewed.

  8. Boron and oxygen isotope systematics for a complete section of oceanic crustal rocks in the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsubaya, Osamu; Ishiyama, Daizo; Nagaishi, Kazuya; Hiroyasu, Yuko; Chiba, Hitoshi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2012-05-01

    Boron content and the isotopic composition of boron and oxygen were determined for a complete 5.3-km-thick oceanic crust in the Wadi Fizh area of the Oman ophiolite, a fragment of Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the Arabian shield. The depth profiles of the ?18O values and the secondary mineral assemblages are consistent with successively higher temperature hydrothermal alterations occurring with increasing depth. The upper pillow basalts underwent low temperature alteration (<60 °C) or seafloor weathering (?18O > +10‰); the lower pillow basalts and upper sheeted dikes (<2000 m of stratigraphic depth) were altered at 250-350 °C at the spreading axis and subsequently experienced retrograde alteration (<200 °C) in the flank provinces (?18O = +6‰ to +10‰); the lowermost sheeted-dike complex and upper gabbros underwent high-temperature alteration at 300-450 °C (?18O < +6‰); the lower gabbros were altered at very high temperatures of >450 °C (?18O < +6‰). Plagiogranites from the uppermost gabbro section show exceptionally high ?18O values compared with the adjacent rocks, suggesting the production of 18O-enriched melt. The boron content of the rocks in the oceanic crust decreases in both abundance and range with increasing stratigraphic depth; 1.4-29.1 ?g/g in pillow lava (7.9 ?g/g on average), 1.5-11.6 ?g/g in sheeted dike complex (5.3 ?g/g on average), 1.6-5.0 ?g/g in dolerite dike in gabbro (2.9 ?g/g on average), 0.25-3.8 ?g/g in gabbro (1.3 ?g/g on average). Considering an original boron content of 0.72 ± 0.47 ?g/g for basalt and 0.06 ± 0.09 ?g/g for gabbro, boron from seawater was incorporated into the rocks through hydrothermal alteration, even at temperatures higher than 300 °C. The ?11B values systematically increase with stratigraphic depth; -1.1‰ to +11.9‰ in pillow lava (+5.5‰ on average), +1.1‰ to +17.5‰ in sheeted dike complex (+6.3‰ on average), +8.3‰ to +18.6‰ in dolerite dike in gabbro (+13.9‰ on average), +7.3‰ to +17.7‰ in gabbro (+12.0‰ on average). The whole-rock ?11B values negatively correlate with the ?18O values, suggesting that the ?11B values of altered rocks are essentially controlled by isotopic equilibrium with hydrothermal fluids, and the increase in the ?11B values is caused by a decrease in the rock-fluid boron isotopic fractionation factor with increasing alteration temperatures. The ?11B values estimated for hydrothermal fluids from rocks completely altered at 300-450 °C range from +28‰ to +33‰, values indistinguishable from those of vent fluids observed at modern mid-ocean ridges. The boron content of the bulk oceanic crust of the Oman ophiolite is estimated to be 3.6 ?g/g, and the ?11B value is estimated at +7.9‰. In contrast to previous views, the hydrothermally altered gabbro section is a large boron sink, accounting for ˜30% of the total boron in the oceanic crust with a high ?11B value of +13‰. This boron-enriched, high-?11B lower oceanic crust may impact estimates of the ?11B value of fluid liberated from the subducted oceanic slab, which is believed to largely control the ?11B value of arc magma generated in the mantle wedge.

  9. Local Os isotope mantle heterogeneities preserved during melt transport processes in supra-subduction mantle at Voikar Ophiolite (Polar Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanova, V.; Bruegmann, G.; Belousov, I.; Savelieva, G.; Sobolev, A.

    2008-12-01

    We report a detail study of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) and Re-Os isotopes of lithologies from the Voykar Ophiolite (Polar Urals) which formed in a suprasubduction tectonic environment. Our data suggest that refractory harzburgite exhausted by melting more than 2 Ga ago was then reactivated by suprasubduction melts at about 0.6 Ga. These melts have formed dunite reaction channels and pyroxenite veins and locally redistributed the HSE in the surrounding harzburgite. In dunite channels and pyroxenite veins numerous sulfide globules transported by silicate melts have been observed. These sulfide globules make up the HSE budget of the pyroxenites and they are characterized by low concentration of Os, Ir and Ru compared to Pt, Pd and Re. High Re abundance in the pyroxenite (up to 2 ppb) suggest contribution from subduction slab. HSE composition of dunites results from reaction between percolating melt and host peridotite. Close to the contact, residual peridotites become enriched in Pt, Pd and Re. But primary HSE features of the harzburgite, such as Pd, Pt, Re depletion relative to Ir, Os and Ru appear to be preserved in a distance of about 50 cm away from the contact with dunite channel. The more important that even ancient Os isotope signatures (2 Ga model ages) are preserved in the harzburgite at 50 cm from the contact with dunite. Also relatively small blocks of harzburgite relicts within network of replacive dunites preserve similar ancient Os isotope signatures. These suggest that local heterogeneity in HSE concentrations and Os isotopes in the convecting mantle could survive melting and focused melt transport events.

  10. Subsurface geometry of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault junction: influence of serpentinite and the Coast Range Ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Ponce, David A.; Graymer, Russell W.; Jachens, Robert C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    While an enormous amount of research has been focused on trying to understand the geologic history and neotectonics of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault (SAF-CF) junction, fundamental questions concerning fault geometry and mechanisms for slip transfer through the junction remain. We use potential-field, geologic, geodetic, and seismicity data to investigate the 3-D geologic framework of the SAF-CF junction and identify potential slip-transferring structures within the junction. Geophysical evidence suggests that the San Andreas and Calaveras fault zones dip away from each other within the northern portion of the junction, bounding a triangular-shaped wedge of crust in cross section. This wedge changes shape to the south as fault geometries change and fault activity shifts between fault strands, particularly along the Calaveras fault zone (CFZ). Potential-field modeling and relocated seismicity suggest that the Paicines and San Benito strands of the CFZ dip 65° to 70° NE and form the southwest boundary of a folded 1 to 3?km thick tabular body of Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) within the Vallecitos syncline. We identify and characterize two steeply dipping, seismically active cross structures within the junction that are associated with serpentinite in the subsurface. The architecture of the SAF-CF junction presented in this study may help explain fault-normal motions currently observed in geodetic data and help constrain the seismic hazard. The abundance of serpentinite and related CRO in the subsurface is a significant discovery that not only helps constrain the geometry of structures but may also help explain fault behavior and the tectonic evolution of the SAF-CF junction.

  11. Rare earth element evolution and migration in plagiogranites: a record preserved in epidote and allanite of the Troodos ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenburg, Michael; Katzir, Yaron; Rhede, Dieter; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Plagiogranites from the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus are occasionally epidotised, either partially or completely. Epidotisation phenomena include replacement of pre-existing minerals and filling of miarolitic cavities. In addition to epidote, miarolites in one plagiogranite body (located near the village of Spilia) contain coexisting ferriallanite-(Ce) and allanite-(Y). Textural and geochemical evidence indicates that late-stage REE-enriched granitic melt facilitated crystallisation of magmatic ferriallanite-(Ce). High REE contents persisted after fluid exsolution, causing crystallisation of allanite-(Y) from hydrothermal fluids in the miarolites. The REE pattern of the hydrothermal allanite-(Y) is characterised by LREE and Eu depletion, similar to the parent plagiogranitic magma. As allanite had sequestered most of the REE in the fluid, epidote took over as the principle hydrothermal mineral. Epidote in Troodos plagiogranites records a fluid evolutionary trend beginning with REE-rich-Eu-depleted similar to allanite-(Y) and gradually transforming into the REE-depleted-Eu-enriched pattern prevalent throughout `conventional' sub-seafloor fluids. A comparison of allanite-bearing and allanite-absent plagiogranites from the same locality suggests that REE-bearing fluids migrated from the plagiogranites. Similar fluid evolution trends observed in diabase-hosted epidote, located adjacent to a large plagiogranite body, suggest influx of plagiogranite-derived REE-bearing fluids. Epidotisation in oceanic settings is usually considered to be the result of alteration by high fluxes of seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids. Although epidotisation by magmatic fluids has been suggested to occur in plagiogranites, our study shows that this autometasomatic process is the dominant mechanism by which epidosites form in plagiogranites. Furthermore, epidotisation of diabase has been attributed solely to seawater-derived fluids, but we show that it is possible for diabase-hosted epidosites to form by migration of plagiogranite-derived fluids.

  12. Geology of the Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippine Islands: Ophiolite derived from an island arc-back arc basin pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, James W.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    The Zambales Range Ophiolite comprises peridotite, gabbro-norite, diabase dikes and sills, and a range of basaltic rock types including pillows, massive and brecciated rocks. The mafic and ultramafic section of the ophiolite is typical of other ophiolites and of rocks presumed to form oceanic crust and upper mantle. The peridotite is mainly saxonite, but extensive areas are underlain by dunite; it has been serpentinized to varied extent throughout all of the range. Chromite is an abundant constituent of the peridotite, and in many areas it forms very large concentrations, some of which are currently being mined. Clinopyroxene is a minor constituent in most of the peridotite mass, but locally there are occurrences of lherzolitic rocks. The entire peridotite mass shows effects of deformation at high temperature (e.g., >600°C) as well as widespread evidence for intense shearing and recrystallization at low temperature (e.g., 200-500°C) with the development of serpentine, talc, and amphibole on fault zones. We recognize two major blocks of crust and upper mantle, Acoje block and Coto block, which are distinguished on the basis of their crustal section thicknesses and on the geochemistry of the crust and mantle rocks. A thick zone (0.7-1.3 km) ofcumulate textured ultramafic rocks with varied amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene structurally overlies the peridotite of the Acoje block. This layered series also contains chromite and sulfide minerals; the layered series grades upward into gabbro-norite and plagioclase is a minor component of layered series rocks near the petrologic contact. The plutonic mafic rocks which overlie the layered ultramafic rocks of the Acoje block are mainly cumulate textured norite. Both massive and layered rocks are present; the layered units of the norite series include anorthosite, pyroxenite, olivine norite, and a wide range of norite varieties having variable proportions of the major minerals. Calcic amphibole is a minor late magmatic mineral. The upper levels of the Acoje block norite have quartz-rich norite and hypersthene quartz diorite layers and intrusive masses. An upper norite phase merges with massive and tabular (sill-dike) diabase and with a tonalite-trondhjemite series. The Coto block lacks the layered ultramafic series, and the mafic units are mainly gabbro. The Coto-layered gabbros include gabbroic anorthosite, pyroxenite, olivine gabbro, troctolite, allivalite, and some layers which are nearly anorthosite in compositions. Cumulate textures and both rhythmic and cryptic layering are present. Hypersthene is a very rare component of this series except as a reaction rim on olivine. Diabase and basaltic rocks structurally overlie both the norite and gabbro series. In many areas, such as on the Camiling and Moriones Rivers of the Coto block and on the Sual coast of the Acoje block, there are structural-textural gradations from plutonic to hypabyssal rocks. A similar gradation from the diabase sills-dikes to pillow basalts is well shown on the Camiling River, the North Balincaguin River (Acoje block) on the Bucao River (Coto block), and on the coast near Olongapo. Tonalite to trondhjemite rocks form fine grained dikes, medium grained plutonic intrusive masses and intrusion breccias of mafic blocks mixed with fine grained silicicmaterial. These rocks are exposed mainly near Barlo and in the Iba-Botolan area. The field relations indicate that they formed at the same time as the mafic units. Andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks formed a belt on the east side of the Zambales Range in late Tertiary and Quaternary time, but they are petrologically different as well as being exposed in features which obviously postdate the uplift of the range. Although the Zambales silicic rock series is exposed only in a few areas at present, it probably was originally of much greater extent and perhaps formed a carapace over much of the Acoje block. The chemistry and petrology of Acoje block rock units resemble arc-tholeiite series rocks from intraoceanic island arcs. Pillow basalts an

  13. Coesite and clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae in chromites: In-situ ultrahigh-pressure evidence from podiform chromitites in the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Hirose, Kei; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2009-05-01

    We report in-situ petrological evidence of deep mantle origin from podiform chromitites in the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. Analytical transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that chromites in podiform chromitites from the Luobusa ophiolite have numerous exsolution lamellae of diopsidic clinopyroxene and coesite, which indicate an ultrahigh-pressure origin of over 3 GPa (> 100 km deep). The presence of these lamellae, coupled with abundant micro-inclusions of clinopyroxene, requires high solubility of SiO 2 and CaO in the host chromite, and suggests a precursor of chromite, a CaFe 2O 4-structured high-pressure polymorph, stable at pressures over 12.5 GPa (> 380 km deep). These nano-scale observations and geological occurrence indicate that the mantle peridotite under the Tibetan mid-ocean ridge was transported from the deep mantle (at least 100 km, probably more than 380 km deep) by the mantle convection. It implies that the root of mantle upwelling has a much deeper origin than previously believed.

  14. Permeability of sheeted dykes beneath oceanic ridges: Strain experiments coupled with 3D numerical modeling of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Gabriel; Branquet, Yannick; Sizaret, Stanislas; Arbaret, Laurent; Champallier, Rémi; Rozenbaum, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Permeability laboratory measurements under in situ pressures, temperature and strain have been performed on three different diabase alteration facies (metadiabase, chloritized diabase, epidosite) from the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. This aims to study the relations between hydrodynamics, deformation and hydrothermal reaction in the sheeted dyke complex beneath oceanic ridges. The use of water as pore fluid in these experiments favors hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions. All experiments, performed with a Paterson gas-medium apparatus, were achieved at 400 °C, 100 MPa of confining pressure and 50 MPa of pore fluid pressure, conditions at the base of sheeted dykes. Permeability was measured by injection of water and argon before, during and after coaxial deformation. Resulting textures and mineralogy were studied by microscopy and X-ray microtomography in order to identify mineral reactions and to calculate the permeability by numerical simulation after decompression. During stress loading, a compaction/dilatant evolution is observed only in experiments on epidosite. Failure tends to increase permeability by one order of magnitude. For example, using water as pore fluid, permeability measurements after macroscopic failure give the following variations from 4 × 10- 20 m2 to 2.9 × 10- 19 m2 for metadiabase, 1 × 10- 20 m2 to 2.6 × 10- 19 m2 for chloritized diabase and 6.5 × 10- 19 m2 to 3 × 10- 18 m2 for epidosite. Textures suggestive of self-healing and sealing explain permeability reduction by hydrothermal reaction after macroscopic failure. Paradoxically, even using argon as pore fluid, hydrothermal reaction is possible in metadiabases due to dehydration of chlorite. Moreover, fractures appear much finer in rocks enriched in chlorite because of formation of gouge structures. After the experiments, 3D images of fracture networks enable calculation of permeability by numerical simulations which values are 4-6 orders of magnitude higher than the experimental measured values. Such results demonstrate that the geometry and the textures observed in unloaded samples are not suitable to estimate permeability and have to be very carefully interpreted.

  15. Isotopic Equilibrium in Mature Oceanic Lithosphere: Insights From Sm-Nd Isotopes on the Corsica (France) Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, E.; Hofmann, A. W.; Raczek, I.; Romairone, A.

    2003-12-01

    In mature oceanic lithosphere, formed at mid-ocean ridges, residual mantle peridotites and associated magmatic crust are, in principle, linked by a cogenetic relationship, because the times of asthenospheric mantle melting and magmatic crust production are assumed to be roughly coheval. This implies that oceanic peridotites and associated magmatic rocks should have similar isotopic compositions. Few isotope studies have been devoted to test this assumption. At mid-ocean ridges, similar Nd isotopic compositions in basalts and abyssal peridotites have been found by Snow et al. (1994), thus indicating that oceanic peridotites are indeed residues of MORB melting. By contrast, Salters and Dick (2002) have documented Nd isotope differences between abyssal peridotites and associated basalts, with peridotites showing higher 143Nd/144Nd values, and they concluded that an enriched pyroxenitic source component is required to explain the low end of the 143Nd/144Nd variation of the basalts. Here we present Sm/Nd isotope data on ophiolitic mantle peridotites and intruded gabbroic rocks from Mt.Maggiore (Corsica, France), interpreted as lithosphere remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. The peridotites are residual after low-degree (<10%) fractional melting. In places, spinel peridotites grade to plagioclase-rich impregnated peridotites. Clinopyroxene separates from both spinel- and plagioclase- peridotites display high 147Sm/144Nd (0.49-0.59) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.513367-0.513551) ratios, consistent with their depleted signature. The associated gabbros have Nd isotopic compositions typical of MORB (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51312-0.51314). Sm/Nd data on plag, whole rock and cpx from an olivine gabbro define an internal isochron with an age of 162 +/- 10 Ma, and an initial epsilon Nd value (9.0) indicating a MORB-type source. In the Sm-Nd isochron diagram, the peridotite data also conform to the above linear array, their initial (160 Ma) epsilon Nd values varying in the range 7.6-8.9. Sm/Nd isotopic compositions of the peridotites are therefore consistent with a Jurassic age of melting and melt impregnation, and point to isotopic compositional similarities between depleted peridotites and associated magmatic rocks. In a regional geodynamic context, Sm/Nd isotope data for the Mt.Maggiore gabbro-peridotite association represent the first record of the attainment of a mature oceanic stage of the Ligurian Tethys ocean. Also, the data presented provide striking evidence of the existence of isotopic equilibrium between melts and their mantle residue. References Snow et al. (1994), Nature 371, 57-60. Salters and Dick (2002), Nature 418,68-72.

  16. The 190Pt-186Os Decay System Applied to Dating Platinum-Group Element Mineralization in Layered Intrusions, Ophiolites and Detrital Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, J. A.; Nowell, G.; Pearson, G.; Oberthür, T.; Lorand, J.; Melcher, F.; Parman, S. W.

    2010-12-01

    Discrete platinum-group minerals (PGM) occur as accessory phases in mafic-ultamafic intrusions and ophiolitic chromitites, as well as numerous detrital deposits globally. The 190Pt-186Os decay system, measured by laser ablation MC-ICPMS (LA-MC-ICPMS) provides a useful geochronometric tool for direct dating of PGM. Here we present two examples that verify the accuracy of the technique in geologically well constrained situations and demonstrate the potential for using the 190Pt-186Os PGM method to accurately date layered mafic intrusions, ophiolitic chromitites and detrital PGM deposits. Fifty PGM grains from three different horizons within the Bushveld complex yield a Pt-Os isochron age of 2012 ± 47 Ma (2?, MSWD = 1.19, 186Os/188Osi = 0.119818 ± 0.000006). This is consistent with the published U-Pb zircon age of 2054 Ma (Scoates and Friedman, 2008). The younger PGM isochron age is not likely to be a function of difference in blocking temperatures in the different systems. Pt-Os model ages are possible in high pt grains because initial 186Os/188Os can be well constrained. Using this approach we obtained Pt-Os model ages of 2113 ± 106 Ma and 2042 ± 102 Ma for a Bushveld Pt-Fe alloy and sperrylite respectively. Detrital PGM derived from the Meratus ophiolite, southeast Borneo yield a 190Pt-186Os isochron age of 202.5 Ma ± 8.3 Ma (2?, n = 260, MSWD = 0.90, 186Os/188Osi = 0.119830 ± 0.000003), consistent with radiometric and biostratigraphic age constraints (Wakita et al., 1998). We interpret this as the age of formation of the PGM grains in during chromitite genesis in the lower oceanic lithosphere. Our combined data demonstrate the utility of the LA-MC-ICPMS method as a tool for accurate Pt-Os dating of detrital PGM as well as their igneous parent bodies. We can constrain Pt/Os fractionation at the ablation site as being < 2.5%, while within-grain heterogeneity is ultimately one of the strongest controls on isochron and single-grain ages given the partial sampling represented by laser ablation. Scoates, J.S. and Friedman, R.M. 2008. Precise age of the platiniferous Merensky reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, by the U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion ID-TIMS technique; Economic Geology 103, p. 465-471. Wakita, K., Miyazaki, K., Zulkarnain, I., Sopaheluwakan, J. and Sanyoto, P. 1998. Tectonic implications of new age data for the Meratus complex of south Kalimantan, Indonesia; Island Arc 7, p. 202-222.

  17. Multiple refertilisation of oceanic mantle: new insights into the evolution of the southern sector of the Ligurian Tethys from Mt. Pollino ophiolites (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; D'Antonio, Massimo; Zanetti, Alberto; Petrosino, Paola; Aulinas, Meritxell

    2015-04-01

    Southern Apennine ophiolites consist of a serpentinized peridotite basement and a reduced crustal sequence characterized by lack of sheeted-dyke complexes, relatively small volumes of intruded gabbros, and a discontinuous basaltic and pelagic sediments cover. These ophiolites are believed to represent fragments of the Ligurian branch of Tethys oceanic crust that were obducted on continental crust during its closure. A thorough petrological investigation has been carried out on ophiolites that crop out widely along the boundary between Basilicata and Calabria, close to Mt. Pollino (Southern Italy). All peridotite samples contain large amount of serpentine, and are characterized by millimeter-sized porphyroclasts of olivine and orthopyroxene, varying from anhedral to subhedral and showing internal deformation. Clinopyroxene is present as large crystals or as exsolution lamellae in orthopyroxene. Spinels are typically anhedral. The protoliths of all samples were likely depleted harzburgites and/or cpx-poor lherzolites. Three samples (named Type-1) have MgO = 40.9-41.3 wt.%, while the other samples (named Type-2) have higher concentrations of MgO = 43.3-44.6 wt.%. The Type-1 peridotites have the highest values of Al2O3, CaO, SiO2, Sc and V, but lower Ni and Co contents. Peridotites show chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong, but variable depletions in LREE. Type-1 peridotites are less depleted, whereas Type-2 peridotites are strongly depleted HREE pattern regions are poorly variable, showing chondritic values. The geochemical variations displayed by major oxides and trace elements, and the positive relationship between Fo content of olivine and Cr# of spinel suggest high degrees of partial melting (~20%). However, the degree of partial melting inferred on the basis of LREE concentrations of clinopyroxenes is much lower than that recorded by the spinel-olivine equilibrium (maximum ~6% near-fractional melting of a spinel-facies depleted mantle for both peridotites). However, the geochemical data indicate a different petrological stories for two type of peridotites, because, unlike the Type-2, the Type-1 peridotites have been affected by a multistage refertilization, at least two events. We interpret the apparent discrepancy of the depleted spinel peridotites of Mt. Pollino as the result of a reactive melt/rock interaction with depleted melts of MORB affinity, occurred at spinel-facies conditions after an earlier melt extraction. The geochemical characteristics of these serpentinized peridotites suggest that both types represent a very depleted mantle similar to that typical of intra-basinal settings. For this reason we propose that Mt. Pollino ophiolites may have formed an accretionary wedge (as part of the so-called Ligurian Accretionary Complex) during the early stages of the subduction of oceanic lithosphere below the European margin. This accretionary wedge, however, was dismantled and its remains were deposited in the adjacent Liguride sedimentation basin. Later these terrains were buried during upper Oligocene, reaching HP/LT conditions.

  18. Slab dehydration and fluid-producing metamorphic reactions in early subduction stages: the record of the metamorphic sole of the Mont Albert ophiolite (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewison, Ella; Soret, Mathieu; Dubacq, Benoït; Agard, Philippe; Labrousse, Loïc

    2015-04-01

    Metamorphic soles found at the base of obducted ophiolites provide valuable information on the early history of the subduction / obduction system. Metamorphic soles are characterised by rocks originating from the ocean floor (basalts and sediments in variable proportions) metamorphosed up to granulite facies, where the intensity of metamorphism increases to the top of the unit, towards the contact with peridotite. Their mafic and less frequently pelitic lithologies make them sensitive recorders of their pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization and allow radiometric dating. In addition, metamorphic soles have directly witnessed slab dehydration as they underwent similar fluid-producing metamorphic reactions before being accreted to the mantle wedge peridotites (i.e. before "underplating"). The mechanisms of underplating remain uncertain, because of the somewhat obscure link between weakening through fluid production and hardening via garnet crystallization, with direct consequences on the rheology of the plate interface. In this study, we document fluid-producing reactions occurring during the prograde history of the metamorphic sole of the Taconian (ca. 460 Ma) ophiolite from Mont Albert (Quebec, Canada). This metamorphic sole shows variably metamorphosed mafic and pelitic rocks with metamorphic gradients over the scale of 10 metres, with clinopyroxene-garnet-amphibole granulite facies mafic rocks at the contact with the overlying peridotites. Evidences of melting of pelitic lithologies increase towards the contact, and no remains of metapelites have been found within about 20 m from the contact. Fluid channelization and melt migration is evidenced by decimetric dykes and veins. Away from the contact, metamorphism intensity gradually decreases to greenschist facies with abundant hydrated silicates. The aim of the study is to provide constraints (i) on the nature of the fluids produced (aqueous versus melt), (ii) on their composition and (iii) on the pressure-temperature conditions of their production. This will allow a better understanding of the rheological behaviour of subducting slabs in subduction zones and of amphibolites in the lower continental crust.

  19. Geochemistry and jasper beds from the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite, Norway: origin of proximal and distal siliceous exhalites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Stratiform beds of jasper (hematitic chert), composed essentially of SiO2 (69-95 wt %) and Fe2O3 (3-25 wt %), can be traced several kilometers along strike in the Ordovician L??kken ophiolite, Norway. These siliceous beds are closely associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and are interpreted as sea-floor gels that were deposited by fallout from hydrothermal plumes in silica-rich seawater, in which plume-derived Fe oxyhydroxide particles promoted flocculation and rapid settling of large (???200 ??m) colloidal particles of silica-iron oxyhydroxide. Concentrations of chalcophile elements in the jasper beds are at the parts per million level implying that sulfide particle fallout was insignificant and that the Si-Fe gel-forming plumes were mainly derived from intermediate- (100??-250??C) to high-temperature (>250??) white smoker-type vents with high Fe/S ratios. The interpreted setting is similar to that of the Lau basin, where high-temperature (280??-334??C) white smoker venting alternates or overlaps with sulfide mound-forming black smoker venting. Ratios of Al, Sc, Th, Hf, and REE to iron are very low and show that the detrital input was <0.1 percent of the bulk jasper. Most jasper beds are enriched in U, V, P, and Mo relative to the North American Shale Composite, reflecting a predominantly seawater source, whereas REE distribution patterns (positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies) reflect variable mixing of hydrothermal solutions with oxic seawater at dilution ratios of ???102 to 104. Trace element variations in the gel precursor to the jasper are thought to have been controlled by coprecipitation and/or adsorption by Fe oxyhydroxide particles that formed by the oxidation of hydrothermal Fe2+ within the variably seawater-diluted hydrothermal plume(s). Thick jasper layers near the H??ydal VMS orebody show distinct positive As/Fe and Sb/Fe anomalies that are attributed to near-vent rapid settling of Si-Fe particles derived from As- and Sb-rich hydrothermal fluids prior to extensive mixing with seawater in the buoyant plume. Particles that formed later in the highly diluted nonbuoyant plume formed relatively As and Sb poor distal jasper. The large particle sizes and accordingly high settling rates of the particles, together with mass-balance calculations based on modern vent field data, suggest that individual meter-thick jasper beds formed within a plume lifetime of 200 years or less. The lack of thick jasper beds near the L??kken VMS orebody, which is larger than the H??ydal orebody by more than two orders of magnitude, probably reflects a shift to anoxic conditions during L??kken mineralization. This environment limited oxidation of iron in the hydrothermal plume and formation of the ferric oxyhydroxides necessary for the flocculation of silica and sea-floor deposition of the gel precursor of the jasper beds. Distal pyritic and iron-poor cherts are more common than jasper in ancient VMS-hosting sequences. The origin of these other types of siliceous exhalite is enigmatic but at least in some cases involved sulfidation, reduction to magnetite, or dissolution of the original ferric iron in precursor Si-rich gels, either by hydrothermal or diagenetic processes. ?? 2005 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  20. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Savov; Jeffrey G Ryan; Ivan Haydoutov; Johan Schijf

    2001-01-01

    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563Ma) mafic\\/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites;

  1. An Oxygen Isotope Profile in a Section of Cretaceous Oceanic Crust, Samail Ophiolite, Oman: Evidence for ? 18 O Buffering of the Oceans by Deep (>5 km) Seawater-Hydrothermal Circulation at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Gregory; Hugh P. Taylor

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of 75 samples from the Samail ophiolite indicate that pervasive subsolidus hydrothermal exchange with seawater occurred throughout the upper 75% of this 8-km-thick oceanic crustal section; locally, the H20 even penetrated down into the tectonized peridotite. Pillow lavas (8280 -- 10.7 to 12.7) and sheeted dikes (4.9 to 11.3) are typically enriched in 280, and the gabbros (3.7

  2. An oxygen isotope profile in a section of cretaceous oceanic crust, Samail ophiolite, Oman: Evidence for delta 18 O buffering of the oceans by deep (>5 km) seawater-hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Gregory; Hugh P. Taylor

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of 75 samples for the Samail ophiolite indicate that pervasive subsolidus hydrothermal exchange with seawater occurred throughout the upper 75% of this 8-km-thick oceanic crustal section; locally, the H2O even penetrated down into the tectonized peridotite. Pillow lavas (delta18O = 10.7 to 12.7) and sheeted dikes (4.9 to 11.3) are typically enriched in 18O, and the gabbros (3.7

  3. Distribution and PGE mineralization in the formation of chromitite in ophiolite complexes (Ospina-Kitoi Kharanur and ultrabasic massifs of Eastern Sayan, Sousern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, Olga; Zhmodik, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    New study of PGE in restitic ultrabasic (Kharanur and Ospin-Kitoi) massifs from North and South branches (Dobretsov et al., 1985) of the ophiolite complexes in south-eastern part of the Eastern Sayan show their presence in chromitites of both branches belonging to the different geodynamic settings. Modern concepts model includes several mechanisms of podiform chromitite origin reflected in the chemistry of Cr-spinels (Arai, Yurimoto, 1994; Ballhaus, 1998; Uysal et al., 2009 et al.): 1) partial melting of upper mantle rocks, 2) mixing of primitive melts with melts enriched in SiO2, 3) melt-rock interaction. We estimated the types of interaction of mafic melts with mantle peridotites, with the formation of chromite bodies. For ore chrome spinelides from northern branch (Al2O3) melt = 8 - 14 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0 - 0,4 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,5 - 2,4; Southern branch (Al2O3) melt = 10 - 13 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0,1 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,3 - 1 (Kiseleva, 2014). There are two types of PGE distribution Os-Ir-Ru (I) and Pt-Pd (II). Type I chromitites (mid-Al#Cr-spinels) revealed only Os-Ir-Ru distributions; type II (low-Al#Cr spinelides) show both Os-Ir-Ru and (Pt-Pd) distributions (Kiseleva et al., 2012, 2014). PGE distribution in ultramafic peridotites and chromitites reflects PGE fractionation during partial melting (Barnes et al., 1985; Rehkämper et al., 1997). Processes bringing to extreme fractionation of PGE, may be associated with fluid-saturated supra subduction environment where melting degree near 20% and above is sufficient for the release of PGE from the mantle source (Dick, Bullen, 1984; Naldrett, 2010). Enrichment in PPGE together with a high content of IPGE in same chromite bodies is attributed to the second step of melting, and formation of S-enriched and saturated in PGE melts (Hamlyn, Keays, 1986; Prichard et al., 1996). For type I chromitites platinum group minerals (PGM) are presented by Os-Ir-Ru system. In type II chromitites PGM are represented by Os-Ir-Ru-Rh-Pt system. Solid solutions Os-Ir-Ru and formed in the upper mantle RuS2 conditions together with chromite. The (Os-Ir-Ru)AsS minerals are forming on postmagmatic stage under the influence of S, As-containing fluids Under the influence of mantle reduced fluids the remobilization of PGE during desulfurization and deserpentinization early of "primary" PGM takes place. Changes of the redox environment from reducing to oxidizing condition is followed by creation of PGE together with As, Sb, Sn, and nickel arsenides, ferrichromie, chrommagnetite. The latter association reflects the redistribution of chromite and platinum group metals and formation of new mineral associations within the ultramafic substrate in crustal conditions (Kiseleva, 2014). Kiseleva O.N. Chromitite and PGE mineralization in ophiolites south-eastern part of the East Sayan (Ospina-Kitoi and Kharanur massifs), Thesis of PHD dissertation, Novosibirsk, 2014 IPGG SB RAS, 15p. Kiseleva O.N., Zhmodik SM, Damdinov BB, Agafonov LV, Belyanin D.K. 2014 The composition and evolution of platinum group mineralization in chromite ores Ilchir ophiolite complex (Ospin-Kitoi and Kharanur massifs, Eastern Sayan). Geology and Geophysics 55, 333 - 349.

  4. Geodynamic interpretation of the 40Ar/39Ar dating of ophiolitic and arc-related mafics and metamafics of the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palandzhyan, S.A.; Layer, P.W.; Patton, W.W., Jr.; Khanchuk, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Isotope datings of amphibole-bearing mafics and metamafics in the northern part of the Anadyr-Koryak region allow clarification of the time of magmatic and metamorphic processes, which are synchronous with certain stages of the geodynamic development of the northwest segment of the Pacific mobile belt in the Phanerozoic. To define the 40Ar/39Ar age of amphiboles, eight samples of amphibole gabbroids and metamafics were selected during field work from five massifs representing ophiolites and mafic plutons of the island arc. Rocks from terranes of three foldbelts: 1) Pekulnei (Chukotka region), 2) Ust-Belaya (West Koryak region), and 3) the Tamvatnei and El'gevayam subterranes of the Mainits terrane (Koryak-Kamchatka region), were studied. The isotope investigations enabled us to divide the studied amphiboles into two groups varying in rock petrographic features. The first was represented by gabbroids of the Svetlorechensk massif of the Pekulnei Range and by ophiolites of the Tamvatnei Mts.; their magmatic amphiboles show the distribution of argon isotopes in the form of clearly distinguished plateau with an age ranging within 120-129 Ma. The second group includes metamorphic amphiboles of metagabbroids and apogabbro amphibolites of the Ust-Belaya Mts., Pekulnei and Kenkeren ranges (El'gevayam subterranes). Their age spectra show loss of argon and do not provide well defined plateaus the datings obtained for them are interpreted as minimum ages. Dates of amphiboles from the metagabbro of the upper tectonic plate of the Ust-Belaya allochthon points to metamorphism in the suprasubduction environment in the fragment of Late Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere in Middle-Late Devonian time, long before the Uda-Murgal island arc system was formed. The amphibolite metamorphism in the dunite-clinopyroxenite-metagabbro Pekulnei sequence was dated to occur at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The age of amphiboles from gabbrodiorites of the Kenkeren Range was dated to be Early Jurassic that confirmed their assignment to the El'gevayam volcanic-plutonic assemblage. These data are consistent with geological concepts and make more precise the available age dates. Neocomian-Aptian 40Ar/39Ar age of amphibolites from the Pekulnei and Tamvatnei gabbroids make evident that mafics of these terranes (varying in geodynamic formation settings and in petrogenesis) were generated in later stages of the development of the West Pekulnei and Mainits-Algan Middle-Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous island arc systems, presumably due to breakup of island arcs in the Neocomian. ?? 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

  5. Petrogenesis of carbonated meta-ultramafic lenses from the Neoproterozoic Heiani ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: A natural analogue to CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Arai, Shoji; Almadani, Sattam A.

    2015-02-01

    Among a set of peculiar meta-ultramafics, carbonate-orthopyroxenites are observed for the first time in the Heiani ophiolite belt, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. They form massive lensoidal masses up to 50 m long and 20 m wide. The lenses show a marked structural concordance with their neighboring country rocks. The typical country rocks are represented by the following high-grade metamorphic rocks: kyanite-muscovite schists, amphibolites, kyanite-bearing biotite gneisses, migmatites, granite gneisses and mobilizates. The studied carbonate-orthopyroxenites consist mainly of metamorphic orthopyroxene + magnesite, among other metamorphic, relict primary and retrograde secondary minerals. According to primary chromian spinel (Cr#, 0.7-0.84) chemistry and morphology, absence of clinopyroxene and presence of primary mantle olivine (Fo89-91) as relicts in the metamorphic orthopyroxene, the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites seem to have formed from a highly depleted mantle peridotite precursor. At a late collisional stage during the Pan-Africa terrane accretion and the E-W crustal shortening (ca. 650-620 Ma), high-grade (upper amphibolite facies) low-P/high-T regional metamorphism (ca. 660 Ma) accompanied by CO2-metasomatism resulted in formation of the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites. Mostly the carbonate-bearing shelf sediments beneath and/or in juxtaposition with the Heiani ophiolite are considered to be the proven source of the CO2-rich fluids. Although, a mixed sedimentary-mantle C source is not unlikely. A mineral paragenetic correlation with experimental data for the system MgO-SiO2-H2O-CO2 suggests metamorphic conditions consistent with those of the high-grade country rocks; i.e. 630-650 °C, 6-7 kbar (20-23 km depth) and high-XCO2 (0.6-0.7). The CO2-bearing fluids discharging along faults gave rise to regionally widespread carbonate-bearing assemblages. Accordingly, the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites are considered the by-products of natural carbon sequestration by an ultramafic rock.

  6. Westward prograding metamorphism in mantle peridotites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: clues to the subduction polarity of the Arabian Nubian Shield intra-oceanic arc ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hamdy, Mohamed; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Adel; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    Neoproterozoic arc mantle beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt exhumed due to intra-oceanic upthrusting are represented mainly by exposed ophiolitic peridotites serpentinized to different degree. Metamorphism is related to the Pan-African collision and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. However, polarity of the Pan-African intra-oceanic subduction is still questionable. We here trace the variation of the degree of serpentinization and regional metamorphism of six serpentinite masses, widely distributed in the ED (from the east to the west: W (Wadi). Alam, W. Igla, W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla). This is based on their mineralogy, textures and mineral chemistry. The studied rocks have harzburgite composition and they all formed in oceanic mantle wedge in the fore-arc setting, except those from W. Atalla that formed in MOR-arc transition setting. Much difference in the degree of serpentinization is obvious among these rocks. They are mainly partly serpentinized containing primary olivine and orthopyroxene at W. Alam and W. Igla, while they are completely serpentinized in the other localities. With the increased degree of metamorphism, textures were transformed from the pseudomorphic to the non-pseudomorphic. The most common retrograde assemblage is composed of lizardite ± chrysotile± brucite± magnetite. The serpentine prograde textures can be viewed as a continuum from retrograde lizardite pseudomorphic textures, to very fine-grained transitional texture of lizardite and chrysotile, to chrysotile-antigorite interlocking texture and finally to antigorite interpenetrating texture. These textures appear to represent successive stages in a recrystallization event. In late subduction-related metamorphism and early collisional emplacement stage, mylonitic-antigorite serpentinites formed and antigorite became the major phase in G. El-Maiyit, Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. The polygonal units of the hourglass texture and the penetrative fabric of the serrate veins in all serpentinized peridotites indicate that fracturing of these rocks was developed in a dynamic regime. The late emplacement of veins of brucite, carbonates and oxides were most probably formed during the final stage of exhumation and under a stress regime in the brittle-ductile transition. As the grade of metamorphism increases Fe released from olivine and orthopyroxene and Cr released from chromite are accommodating in antigorite-rich serpentinites. Serpentine in veins also tends to have less substitutions, which is consistent with the fact that Al, Cr and Ni are relatively immobile during alteration and therefore remain in their original microstructural site. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. With increasing the degree of alteration, size of the aluminian chromite core decreases while width of the intermediate Fe3+-rich aluminian chromite to ferrian-chromite zone and the outer Cr-magnetite to magnetite zones increase. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 ° C to 550 ° C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. We propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

  7. Compositional variations and tectonic settings of podiform chromitites and associated ultramafic rocks of the Neoproterozoic ophiolite at Wadi Al Hwanet, northwestern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan; Harbi, Hesham M.; Habtoor, Abdelmonem M.

    2012-08-01

    Wadi Al Hwanet area in NW of Saudi Arabia is part of the Jebel Ess ophiolite constituting the northeastern part of the ˜700 Ma Yanbu-Sol Hamed-Onib-Allaqi-Heiani suture of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield. The mantle section of Wadi Al Hwanet ophiolite consists mainly of voluminous harzburgites overlain by thick, massive transition-zone dunites, and small-scale chromitite pods. The harzburgites and massive dunites are exceptionally fresh; primary magmatic textures and silicate minerals are still preserved. Two modes of podiform chromitites exist; small lensoidal pods (group I), and relatively large dike-like pods (group II). Geochemically, the former chromitite type contains chromian spinels with high Cr# (0.79-0.81) and displays a PGE-poor character, with steep negatively-sloped PGE distribution patterns, whereas the latter chromitite type contains chromian spinels with relatively lower Cr# (0.61-0.71) and is PGE-rich (up to 1000 ppb), with positively-sloped PGE distribution patterns. The group II chromitites have much higher sulfide content than the group I suite. Parental melt compositions, in equilibrium with podiform chromitites, vary in Al2O3, FeO*/MgO and TiO2 contents from group I to group II chromitites, although both of them are in the range of the boninitic melts. The differences in the chromitites chemistry are most probably due to variable degrees of partial melting of the involved melts. Two stages of a magmatic activity were inferred for the chromitites genesis. The group I chromitites, of high Cr# of chromian spinels and PGE-poor negatively-sloped patterns, were precipitated in the first stage from a boninitic melt produced by a high degree of partial melting at a supra-subduction zone setting. The second chromitite-forming stage involves a relatively low degree of partial melting under high activities of sulfur and oxygen to produce the group II chromitites with enrichment in sulfides and PGE contents, possibly in a supra-subduction zone setting. In contrast to the chromitites, the harzburgites have low PGE contents, with characteristic unfractionated patterns, and low Cr# (0.46-0.57) of the chromian spinels suggesting mantle residues after low degrees of mantle melting beneath a mid-ocean ridge setting. Together with the entire plotting within the olivine-spinel mantle array, the similarity of olivine and spinel chemistry of dunites with those of harzburgites suggests a replacement origin for the dunites by the consumption of pyroxenes. It is likely that Wadi Al Hwanet mantle section was initially derived from a mid-ocean ridge environment and modified later, under a supra-subduction zone regime, to form podiform chromitites.

  8. The ophiolite of the Eohellenic nappe in the island of Skyros, Greece: Geotectonic environment of formation and metamorphic conditions inferred by mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkalis, Christos; Magganas, Andreas; Koutsovitis, Petros

    2014-05-01

    The island of Skyros is located in the Sporades-Aegean region. It includes an ophiolitic mélange sequence consisting of serpentinites, gabbroic and doleritic rocks, and also lavas which mostly appear in massive form, but in rare cases as deformed pillows. The ophiolitic mélange sequence also includes rodingites, ophicalcites, as well as radiolarites. This formation belongs to the Eohellenic tectonic nappe, which encompasses marbles, sandstones and schists and was emplaced onto the Pelagonian Zone during Early Cretaceous [1, 2]. Serpentinites were most likely formed after serpentinization of harzburgitic protoliths and consist of serpentine, bastite, spinel and magnetite. The chemistry of spinels (TiO2=0.14-0.25 wt.%, Al2O3=35.1-35.21 wt.%, Cr#=37.38-38.87), shows that the harzburgitic protoliths plausibly resemble back-arc basin peridotites [3]. Gabbros and dolerites present mostly subophitic textures, between the hornblende/clinopyroxene and plagioclase grains. Based upon their petrography and on their mineral chemistry hornblendes have been distinguished into magmatic and metamorphic hornblendes, with the first occurring mostly in gabbroic rocks. Magmatic hornblendes exhibit relatively high TiO2 (1.42-1.62 wt.%), Al2O3 (5.11-5.86 wt.%) and Na2O (1.01-1.09 wt.%) contents, with their presence implying that the magma was at least to some degree hydrous. Lavas are tholeiitic basalts with relatively high FeOt?12 wt.% and low K2O and Th contents, consisting mostly albite, altered clinopyroxene and devitrified glass. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams [4, 5] illustrate that the studied gabbros and lavas of Skyros are most likely associated with SSZ processes. Gabbroic rocks, subvolcanic dolerites and lavas have been subjected to greenschist/subgreenschist metamorphic processes, as confirmed by the presence of secondary amphiboles (metamorphic hornblende, actinolite/tremolite), epidote, pumpellyite and chlorite in all of the studied samples. On the other hand, the occurrence of rodingites and ophicalcites clearly point to interaction of the gabbroic rocks and serpentinites with hydrothermal fluids, which most probably took place during the stage of exhumation and tectonic emplacement. Ophicalcites contain serpentine, calcite, magnetite, as well as rare pyroxene and spinel. Rodingites on their behalf include hydroandradite (Alm0.00Adr61.33-67.43Grs28.25-35.18Prp0.10-2.49Sps0.00-0.33Uv0.41-2.75), vesuvianite (MgO=2.78-3.33 wt.%; TiO2=0.02-0.59 wt.%) diopside neoblasts (En48.53-49.89Wo47.56-48.10Fs2.32-3.33; Mg#=93.96-96.28), chlorite and also accessory prehnite. Some small-sized Cr-bearing hydrogarnet crystals (Cr2O3=10.34 wt.%) were most likely formed at the expense of spinel. The types of hydrogarnet and vesuvianite crystals are highly indicative for the involvement of subduction-related fluids during the formation of the rodingites [6]. References: [1] Jacobshagen & Wallbrecher 1984: Geol. Soc., London, Sp. Pub. 17, 591-602, [2] Pe-Piper 1991: Ofioliti, 16, 111 - 120, [3] Kamenetsky Sobolev, Joron & Semet 2001: J Petrol 42, 655-671, [4] Agrawal, Guevara & Verma 2008: Intern. Geol. Rev. 50, 1057-1079, [5] Pearce & Cann 1973: Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 19, 290-300, [6] Koutsovitis, Magganas, Pomonis & Ntaflos 2013. Lithos 172-173, 139-157.

  9. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O isotopic systematics in an oceanic crustal section: Evidence from the Samial ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, M.T.; Gregory, R.T.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Taylor, H.P. Jr.

    1981-04-10

    The Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O isotopic systems have been used to distinguish between the effects of seafloor hydrothermal alteration and primary magmatic isotopic variations. The Sm-Nd isotopic system is essentially unaffected by seawater alteration, while the Rb-Sr and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O systems are sensitive to hydrothermal interactions with seawater. Sm-Nd mineral isochrons from the cumulate gabbros of the Samail ophiolite have an initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratio of e/sub Nd/ = 7.8 +- 0.3, which clearly substantiates the oceanic affinity of this complex. The initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios for the harzburgite, plagiogranite, sheeted diabase dikes, and basalt units have a limited range in e/sub Nd/ of from 7.5 to 8.6, indicating that all the lithologies have distinctive oceanic affinities, although there is also some evidence for small isotopic heterogeneities in the magma reservoirs. The Sm-Nd mineral isochrons give crystallization ages of 128 +- 20 m.y. and 150 +- 40 m.y. from Ibra and 100 +- 20 m.y. from Wadi Fizh, which is approximately 300 km NW of Ibra. These crystallization ages are interpreted as the time of formation of the oceanic crust. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr initial ratios on the same rocks have an extremely large range of from 0.7030 to 0.7065 and the d/sup 18/O values vary from 2.6 to 12.7. These large variations clearly demonstrate hydrothermal interaction of oceanic crust with seawater.

  10. The origin and age of the metamorphic sole from the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar Belt: New evidence for the one-ocean model for the Balkan ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojevi? Šoštari?, S.; Palinkaš, A. L.; Neubauer, F.; Cvetkovi?, V.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2014-04-01

    This study brings new geochronological and petrochemical data from the metamorphic sole beneath the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar ophiolite belt. The Rogozna metamorphic sole is located at the base of a serpentinite nappe and consists of amphibolites and talc-chlorite schists. The Rogozna amphibolites are medium- to fine-grained rocks with nematoblastic texture and pronounced foliation. They consist of green amphibole (~ 70 vol.%) with variable silica contents (6.4 to 7.8 Si apfu), as well as Mg# (molMg/[Mg + Fetot]; 0.53 to 0.77) and variably albitized plagioclase (~ 30 vol.%; Ab24-Ab98). Amphibolites are overprinted by a retrograde assemblage containing actinolite, epidote, clinoclore, sericite, chlorite, and magnetite. The amphibolites formed due to metamorphism of two basaltic suites: subalkaline/tholeiitic and alkaline. Subalkaline/tholeiitic amphibolites possess low Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 values and a LREE-depleted pattern, typical for the N-MORB (normal mid ocean ridge basalt) to BAB (back-arc basalt) origin. Alkaline amphibolites show elevated concentrations of Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 with a LREE-enriched pattern typically displayed by OIB (ocean island basalt). Amphibolites were crystallized during intra-oceanic thrusting at temperatures between 685 °C and 765 °C and at a depth of 12-17 km. 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of amphibole, ranging from 165 to 170 Ma, slightly postdate the sole formation. Talc-chlorite schists are related to retrograde greenschist-facies metamorphism. They consist of Fe-rich talc and Cr-rich chlorite (peninite-diabantite) pseudomorphs after amphibole and MORB-type Cr-Al spinel, surrounded by Al- and Mg-poor ferrit chromite. The occurrence of ferrit chromite is related to earlier, amphibolite facies metamorphism. Chlorite pseudomorphs after amphibole were formed at 300-410 °C.

  11. Chronology of the Pueblo Viejo epithermal gold-silver deposit, Dominican Republic: formation in an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic island arc and burial under ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Gregory C.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; O'Brien, Darren

    2008-11-01

    The Pueblo Viejo deposit (production to 1996: 166 t Au, 760 t Ag) is located in the Dominican Republic on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and ranks as one of the largest high-sulfidation/acid-sulfate epithermal deposits (reserves in 2007: 635 t Au, 3,648 t Ag). One of the advanced argillic ore bodies is cut by an inter-mineral andesite porphyry dike, which is altered to a retrograde chlorite-illite assemblage but overprinted by late-stage quartz-pyrite-sphalerite veins and associated low-grade Au, Ag, Zn, Cd, Hg, In, As, Se, and Te mineralization. The precise TIMS U-Pb age (109.6 ± 0.6 Ma) of the youngest zircon population in this dike confirms that the deposit is part of the Early Cretaceous Los Ranchos intra-oceanic island arc. Intrusion-related gold-sulfide mineralization took place during late andesite-dacite volcanism within a thick pile (>200 m) of carbonaceous sand- and siltstones deposited in a restricted marine basin. The high-level deposit was shielded from erosion after burial under a late Albian (109-100 Ma) ophiolite complex (8 km thick), which was in turn covered by the volcano-sedimentary successions (>4 km) of a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary calc-akaline magmatic arc. Estimates of stratigraphic thickness and published alunite, illite, and feldspar K-Ar ages and closure temperatures (alunite 270 ± 20°C, illite 260 ± 30°C, K-feldspar 150°C) indicate a burial depth of about 12 km at 80 Ma. During peak burial metamorphism (300°C and 300 MPa), the alteration assemblage kaolinite + quartz in the deposit dehydrated to pyrophyllite. Temperature-time relations imply that the Los Ranchos terrane then cooled at a rate of 3-4°C/Ma during slow uplift and erosion.

  12. Effects of interaction between ultramafic tectonite and mafic magma on Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic systems in the Neoproterozoic Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.V.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Neymark, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotopic systems have been studied in minerals and whole rocks of harzburgites and mafic cumulates from the Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt, eastern Siberia, in order to determine the relationship between mantle ultramafic and crustal mafic sections. Geological relations in the Chaya Massif indicate that the mafic magmas were emplaced into, and interacted with older solid peridotite. Hand picked, acid-leached, primary rock-forming and accessory minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase) from the two harzburgite samples show coherent behavior and yield 147Sm/144Nd- 143Nd/144Nd and 238U/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb mineral isochrons, corresponding to ages of 640 ?? 58 Ma (95% confidence level) and 620 ?? 71 Ma, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from the crystallization age of the Chaya mafic units of 627 ?? 25 Ma (a weighted average of internal isochron Sm-Nd ages of four mafic cumulates). The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the harzburgite whole-rock samples were disturbed by hydrothermal alteration. These alteration-related isotopic shifts mimic the trend of variations in primary isotopic compositions in the mafic sequence, thus emphasizing that isotopic data for ultramafic rocks should be interpreted with great caution. On the basis of initial Sr and Nd values, ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Chaya Massif can be divided into two groups: (1) harzburgites and the lower mafic unit gabbronorites with ??Nd = +6.6 to +7.1 and ??Sr = -11 to -16; and (2) websterite of the lower unit and gabbronorites of the upper mafic unit: ??Nd = + 4.6 to + 6.1 and ??Sr = - 8 to -9. Initial Pb isotopic ratios are identical in all rocks studied, with mean values of 206Pb/204Pb = 16.994 ?? 0.023 and 207Pb/204Pb = 15.363 ?? 0.015. The similarity of ages and initial isotopic ratios within the first group indicates that the isotopic systems in the pre-existing depleted peridotite were reset by extensive interaction with basaltic magma during formation of the mafic crustal sequence. The isotopic data agree with a hypothesized formation of the Chaya Massif in a suprasubduction-zone environment.

  13. Detailed geological mapping in vegetated terrain using airborne multispectral imagery and LiDAR data: An example from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebby, S. R.; Cunningham, W. D.; Naden, J.; Tansey, K.

    2010-12-01

    Practical and financial constraints associated with traditional field-based lithological mapping are often responsible for the generation of maps with insufficient detail and inaccurately located contacts. Remote sensing data, such as aerial photographs and multi- or hyperspectral imagery, offers solutions to many of the limitations associated with field-based surveys. For instance, remotely sensed data can provide more continuous and detailed information for large areas, thus enabling even the most inaccessible terrain to be mapped for only a fraction of the time and cost required for an equivalent field survey. In arid areas with well exposed rocks and soils, high-resolution multi- and hyperspectral imagery is a valuable mapping aid as lithological units can be readily discriminated and mapped by automatically matching image pixel spectra to a set of reference reflectance spectra. However, the use of spectral imagery in all but the most barren terrain is problematic because just small amounts of vegetation cover can obscure or mask the spectra of the underlying geological substrate. Nevertheless, indirect lithological discrimination may be possible if geobotanical relationships with the underlying substrates can be realised. Additionally, airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) offers the potential to provide a novel solution to the vegetation problem because accurate and high-resolution topographic data can be acquired in either forested or non-forested terrain, allowing discrimination of individual rock types that typically have distinct topographic characteristics. This study assesses the efficacy of both airborne multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR for detailed lithological mapping in a vegetated section of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Mapping algorithms are presented for the individual use of Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery and airborne LiDAR data, in addition to their integrated use. The algorithms involve spectral/morphometric characterisation of the four main lithological units—the Basal Group lavas and dykes, pillow lavas, Lefkara Formation chalky marls and alluvium-colluvium—followed by image classification. Despite the problems posed by vegetation, geobotanical relationships and the correlation between lithology and topography were exploited individually to generate detailed lithological maps which define contacts much more accurately than the existing geological maps. Moreover, the mapping accuracy can be significantly enhanced through integration of the two datasets. The results of this study demonstrate the significant potential of airborne multispectral imagery and airborne LiDAR topographic data to aid rapid high-resolution lithological discrimination and the generation of detailed geological maps over large areas of vegetated or non-vegetated terrain.

  14. Samail Ophiolite plutonic suite: Field relations, phase variation, cryptic variation and layering, and a model of a spreading ridge magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, J. S.; Hopson, C. A.

    1981-04-01

    Geologic mapping of an intact plutonic sequence within the Samail ophiolite in the Ibra area, southeastern Oman Mountains, reveals stratigraphic, structural, and petrologic details of oceanic layer 3. Four measured stratigraphic sections, each spaced about 5 km apart across the southern flank of Jabal Dimh, define a time-transgressive progression within the ophiolite and reveal geometric and petrologic features of a spreading-ridge magma chamber. The sections show the following vertical sequence: (1) dunite (chr-ol cumulates ± harzburgite xenoliths) 0-200 m thick, grading up from a transition zone with harzburgite tectonite, (2) interlayered wehrlite-melagabbro-gabbro (cpx-ol and ol-cpx-pl cumulates) 0-100 m thick, (3) layered gabbro (chiefly ol-cpx-pl cumulates but including recurrent intervals of cumulus wehrlite and melagabbro) 2.6-5.5 km thick, (4) planar laminated nonlayered gabbro (chiefly ol-cpx-pl cumulates) 100-400 m thick, (5) hypidiomorphic (ol)-hb-cpx gabbro (high-level gabbro) 200-800 m thick, (6) small, discontinous diorite to plagiogranite bodies at or near the top of the gabbro. Cumulus textures (adcumulus > mesocumulus), planar lamination, and cumulus layering (phase, ratio, and grain size layers at mm to 10-m scale, commonly graded) within this sequence show that crystals accumulated from the base of the magma chamber upward to within a few hundred meters of the top; downward solidification from the roof was minor. Cyclicity within the cumulus sequence is represented by the recurrence of olivine-rich intervals (melagabbo and wehrlite) up to high stratigraphic levels and by hundreds of phase-graded layers (ol-rich at the bases to pl-rich at the tops), individually up to 5 m thick. Limited cryptic variation relative to closed-system layered intrusions and the limited range in solid-solution components of olivine (Fo69-90), plagioclase (An62-95) and clinopyroxene (En40-54, Fs4-16, Wo37-49) from the cumulus suite require replenishment of the magma during its crystallization history. Zig-zag normal and reverse cryptic variation differentiation trends (both in major solid-solution components and in minor element concentration) indicate that the replenishment took place in pulses followed by periods of magma mixing and crystal fractionation. Recurrent olivine-rich intervals commonly (but not always) coincide with reverse cryptic variation trends. They are considered to be the products of fresh draughts of primitive magma, with olivine and chromite as the only liquidus phases prior to extensive mixing with the more fractionated resident magma within the chamber. The sequence of crystallization is explained using the simplified tholeiitic basalt tetrahedron of Presnall et al. (1979). The plutonic sequence is roofed by sheeted dikes that are overlain by submarine basalt, indicating that the magma crystallized beneath a spreading ocean ridge. Major and trace element geochemistry of the dike complex is similar in many respects to that of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and yield Mg/Mg + Fe+2 ratios that overlap with ratios predicted for parent liquids of the cumulus suite based on crystal/liquid equilibria. Field evidence, including continuity of layering over large areas, distinctive layer sets that are mapped for several km along strike, and lack of chamber edge contacts indicates that crystallization of Jabal Dimh plutonics took place in a single, large, long-lived magma chamber rather than in small transitory chambers. Similarity of mineral compositions and tentative correlation of cryptic variation trends between stratigraphic sections favors a large, single-chamber model. The chamber shape, controlled by floor growth upward greatly exceeding roof growth downward as the chamber halves diverged from the paleo-spreading axis, must have been funnel-shaped in cross section; i.e., the floor sloped inward to the center from a sandwich horizon that developed just beneath the roof at both sides. This conclusion is based on the occurrence of cumulates up to a very high level in the stratigraphic sections and on geol

  15. Platinum-group elements distribution and spinel composition in podiform chromitites and associated rocks from the upper mantle section of the Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Arai, Shoji; Abdel-Aziz, Yaser M.; Ikenne, Moha; Rahimi, Abdellatif

    2009-09-01

    The distribution of platinum-group elements (PGEs), together with spinel composition, of podiform chromitites and serpentinized peridotites were examined to elucidate the nature of the upper mantle of the Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The mantle section is dominated by harzburgite with less abundant dunite. Chromitite pods are also found as small lenses not exceeding a few meters in size. Almost all primary silicates have been altered, and chromian spinel is the only primary mineral that survived alteration. Chromian spinel of chromitites is less affected by hydrothermal alteration than that of mantle peridotites. All chromitite samples of the Bou Azzer ophiolite display a steep negative slope of PGE spidergrams, being enriched in Os, Ir and Ru, and extremely depleted in Pt and Pd. Harzburgites and dunites usually have intermediate to low PGE contents showing more or less unfractionated PGE patterns with conspicuous positive anomalies of Ru and Rh. Two types of magnetite veins in serpentinized peridotite, type I (fibrous) and type II (octahedral), have relatively low PGE contents, displaying a generally positive slope from Os to Pd in the former type, and positive slope from Os to Rh then negative from Rh to Pd in the latter type. These magnetite patterns demonstrate their early and late hydrothermal origin, respectively. Chromian spinel composition of chromitites, dunites and harzburgites reflects their highly depleted nature with little variations; the Cr# is, on average, 0.71, 0.68 and 0.71, respectively. The TiO 2 content is extremely low in chromian spinels, <0.10, of all rock types. The strong PGE fractionation of podiform chromitites and the high-Cr, low-Ti character of spinel of all rock types imply that the chromitites of the Bou Azzer ophiolite were formed either from a high-degree partial melting of primitive mantle, or from melting of already depleted mantle peridotites. This kind of melting is most easily accomplished in the supra-subduction zone environment, indicating a genetic link with supra-subduction zone magma, such as high-Mg andesite or arc tholeiite. This is a general feature in the Neoproterozoic upper mantle.

  16. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: a record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Melih Akmaz, Recep; Saka, Samet; Avci, Erdi; Müller, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for large, ophiolitic in origin, peridotite exposures hosting various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites that occur in the form of lenses or veinlets and are commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite belong to both high-Cr and high-Al varieties (Cr#: 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are merely Cr-rich (Cr#: 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. Nevertheless, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from the Al-rich chromitites do not bear resemblance with those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. A quite interesting dissimilarity between the unaltered Cr-spinel compositions from both Cr-rich and Al-rich chromitites is that the former display a perceptible positive Ti anomaly in ChromiteMORB-normalized profiles, which signifies the hidden impact of post-magmatic processes in the composition of the high-Cr chromitite bodies that otherwise seem to be unaffected by metamorphism. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting to negatively sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in case of high-Al chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (up to 10 ?m), euhedral laurite crystals followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM grains were not encountered in the Al-rich chromitites, plausibly as a result of crystallization from PGE poor melt. Laurite is Os-poor and exhibits a narrow range of Os-for-Ru substitution [Ru/(Ru+Os): 0.75-0.99]. However, the concomitance of laurite and millerite in the Cr-rich chromitites of the mutual Antalya-Isparta mantle suite is in favor of their precipitation from an Os-depleted melt, characterized by local and rapid variations of fS2 prior or coevally to Cr-spinel crystallization. Moreover, the presence of amphibole inclusions in Cr-spinel indicates that the melt triggered chromitite genesis conceivably had a hydrous component. Overall data suggest that the investigated orebodies were produced by a successively fractionating arc-derived melt that had the opportunity to generate compositionally distinct chromitites at two different pseudo-stratigraphic levels within the Antalya-Isparta arc-type mantle suite. This study was supported by TUBITAK #109Y219.

  17. Protracted Subduction History and HP/UHP Metamorphism of the Zermatt-Saas Ophiolite, Western Alps, as Constrained by Lu-Hf Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlen, N. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Lapen, T. J.; Skora, S.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence of UHP rocks on the surface demands rapid ascent rates to preserve UHP mineral assemblages. Age relations for UHP sections of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (ZSO) confirm these rapid ascent rates, where early stage exhumation rates are estimated to be ~30 mm/yr (Lapen et al., 2003). The ZSO represents a remnant ocean material that experienced HP/UHP conditions during Eocene collision and subduction, and comprises metabasalts, metagabbros, and serpentinites preserved with a metasedimentary cover series. We distinguish two parallel "slices" of the ZSO that stretch from Saas-Fee, Switz., to the Aosta Valley, Italy, delineated by repeated successions of serpentinite and eclogite (e.g., Geologic Map,Switzerland; Bearth, 1953). The serpentinite bodies mainly occur structurally below eclogites as meter- to kilometer-sized lenses and to a lesser extent as layers within eclogite. The upper fragment includes the Pfulwe, Switz., and Lago di Cignana, Italy, localities. These areas are characterized by 1.7-2.8 GPa, 550-600°C (Barnicoat and Fry, 1986; Bucher et al., 2005) and 2.6-2.8 GPa, 590-630°C (Reinecke, 1991), respectively. New Lu-Hf mineral-wr ages of the upper unit are 48.6±3.9, 52.0±2.2, 46.5±4.2, 47.6±2.2 at Pfulwe, and previously determined ages from Lago di Cignana are 48.8±2.1 (Lu-Hf; Lapen, et al., 2003) and 40.6±2.6 Ma (Sm-Nd; Amato, et al., 1999). Core-to-rim variations in Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd ratios in concert with age data indicate that the burial history for this slice may have begun at 55 Ma or earlier and that peak metamorphism was very close to 40 Ma (e.g., Lapen et al., 2003). The lower and likely basal fragment of the ZSO is found at Saas-Fee, Switz., and in the contact zone with the Monte Rosa massif, Gressoney Valley, Italy. Pressure-temperature estimates for this fragment are >2.0 GPa, ~600°C (Meyer 1983, Allalinhorn area). In contrast to the structurally higher fragment, a garnet-wr Lu-Hf age of 40.8±1.8 Ma in conjunction with modeling of Lu-Hf zoning data in garnet suggests initiation of garnet growth (corresponding to burial) as early as 45 Ma, which is 10 m.y. later than in the upper ZSO fragment. The relatively young age for eclogite-facies metamorphism in the lower ZSO agrees with new U- Pb rutile ages of 42.6±0.6 Ma for eclogite-facies veins in the structurally underlying Monte Rosa nappe (Lapen et al., CMP, in press). A greenschist/amphibolite-facies overprint occurred across the ZSO and Monte- Rosa nappe between 38 and 34 Ma, suggesting these units were accreted together by 38 Ma. The disparity in Lu-Hf ages between the upper and lower slices of the ZSO likely indicates diachronous subduction of the ZSO. These slices may represent at least two discrete fragments of the Piemont-Ligurian basin that were subducted at different times due to telescopic collapse of the basin where the upper fragment was subsequently underthrust by the lower fragment. Serpentinite bodies occur in the lower fragment of the ZSO, but additional buoyancy may have been derived through coupling to granitic basement material of the Gran Paradiso and Monte Rosa nappes (Lapen et al., CMP, in press). Large, low-density serpentinite bodies associated with the upper fragment of the ZSO were likely responsible for its buoyancy-driven exhumation.

  18. Magmatism and metamorphism at the sheeted dyke-gabbro transition zone: new insight from beerbachite from ODP/IODP Hole 1256D and Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Python, Marie; Abily, Bénédicte; France, Lydéric

    2014-05-01

    During IODP Expedition 335, two-pyroxenes bearing granulites (beerbachites) were extensively recovered as drilling cuttings at the gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone of ODP Hole 1256D (East Pacific Rise, 6°44.163'N, 91°56.061'W). This lithology results from high-temperature metamorphism of previously hydrothermally altered diabases, basalts and/or gabbros; the heat source likely stems from the melt lens located at the top of the magmatic chambers imaged along present-day fast-spreading ridges. This lithology, associated with gabbroic bodies, characterises the transition zone between the sheeted dyke complex and the uppermost gabbroic section and represents the interface between magmatic and hydrothermal convecting systems in an oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Samples acquired during IODP Exp. 335 show a particularly high degree of recrystallisation and are characterised by the absence of hydrous phases like amphibole, suggesting very high-T metamorphism. The Beerbachites mineral chemical characteristics are rather homogeneous compared to gabbros or dolerite from the sheeted dyke but pyroxenes Mg#, Ti, Al and Cr contents as well as the anorthite content of plagioclase are closer to gabbro than dolerite. This similarity may be explained by two hypothesis: either beerbachites in Hole 1256D are metamorphosed gabbros, or they underwent a melt-rock reaction process with the gabbros parental magma and were re-equilibrated at high temperature until their mineral composition become similar to that of gabbros. The gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone in the Oman ophiolite is also outlined by the presence of high grade metamorphic rocks. Fine grained granulites and amphibolites that may be derived from the transformation of altered sheeted dyke diabases are in direct contact with fresh gabbroic and troctolitic bodies which are themselves cross-cut by dolerite dykes. The observation of textures show that high-T recrystallisation occurred in the fine grained beerbachite and amphibolites as well as in gabbros and troctolites. In completely recrystallised zones, the texture show a mosaic of small (<100 µm) Cpx and Pl grains with strait boundaries, and subrounded Opx. Textures and mineralogical assemblage are alike, independently of the nature of the protolith, suggesting that fine grained strongly recrystallised beerbachites may have formed from gabbro as well as from diabase. Moreover, the occurrence of unusual lithologies like Opx or amphibole-bearing troctolites and strongly metamorphosed amphibolites show that metamorphic processes at the sheeted dyke-gabbro boundary in the oceanic crust is not a simple reheating of hydrothermally altered diabases but involve complex interactions between newly injected magma and altered and non altered host. Partial melting of hydrothermally hydrated diabases and/or gabbros during reheating and the resulting probable magma mixing, together with melt-rock reaction are likely to play a critical role at this interface and, thus, in the ocean crust building.

  19. Magmatic relationships between depleted mantle harzburgites, boninitic cumulate gabbros and subduction-related tholeiitic basalts in the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex, Dominican Republic: Implications for the birth of the Caribbean island-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex (PPC) occurs west of the main collisional suture between the Caribbean and North American plates in the northern Dominican Republic, and imposes important constraints on the geochemical and tectonic processes associated with the birth of the Caribbean island-arc. The PPC exposes a tectonically dismembered 3.0-km-thick section of upper mantle harzburgites, lower crustal cumulate gabbroic rocks and upper crustal basaltic pillow lavas, volcanic breccias and pelagic sediments. The harzburgites exhibit a highly depleted signature in terms of their modal compositions, mineral chemistry and whole rock major and trace element contents, suggesting that they are residues after high-degrees of partial melting. Melt modeling suggests that they were similar in trace element characteristics to a boninite. In the crustal sequence, three magmatic episodes have been recognized based on field, mineral and geochemical data. The first phase is composed of the lower layered gabbronorites, which are variably deformed and recrystallized at high-temperature conditions. Trace element modeling suggests that the gabbronorites crystallized from LREE-depleted island-arc tholeiitic (IAT) melts. The second phase is composed of the intermediate layered troctolites (126 Ma), which are undeformed and preserve igneous cumulate textures. Modeling indicates that the troctolites crystallized from boninitic melts. The gabronorite-troctolite substrate was intruded by a third, supra-subduction zone tholeiitic magmatic phase at < 126 Ma, which formed the upper olivine gabbros and gabbronorites. These gabbroic rocks formed from melts similar in composition to the IAT basalts and basaltic andesites of the overlying Los Caños Fm. Contemporaneous Aptian to lower Albian mafic volcanic rocks of the Los Ranchos Fm and Cacheal complex have comparable IAT geochemical and isotopic signatures, suggesting that all of them may have erupted over a single piece of the Caribbean oceanic lithosphere.

  20. Origin and significance of the ophiolitic high-P mélanges in the northern Caribbean convergent margin: Insights from the geochemistry and large-scale structure of the Río San Juan metamorphic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Friedman, Richard; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes; Jabites, Janet; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2011-12-01

    The Río San Juan metamorphic complex exposes a segment of a high-pressure accretionary wedge, built during Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic subduction below the Caribbean island-arc. Detailed mapping, large-scale structural analysis, U-Pb/Ar-Ar geochronology, in situ trace element analyses of clinopyroxene, and bulk-rock geochemical data show that the northern half of the complex is composed of arc- and oceanic-derived units, whose large-scale internal structure consists of an imbricate stack of mainly high-P rocks. In the lower structural levels, the Gaspar Hernández serpentinized peridotite-tectonite is composed of massive, serpentinized harzburgite that grades into surrounding sheared serpentinite or gouge. Gabbroic rocks and dolerite sills with N-MORB geochemical signatures are sparse and altered to greenschists facies. U-Pb data indicate a Lower Cretaceous magmatic age (136.40 ± 0.32 Ma). These rocks are interpreted as ophiolitic fragments of the proto-Caribbean Ocean. In the intermediate Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange, the massive serpentinite with relict peridotite textures was overprinted by schistose and sheared serpentinite, and serpentinite gouge, recording various degrees and conditions of internal deformation. Serpentinite schistosity surfaces warp around mélange hard blocks (< 1 m to 2.5 km). Blocks are massive serpentinized peridotite and exotic high-P crustal rocks. The protoliths of the mafic metaigneous rocks originated from arc-like and non-arc-like magmas. The Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange represents the deep subduction channel, formed during intra-oceanic subduction. In the upper structural levels, the Morrito unit is composed of high-P Puerca Gorda and Guineal Schists. Protoliths are basic-intermediate volcanic rocks with IAT, low-Ti IAT and boninitic geochemical signatures, similar in composition to the Lower Cretaceous Caribbean island-arc. The Morrito basal fault-zone thrusted the Puerca Gorda Schists onto the Jagua Clara mélange. The geochemical characteristics of many mafic metaigneous rocks found within the Jagua Clara mélange, and particularly in the Morrito unit, indicate that they occupied a supra-subduction zone position at some time in their history and, therefore, the mélange reflect the position of the Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic subduction zone. The presence in the mélange of exotic blocks plucked from both the upper plate (Caribbean island-arc) and the lower plate (proto-Caribbean Ocean) suggests that the arc crust was eroded at its base by tectonic processes in the Late Cretaceous. Regional structural data indicate that the Morrito basal fault-zone now forms the suture between the Caribbean island-arc terranes and the accreted units of the paleo-continental margin of North America.

  1. Structure of the ophiolite-hosted Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide ore district revealed by combined 3D modelling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalmann, Kerstin; Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu district within the North Karelia Schist Belt in eastern Finland hosts Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits which are associated with Palaeoproterozoic ophiolitic metaperidotites that were tectonically interleaved with allochthonous metaturbidites. Extensive metasomatism of the peridotites produced a rim of quartz-carbonate-calc-silicate rocks, grouped as the Outokumpu assemblage (OKA). A tectonic history comprising various phases of folding and shearing followed by several faulting events dismembered the metaperidotites so that ore bodies cannot be easily followed along strike. Future exploration has to expand the search into deeper areas and consequently requires better knowledge of the subsurface geology. In order to unravel the complex structure 3D geologic models of different scales have been built using a variety of information: geological maps, aeromagnetic and gravity maps, digital terrain models, mine cross sections, drill core logs combined with observations from underground mine galleries, structural measurements, and data from seismic survey lines. The latter have been used to detect upper crustal-scale structures and have been reprocessed for our purpose. The models reveal that the ore body has formed during remobilisation of a proto-ore and is closely related to thrust zones that truncate the OKA. Later faults dismembered the ore explaining the variable depth of the different ore bodies along the Outokumpu ore zone. On a larger scale, at least four km-scale thrust sheets separated by major listric shear zones (curved dislocations in the seismic lines) can be recognized, each internally further imbricated by subordinate shear zones containing a number of lens-shape bodies of probably OKA rocks. Thrust stacking was followed by at least 3 stages of faulting that divided the ore belt into fault-bounded blocks with heterogeneous displacements: (i) NW-dipping faults with unresolved kinematics, (ii) reverse faulting along c.50°-60° SE-dipping faults , (iii) SW-NE to SSW-NNE striking faults which may have formed at an earlier stage and have been reactivated. The specific Outokumpu alteration assemblage around metaperidotite bodies combined with shear zones acting as pathways for fluids are the main vectors to mineralization. Seismic reflection data do not provide a simple tool to directly detect the sites of Outokumpu assemblage bodies at depth but they identify strong reflector zones which are characteristic for though not exclusive to the assemblage. Our approach shows that 3D modelling combining surface geology and geophysical data and a good knowledge about the structural evolution substantially improves the interpretation of reflectors and their assignments to rock units of interest. It thus enhances the chances for locating potentially economic bodies at depth and allows delineating target areas for detailed exploration.

  2. A chromian spinel-oversaturated melt for podiform chromitite formation: Evidence from well-preserved dunite clots in massive podiform chromitites in the Coto Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payot, B. D.; Arai, S.; Tamayo, R. A., Jr.; Yumul, G. P., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Oval-shaped dunite clots occur within massive podiform chromitites in the Coto Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines. The size of the well-preserved dunite clots ranges from 3-4 cm in length and 1.5-2 cm in width. These dunite clots are composed mainly of olivine, spinel and very minor amounts of serpentine. Olivines are mostly subhedral and coarse-grained reaching up to 3 mm across. Compared to the spinels in the massive podiform chromitites, the dark brown spinels in dunite are anhedral to subhedral and are generally smaller (<0.5 mm). The massive podiform chromitites hosting the dunite clots are primarily composed of spinel (95%) with olivine, plagioclase, serpentine and chlorite as the interstitial silicate matrix (5%). The reddish brown spinels are subhedral to euhedral and are coarse-grained reaching up to 5 mm across. The contact between the massive podiform chromitites and the dunite is very ragged and irregular. Near the contact, rounded to lobate olivine grains (<0.5 mm in diameter) occur as inclusions within the spinels in the massive podiform chromitites. These olivine inclusions show the same/continuous optical extinction as the adjacent and large olivines in the dunite. The Cr# of chromian spinel in the dunite clots and the massive podiform chromitites falls within a very narrow range (Cr#=0.42-0.52). However, the Cr# of the chromian spinel in the dunite clots (Cr#=0.47-0.52) is slightly higher than the massive podiform chromitites (Cr#=0.46-0.0.48). The former similarly shows higher Fe3+ content than the latter. TiO2 content of the chromian spinels in the dunite clots and the massive podiform chromitites is generally low (<0.11 wt%). Olivines in the dunite clots show slightly lower Fo content (=93-95) than the olivines in the interstices of the massive podiform chromitites (=95-96). The former similarly have lower NiO contents (=0.40-0.59 wt%) compared to the latter (=0.50-0.84 wt%). The occurrence of the well-preserved dunite clots in the massive podiform chromitites possibly provide us with evidence to indicate the chromian spinel-oversaturated character of the melt involved in the formation of podiform chromitite. The existence of such type of melt was only hypothesized by Irvine (1977) based on the interpretation of stratiform chromitite genesis.

  3. Late Cretaceous high?K volcanism in the eastern Pontide orogenic belt: implications for the geodynamic evolution of NE Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yener Eyübo?lu

    2010-01-01

    High?K volcanics were produced in two different Late Cretaceous cycles during the infilling of back?arc basins of the eastern Pontides. The first cycle, represented by shoshonitic trachyandesites and associated pyroclastics, containing high K2O (2.74–4.81 wt?%) and Na2O (3.60–5.51 wt?%), overlies a mid?Cretaceous ophiolitic?olistostromal melange formed during the rifting stage of a back?arc basin (Neotethys). Ar\\/Ar dating of biotite from trachyandesite

  4. Sedimentary development of the Oligocene Karsant? Basin, southern Turkey, in its regional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can; Ak?nc?, Ahmet Can

    2015-06-01

    Following Late Cretaceous ophiolite and melange emplacement within the Tauride belt several Neogene sedimentary basins of variable size were formed along the southern flank of the Taurus continent in southern Turkey. These include the Pozant? and Karsant? Basins and the regional scale Çukurova Basin Complex, extending southwestwards into the Cilicia-Kyrenia Basin. The Karsant? Basin is bounded by the regional scale sinistral Ecemi? Fault Zone to the west, the East Anatolian Fault Zone to the southeast and the Negoene Adana Basin to the south. Deformed Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rock units that display an irregular palaeotopography form the basement of the Karsant? Basin. These units are overlain by an allochthonous K?z?lda? melange and by thrust slices of basic/ultrabasic ophiolitic rocks (Fara?a ophiolites) that were emplaced in this region during the Late Maastrichtian. The Karsant? Basin was formed during the Oligocene above the thrust sheets. The Karsant? Basin disconformably overlies the ophiolitic nappes and is interpreted as a N-S trending half graben which was probably most active following the deposition of lacustrine sediments during the late Oligocene. The main Karsant? Basin infill is represented by four lithological units: 1. Alluvial fan deposits (A1), 2. shallow-marine deposits (A2), 3. lacustrine deposits (A3), and 4. fluvial deposits (A4). These sediments were deposited during the Oligocene, prior to the initiation of the main Adana Basin, which formed in a separate intermontane setting. The Karsant? Basin fill is unconformably overlain by early Miocene sediments of the Neogene Adana basin.

  5. Note-Notis The Trvikbygd Ophiolite -a newly discovered ophiolite fragment

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    1984. ISSN 0029-196X. Diabases from a sheeted dyke complex associated with greenstones, gabbros and Vangdalsberget, where the greenstones constitute a sheeted diabase complex. The gab bros in this area occur

  6. Early Paleozoic magmatic events in the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, E.T.; Mattinson, J.M.; Potter, A.W.

    1988-02-01

    New U-Pb zircon ages for nine samples of tonalite and pegmatitic trondhjemite from the Trinity ophiolite and associated melange reveal a complex history of magmatic activity extending back into the earliest Cambrian, much older than previously believed. Earlier investigations, based on limited data, recognized lower Paleozoic crustal elements in the eastern Klamath terrane (EKT) ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Early to Middle Devonian. The new work in the Yreka-Callahan area of the EKT confirms the Ordovician (440-475 Ma) and younger ages, but reveals for the first time the presence of tonalitic rocks that crystallized during a narrow time interval at about 565-570 Ma. The authors also recognize younger, Late Silurian magmatism at 412 Ma. In the context of available mapping, these ages indicate that the Trinity ophiolite is broadly polygenetic because parts of it yield crystallization ages that span approximately 150 m.y. Superjacent dismembered units of probable early Paleozoic age may be tectonostratigraphically equivalent to the Sierra City melange in the northern Sierra Nevada.

  7. Etude des proprietes de surface et des proprietes rheologiques des melanges polymeres thermotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar Hernandez, Maria Gabriela

    We studied the surface and rheological properties of thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (TLCP) mixed with thermoplastics. We first investigated acid-base interactions in polymer component as a function of temperature, and could identified the many phase changes in TLCP. We found that acid-base interactions in TLCP decrease significantly with temperature, down to a point Tc where they become negligible. To our knowledge, it is the first time such observation is reported concerning TLCP. Acid-base interactions in the thermoplastics also vary with temperature, but they remain non-negligible, and reach a plateau at high temperature. In theory, one can obtain compatible blends between polymers A and B when their interaction parameters are both small and similar. The negligible acid-base parameter of TLCP at T > Tc should enhance the compatibility with thermoplastics. For that reason, we prepared the TLCP/thermoplastic blends at temperatures superior and inferior to Tc. We restricted our investigation to blends prepared in a Brabender Plasticorder in order to control the temperature in the mixing chamber and reduce the effects of TLCP domains deformation and reorientation. We prepared Vectra/polycarbonate blends, optimizing the drying conditions and the TLCP concentration. We optimized the drying conditions based on our previous results, finding that the transesterification reaction in presence of water happens at high temperature. Transesterification reaction was identified using infrared spectroscopy in the polymer components and in the blends. We found that this reaction occurring mainly between the ester groups in the polymer components. The product of this reaction, concentrated at the interfaces, has a remarkable effect on the blend morphology, similar to the one in compatible blend, and on its mechanical properties. To measure the effect of transesterification at the interfaces, we studied the linear viscoelasticity properties of Vectra/polycarbonate blend and their relation with their morphology. We found from the time variation of the elastic modulus at very low frequencies that the transesterification reaction was still occurring during rheological measurements. We observed coalescence of the dispersed phase droplets in all blends. Size of the droplets changed with the blend composition, the preparation temperature and the rheological characterization temperature. In addition, we compared Palierne (1990, 1991) and Lee-Park models when applied to Vectra/polycarbonate blends. We found that the Palierne model does not predict the rheological behavior of the blend, due to the mixture rule used in that model. Lee-Park model, using a different mixture rule, gives a good prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties. We succeeded in modeling the Vectra/polycarbonate rheological properties combining the characteristic relaxation times of the Palierne and Lee-Park models. Using this approach, we could clearly show that the decrease of the interfacial tension is due to the copolymer produced at the interface by transesterification reaction.

  8. IFT 1571 DEMO 2 (semaine du 22 janvier 2001) 1. UN PROBL`EME DE MELANGE

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    ^ut carbone nickel chrome molybd`ene rebut 1 0.80 18 12 ­ 75 16 rebut 2 0.70 3.2 1.1 1.1 250 10 rebut 3 0.85 ­ ­ ­ 8 rebut 4 0.40 ­ ­ ­ 9 nickel ­ 100 ­ ­ 48 chrome ­ ­ 100 ­ 60 molybd`ene ­ ­ 100 53 Ce probl alors le programme non lin´eaire #12;max min j rjxj xj N 0 xj uj. Ce programme est ´equivalent, par

  9. IFT 1575 DEMO 2 (semaine du 16 septembre 2013) 1. UN PROBL`EME DE MELANGE

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    ^ut carbone nickel chrome molybd`ene rebut 1 0.80 18 12 ­ 75 16 rebut 2 0.70 3.2 1.1 1.1 250 10 rebut 3 0.85 ­ ­ ­ 8 rebut 4 0.40 ­ ­ ­ 9 nickel ­ 100 ­ ­ 48 chrome ­ ­ 100 ­ 60 molybd`ene ­ ­ 100 53 Ce probl alors le programme non lin´eaire #12;max min j rjxj xj N 0 xj uj. Ce programme est ´equivalent, par

  10. IFT 1571 DEMO 2 (semaine du 8 septembre 2003) 1. UN PROBL`EME DE MELANGE

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    ^ut carbone nickel chrome molybd`ene rebut 1 0.80 18 12 ­ 75 16 rebut 2 0.70 3.2 1.1 1.1 250 10 rebut 3 0.85 ­ ­ ­ 8 rebut 4 0.40 ­ ­ ­ 9 nickel ­ 100 ­ ­ 48 chrome ­ ­ 100 ­ 60 molybd`ene ­ ­ 100 53 Ce probl alors le programme non lin´eaire #12;max min j rjxj xj N 0 xj uj. Ce programme est ´equivalent, par

  11. Melange: Supporting Heterogeneous QoS Requirements in Delay Tolerant Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    --In sparse mobile sensor networks, nodes have a small number of neighbors with intermittent connectivity through a DTN to a base station [9]. In these protocols, mobile nodes transmit data packets with some that eventually reaches the base station. Thus, this approach can transmit data through a network of mobile nodes

  12. Is the Chrystalls Beach Accretionary Melange a Fossil Subduction Channel Shear Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Sibson, R. H.

    2007-12-01

    In the northeast of the Hikurangi subduction margin, a 1-2 km thick layer of high Vp/Vs, low Qp and distributed microseismicity is present along the subduction megathrust interface (Eberhart-Phillips & Chadwick, 2002). This zone is interpreted as a 'subduction channel' consisting of a fluid-saturated, highly sheared mixture of trench-fill sediments, which have been subducted below (or eroded from) the accretionary prism (von Huene & Scholl, 1991). Seismic style within subduction channels may vary from large megathrust ruptures to aseismic slip associated with microseismic activity. The factors controlling these variations in style are not well understood due to the inaccessible nature of active subduction thrust interfaces. The Chrystalls Beach Complex, SE Otago, New Zealand, is a possible analogue for the seismogenic zone of an active subduction channel. This complex comprises an intensely sheared mixture of chert, terrigenous mud and sand, minor volcanogenic sediments and pillow lavas. It has a 'block-in-matrix' mélange structure, where asymmetric, dismembered beds of sand-rich competent material are enclosed within a relatively incompetent, cleaved pelitic matrix. The rock assemblage has been progressively deformed in a top-to-the-north shear zone, and is pervaded by an anastomosing network of quartz/calcite shear- and extension veins, where individual veins can be traced for tens of metres. The presence of extension veins indicates episodes where the tensile overpressure condition (Pf > ?3) was locally attained. Initially the sediments experienced compaction, volume loss and layer-parallel soft sediment shearing, developing a slaty cleavage and viscous S/C shear structures. The dense vein network developed during subsequent brittle deformation. The mineral assemblage (pumpellyite-chlorite to pumpellyite-actinolite), mica b0 spacing and illite crystallinity indicate deformation in a high pressure - low temperature environment ( ~ 3-6 kbar, ~ 200-300°C). This P-T environment and structural character appear to match that inferred for microseismically active portions of the Hikurangi subduction channel. Slickenfibres coating shear veins in the Chrystalls Beach Complex formed by a 'crack-seal' mechanism, suggesting formation by episodic slip coupled to fluid pressure cycling and solution transfer. These veins may therefore record incremental slip associated with microearthquakes like those seen in highly overpressured regions of active subduction zones and other creeping fault segments. Observations from this fossil shear zone provide constraints for laboratory and theoretical models, highlighting the chaotic nature of natural faults. For example, shear veins in the complex are commonly localised along lithological contacts, while extension veins are concentrated in the more competent units. If the process forming these veins mirrors the triggering mechanism of subduction zone microseismicity, then the structure and composition of the subduction channel shear zone impose a significant control on deformation along the subduction thrust interface. In particular, heterogeneity in fluid pressure and the ratio of competent to incompetent material seem likely to be important sources of strength heterogeneity along the interplate megathrust.

  13. The Siuna Serpentinite Melange: An Early Cretaceous Subduction/Accretion of a Jurassic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, K.; Baumgartner, P. O.; Skora, S.; Baumgartner, L.; Muntener, O.; Cosca, M.; Cruz, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Siuna Serpentinite Mélange (SSM), located in northeastern Nicaragua, is a small tectonic window of a large assemblage, the Mesquito Oceanic Terranes (MOT). The SSM was subducted during the Early Cretaceous at the border of continental Chortis Block (sensu stricto). The occurrence of the SSM is in conflict with the current plate tectonic schemes. The pre-Albian, N-S striking subduction-related mélange of SSM zone is exposed SW of the town of Siuna. It consists of metamorphosed, Ca-depleted ultramafic rocks. Relict Cr-rich spinel (Cr # 0.57-0.79) in serpentinites and chromite pods indicates a high degree of melting. The serpentinite matrix contains blocks of sedimentary and igneous origin. Late Bajocian-early Bathonian (169-167 Ma) red- ribbon-bedded radiolarites are in sedimentary contact with greenstones (calc-alkaline metandesites) and volcanic arenites. Middle Oxfordian to late Kimmeridgian/early Tithonian (159-151/148 Ma) black radiolarian-rich cherts, minor shales and siliceous mudstones blocks were found, as well as quartzites, metasandstones and riebeckite-rich metaturbidites. Furthermore, various metamafic rocks including gabbros can be found. This indicates an oceanic setting for the mélange blocks. The metamafic rocks of the mélange exhibit assemblages corresponding to different metamorphic conditions. They range from typical greenschist and amphibolite facies assemblages to high pressure barroisite bearing greenschists. Possible blueschist to eclogite facies conditions are indicated by mica schist with silica rich phengites yielding 139.2 ± 0.4 Ma 40 Ar/39Ar geochronology and blocks containing garnet with inclusions of aegirine/omphacite. Hence, the SSM resembles typical subduction zone mélanges (e.g. Franciscan, Motagua). It exposes parts of a major zone of oceanic terranes of pacific origin, the MOT, that are placed between the Chortis Block and the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). The overlap sequence documents Aptian/Albian deep water turbiditic sequences overlain by shallow water limestones (Atima formation) associated with calc-alkaline andesitic lavas. The presence of oceanic remnants in NE Nicaragua (SSM) may radically change the current concepts of plate boundaries of the western Caribbean plate: 1-The SSM contain the oldest HP-LT suite of the circum-Caribbean metamorphic terranes, and 2- The boundary between the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Chortis Block and the oceanic terranes associated to the CLIP has been commonly placed as far south as the Costa Rica/Nicaragua border. A suture zone was interpreted to be aligned with the EW-trending Santa Elena Fault and the Hess Escarpment, based on outcrops of serpentinites that are found along the San Juan River (Costa Rica/Nicaragua border). However, newly discovered outcrops of serpentinites and oceanic sediments far north of the San Juan River suggests that Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism of Nicaragua may hide an extensive collage of oceanic terranes that we call Mesquito Oceanic Terranes.

  14. Pour une Pedagogie Sauvage (Toward a "Natural" Pedagogy). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalon, Y.

    This article on language teaching methodology calls for the integration of change in language teaching with change in the teaching profession as a whole. Historically influenced by traditional definitions of specific linguistic domains such as that of lexicon and grammar, language teaching can progress only by adopting strategies that focus more…

  15. Structure and kinematics of the Suzume fault, Okitsu melange, Shimanto accretionary complex, Japan

    E-print Network

    Kanaya, Takamasa

    2007-04-25

    The Okitsu m�©lange in the Shimanto accretionary complex, the onshore extension of the modern Nankai accretionary prism, consists of a kilometer-size duplex of oceanic basalt and trench-fill sedimentary rocks, and is thought to represent rocks...

  16. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Dubakella Mountain 15 quadrangle, Trinity, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Yule, J. Douglas; Court, Bradford L.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Stern, Laura A.; Copeland, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The Dubakella Mountain 15' quadrangle is located just south of the Hayfork quadrangle and just east of the Pickett Peak quadrangle. It spans a sequence of four northwest-trending tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Klamath Mountains geologic province that includes, from east to west, the Eastern Hayfork, Western Hayfork, Rattlesnake Creek, and Western Jurassic terranes, as well as, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle, part of a fifth terrane, the Pickett Peak terrane of the Coast Ranges geologic province. The Eastern Hayfork terrane is a broken formation and melange of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that include blocks of limestone and chert. The limestone contains late Permian microfossils of Tethyan faunal affinity. The chert contains radiolarians of Mesozoic age, mostly Triassic, but none clearly Jurassic. The Western Hayfork terrane is an andesitic volcanic arc that consists mainly of agglomerate, tuff, argillite, and chert, and includes the Wildwood pluton. That pluton is related to the Middle Jurassic (about 170 Ma) Ironside Mountain batholith that is widely exposed farther north beyond the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle. The Rattlesnake Creek terrane is a highly disrupted ophiolitic melange of probable Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. Although mainly ophiolitic, the melange includes blocks of plutonic rocks (about 200 Ma) of uncertain genetic relation. Some scattered areas of well-bedded mildly slaty detrital rocks of the melange appear similar to Galice Formation (unit Jg) and may be inliers of the nearby Western Jurassic terrane. The Western Jurassic terrane consists mainly of slaty to phyllitic argillite, graywacke, and stretched-pebble conglomerate and is correlative with the Late Jurassic Galice Formation of southwestern Oregon. The Pickett Peak terrane, the most westerly of the succession of terranes of the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle, is mostly fine-grained schist that includes the blueschist facies mineral lawsonite and is of Early Cretaceous (about 120 Ma) metamorphic age. Remnants of the Great Valley sequence of dominantly Cretaceous marine sedimentary strata, which once covered much of the southern fringe of the Klamath Mountains, are present at three places in the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle. Mineral production in the quadrangle has included small amounts of gold, chromite, and manganese. This map of the Dubakella Mountain 15' quadrangle is a digital rendition of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1808, with various improvements and additions.

  17. The South China block-Indochina collision: Where, when, and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Michel; Lepvrier, Claude; Nguyen, Vuong Van; Vu, Tich Van; Lin, Wei; Chen, Zechao

    2014-01-01

    This study uses new field observations and existing studies to shed new light on the origin and significance of two NW-SE striking orogens in NW and NE Vietnam. We conclude that the architecture of each belt is a stack of NE-directed nappes formed either under deep ductile synmetamorphic conditions, or under shallow depth in the SW and NE parts, respectively. The Song Ma zone and Song Chay ophiolitic melange represent two ophiolitic sutures. However, the Late Permian Song Da and Babu mafic rocks are not ophiolites but intraplate basalts related to the Emeishan plume. A Late Triassic unconformity, the 225-205 Ma postorogenic plutonism, and the 250-230 Ma syntectonic metamorphism support an Early to Middle Triassic age for these tectonic events. Both NW and NE belts are due to SW-directed subduction with arc magmatism, ocean closure, and continental collision. Though two contemporary S-dipping subduction zones might explain the structural evolution of the two belts, a single convergent system, offset by the Tertiary Red River fault, is preferred as this S-directed subduction better accounts for the Late Permian intraplate magmatism. This scenario is discussed in the general geodynamic framework of SE Asia.

  18. Trinity Complex plagiogranites, Klamath Mtns. , California: Late Precambrian to Early Paleozoic tectonism and magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Tozer, M.K.; Lindsley-Griffin, N. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Three ages of plagiogranites (PG) are reported from the Trinity Complex: late Proterozoic to earliest Cambrian (570 Ma), Ordovician (469--475 Ma), and Silurian (412 Ma). Minor Ordovician PG intrudes 570 Ma cumulate gabbros and is only moderately deformed. Silurian PG is related to voluminous gabbroic magmatism (Waling et al. 1981) and is relatively undeformed. However, 570 Ma PG in the Gregg Ranch area from Gazelle Mtn. to Lovers Leap is intensely deformed and is either part of the Trinity ophiolite sequence or blocks of Trinity ophiolite within melange of the Gregg Ranch Complex. The 570 Ma PG of Gregg Ranch consists of light gray, medium-grained fresh PG, interleaved with darker finer-grained PG that contains abundant sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite). Both types are cataclastic: after ductile stretching, quartz (Q) and plagioclase (PL) grains were broken and rotated. Though surrounded by fine fragmental Q and PL matrix, some larger pieces fit back together. Thus, the PG experienced deformation under P-T conditions across the ductile to brittle transition. A change in fabric and joint orientations from NW to NE across the area suggests the rocks were subsequently folded at least once. The 570 Ma Trinity ophiolite was intensely deformed prior to intrusion of minor PG in the Ordovician. Silurian magmatism postdates all major deformation and records no later orogenic events in the Trinity Complex other than warping and uplift.

  19. Alpine Jurassic ophiolites resemble the modern central Atlantic basement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Lagabrielle; Mathilde Cannat

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in knowledge of the structure of the central Atlantic clearly indicate that the magmatic crust is very thin and locally discontinuous in large areas of this ocean. Specifically, extensive outcrops of serpentinized mantle peridotites have been discovered along the present-day spreading axis away from fracture-zone scarps. These peculiar aspects of the present-day structure of a slow-spreading major ocean

  20. The oroclinal bend in the South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the South Island of New Zealand lies within an Eocene-Recent continental shear zone related to Pacific-Australia plate motion. Macroscopic finite strain in this shear zone has, in the past, been tracked through the deformation of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. This paper identifies additional sub-vertical basement strain markers including: Buller-Takaka Terrane boundary, Darran Suite and Jurassic volcanic belt within the Median Batholith, Taieri-Wakatipu-Goulter Synform axial trace, Esk Head Melange and bedding form surfaces within the Buller, Takaka and Torlesse terranes. An analysis of the oroclinal bend over the entire Zealandia continent shows that it is a composite feature involving pre- as well as post-Eocene bending of basement structures. Satisfactory paleogeographic reconstructions of Zealandia cannot be made without the use of substantial regional scale, non-rigid intracontinental deformation.

  1. Relationships of soil, grass, and bedrock over the Kaweah serpentine melange through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    1991-01-01

    A linear mixing model is used to model the spectral variability of an AVIRIS scene from the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and calibrate these radiance data to reflectance. Five spectral endmembers from the AVIRIS data, plus an ideal 'shade' endmember were required to model the continuum reflectance of each pixel in the image. Three of the endmembers were interpreted to model the surface constituents green vegetation, dry grass, and illumination. These are the main transient surface constituents that are expected to change with shifts in land use or climatic influences and viewing conditions ('shade' only). The spectral distinction between the other three endmembers is very small, yet the spatial distributions are coherent and interpretable. These distributions cross anthropogenic and vegetation boundaries and are best interpreted as different soil types. Comparison of the fraction images to the bedrock geology maps indicates that substrate composition must be a factor contributing to the spectral properties of these endmembers. Detailed examination of the reflectance spectra of the three soil endmembers reveals that differences in the amount of ferric and ferrous iron and/or organic constituents in the soils is largely responsible for the differences in spectral properties of these endmembers.

  2. Relationships of soil, grass, and bedrock over the Kaweah Serpentinite Melange through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.

    1993-01-01

    A linear mixing model is used to model the spectral variability of an AVIRIS scene from the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada and calibrate these radiance data to reflectance. Five spectral endmembers from the AVIRIS data, plus an ideal 'shade' endmember were required to model the continuum reflectance of each pixel in the image. Three of the endmembers were interpreted to model the surface constituents green vegetation, dry grass, and illumination. Comparison of the fraction images to the bedrock geology maps indicates that substrate composition must be a factor contributing to the spectral properties of these endmembers. Detailed examination of the reflectance spectra of the three soil endmembers reveals that differences in the amount of ferric and ferrous iron and/or organic constituents in the soils is largely responsible for the differences in spectral properties of these endmembers.

  3. Mesozoic sedimentary and magmatic evolution of the Arabian continental margin, northern Syria: evidence from the Baer–Bassit Melange 

    E-print Network

    Al-Riyami, Khalil; Robertson, Alastair