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Sample records for ophthalmic radiation side

  1. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  6. Ophthalmic instruments: an assessment of radiation emissions and potential hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, O.L.; Memmen, J.E.; Waxler, M.

    1988-12-01

    This report discusses the following: the optical radiation emitted by a variety of ophthalmic instruments were measured and compared to current safety standards. In addition, a survey of clinical diagnostic examination times was conducted to compare exposure safe times to visible lesion threshold. It was demonstrated that excessive levels of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation could be emitted and should be eliminated. Several of the instruments emitted levels of visible radiation that resulted in very short safe times and could exceed the visible lesion threshold. Four experiments demonstrated instrument operating conditions that would reduce the potential for ocular hazards from ophthalmic instruments.

  7. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Wilkinson, Allan; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  8. Ophthalmic Metastasis of Breast Cancer and Ocular Side Effects from Breast Cancer Treatment and Management: Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, Theodore; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Kardara, Evgenia; Ladas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases occurring in women, and its incidence increases over the years. It is the main site of origin in ocular metastatic disease in women, and, due to its hematogenous nature of metastatic spread, it affects mainly the uveal tissue. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the clinical manifestations of the breast cancer ocular metastatic disease, alongside the side effects of the available treatment options for the management and regression of the systematic and ophthalmic disease. PMID:26078956

  9. Risk Factors for Cataract After Palladium-103 Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.; Yu Guopei; Patel, Neil S.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To examine how tumor characteristics and dose affect cataract development after plaque radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and eighty-four patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma and treated with palladium-103 ({sup 103}Pd) plaque radiation therapy. Of these, 282 (74%) inclusion met exclusion criteria for follow-up time, tumor location, and phakic status. Then patient-, ophthalmic-, and radiation-specific factors (patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tumor location, tumor dimensions, and lens dose) were examined (by a Cox proportional regression model) as predictors for the development of radiation-related cataract. Results: Radiation cataract developed in 76 (24%) of patients at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range, 1-192). Patients with anteriorly located tumors were noted to have a higher incidence of cataract at 43.0% (43 of 100 patients) vs. 18.1% (33 cataracts per 182 patients) for posteriorly located tumors (p <0.0001). However, multivariate Cox proportional modeling showed that increasing patient age at time of treatment (p for trend = 0.0003) and higher lens dose (p for trend = 0.001) were the best predictors (biomarkers) for radiation cataract. Conclusions: Although anterior tumor location, greater tumor height, and increased patient age (at treatment) were associated with significantly greater risk for radiation cataract, dose to lens was the most significant factor.

  10. Ofloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic ofloxacin ophthalmic is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye, including conjunctivitis (pink eye) and ulcers of the cornea. Ofloxacin is in a class of medications called quinolone antibiotics. ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of ... in the clear front part of the eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin ...

  12. Erythromycin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Romycin® Ophthalmic ... Ophthalmic erythromycin is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye. This medication is also used to prevent bacterial infections of the eye in newborn babies. Erythromycin is in a class ...

  13. Cyclopentolate Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... ciliary muscle of the eye) before an eye examination. Cyclopentolate is in a class of medications called ... solution into the eye(s) prior to an eye examination.Cyclopentolate ophthalmic may take about a half an ...

  14. Bromfenac Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness (inflammation) and pain that can occur after cataract surgery. Bromfenac ophthalmic is in a class of ... eye(s) once a day beginning one day before cataract surgery, on the day of the surgery, and ...

  15. Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of the membrane that covers the outside ... contact lenses while you have symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis or while you are applying eye drops. you ...

  16. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of the membrane that covers the outside ... eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called ...

  17. Besifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Besifloxacin ophthalmic is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of the membrane that covers the outside of the eyeballs and the inside of the eyelids). Besifloxacin is in a class ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye; infection of the membrane that covers ... contact lenses while you have symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis. you should know that bacterial conjunctivitis spreads easily. ...

  19. Cyclosporine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic cyclosporine is used to increase tear production in people with dry eye disease. Cyclosporine is in a class of medications called immunomodulators. It works by decreasing swelling in the eye ...

  20. Retrospective study and review of ocular radiation side effects following external-beam Cobalt-60 radiation therapy in 37 dogs and 12 cats

    PubMed Central

    Pinard, Chantale L.; Mutsaers, Anthony J.; Mayer, Monique N.; Woods, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the ocular side effects of cancer-bearing dogs and cats treated with external–beam Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radiation in which one or both orbit(s) were included in the radiation field. A total of 37 dogs and 12 cats presented to the Ontario Veterinary College during the 10-year study period (1999–2009) were evaluated. The radiation protocols ranged from a maximum of 60 Gray (Gy) in 24 fractions for curative intent to a minimum of 8 Gy in 1 fraction for palliative treatment. The main ocular side effect reported in both dogs and cats was conjunctivitis (79% and 55%, respectively). Other common ocular side effects included eyelid lesions in dogs (44%), ulcerative keratitis in cats (36%), and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in both dogs and cats (44% and 27%, respectively). The high incidence of ocular side effects in both patient populations indicates a need for regular ophthalmic examinations as a component of routine follow-up for radiation therapy involving the orbit. Radiation damage to ocular tissues is also reviewed. PMID:23729828

  1. Analysis and suppression of side radiation in leaky SAW resonators.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shogo; Tsutsumi, Jun; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Ikata, Osamu; Satoh, Yoshio

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses side acoustic radiation in leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) resonators on rotated Y-cut lithium tantalite substrates. The mechanism behind side radiation, which causes a large insertion loss, is analyzed by using the scalar potential theory. This analysis reveals that side radiation occurs when the guiding condition is not satisfied, and the LSAW most strongly radiates at the frequency in which the LSAW velocities in the grating and busbar regions approximately correspond to each other. Based on these results, we propose a "narrow finger structure," which satisfies the guiding condition and drastically suppresses the side radiation. Experiments show that the resonance Q of the proposed structure drastically improves to over 1000 by suppressing the side radiation, which is three times higher than for a conventional structure. Applying the proposed resonators to the ladder-type SAW filters, ultra-low-loss and steep cut-off characteristics are achieved in the range of 800 MHz and 1.9 GHz. PMID:17703674

  2. Tafluprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor.Tafluprost ophthalmic comes in single-use containers. The solution from one container should be used immediately after opening for one or both eyes. Throw away each single-use container and any remaining solution after one use.Tafluprost ...

  3. Latanoprost Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Latanoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision) and ... a condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Latanoprost is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic pilocarpine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and as an eye gel to apply to the eyes. The eye drops are usually ... instilling the next drop. Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or ...

  5. Olopatadine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic olopatadine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eye. It is usually instilled in the affected eye(s) twice a day, around 6 to 8 ... instilling the next drop. Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or ...

  6. Gentamicin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmic gentamicin comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and as an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. The eye drops are usually ... instilling the next drop. Replace and tighten the cap on the dropper bottle. Do not wipe or ...

  7. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  8. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  9. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects What to do about changes when you urinate “ ... drinking enough each day. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or ...

  10. Geometrical assessment of ocular exposure to environmental UV radiation--implications for ophthalmic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results may be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to only those rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina. PMID:10709347

  11. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Jiang, W.; C-Y Lu, Stephen; Besio, Walter G.

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation.

  12. Prednisolone Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... eye drops and eye ointment may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms ...

  13. Ophthalmic thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Lipshy, K A; Wheeler, W E; Denning, D E

    1996-06-01

    Reflex lid closure often protects the eyes during facial burns. Although corneal burns are uncommon, other ophthalmic injuries occur more frequently. Ophthalmic burns are usually associated with marked facial damage and possible inhalation injury. Failure to recognize and appropriately treat ophthalmic burns can lead to catastrophic sequelae. We performed a 2-year survey of all facial burns in our burn unit. Forty-four patients with thermal facial burns were identified. Sixteen patients had ophthalmic injuries. Corneal injury was detected in 13 per cent (2/16). Intubation was required in 43.75 per cent (7/16) of patients with ophthalmic injuries. Mortality was 25 per cent (4/16). We conclude that patients with facial burns severe enough to cause ophthalmic injuries may be associated with other lethal injuries, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained until all lethal injuries are ruled out. All ophthalmic injuries should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. PMID:8651533

  14. Bacitracin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... Bacitracin eye ointment may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, stinging, or burning of the eye ...

  15. Erythromycin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... Erythromycin eye ointment may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: redness, itching, stinging, or burning of the ...

  16. Tetrahydrozoline Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops and call your doctor immediately: headache sweating fast or irregular heartbeat nervousness If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  17. Dipivefrin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fast or irregular heartbeat chest pain wheezing difficulty breathing If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  18. Prednisolone Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling of eye inflammation caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, infection, allergy, or foreign bodies in the eye. It sometimes is used after eye surgery. Prednisolone is in a class of medications called steroids. It prevents swelling and redness by changing the way the immune system works.

  19. [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Physiologic Imaging of Choroidal Melanoma: Before and After Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) standardized uptake values (SUV) in uveal melanoma before and after plaque brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 217 patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma and eligible for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy underwent preoperative PET/CT to evaluate their intraocular tumor and screen for metastasis. Subsequent to undergoing plaque brachytherapy, patients' PET/CT SUV were periodically reevaluated over 42 months. Results: In this series, 37 (17%) choroidal melanoma patients were found to have an SUV of >2.0. Of these, 18 patients were able to undergo interval follow-up PET/CT scanning. There were 3 patients with T2, 11 patients with T3, and 4 patients with T4 melanomas according to 7th edition AJCC-UICC criteria. Mean apical thickness was 8.8 mm (range, 3-12.3 mm), and the largest mean tumor diameter was 15.1 mm (range, 12-19.9 mm). The mean initial SUV was 3.7 (range, 2.1-7.3). Patients were followed for a median 16 months (range, 6-42 months). The median time to a tumor SUV of 0 was 8.0 months (range, 6-18 months). There was one case of one interval increase in SUV that diminished after circumferential laser treatment. Conclusions: Intraocular PET/CT imaging provides a physiological assessment of tumor metabolism that can be used to evaluate changes after treatment. In this study, ophthalmic plaque radiation therapy was associated with extinguished tumor PET/CT SUV over time. PET/CT imaging can be used to assess choroidal melanomas for their response to treatment.

  20. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... interact with the chemo drugs. Mouth, Gum, and Throat Sores Both chemo and radiation (specifically to the ... lead to mouth sores, sensitive gums, an irritated throat, and an increased risk of tooth decay. The ...

  1. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin". PMID:26887117

  2. Nanoparticles in radiation oncology: From bench-side to bedside.

    PubMed

    Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Vallard, Alexis; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Chargari, Cyrus

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are "in vogue" in medical research. Pre-clinical studies accumulate evidence of NP enhancing radiation therapy. On one hand, NP, selected for their intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, are radio-sensitizers. Thus, when NP accumulate in cancer cells, they increase the radiation absorption coefficient specifically in tumour tissue, sparing healthy surrounding tissue from toxicity. On the other hand, NP, by being drug vectors, can carry radio-sensitizer therapeutics to cancer cells. Finally, NP present theranostic effects. Indeed they are used in imaging as contrast agents. NP therefore can be multi-tasking and have promising prospect in radiotherapy field. In spite of the numerous encouraging preclinical evidence, the very small number of clinical trials investigating NP possible involvement in the radiotherapy clinical practice suggests a physicians' unwillingness. Many prerequisites seem necessary including define biological mechanisms of NP radiosensitization pathways and of NP clearance. NP biocompatibility and toxicities should be better investigated to select, among the extensive range of possible systems, the harmless and most efficient one, and to finally come to a safe and successful clinical use. The present review focuses on the various interests of NP in the radiotherapy area and proposes a discussion about their role in the future clinical practice. PMID:26987625

  3. Ocular and systemic adverse effects of ophthalmic and non ophthalmic medications.

    PubMed

    Izazola-Conde, C; Zamora-de la Cruz, D; Tenorio-Guajardo, G

    2011-01-01

    Information related to adverse drug effects caused by ocular medications and ocular adverse effects of systemically administered drugs has increased over the last several decades. Here we review the medical literature over the last four decades to both quantitatively and qualitatively determine the adverse effects of ocular drugs and ocular toxicity of non-ocular drugs. A systematic bibliographic review of the literature was performed with the following terms: "drug treatment", "drug therapy", "ocular adverse effects", "ocular side effects", "ocular toxicity", "systemic side effects", "systemic adverse effects", "systemic toxicity", "ocular drug" and "ophthalmic drug" using the Boolean operators or, and, not. Searches focused on: (1) Ocular side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs; (2) Ocular side/adverse effects of systemic drugs; (3) Systemic side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs. PubMed was used to perform searches. Limits included: species, human and field tag, abstract/title, dates from 01/01/1971 to 31/12/2010. A sub-selection of references was made by discarding articles that were irrelevant for the topics listed above. Adverse effects of alpha2-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, quinine derivatives and antituberculosis agents appear in the literature throughout the period of the review. Adverse effects of newer drugs such as amiodarone, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, antiepileptics, tamoxifen, and its interactions have been published principally in the last two decades. It is imperative for patient safety that knowledge of the adverse effects of drugs on the eye whether topically or systemically administered, and the possible systemic effects of drugs given as ophthalmic medications be emphasized to clinicians. PMID:22423585

  4. Semisolid ophthalmic vehicles.

    PubMed

    Giannaccini, B; Alderigi, C

    1989-09-01

    The present review is concerned with some essential formulative and therapeutic aspects of semisolid ophthalmic vehicles. The history and the most recent developments of the traditional lipophilic vehicles (ointments) are first outlined. The hydrophilic vehicles (hydrogels) based on synthetic polymers (polyacrylates, PEG, PVA, Pluronics, etc.), semisynthetic polymers (cellulose derivatives) and natural polymers (hyaluronic and polygalacturonic acid, alginates, etc.) are then examined. Some recent formulations of particular type are finally described. PMID:2699716

  5. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  6. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  7. Suppressing side-lobe radiations of horn antenna by loading metamaterial lens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  8. Radiation tolerance studies of neutron irradiated double sided silicon microstrip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, M.; Larionov, P.; Balog, T.; Heuser, J.; Malygina, H.; Momot, I.; Sorokin, I.; Sturm, C.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation tolerance studies were made on double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the Silicon Tracking System of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR. The prototype detectors from two different vendors were irradiated to twice the highest expected fluence (1 ×1014 1 MeVneqcm-2) in the CBM experimental runs of several years. Test results from these prototype detectors both before and after irradiations have been discussed.

  9. Patent perspectives for corticosteroids based ophthalmic therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Preeti K; Sah, Abhishek K

    2014-01-01

    Eye inflammation, if untreated at right time poses the risk of vision loss. Several categories of drugs are available in the global market, but corticosteroids are still used for the treatment of ocular inflammation including anterior/ posterior uveitis, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and post cataract surgery inflammation. Although corticosteroids have well-documented side effects as compared to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but they are still regarded as better anti-inflammatory agents for treating ocular inflammations. The prime concern with conventional formulations such as (ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, ointments) is low drug bioavailability due to precorneal barrier of the eye, tear turnover and rapid drainage of drug via nasolacrimal drainage and drug induced systemic toxicity. To overcome these limitations, various novel formulations of corticosteroids have been explored. These include nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanomicelles, in-situ gels, iontophoresis, liposomes, nanoemulsions, microemulsions and ocular implants for the effective ophthalmic delivery of the corticosteroids. Topical nanocarriers have also been demonstrated to be promising vectors with potential application in the ophthalmic therapeutics. This review summarizes the clinical findings and patents on various corticosteroids as ocular pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25020063

  10. Delivery of Erbium:YAG laser radiation through side-firing germanium oxide optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Anthony K.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2006-02-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser is currently being tested experimentally for endoscopic applications in urology, including more efficient laser lithotripsy and more precise incision of urethral strictures than the Holmium:YAG laser. While side-firing silica fibers are available for use with the Ho:YAG laser in urology, no such fibers exist for use with the Er:YAG laser. These applications may benefit from the availability of a side-firing, mid-infrared optical fiber capable of delivering the laser radiation at a 90-degree angle to the tissue. The objective of this study is to describe the simple construction and characterization of a side-firing germanium oxide fiber for potential use in endoscopic laser surgery. Side-firing fibers were constructed from 450-micron-core germanium oxide fibers of 1.45-m-length by polishing the distal tip at a 45-degree angle and placing a 1-cm-long protective quartz cap over the fiber tip. Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 microns, pulse duration of 300 microseconds, pulse repetition rate of 3 Hz, and pulse energies of from 5 to 550 mJ was coupled into the fibers. The fiber transmission rate and damage threshold measured 48 +/- 4 % and 149 +/- 37 mJ, respectively (n = 6 fibers). By comparison, fiber transmission through normal germanium oxide trunk fibers measured 66 +/- 3 %, with no observed damage (n = 5 fibers). Sufficient pulse energies were transmitted through the side-firing fibers for contact tissue ablation. Although these initial tests are promising, further studies will need to be conducted, focusing on assembly of more flexible, smaller diameter fibers, fiber bending transmission tests, long-term fiber reliability tests, and improvement of the fiber output spatial beam profile.

  11. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Ophthalmic camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic camera. 886.1120 Section 886.1120 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Ophthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Ophthalmic camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic camera. 886.1120 Section 886.1120 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Ophthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1760 - Ophthalmic refractometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic refractometer. 886.1760 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1760 Ophthalmic refractometer. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic refractometer is an automatic AC-powered device that consists of a fixation...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4690 - Ophthalmic photocoagulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic photocoagulator. 886.4690 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4690 Ophthalmic photocoagulator. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic photocoagulator is an AC-powered device intended to use the energy from an...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3130 Ophthalmic conformer. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic conformer is a device usually made of molded plastic intended to be...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1680 - Ophthalmic projector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic projector. 886.1680 Section 886.1680...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1680 Ophthalmic projector. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic projector is an AC-powered device intended to project an image on a screen for...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1140 - Ophthalmic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic chair. 886.1140 Section 886.1140 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1140 Ophthalmic chair. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic chair is an AC-powered or manual device with adjustable positioning in which a patient is to...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  8. Marfan syndrome presenting with headache and coincidental ophthalmic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vandersteen, Anthony Martin; Kenny, Joanna; Khan, Naheed L; Male, Alison

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old Ugandan woman was referred for a neurology opinion after complaining of a year long history of right-sided retro-orbital stabbing pain. Brain imaging revealed a coincidental 3 mm left ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Marfanoid habitus was noted; after further investigations she was diagnosed with mild aortic root dilatation, subtle lens dislocation and Marfan syndrome. Her symptoms were secondary to temporomandibular joint dysfunction, an under-recognised complication of Marfan syndrome. Her ophthalmic artery aneurysm is likely to be a coincidental finding. PMID:23505274

  9. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  10. Non-monotonic potentials above the day-side lunar surface exposed to the solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskaya, T. M.

    2015-09-01

    Basic equations describing stable non-monotonic altitude profiles of the electric potential arising near the Moon's surface due to the joint action of solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with the plasma environment are obtained for two cases: the surface is in the solar wind and the surface is exposed to the terrestrial plasma sheet. The influence of the solar wind on the non-monotonic potential is investigated in a wide range of drift velocities for different values of the photoelectron density. It is found that for any photoelectron density the surface potential reaches its minimum value for a slow solar wind. This effect is most pronounced for the lunar regolith regions not enriched with hydrogen. When the Moon is exposed to both solar radiation and the terrestrial plasma sheet, the surface potential and the potential minimum are calculated as functions of the ion and electron temperatures for different values of the photoelectron density. It is shown that both potentials depend strongly on the temperature of plasma sheet populations, particularly in the range where the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature is less than three. Potential above the day-side lunar surface in different plasma environments is found. The solar wind velocity is taken into account in the electron distribution. For any photoelectron density the surface potential is minimal for a slow solar wind. In the plasma sheet the lunar potential depends strongly on the plasma temperature.

  11. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  12. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Luijk, Peter Van

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for restoring functionality to the irradiated tissue bed. Recent Advances: Preclinical studies presented in this review provide encouraging proof of concept regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for treating the adverse side effects associated with radiotherapy in different organs. Early-stage clinical data for radiation-induced lung, bone, and skin complications are promising and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate stem cell type to stimulate tissue regeneration. Critical Issues: While therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a variety of animal models and human trials, a range of additional concerns regarding stem cell transplantation for ameliorating radiation-induced normal tissue sequelae remain. Safety issues regarding teratoma formation, disease progression, and genomic stability along with technical issues impacting disease targeting, immunorejection, and clinical scale-up are factors bearing on the eventual translation of stem cell therapies into routine clinical practice. Future Directions: Follow-up studies will need to identify the best possible stem cell types for the treatment of early and late radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Additional work should seek to optimize cellular dosing regimes, identify the best routes of administration, elucidate optimal transplantation windows for introducing cells into more receptive host tissues, and improve immune tolerance for longer-term engrafted cell survival into the irradiated microenvironment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 338–355. PMID:24147585

  13. 21 CFR 349.12 - Ophthalmic demulcents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic demulcents. 349.12 Section 349.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.12 Ophthalmic demulcents. The active ingredients of...

  14. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Octavianty, Ressa Asai, Masahito

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  15. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified. PMID:22570648

  16. The neutral current sheet and its radiation pairs of side sources in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shu-Chen

    Using the data observed with the soft X-ray telescope, hard X-ray telescope aboard on Yohkoh and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph on 1998 April 23, a comprehensive study on soft X-ray coronal mass ejection (SXRCME) and radio Type IV burst is carried out and some significant results are obtained as follows: A magnetic capacity belt (MCB) between two magnetic dipole sources (MDSs) was found and there were only a few activitation sources (ASs). During the MCB changed into a magnetic energy belt (MEB) by the ASs, activating energy and shining material both concentrated to the neutral current sheet (NCS) in the course of its formation. When two MDSs were put through by the MEB, the NCS formed and the SXRCME occurred. The matter ejected not only from the NCS, but also from the whole MEB. The expanding loop of the SXRCME had two foot points, both were just two MDSs. The head of the expanding loop always tended to the foot point of the weak source, because it was equilibrium point of magnetic pressures coming from two foot points. For this reason, its locus was neutral line. From this, the neutral line can also determine the position of NCS. Finally, the radiation pairs of side sources of NCS on the MEB are found.

  17. Fast linear solver for radiative transport equation with multiple right hand sides in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that radiative transfer equation (RTE) provides more accurate tomographic results than its diffusion approximation (DA). However, RTE-based tomographic reconstruction codes have limited applicability in practice due to their high computational cost. In this article, we propose a new efficient method for solving the RTE forward problem with multiple light sources in an all-at-once manner instead of solving it for each source separately. To this end, we introduce here a novel linear solver called block biconjugate gradient stabilized method (block BiCGStab) that makes full use of the shared information between different right hand sides to accelerate solution convergence. Two parallelized block BiCGStab methods are proposed for additional acceleration under limited threads situation. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm with numerical simulation studies involving the Delta-Eddington approximation to the scattering phase function. The results show that the single threading block RTE solver proposed here reduces computation time by a factor of 1.5-3 as compared to the traditional sequential solution method and the parallel block solver by a factor of 1.5 as compared to the traditional parallel sequential method. This block linear solver is, moreover, independent of discretization schemes and preconditioners used; thus further acceleration and higher accuracy can be expected when combined with other existing discretization schemes or preconditioners.

  18. Sophisticated instrumentation and ophthalmic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, W

    1992-01-01

    Formerly, ophthalmic ultrasonography was leading in view of high-performance apparatuses and transducer probes: e.g., the first array-scanner in the world was built for ophthalmic use. Within the past 2 decades, however, high-tech innovations were merely developed for other medical specialties. These were studied in view of their use for ultrasonography of eye and orbit. The combination of B-scan and Doppler techniques facilitates detection of orbital vessels. The resolution of ophthalmic digital B-scan video images proved poorer than crt-B-scans. A digital memory, however, is advantageous. But one high-resolution crt-type B-scan needs more than one disc storage capacity. "Frontline digitalization" could help to reduce the amount of data. Array transducers are now available in small sizes and could better show structure movements, but they were not yet adapted to ophthalmic use. This applies as well to annular arrays and dynamic focusing. Different methods of 3-dimensional scanning and (Pseudo-) 3-dimensional imaging might renew Baum's and Coleman's early work. PMID:1332387

  19. Current Perspectives on Ophthalmic Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Philip A.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi may infect the cornea, orbit and other ocular structures. Species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, dematiaceous fungi, and Scedosporium predominate. Diagnosis is aided by recognition of typical clinical features and by direct microscopic detection of fungi in scrapes, biopsy specimens, and other samples. Culture confirms the diagnosis. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, or DNA-based tests may also be needed. Pathogenesis involves agent (invasiveness, toxigenicity) and host factors. Specific antifungal therapy is instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Amphotericin B by various routes is the mainstay of treatment for life-threatening and severe ophthalmic mycoses. Topical natamycin is usually the first choice for filamentous fungal keratitis, and topical amphotericin B is the first choice for yeast keratitis. Increasingly, the triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole are being evaluated as therapeutic options in ophthalmic mycoses. Medical therapy alone does not usually suffice for invasive fungal orbital infections, scleritis, and keratitis due to Fusarium spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Pythium insidiosum. Surgical debridement is essential in orbital infections, while various surgical procedures may be required for other infections not responding to medical therapy. Corticosteroids are contraindicated in most ophthalmic mycoses; therefore, other methods are being sought to control inflammatory tissue damage. Fungal infections following ophthalmic surgical procedures, in patients with AIDS, and due to use of various ocular biomaterials are unique subsets of ophthalmic mycoses. Future research needs to focus on the development of rapid, species-specific diagnostic aids, broad-spectrum fungicidal compounds that are active by various routes, and therapeutic modalities which curtail the harmful effects of fungus- and host tissue-derived factors. PMID:14557297

  20. XANES measurements of the rate of radiation damage to selenomethionine side chains

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation-induced disordering of selenomethionine (SeMet) side chains represents a significant impediment to protein structure solution. Not only does the increased B-factor of these sites result in a serious drop in phasing power, but some sites decay much faster than others in the same unit cell. These radiolabile SeMet side chains decay faster than high-order diffraction spots with dose, making it difficult to detect this kind of damage by inspection of the diffraction pattern. The selenium X-ray absorbance near-edge spectrum (XANES) from samples containing SeMet was found to change significantly after application of X-ray doses of 10–100 MGy. Most notably, the sharp ‘white line’ feature near the canonical Se edge disappears. The change was attributed to breakage of the Cγ—Se bond in SeMet. This spectral change was used as a probe to measure the decay rate of SeMet with X-ray dose in cryo-cooled samples. Two protein crystal types and 15 solutions containing free SeMet amino acid were examined. The damage rate was influenced by the chemical and physical condition of the sample, and the half-decaying dose for the selenium XANES signal ranged from 5 to 43 MGy. These decay rates were 34- to 3.8-fold higher than the rate at which the Se atoms interacted directly with X-ray photons, so the damage mechanism must be a secondary effect. Samples that cooled to a more crystalline state generally decayed faster than samples that cooled to an amorphous solid. The single exception was a protein crystal where a nanocrystalline cryoprotectant had a protective effect. Lowering the pH, especially with ascorbic or nitric acids, had a protective effect, and SeMet lifetime increased monotonically with decreasing sample temperature (down to 93 K). The SeMet lifetime in one protein crystal was the same as that of the free amino acid, and the longest SeMet lifetime measured was found in the other protein crystal type. This protection was found to arise from the folded

  1. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument table. 886.4855 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4855 Ophthalmic instrument table. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic...

  7. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  8. 75 FR 54492 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...) for gentamicin sulfate and betamethasone acetate ophthalmic solution. This action is being taken to... the approved conditions of use for GENTOCIN DURAFILM (gentamicin sulfate and betamethasone...

  9. Ophthalmic halo reduced lenses design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Ofer; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-05-01

    The halo effect is a very problematic visual artifact occurring in extended depth of focus or multi-focal ophthalmic lenses such as e.g. intra-ocular (after cataract surgery) or contact lenses when used in dark illumination conditions. This artifact is generated due to surface structures added on top of those lenses in order to increase their depth of focus or to realize multiple focal lengths. In this paper we present novel solution that can resolve this major problem of ophthalmic lenses. The proposed solution involves modification to the surface structure that realizes the extended depth of focus. Our solution is fabricated and numerically and experimentally validated also in preliminary in-vivo trials.

  10. Sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice

    PubMed Central

    Ghauri, A-J; Amissah-Arthur, K N; Rashid, A; Mushtaq, B; Nessim, M; Elsherbiny, S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Accidental sharps injuries are a potential route for transmission of blood-borne infection to healthcare workers. Ophthalmic staff in particular are at risk of sustaining such injuries due to the microsurgical nature of the speciality. Forthcoming European Union legislation aimed at reducing sharps injuries requires the development of risk-based sharps policy. The authors believe that this is the first study to assess the risks of sharps injuries and their management specific to ophthalmic practice within the European Union. Methods A retrospective review of all reported sharps injuries across three eye units in the UK over a period of 6 years was undertaken. Data were analysed to determine the circumstances surrounding the injury, occupation of the injured person, and whether appropriate actions were taken following incidents. Results A total of 68 sharps injuries were reported over the 6-year period. Nurses sustained 54.4% (n=37) of needlestick injuries, doctors 39.7% (n=27), and allied healthcare staff 5.9% (n=4). In all 51.5% (n=35) of sharps injuries occurred in the operating theatre, 30.9% (n=21) in the outpatient clinic, 13.2% (n=9) on the ophthalmic ward, and 4.4% (n=3) in unspecified locations. There was a median rate of 1.3 sharps injuries per 1000 surgical procedures per year and a range of 0.4–3.5 per 1000. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need to raise awareness of the unique risks of sharps injuries in ophthalmic practice. This is necessary in order to develop speciality-specific policy that promotes strategies to reduce such injuries, enhances the accuracy of reporting of such events, and provides guidance for appropriate management. PMID:21336251

  11. Net radiation balance for two forested slopes on opposite sides of a valley.

    PubMed

    Holst, T; Rost, J; Mayer, H

    2005-05-01

    Measurements of the net radiation balance of two forested sites on the opposite slopes of a valley in south-western Germany, made over 3 years, are presented in this study. Radiation sensors were mounted horizontally on two measurement towers above two beech stands. The direct part of the measured short-wave incoming radiation was adjusted according to the slope's angle to convert horizontally measured radiation data into surface-parallel radiation fluxes. During periods when contemporaneous measurements of slope-parallel and horizontal radiation fluxes were available, the calculation of surface-parallel radiation fluxes from the horizontally recorded net radiation components were compared with measured values. The net radiative fluxes parallel to the slopes were calculated for a period of 36 months and analysed. Results show that the different aspects of both sites cause significant differences of the net radiation balance. In June, when the elevation of the sun is highest, incoming solar radiation K downward arrow received on the NE-slope was 9% lower than K downward arrow received on the SW-slope. During the winter months, the differences were much greater and incoming solar radiation to the NE-slope was 50% of that to the SW-slope. Due to the differing solar irradiance, net radiation fluxes were significantly higher on the SW-slope than on the NE-slope. For long-wave radiation only small differences between both slopes could be found. Since radiative fluxes determine the energy balance and hence the microclimate and water balance of a forest stand, these differences in the net radiation balance between the slopes are important for the vegetation. PMID:15630573

  12. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Hata, Natsuyo; Katai, Naomichi; Oshitari, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was -0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  13. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was −0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  14. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.; Cavallari, F.; Cockerill, D.; Dolgopolov, A.; Faure, J. L.; Golubev, N.; Hobson, P. R.; Jain, S.; Korjik, M.; Mechinski, V.; Singovski, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tarasov, I.; Zahid, S.

    2016-04-01

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm3 PbWO4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m‑1, have been tested using electrons in the 50–200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct for event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. The double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.

  15. Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sjö, Lene Dissing

    2009-02-01

    With a lifetime risk of 1% and 700 new cases per year, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the seventh most frequent type of cancer in Denmark. The incidence of NHL has increased considerably in Western countries over the last decades; consequently, NHL is an increasing clinical problem. Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%-10% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is, however, the most common orbital malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980-2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma. Furthermore, an extended analysis of the most frequent subtype, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma), was done to analyse clinical factors and cytogenetic changes with influence on prognosis. A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified. We found that more than 50% of orbital- and ocular adnexal lymphomas were of the MALT lymphoma subtype, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) predominated intraocularly (Sjo et al. 2008a). Furthermore, lymphoma arising in the lacrimal sac was surprisingly predominantly DLBCL (Sjo et al. 2006). Incidence rates were highly dependent on patient age. There was an increase in incidence rates for the whole population from 1980 to 2005, corresponding to an annual average increase of 3.4% (Sjo et al. 2008a). MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region was found in 116 patients (Sjo et al. 2008b). One third of patients had a relapse or progression of disease after initial therapy and relapses were frequently found at extra-ocular sites. Overall survival, however, was not significantly poorer for patients

  16. Ophthalmic artery originating from the anterior cerebral artery: anatomo-radiological study, histological analysis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Francesco; Ferrari, Marco; Doglietto, Francesco; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Lancini, Davide; Buffoli, Barbara; Nicolai, Piero; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Maroldi, Roberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    The ophthalmic artery has an anomalous origin in 2-3 % of cases and rarely arises from the anterior cerebral artery. Herein, we provide the first anatomical, radiological, and histological description of such an anomalous origin, together with a literature review. During the anatomical dissection of an 81-year-old Caucasian male, the absence of the right ophthalmic artery in its usual location was evident from an endonasal transsphenoidal perspective. The specimen was then studied in detail, through multiple dissections, corrosion casting, high-resolution CT, and histological analysis. The English literature on anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery was reviewed, together with reported associated pathologies. Anatomo-radiological analysis documented that the right ophthalmic artery arose from the inferior surface of A1 tract of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) and passed over the optic nerve in its subarachnoid tract. A meningo-ophthalmic artery was evident on the same side and reached the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. Histological examination of both internal carotid artery (ICA) walls documented a significantly decreased thickness of the tunica media and adventitia on the side of the anomalous ophthalmic artery, with a significantly different content of collagen types I and III. The literature review documented an association of aneurysms and anomalous ophthalmic arteries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first anatomical report that includes a radiological and arterial wall analysis of a persistent ventral ophthalmic artery. The latter provides histological data that support the clinical evidence of a higher association of aneurysms with anomalous origins of the ophthalmic artery. PMID:27048359

  17. 21 CFR 349.10 - Ophthalmic astringent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic astringent. 349.10 Section 349.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.10...

  18. 21 CFR 349.12 - Ophthalmic demulcents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic demulcents. 349.12 Section 349.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.12...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification. Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes) are devices that consist of...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification. Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes) are devices that consist of...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification. Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes) are devices that consist of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification. Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes) are devices that consist of...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1670 - Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. 886.1670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1670 Ophthalmic isotope uptake probe. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic isotope uptake probe is an AC-powered device intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  9. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  10. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders,...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1655 - Ophthalmic Fresnel prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. 886.1655 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1655 Ophthalmic Fresnel prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic Fresnel prism is a device that is a thin plastic sheet with embossed rulings...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  9. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4570 - Ophthalmic surgical marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic surgical marker. 886.4570 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4570 Ophthalmic surgical marker. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic surgical marker is a device intended to mark by use of ink, dye, or indentation...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument stand. 886.1860 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument stand is an AC-powered or nonpowered device intended to store...

  19. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4350 Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. (a) Identification. A manual ophthalmic surgical instrument is a nonpowered, handheld...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  6. Amphiphilic polyphosphazenes as membrane materials: influence of side group on radiation cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Allcock, H R; Gebura, M; Kwon, S; Neenan, T X

    1988-11-01

    The amphiphilic mixed-substituent polyphosphazenes, [NP(OCH2CF3)x (NHCH3)y)]n and [NP(OC6H5)x (NHCH3)y]n, have been prepared by the sequential replacement of chlorine in [NPCI2]n by trifluorethoxide or phenoxide and methylamine. Thin films of these species were cross-linked by exposure to gamma radiation and the semipermeability of the resultant membranes was monitored. The radiation-induced cross-linking and membrane-forming properties of these polymers were compared with those of the single substituent polymers, [NP(OCH2CF3)2]n, [NP(OC6H5)2]n, and [NP(NHCH3)2]n. The radiation-cross-linking and appeared to involve free radical reactions at the methyl groups of the methylamino substituents. The possible utility of these materials in biomedical research is discussed. PMID:3224137

  7. Effects of RF side-bands on spectral reproducibility for infrared synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, R.; Ramirez, G.; Williams, G.P.; Zimba, C.

    1994-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of audio side-bands from the main RF of the NSLS VUV storage ring on beam motion and specifically on spectral reproducibility in the infra-red region. For this spectral region it is advantageous to use Michelson interferometers because of their high throughput (Jacquinot advantage). A second advantage is that interferometers inherently give a multiplex or Felgett advantage, since one is always looking at all the wavelengths for all of the measuring time, even though there is only one detector. In such instruments it is beneficial to scan the moving mirror at a fast rate so that any mechanical or other low frequency noise shows up as a slow modulation in the interferogram and disappears altogether in the Fourier transform from the spectral region of interest. However, audio frequency side-bands appear from the RF energy restoring cavity as noise on the beam. These always occur at multiples of 60 Hz and can thus be readily identified. They can also be confirmed by changing the mirror velocity which changes where they appear in the spectra in a predictable way. In the present work, we measured spectra while simultaneously reducing and shifting the side bands in the RF and thus were able to correlate the effects and ultimately eliminate them as a source of noise. Ultimately we were able to achieve reproducibilities of <1% in 15 seconds of scanning time across the entire spectral region from 800 cm{sup {minus}1} to 4000cm{sup {minus}1} with a sample throughput of only l0{sup {minus}10} meter{sup 2} steradians.

  8. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research. PMID:26844660

  9. Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Gordon W.; Olsakovsky, Leslie A.; Conway, Brian P.; McKown, Robert L.; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    EST, proteomic, and antibody capture assays are revealing a level of tear film protein complexity far greater than previously appreciated. A systems biology approach will be needed to fully appreciate function as tear protein doses fluctuate in time through different conditions. Although consensus is growing on what fully constitutes the human tear proteome, questions remain about the source and significance of the ∼256 tear proteins designated as ‘intracellular’. Many of these may derive from normal cellular turnover and could therefore be informative. A further >183 are designated as ‘extracellular’. Surprisingly, only 4 – 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily examined to date. Some differ and a couple overlap, suggesting that disease-specific signatures could be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized ophthalmic approach to ocular surface disease. PMID:18677231

  10. [Ophthalmic manifestations of Huntington's disease].

    PubMed

    Svetozarskiy, S N; Kopishinskaya, S V; Gustovy, A V; Radyuk, M A; Antonova, V A; Smetankin, I G

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene. The whole nervous system, including visual analyzer, is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Various ocular sings can be found in both preclinical and clinical stages of HD. Specific retinal damage, namely, abnormal proteins formation, photoreceptor degeneration and retinal remodeling, has been studied in animal models. Functional changes in occipital lobe activity and its atrophy as well as degeneration of visual pathways can already be present in the early stages of the disease. Oculomotor symptoms of HD include disturbed visual fixation, slower tracking eye movements and saccades, and suppressed vestibulo-ocular reflex. Visual perceptual disorders, such as visuospatial difficulties, problems of stimulus identification and motion perception, along with decreased contrast sensitivity, have also been described. The possibility of using certain ophthalmic parameters as biomarkers of HD is being discussed. PMID:26845877

  11. A Drosophila model to investigate the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, Lisa J; Howard, Steven P; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-07-01

    Children undergoing cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for pediatric central nervous system malignancies are at increased risk for neurological deficits later in life. We have developed a model of neurotoxic damage in adult Drosophila following irradiation during the juvenile stages with the goal of elucidating underlying neuropathological mechanisms and of ultimately identifying potential therapeutic targets. Wild-type third-instar larvae were irradiated with single doses of γ-radiation, and the percentage that survived to adulthood was determined. Motor function of surviving adults was examined with a climbing assay, and longevity was assessed by measuring lifespan. Neuronal cell death was assayed by using immunohistochemistry in adult brains. We also tested the sensitivity at different developmental stages by irradiating larvae at various time points. Irradiating late third-instar larvae at a dose of 20 Gy or higher impaired the motor activity of surviving adults. A dose of 40 Gy or higher resulted in a precipitous reduction in the percentage of larvae that survive to adulthood. A dose-dependent decrease in adult longevity was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase in activated Death caspase-1 (Dcp1) in adult brains. Survival to adulthood and adult lifespan were more severely impaired with decreasing larval age at the time of irradiation. Our initial survey of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel demonstrated that differences in genotype can confer phenotypic differences in radio-sensitivity for developmental survival and motor function. This work demonstrates the usefulness of Drosophila to model the toxic effects of radiation during development, and has the potential to unravel underlying mechanisms and to facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:26092528

  12. Protective effect of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) against side effects of radiation/chemotherapy in head and neck malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debabrata; Agarwal, S. K.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the very common side effects of Radiation/Chemotherapy especially of the head and neck malignancies is mucositis. Cancer therapy or the cancer itself may cause changes in the body chemistry that results in loss of appetite, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and very common mucositis which makes eating difficult. Loss of appetite is followed by an undesirable loss of weight due to insufficient amount of calories every day which can lead to loss of muscle mass and strength and other complications by causing interruptions of medical therapy, impeding effective cancer therapy. Mucositis cause decreased immunity and quality of life as well as poor tolerance to surgery and altered efficacy of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. The present study is designed with the objective to minimize the radiation induced mucositis, skin reaction, xerostomia, change in voice etc. with an Ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu Ghrita (processed ghee). Total 75 patients were randomly divided into four groups and drugs were administered: Group A with local application of Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity for few minutes prior to radiotherapy along with oral intake of Yashtimadhu Ghrita; Group B with only local application of the Yashtimadhu powder and honey in the oral cavity; Group C patients administered with only local application of honey in the oral cavity; Group D on conventional modern medication controlled group. All these patients under four groups had received Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for maximum duration of 7 weeks. Mucositis and Skin reactions were observed in 100% of patients with varying degree. The intensity of Radiation and Chemotherapy induced mucositis was reduced to a great extent by the trial drug. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can be used effectively in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis post radiation and chemotheraphy in patients of cancer, especially of the head and neck region. It proves beneficial in two ways: (i) there were no

  13. Characterization of the first double-sided 3D radiation sensors fabricated at FBK on 6-inch silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, D. M. S.; Mendicino, R.; Boscardin, M.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.

    2015-12-01

    Following 3D pixel sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) fabrication facility has recently been upgraded to process 6-inch wafers. In 2014, a test batch was fabricated to check for possible issues relevant to this upgrade. While maintaining a double-sided fabrication technology, some process modifications have been investigated. We report here on the technology and the design of this batch, and present selected results from the electrical characterization of sensors and test structures. Notably, the breakdown voltage is shown to exceed 200 V before irradiation, much higher than in earlier productions, demonstrating robustness in terms of radiation hardness for forthcoming productions aimed at High Luminosity LHC upgrades.

  14. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Candace R.; Das, Indra J. Litt, Harold I.; Ferrari, Victor; Hwang, W.-T.; Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.

  15. From Minor Side Phases to Bulk Samples of Lanthanum Oxonitridosilicates: An Investigation with Microfocused Synchrotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Durach, Dajana; Schultz, Peter; Oeckler, Oliver; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Microcrystals of the oxonitridosilicate oxide La(11)Si(13)N(27.636)O(1.046):Ce(3+) were obtained by exploratory high-temperature synthesis starting from La, La(NH2)3, Si(NH)2, BaH2, and CeF3. Owing to the small size of the crystals, microfocused synchrotron radiation was used for structure investigations (space group Cmc21 (No. 36), a = 9.5074(4) Å, b = 32.0626(9) Å, c = 18.5076(8) Å, Z = 8, R1(all) = 0.0267). The crystal structure consists of an unprecedented interrupted three-dimensional network of vertex-sharing SiN(4-x)O(x) tetrahedra that form channels of siebener rings along [100]. Moreover, the structure is characterized by layers of condensed sechser rings in a boat conformation and vierer rings, which are alternatingly stacked with layers of vierer and dreier rings. Several split positions indicate two different local structure variants. Infrared spectroscopy confirms the absence of N-H bonds. Powder X-ray diffraction data show that bulk samples contain only a small amount of La(11)Si(13)N(27.636)O1.046:Ce(3+). However, once the exact composition was determined from structure analysis, it was possible to optimize the synthesis using fluorides as starting materials. Thereby, bulk samples of the homeotypic compound La(11)Si(13)N(27.376)O(0.936)F were obtained and investigated. PMID:26978044

  16. Clinical utility of voriconazole eye drops in ophthalmic fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Neoh, Chin Fen; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2010-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis and is difficult to treat. The range of common antifungal agents available for fungal keratitis remains inadequate and is generally associated with poor clinical outcomes. Voriconazole is a new generation triazole antifungal agent. Only marketed in systemic formulation and, with broad-spectrum activity and high intraocular penetration, voriconazole has demonstrated effectiveness against fungal keratitis. Systemic voriconazole, however, is not without side effects and is costly. Voriconazole eye drops have been prepared extemporaneously and used for the treatment of ophthalmic fungal keratitis. The current article sought to review the literature for evidence related to the effectiveness and safety of topical voriconazole and its corneal penetration into the aqueous humor of the eye. The voriconazole eye drops used are typically of 1% concentration, well tolerated by the eye, and are stable. Despite existing evidence to suggest that the eye drops are effective in the treatment of fungal keratitis, more studies are needed, especially in relation to using the eye drops as first-line and stand-alone treatment, preparation of higher concentrations, and optimal dosing frequency. PMID:20463910

  17. Ophthalmic statistics note 5: diagnostic tests—sensitivity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Luke J; Zhu, Haogang; Bunce, Catey; Doré, Caroline J; Freemantle, Nick; Crabb, David P

    2015-01-01

    This is the fifth statistics note produced by the Ophthalmic Statistics Group (OSG) which is designed to be a simple guide to ophthalmic researchers on a statistical issue with an applied ophthalmic example. The OSG is a collaborative group of statisticians who have come together with a desire to raise the statistical standards of ophthalmic researcher by increasing statistical awareness of common issues. PMID:25488948

  18. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484a... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484a Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment...

  4. 21 CFR 524.575 - Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. 524.575 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.575 Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4770 - Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). 886.4770 Section 886.4770 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4770 Ophthalmic operating spectacles (loupes). (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.16 Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The...

  7. Recent advances in ophthalmic molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramos de Carvalho, J Emanuel; Verbraak, Frank D; Aalders, Maurice C; van Noorden, Cornelis J; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of molecular imaging techniques is the visualization of molecular processes and functional changes in living animals and human patients before morphological changes occur at the cellular and tissue level. Ophthalmic molecular imaging is still in its infancy and has mainly been used in small animals for pre-clinical research. The goal of most of these pre-clinical studies is their translation into ophthalmic molecular imaging techniques in clinical care. We discuss various molecular imaging techniques and their applications in ophthalmology. PMID:24529711

  8. Neomycin, Polymyxin, and Bacitracin Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.tell your doctor if you have or have ...

  9. Bilateral ophthalmic origin of the middle meningeal artery.

    PubMed

    Plas, B; Bonneville, F; Dupuy, M; Sol, J-C; Chaynes, P

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) may vary although it can arise from the ophthalmic artery (OA) with a 0.5% prevalence. We report the exceptional bilateral asymmetric origin from the OAs that has not previously been reported in the literature. Surgeons should be aware of this variation as it could be crucial in the setting of an endovascular approach for meningeal lesions, as in our observation. A 50-year-old male underwent a preoperative cerebral digital subtracted angiography that incidentally revealed MMAs arising from the OA on both sides. In fact, the origin was asymmetric because it was complete on the right side with the anterior and posterior branches of the MMA arising from the OA, whereas it was partial on the left side, with only the anterior branch arising from the OA. The CT scan showed the absence of the foramen spinosum only on the right side. This paper discusses the unique anatomic variation in the light of MMA embryology and its different origins. Knowledge of this variation may have a practical impact in cases of cerebral embolization. PMID:24176432

  10. 21 CFR 886.4690 - Ophthalmic photocoagulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic photocoagulator. 886.4690 Section 886.4690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... noncoherent light source to occlude blood vessels of the retina, choroid, or iris. (b) Classification....

  11. 21 CFR 886.4690 - Ophthalmic photocoagulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic photocoagulator. 886.4690 Section 886.4690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... noncoherent light source to occlude blood vessels of the retina, choroid, or iris. (b) Classification....

  12. 21 CFR 886.1640 - Ophthalmic preamplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic preamplifier. 886.1640 Section 886.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... the eyeball after stimulation by light), electrooculography (testing for retinal dysfunction...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1760 - Ophthalmic refractometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic refractometer. 886.1760 Section 886.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... of the eye by measuring light reflexes from the retina. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 550 Side Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? ... t assume that you will get every side effect that’s listed! Most people have few or only ...

  15. Pulse-to-pulse interaction analysis and parameter optimization for future-generation ophthalmic laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Kaune, B.; Bleeker, S.; Lubatschowski, H.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.

    2014-02-01

    The immediate pulse-to-pulse interaction becomes more and more important for future-generation high-repetition rate ophthalmic laser systems. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of two laser pulses with different spatial and temporal separation by time-resolved photography. There are various different characteristic interaction mechanisms which are divided into 11 interaction scenarios. Furthermore, the parameter range has been constricted regarding the medical application; here, the efficiency was optimized to a maximum jet velocity along the scanning axis with minimum applied pulse energy as well as unwanted side effects at the same time. In conclusion, these results are of great interest for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with future-generation fs-lasers.

  16. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  17. Design of ophthalmic lens by using optimized aspheric surface coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin

    1998-09-01

    Coddington's equations can be used to eliminate the oblique astigmatic error in the design of ophthalmic lens of spherical or other conicoidal surfaces. But it is difficult to get satisfactory result in the designing of the nonconic aspheric ophthalmic lens. In this paper we present an efficient approach based on optimization of aspheric coefficients, which enables the design program to obtain the minimum aberrations. Many higher order coefficients of aspheric surfaces can easily result in inflection point, which increases the difficulty in manufacturing. We solved the problem by taking it as one of the optimization constraints. The design of nonconic aspheric ophthalmic lens could also make the spectacle lenses well thinner in thickness and well flatter in shape than the design of spherical ophthalmic lens and other conicoidal ophthalmic lens. Damped least square methods are used in our design. Aspherical myopia ophthalmic lenses, aspherical hypermetropic lenses and cataract lenses were designed. Comparisons of design examples' results are given.

  18. 76 FR 30176 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee...) 125387, aflibercept ophthalmic solution, proposed trade name EYLEA, sponsored by...

  19. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  20. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon's block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  1. Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Less Advanced Intraocular Retinoblastoma: Five Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Dunkel, Ira; Palioura, Sotiria; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma was introduced by us 5 years ago for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Because the success was higher than with existing alternatives and systemic side effects limited we have now treated less advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (Reese-Ellsworth (RE) I-III and International Classification Retinoblastoma (ICRB) B and C). Methodology/Principal Findings Retrospective review of 5 year experience in eyes with Reese Ellsworth (Table 1) I (7 eyes), II (6 eyes) or III (6 eyes) and/or International Classification (Table 2) B (19 eyes) and C (11 eyes) treated with OAC (melphalan with or without topotecan) introduced directly into the ophthalmic artery. Patient survival was 100%. Ocular event-free survival was 100% for Reese-Ellsworth Groups I, II and III (and 96% for ICRB B and C) at a median of 16 months follow-up. One ICRB Group C (Reese-Ellsworth Vb) eye could not be treated on the second attempt for technical reasons and was therefore enucleated. No patient required a port and only one patient required transfusion of blood products. The electroretinogram (ERG) was unchanged or improved in 14/19 eyes. Conclusions/Significance Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for retinoblastoma that was Reese-Ellsworth I, II and III (or International Classification B or C) was associated with high success (100% of treatable eyes were retained) and limited toxicity with results that equal or exceed conventional therapy with less toxicity. PMID:22545080

  2. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The active ingredient and its concentration in the product is as...

  3. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 043264 and 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000856 and 043264 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000856 and 025463 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1982...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  10. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  12. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  14. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 043264...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  17. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  18. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c Section... § 524.1044c Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 043264...

  19. Ophthalmic contributions of Raja Serfoji II (1798–1832)

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Badrinath, Vasanthi; Badrinath, Sengamedu S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and describe the ophthalmic contribution of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832). Materials and Method: A team of 2 ophthalmologists, director of laboratory services, one archeologist and a photographer visited Sarasvathi Mahal Library, March 2004. Photographs of ophthalmic records were taken and analysed. An interview of the present prince, S Babaji Rajah Bhonsle was taken. Ophthalmologic case sheets of 44 patients, 18 pictures were found. Results: Forty-four patient's ophthalmic records were found. Six records were written in Modi script, 38 were written in English and 18 drawings were found. Conclusion: In Thanjavur, King Serfoji II carried out methodical ophthalmic practices between 1798 and 1832. Both European and Indian medicines were used. Cataract Surgery was performed. Detailed ophthalmic records were maintained. The only evidence of Serfoji's amazing contribution to medicine lies in 50 charts and manuscripts. PMID:22824599

  20. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  1. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between −20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism. PMID:19373359

  2. Differential myelinated and unmyelinated sensory and autonomic skin nerve fiber involvement in patients with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Truini, Andrea; Haanpaa, Maija; Provitera, Vincenzo; Biasiotta, Antonella; Stancanelli, Annamaria; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Santoro, Lucio; Cruccu, Giorgio; Nolano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common and exceptionally drug-resistant neuropathic pain condition. In this cross-sectional skin biopsy study, seeking information on the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms we assessed how ophthalmic PHN affects sensory and autonomic skin innervation. We took 2-mm supraorbital punch skin biopsies from the affected and unaffected sides in 10 patients with ophthalmic PHN. Using indirect immunofluorescence and a large panel of antibodies including protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 we quantified epidermal unmyelinated, dermal myelinated and autonomic nerve fibers. Although skin biopsy showed reduced epidermal and dermal myelinated fiber density in specimens from the affected side, the epidermal/dermal myelinated nerve fiber ratio was lower in the affected than in the unaffected side (p < 0.001), thus suggesting a predominant epidermal unmyelinated nerve fiber loss. Conversely, autonomic skin innervation was spared. Our study showing that ophthalmic PHN predominantly affects unmyelinated nerve fiber and spares autonomic nerve fiber might help to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this difficult-to-treat condition. PMID:26300742

  3. Design of a distributed radiator target for inertial fusion driven from two sides with heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M.; Callahan-Miller, D.

    1997-11-10

    We describe the status of a distributed radiator heavy ion target design. In integrated calculations this target ignited and produced 390-430 MJ of yieldwhen driven with 5.8-6.5 MJ of 3-4 GeV Pb ions. The target has cylindrical symmetry with disk endplates. The ions uniformly illuminate these endplates in a 5mm radius spot. We discuss the considerations which led to this design together with some previously unused design features: low density hohlraum walls in approximate pressure balance with internal low-Z fill materials, radiationsymmetry determined by the position of the radiator materials and particle ranges, and early time pressure symmetry possibly influenced by radiation shims. We discuss how this target scales to lower input energy or to lower beam power. Variant designs with more realistic beam focusing strategies are also discussed. We show the tradeoffs required for targets which accept higher particle energies.

  4. Programmable diffractive lens for ophthalmic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Romero, Lenny A.; Ramírez, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    Pixelated liquid crystal displays have been widely used as spatial light modulators to implement programmable diffractive optical elements, particularly diffractive lenses. Many different applications of such components have been developed in information optics and optical processors that take advantage of their properties of great flexibility, easy and fast refreshment, and multiplexing capability in comparison with equivalent conventional refractive lenses. We explore the application of programmable diffractive lenses displayed on the pixelated screen of a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator to ophthalmic optics. In particular, we consider the use of programmable diffractive lenses for the visual compensation of refractive errors (myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism) and presbyopia. The principles of compensation are described and sketched using geometrical optics and paraxial ray tracing. For the proof of concept, a series of experiments with artificial eye in optical bench are conducted. We analyze the compensation precision in terms of optical power and compare the results with those obtained by means of conventional ophthalmic lenses. Practical considerations oriented to feasible applications are provided.

  5. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  6. Preeclampsia and Future Risk for Maternal Ophthalmic Complications.

    PubMed

    Beharier, Ofer; Davidson, Ehud; Sergienko, Ruslan; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Kessous, Roy; Charach, Ron; Belfair, Nadav J; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate whether patients with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of long-term ophthalmic complications. Study Design A population-based study comparing the incidence of long-term maternal ophthalmic complications in a cohort of women with and without a history of preeclampsia. Results During the study period, a total of 103,183 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 8.1% (n = 8,324) occurred in patients with a diagnosis of preeclampsia during at least one of their pregnancies. Patients with preeclampsia had a significantly higher incidence of long-term ophthalmic morbidity such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. In addition, a positive linear correlation was found between the severity of preeclampsia and the prevalence of future ophthalmic morbidities (0.3 vs. 0.5 vs. 2.2%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curve indicated that women with preeclampsia had higher rates of total ophthalmic morbidity (0.2 vs. 0.4%, for no preeclampsia and with preeclampsia, respectively; odds ratio = 2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.99; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders, a history of preeclampsia remained independently associated with ophthalmic complications. Conclusion Preeclampsia is an independent risk factor for long-term maternal ophthalmic morbidity, specifically diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment. This risk is more substantial depending on the severity of the disease. PMID:26871904

  7. Computation of Dioptric and Magnification Matrices in Ophthalmic Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, S.

    2014-06-01

    The diopter power and magnification matrices characterize the first-order properties of ophthalmic lenses for different gaze directions. Therefore an efficient method to compute them is highly valuable in ophthalmic lens design and optical performance simulations. I present a novel method to numerically compute these matrices in ophthalmic lenses comprising any set of arbitrary surfaces. The method is based on computing one base ray, along the gaze direction, and two rays close to it. These two rays are obtained varying a small parameter that indicates their separation from the base ray. The method was validated comparing the results with a single refractive surface where exact solutions are directly obtained.

  8. Neuro-Ophthalmic Syndromes and Processing Speed in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Silvana L; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Almeida, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The impact of prior neuro-ophthalmic syndromes on the performance on vision-based neuropsychological tasks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Two groups of MS participants, one with (Msos+) and the other without (Msos-), a history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes, underwent neuropsychological assessment and were compared with healthy age- and education-matched controls (HC). Participants with Msos+ performed significantly worse on the symbol digit modalities test than the Msos- (P < 0.03) and the HC groups (P < 0.01) and coding (P < 0.01). A clinical history of neuro-ophthalmic syndromes is associated with reduced performance on visual processing speed tasks. PMID:26132964

  9. Polyethylene Naphthalate Scintillator: A Novel Detector for the Dosimetry of Radioactive Ophthalmic Applicators

    PubMed Central

    Flühs, Dirk; Flühs, Andrea; Ebenau, Melanie; Eichmann, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Background Dosimetric measurements in small radiation fields with large gradients, such as eye plaque dosimetry with β or low-energy photon emitters, require dosimetrically almost water-equivalent detectors with volumes of <1 mm3 and linear responses over several orders of magnitude. Polyvinyltoluene-based scintillators fulfil these conditions. Hence, they are a standard for such applications. However, they show disadvantages with regard to certain material properties and their dosimetric behaviour towards low-energy photons. Purpose, Materials and Methods Polyethylene naphthalate, recently recognized as a scintillator, offers chemical, physical and basic dosimetric properties superior to polyvinyltoluene. Its general applicability as a clinical dosimeter, however, has not been shown yet. To prove this applicability, extensive measurements at several clinical photon and electron radiation sources, ranging from ophthalmic plaques to a linear accelerator, were performed. Results For all radiation qualities under investigation, covering a wide range of dose rates, a linearity of the detector response to the dose was shown. Conclusion Polyethylene naphthalate proved to be a suitable detector material for the dosimetry of ophthalmic plaques, including low-energy photon emitters and other small radiation fields. Due to superior properties, it has the potential to replace polyvinyltoluene as the standard scintillator for such applications. PMID:27171681

  10. Clinicopathologic, ophthalmic, visual profiles and management of mucoceles in blacks.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, Ayotunde; Kokong, Daniel; Onakoya, Adekunle

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out the clinicopathologic, ophthalmic and visual profiles, management and outcome of mucoceles of the paranasal sinuses in Nigerians. The study was a retrospective review of 20 cases of mucoceles who presented to the ENT clinic and referred to the eye clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. These included nine males and 11 females with a male:female ratio of approximately 1:1. Mucoceles commonly involved more than one sinus on the same side. The sinuses commonly involved were the frontoethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus and maxillary sinuses. The preoperative visual acuity in 16 (80%) patients was 6/4-6/9, three (15%) had between 6/9-6/18, and one (5%) patient was CF ("count fingers") in the affected eyes. The majority (90%) of our patients presented with multiple ophthalmic features; however, proptosis was the most popular and ophthalmic presentation and occurred in 15 (75%) patients. Proptosis was nonaxial in all cases with inferior, lateral or inferolateral displacement. Degree of proptosis ranged from 1-20 mm. Other presentations were squint (leading to diplopia) observed in one (5%) patient and epiphora in another [one (5%)] patient. Poor vision appeared to be the main problem in one (5%) patient, while in another [one (5%)] patient, the affected eye was completely immobilized. One (5%) patient presented with orbital cellulitis. Common radiological findings included classical expansive appearance with loss of the normal scalloping appearance with dehiscence of the wall of the affected sinus as was observed in nine (45%) of our patients. All 20 patients had excision of mucoceles (frontoethmoidectomies). At surgery, 11 (55%) patients had a combination of dehiscence of medial and/or posterior walls, and/or floor of the orbit. Materials evacuated were mucopurulent in 15 (75%) cases, moldy in three (15%) and cheesy in two (10%). Nine (45%) patients had intact walls. Three (15%) patients developed orbital cellulitis as

  11. Fasting regimens for regional ophthalmic anaesthesia. A survey of members of the British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society.

    PubMed

    Steeds, C; Mather, S J

    2001-07-01

    Members of the British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society were surveyed using a postal questionnaire. The response rate was 72.3%. Respondents were asked about starvation before regional anaesthesia for cataract surgery, the use of sedation in these patients, monitoring and if oxygen supplementation was given. The results show that most patients are not starved before this type of regional anaesthesia, and that the majority of patients receive no supplementary sedation or intravenous analgesia. Over 70% of patients received oxygen supplementation. PMID:11437763

  12. An historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Graham A

    2012-11-01

    Today, no other classic novelist has the popularity or power of Jane Austen, and in 2013 the world will celebrate 200 years of her comic masterpiece Pride and Prejudice. Her millions of fans have an abiding fascination with all aspects of her life, including her health and the cause of her death. This historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen, based on very incomplete medical bibliographic data, finds that she had a mild ocular surface disorder from age 23. This disorder did not significantly impact on her visual performance for writing. There are many references to eyes in her novels, but Jane's eyes and those of her characters cannot contribute further to the debate around the cause of her death at age 41. PMID:22923461

  13. M-sequences in ophthalmic electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Philipp L; Meigen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to use the multimedia aspects of a purely digital online publication to explain and illustrate the highly capable technique of m-sequences in multifocal ophthalmic electrophysiology. M-sequences have been successfully applied in clinical routines during the past 20 years. However, the underlying mathematical rationale is often daunting. These mathematical properties of m-sequences allow one not only to separate the responses from different fields but also to analyze adaptational effects and impacts of former events. By explaining the history, the formation, and the different aspects of application, a better comprehension of the technique is intended. With this review we aim to clarify the opportunities of m-sequences in order to motivate scientists to use m-sequences in their future research. PMID:26818968

  14. Numerical Modeling of Ophthalmic Response to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. S.; Myers, J. G.; Mulugeta, L.; Vera, J.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate ophthalmic changes in spaceflight, we would like to predict the impact of blood dysregulation and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Unlike other physiological systems, there are very few lumped parameter models of the eye. The eye model described here is novel in its inclusion of the human choroid and retrobulbar subarachnoid space (rSAS), which are key elements in investigating the impact of increased ICP and ocular blood volume. Some ingenuity was required in modeling the blood and rSAS compartments due to the lack of quantitative data on essential hydrodynamic quantities, such as net choroidal volume and blood flowrate, inlet and exit pressures, and material properties, such as compliances between compartments.

  15. Mini Drug Pump for Ophthalmic Use

    PubMed Central

    Saati, Saloomeh; Lo, Ronalee; Li, Po-Ying; Meng, Ellis; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of developing a novel mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Methods: Using principles of microelectromechanical systems engineering, a mini drug pump was fabricated. The pumping mechanism is based on electrolysis, and the pump includes a drug refill port as well as a check valve to control drug delivery. Drug pumps were tested first on the benchtop and then after implantation in rabbits. For the latter, we implanted 4 elliptical (9.9 × 7.7 × 1.8 mm) non-electrically active pumps into 4 rabbits. The procedure is similar to implantation of a glaucoma seton. To determine the ability to refill and also the patency of the cannula, at intervals of 4 to 6 weeks after implantation, we accessed the drug reservoir with a transconjunctival needle and delivered approximately as low as 1 μL of trypan blue solution (0.06%) into the anterior chamber. Animals were followed up by slit-lamp examination, photography, and fluorescein angiography. Results: Benchtop testing showed 2.0 μL/min delivery when using 0.4 mW of power for electrolysis. One-way valves showed reliable opening pressures of 470 mm Hg. All implanted devices refilled at 4- to 6-week intervals for 4 to 6 months. No infection was seen. No devices extruded. No filtering bleb formed over the implant. Conclusions: A prototype ocular mini drug pump was built, implanted, and refilled. Such a platform needs more testing to determine the long-term biocompatibility of an electrically controlled implanted pump. Testing with various pharmacologic agents is needed to determine its ultimate potential for ophthalmic use. PMID:20126483

  16. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for use as a topical ophthalmic anesthetic in animals. It is used as an anesthetic in cauterization of corneal ulcers, removal of foreign bodies and sutures...

  19. Ophthalmic Diseases in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Skorin, Leonid; Knutson, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 2% of women and 4% of men, but the prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is significantly higher. Several ophthalmic conditions are associated with OSA, including floppy eyelid syndrome, glaucoma, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, keratoconus, and central serous chorioretinopathy. The purpose of this review is to provide primary care physicians with a general knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and management of the ophthalmic diseases associated with OSA. PMID:27455101

  20. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  1. Metabolic Acidosis with Ophthalmic Dorzolamide in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Capino, Amanda C.; Dannaway, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a common cause of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; however, development is less commonly associated with ophthalmic administration of these agents. We report a case of a premature neonate who was being treated at our institution with betaxolol, dorzolamide, and latanoprost ophthalmic products for suspected bilateral congenital glaucoma. In addition, the patient was also receiving caffeine, ursodiol, and acidified liquid human milk fortifier. The patient developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, and both dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the acidified human milk fortifier were considered potential causes. Upon discontinuation of the dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the switching of liquid human milk fortifiers, the normal anion gap metabolic acidosis gradually resolved. As a result of the pH and acidity, the acidified liquid human milk fortifier is thought to be associated with an anion gap acidosis; therefore, dorzolamide is suspected to be the primary cause of a normal gap acidosis. This case demonstrates that systemic effects can occur with ophthalmic administration of dorzolamide in a premature neonate. Ophthalmic agents should not be overlooked as a potential cause of systemic toxicity. PMID:27453705

  2. Metabolic Acidosis with Ophthalmic Dorzolamide in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    Capino, Amanda C; Dannaway, Douglas C; Miller, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a common cause of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; however, development is less commonly associated with ophthalmic administration of these agents. We report a case of a premature neonate who was being treated at our institution with betaxolol, dorzolamide, and latanoprost ophthalmic products for suspected bilateral congenital glaucoma. In addition, the patient was also receiving caffeine, ursodiol, and acidified liquid human milk fortifier. The patient developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, and both dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the acidified human milk fortifier were considered potential causes. Upon discontinuation of the dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the switching of liquid human milk fortifiers, the normal anion gap metabolic acidosis gradually resolved. As a result of the pH and acidity, the acidified liquid human milk fortifier is thought to be associated with an anion gap acidosis; therefore, dorzolamide is suspected to be the primary cause of a normal gap acidosis. This case demonstrates that systemic effects can occur with ophthalmic administration of dorzolamide in a premature neonate. Ophthalmic agents should not be overlooked as a potential cause of systemic toxicity. PMID:27453705

  3. Side-effects of a bad attitude: How GNSS spacecraft orientation errors affect solar radiation pressure modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilssner, Florian; Springer, Tim; Schönemann, Erik; Zandbergen, Rene; Enderle, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the largest non-gravitational perturbation for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites, and can therefore have substantial impact on their orbital dynamics. Various SRP force models have been developed over the past 30 years for the purpose of precise orbit determination. They all rely upon the assumption that the satellites continuously maintain a Sun-Nadir pointing attitude with the navigation antenna boresight (body-fixed z-axis) pointing towards Earth center, and the solar panel rotation axis (body-fixed y-axis) being normal to the Sun direction. However, in reality, this is not perfectly the case. Reasons for a non-nominal spacecraft attitude may be eclipse maneuvers, commanded attitude biases and Sun/horizon sensor measurement errors, for example due to mounting misalignment or incorrectly calibrated sensor electronics. In this work the effect of GNSS spacecraft orientation errors on SRP modelling is investigated. Simplified mathematical functions describing the SRP force acting on the solar arrays in the presence of yaw-, pitch- and roll-biases are derived. Special attention is paid to the yaw-bias and its relationship to the SRP dynamics, particular in direction of the spacecraft y-axis ("y-bias force"). Analytical and experimental results gathered from orbit and attitude analyses of GPS Block II/IIA/IIF satellites demonstrate how sensitive the SRP coefficients are to changes in yaw.

  4. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    PubMed Central

    Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W

    2014-01-01

    Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493

  5. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  6. Viscoelastic interactions between polydeoxyribonucleotide and ophthalmic excipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Iksoo; Kim, Hyeongmin; Park, Kyunghee; Karki, Sandeep; Khadka, Prakash; Jo, Kanghee; Kim, Seong Yeon; Ro, Jieun; Lee, Jaehwi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) and several ionic and nonionic isotonic agents, thickeners and a preservative that were employed as excipients in ophthalmic preparations. Interaction of each individual excipient and PDRN aqueous solution was evaluated by analyzing their rheological properties. Rheological properties of PDRN solutions were evaluated by dynamic oscillatory shear tests and values of elastic modulus (G'), viscous modulus (G″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were used to assess the relative changes in viscoelastic properties. At given concentrations, sodium chloride was found to show alteration in viscoelastic properties of PDRN solution while nonionic isotonic agents like d-glucose and d-sorbitol did not alter them. Similarly, nonionic water soluble polymers like polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) also did not interact with PDRN to alter the viscoelastic properties. However, there were changes observed when carbopol 940 was used as a thickener. Therefore, PDRN was found to interact with ionic excipients and the interactions were negligible when nonionic materials were examined, which suggests that nonionic excipients are suitable to be formulated with PDRN. PMID:26023993

  7. 75 FR 26264 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory...

  8. Sustained intraocular pressure reduction throughout the day with travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004%

    PubMed Central

    Dubiner, Harvey B; Noecker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to characterize intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction throughout the day with travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening. Methods The results of seven published, randomized clinical trials including at least one arm in which travoprost 0.004% was dosed once daily in the evening were integrated. Means (and standard deviations) of mean baseline and on-treatment IOP, as well as mean IOP reduction and mean percent IOP reduction at 0800, 1000, and 1600 hours at weeks 2 and 12 were calculated. Results From a mean baseline IOP ranging from 25.0 to 27.2 mmHg, mean IOP on treatment ranged from 17.4 to 18.8 mmHg across all visits and time points. Mean IOP reductions from baseline ranged from 7.6 to 8.4 mmHg across visits and time points, representing a mean IOP reduction of 30%. Results of the safety analysis were consistent with the results from the individual studies for travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004%, with ocular hyperemia being the most common side effect. Conclusion Travoprost 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening provides sustained IOP reduction throughout the 24-hour dosing interval in subjects with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. No reduction of IOP-lowering efficacy was observed at the 1600-hour time point which approached the end of the dosing interval. PMID:22536047

  9. [Case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve].

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Masanori; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2009-04-01

    A rare case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve was reported. A 52-year-old man presented with a sudden severe headache and bilateral visual deterioration. His right visual acuity was hand motion and the left was 2.0. His left visual field revealed a partial defect of the temporal visual field. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed an ophthalmic aneurysm of 9 mm projecting superior-medially, The operation was performed to preserve the visual function as much as possible. The C2 portion aneurysm splitting the right optic nerve was visible. Before aneurysm clipping, the right anterior clinoid process and optic canal were drilled out to reduce the tension of the optic nerve. Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potential (VEP) under propofol anesthesia was performed to prevent further visual disturbance. Electroretinogram (ERG) was introduced to ascertain the arrival of the light stimulus at the retina even when the VEP could not be recorded. The right ERG was recorded, but the right VEP was flat. Both ERG and VEP were reproducible on the left side. Six months after the operation, the right visual acuity had improved to 0.08 and the visual field revealed nasal hemianopsia. The left visual acuity was unchanged while the visual field had improved to upper temporal quadrant hemianopsia. Various attempts to preserve the visual function were discussed. PMID:19364029

  10. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.