Science.gov

Sample records for ophthalmology research highlights

  1. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is an annual publication documenting developments in the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)'s research programs for the previous year. The 2004 edition highlights research on the following themes: (1) Helping international schools measure achievement; (2) Evaluating Australian teachers; (3) Tests of reading…

  2. Research Highlights, 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACER Press (Australian Council for Educational Research), 2003

    2003-01-01

    "Research Highlights" is an annual publication documenting developments in the Australian Council for Educational Research's (ACER's) research programs for the previous year. The 2003 edition highlights research on the following themes: (1) Australian students excel in international study; (2) Assessing the moral and ethical outcomes of schooling;…

  3. Zebrafish—on the move towards ophthalmological research

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, J; Jacobson, G; Gueven, N

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people are affected by visual impairment and blindness globally, and the prevalence of vision loss is likely to increase as we are living longer. However, many ocular diseases remain poorly controlled due to lack of proper understanding of the pathogenesis and the corresponding lack of effective therapies. Consequently, there is a major need for animal models that closely mirror the human eye pathology and at the same time allow higher-throughput drug screening approaches. In this context, zebrafish as an animal model organism not only address these needs but can in many respects reflect the human situation better than the current rodent models. Over the past decade, zebrafish have become an established model to study a variety of human diseases and are more recently becoming a valuable tool for the study of human ophthalmological disorders. Many human ocular diseases such as cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration have already been modelled in zebrafish. In addition, zebrafish have become an attractive model for pre-clinical drug toxicity testing and are now increasingly used by scientists worldwide for the discovery of novel treatment approaches. This review presents the advantages and uses of zebrafish for ophthalmological research. PMID:24503724

  4. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS, 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes accomplishments made by the Office of Research and Development in 1980. It also illustrates how the Office of Research and Development's research helps people--helps to keep them healthy and to be more productive. Research areas covered in this year's High...

  5. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results described in the report represent but a few of the projects supported by the Office of Research and Development in 1977. The program ranges from direct support to EPA's regulatory functions, such as cancer assessment and drinking water purification, to investigations ...

  6. OCLC Research: 2014 Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    OCLC Research is one of the world's leading centers devoted exclusively to the challenges facing libraries and archives in a rapidly changing information technology environment. The mission of OCLC is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of advancing libraries and librarianship. The goal is to help libraries plan with…

  7. Global change research highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Wood - the fuel source of the past - is expected to be a fuel source of the future. Fast growing trees are being cloned and nurtured for conversion to biofuels to replace or supplement gasoline for transportation. The future may also bring higher temperatures and drought if global climate changes as predicted. So, it seems practical to raise fastgrowing trees that not only provide fuel by capturing carbon from the atmosphere (helping to deter climate change) but also flourish under dry conditions. A recent ORNL finding has bearing on this goal. Hybrid willow trees have been cloned because they grow fast and serve as good fuel sources. However, there are important gender differences. Male willow clones are generally more tolerant of drought than female willows. Also, male willows cause no weed problems because they do not disperse seeds. In addition research work has looked at the impact of enhanced carbon dioxide environments on the growth of trees and the potential sequestering of carbon dioxide into the trees or soils. Scientists have found that ground-level ozone in the environment can reduce the growth of the loblolly pine, a forest tree species of great economic importance in the Southeast. It is predicted that global warming could lead to changes in regional precipitation, even periods of drought. How would climate change affect the growth of forest trees? This is a question ORNL has been attempting to answer. Geologic records have been studied by means of isotope ratio techniques to study reasons for vegetation changes in the past. The question is what was the reason for these changes.

  8. The research and development of the adaptive optics in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuhan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Weilin

    2015-08-01

    Recently the combination of adaptive optics and ophthalmology has made great progress and become highly effective. The retina disease is diagnosed by retina imaging technique based on scanning optical system, so the scanning of eye requires optical system characterized by great ability of anti-moving and optical aberration correction. The adaptive optics possesses high level of adaptability and is available for real time imaging, which meets the requirement of medical retina detection with accurate images. Now the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are widely used, which are the core techniques in the area of medical retina detection. Based on the above techniques, in China, a few adaptive optics systems used for eye medical scanning have been designed by some researchers from The Institute of Optics And Electronics of CAS(The Chinese Academy of Sciences); some foreign research institutions have adopted other methods to eliminate the interference of eye moving and optical aberration; there are many relevant patents at home and abroad. In this paper, the principles and relevant technique details of the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are described. And the recent development and progress of adaptive optics in the field of eye retina imaging are analyzed and summarized.

  9. Research and technology highlights, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities supported by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. This report also describes some of the Center's most important research and testing facilities.

  10. Atmospheric Research 2011 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of Atmospheric Research. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  11. Research and technology highlights, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission will be accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, and other NASA centers. Highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year are presented. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of research and technology (R&T) activities supported by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. Some of the Center's most important research and testing facilities are also described.

  12. Personalized ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds development of gene replacement therapies for some inherited monogenic eye diseases. It also promises to alter prediction, diagnosis and management of the complex disease age-related macular degeneration. Personalized ophthalmology is underpinned by an understanding of the molecular basis of eye disease. Two important areas of focus are required for adoption of personalized approaches: disease stratification and individualization. Disease stratification relies on phenotypic and genetic assessment leading to molecular diagnosis; individualization encompasses all aspects of patient management from optimized genetic counseling and conventional therapies to trials of novel DNA-based therapies. This review discusses the clinical implications of these twin strategies. Advantages and implications of genetic testing for patients with inherited eye diseases, choice of molecular diagnostic modality, drivers for adoption of personalized ophthalmology, service planning implications, ethical considerations and future challenges are considered. Indeed, whilst many difficulties remain, personalized ophthalmology truly has the potential to revolutionize the specialty. PMID:24665880

  13. Research and Technology Highlights 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of research and technology (R&T) activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. An electronic version of the report is available at URL http://techreports.larc.nasa.gov/RandT95. This color version allows viewing, retrieving, and printing of the highlights, searching and browsing through the sections, and access to an on-line directory of Langley researchers.

  14. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Cheryl A.; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS. PMID:27429744

  15. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  16. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Earth Sciences Division in atmospheric science research. Figure 1.1 shows the 20-year record of peer-reviewed publications and proposals among the various Laboratories. This data shows that the scientific work being conducted in the Laboratories is competitive with the work being done elsewhere in universities and other government agencies. The office of Deputy Director for Atmospheric Research will strive to maintain this record by rigorously monitoring and promoting quality while emphasizing coordination and integration among atmospheric disciplines. Also, an appropriate balance will be maintained between the scientists' responsibility for large collaborative projects and missions and their need to carry out active science research as a principal investigator. This balance allows members of the Laboratories to improve their scientific credentials, and develop leadership potentials. Interdisciplinary research is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other government agencies. Members of the Laboratories interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratories raise the public's awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Atmosphere Laboratories make substantial efforts to attract and recruit new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA's mission, provides highlights of our research scope and activities, and summarizes our scientists' major

  17. Tourette Syndrome research highlights 2014

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Cheryl A; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    About 200 journal articles reported research on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in 2014. Here we briefly summarize a few of the reports that seemed most important or interesting, ranging from animal models to human studies. Readers can comment on our choices or provide their own favorites using the tools on the online article. PMID:26512319

  18. [Development of genetic research in ophthalmology with special reference to Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Klein, D

    1990-05-01

    The relationship between ophthalmology and genetics has always been a very active one, and existed even before Mendel's laws of inheritance were known. The pedigree method in particular yielded satisfactory results even to the first researchers. Later, Helmholtz's invention of the ophthalmoscope (in 1851) and the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity (in 1900) made major contributions to the progress of human genetics in ophthalmology. Credit is due to J. F. Horner of Zurich (1831-1886) for having first established the X-chromosomal inheritance of colorblindness. Subsequently, the development of genetic research was advanced in particular by Alfred Vogt, Professor of Ophthalmology in Zurich (1879-1943) and Adolf Franceschetti in Geneva (1896-1968) and their co-workers. We are indebted to Vogt for the first description of albinismus solum bulbi. Credit is also due to him for having made early diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy (Steinert) possible, a major discovery for genetic counseling. He was the first to detect, by slit-lamp examination, characteristic lens changes in the form of whitish, red, and green opacities in the anterior and posterior subcapsular regions. Franceschetti's achievements include the description of several clinical syndromes, of which mandibulofacial dysostosis has become well known. Among the hereditary retinal dystrophies, he described fundus flavimaculatus (yellowish lesions disseminated in the deeper layers of the posterior pole) as a new entity, attributed to degeneration of the pigment epithelium. In addition to more than 500 articles, he was also co-author, with J. François and J. Babel, of a monumental handbook in two volumes titled Hérédodégénérescences choriorétiniennes (of which an English translation appeared in 1974).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2195224

  19. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: FINE PARTICLE SCRUBBER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of fine particle scrubber research performed by, or under the direction of, EPA's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (IERL-RTP) at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The U.S. EPA has been actively involved in research and development in ...

  20. Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

  1. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)--2010 Annual Meeting. For Sight: The Future of Eye and Vision Research--part 2.

    PubMed

    Hookes, Livia

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), held in Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of eye and vision research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of OT-440 (Othera Pharmaceuticals Inc) for the potential treatment of glaucoma, an extended-release implant of brimonidine (pSivida Corp) for ocular hypertension, AR-12286 (Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc) for ocular hypertension or glaucoma, AC-8 (Calmune Corp/RiboVax Biotechnologies SA) for ocular diseases following HSV infection, and fidarestat (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd) and the recombinant proteins NOV and NOVCter (INSERM/University Rene Descartes) for corneal neovascularization. PMID:20582863

  2. Building a Culture of Safety in Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Custer, Philip L; Fitzgerald, Matthew E; Herman, David C; Lee, Paul P; Cowan, Claude L; Cantor, Louis B; Bartley, George B

    2016-09-01

    Patient safety focused on a reduction in both procedural and diagnostic error is the number one concern of the United States healthcare system in the 21st century. The American Board of Ophthalmology has a longstanding interest in patient safety, and in 2015, teamed with the American Academy of Ophthalmology to convene all ophthalmology subspecialties and other prominent national organizations to address patient safety in ophthalmology. This article reviews the topic and highlights concerns for ophthalmologists. PMID:27550004

  3. ISPAE Research Highlights 1995-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, Ken

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents ISPAE (Institute for Space Physics, Astrophysics and Education) research highlights from 1995-1997. The topics include: 1) High-Energy Astrophysics (Finding the smoking gun in gamma-ray bursts, Playing peekaboo with gamma ray bursts, and Spectral pulses muddle burst source study, Einstein was right: Black holes do spin, Astronomers find "one-man X-ray band", and Cosmic rays from the supernova next door?); 2) Solar Physics (Bright burst confirms solar storm model, Model predicts speed of solar wind in space, and Angry sunspots snap under the strain); 3) Gravitational Physics; 4) Tether Dynamics; and 5) Space Physics (Plasma winds blow form polar regions, De-SCIFERing thermal electrons, and UVI lets scientists see daytime aurora).

  4. Research and technology highlights of the Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Highlights of research accomplishments of the Lewis Research Center for fiscal year 1984 are presented. The report is divided into four major sections covering aeronautics, space communications, space technology, and materials and structures. Six articles on energy are included in the space technology section.

  5. Bioceramics in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2014-08-01

    The benefits of ceramics in biomedical applications have been universally appreciated as they exhibit an extraordinarily broad set of physico-chemical, mechanical and biological properties which can be properly tailored by acting on their composition, porosity and surface texture to increase their versatility and suitability for targeted healthcare applications. Bioceramics have traditionally been used for the repair of hard tissues, such as bone and teeth, mainly due to their suitable strength for load-bearing applications, wear resistance (especially alumina, zirconia and composites thereof) and, in some cases, bone-bonding ability (calcium orthophosphates and bioactive glasses). Bioceramics have been also applied in other medical areas, like ophthalmic surgery; although their use in such a context has been scientifically documented since the late 1700s, the potential and importance of ceramic ocular implants still seem to be underestimated and an exhaustive, critical assessment is currently lacking in the relevant literature. The present review aims to fill this gap by giving a comprehensive picture of the ceramic-based materials and implants that are currently used in ophthalmology and pointing out the strengths and weaknesses of the existing devices. A prospect for future research is also provided, highlighting the potential of new, smart bioceramics able to carry specific added values which could have a significant impact on the treatment of ocular diseases. PMID:24879312

  6. Highlights of Programmatic, Interdisciplinary Research on Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of research topics and findings from an interdisciplinary, programmatic line of research on writing over the past 25 years is presented. The cross-sectional assessment studies (grades 1 to 9) showed which measures uniquely explained variance in handwriting, spelling, and composing and thus validated their use in assessment. These and…

  7. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus. PMID:27400228

  8. Research highlights: impacts of microplastics on plankton.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2016-02-01

    Each year, millions of metric tons of the plastic produced for food packaging, personal care products, fishing gear, and other human activities end up in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The breakdown of these primary plastics in the environment results in microplastics, small fragments of plastic typically less than 1-5 mm in size. These synthetic particles have been detected in all of the world's oceans and also in many freshwater systems, accumulating in sediment, on shorelines, suspended in surface waters, and being ingested by plankton, fish, birds, and marine mammals. While the occurrence of plastics in surface waters has been surveyed in a number of studies, the impacts of microplastics on marine organisms are still being elucidated. This highlight features three recent publications that explore the interactions of microplastics with planktonic organisms to clarify the effects of these pollutants on some of the ocean's smallest and most important inhabitants. PMID:26829584

  9. Research highlights: microfluidics meets big data.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peter; Weaver, Westbrook M; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Owsley, Keegan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-03-01

    In this issue we highlight a collection of recent work in which microfluidic parallelization and automation have been employed to address the increasing need for large amounts of quantitative data concerning cellular function--from correlating microRNA levels to protein expression, increasing the throughput and reducing the noise when studying protein dynamics in single-cells, and understanding how signal dynamics encodes information. The painstaking dissection of cellular pathways one protein at a time appears to be coming to an end, leading to more rapid discoveries which will inevitably translate to better cellular control--in producing useful gene products and treating disease at the individual cell level. From these studies it is also clear that development of large scale mutant or fusion libraries, automation of microscopy, image analysis, and data extraction will be key components as microfluidics contributes its strengths to aid systems biology moving forward. PMID:24473594

  10. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-01

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis. PMID:25410901

  11. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Cancer.gov

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  12. Keys to Survival: Highlights in Resilience Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Joseph V.

    1994-01-01

    Presents key themes from expanding literature on resilience, drawing from both psychological research and narratives of survivors. Focuses on Kauai study, landmark 30-year longitudinal study on resilience in 698 infants. Also examines survivors of child abuse, distinguishes between unhealthy and healthy resilience, discusses issues of separation…

  13. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  14. NASA Aeronautics: Research and Technology Program Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains numerous color illustrations to describe the NASA programs in aeronautics. The basic ideas involved are explained in brief paragraphs. The seven chapters deal with Subsonic aircraft, High-speed transport, High-performance military aircraft, Hypersonic/Transatmospheric vehicles, Critical disciplines, National facilities and Organizations & installations. Some individual aircraft discussed are : the SR-71 aircraft, aerospace planes, the high-speed civil transport (HSCT), the X-29 forward-swept wing research aircraft, and the X-31 aircraft. Critical disciplines discussed are numerical aerodynamic simulation, computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics and new experimental testing techniques.

  15. Research highlights: June 1990 - May 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Linear instability calculations at MSFC have suggested that the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) should exhibit classic baroclinic instability at accessible parameter settings. Interest was in the mechanisms of transition to temporal chaos and the evolution of spatio-temporal chaos. In order to understand more about such transitions, high resolution numerical experiments for the physically simplest model of two layer baroclinic instability were conducted. This model has the advantage that the numerical code is exponentially convergent and can be efficiently run for very long times, enabling the study of chaotic attractors without the often devastating effects of low-order trunction found in many previous studies. Numerical algorithms for implementing an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the high resolution numerical results were completed. Under conditions of rapid rotation and relatively low differential heating, convection in a spherical shell takes place as columnar banana cells wrapped around the annular gap, but with axes oriented along the axis of rotation; these were clearly evident in the GFFC experiments. The results of recent numerical simulations of columnar convection and future research plans are presented.

  16. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of a major EPA research program on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) technology, directed toward improving the performance of ESPs in controlling industrial particulate emissions, notably fly ash from coal combustion in electric power plants. Relationsh...

  17. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca Matthews, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, NCI Center for Cancer Research; Lanessa Hill, public affairs specialist,

  18. FY 1995 research highlights: PNL accomplishments in OER programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducts fundamental and applied research in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) core missions in science and technology, environmental quality, energy resources, and national security. Much of this research is funded by the program offices of DOE`s Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER), primarily the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), and by PNL`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This document is a collection of research highlights that describe PNL`s accomplishments in DOE-ER funded programs during Fiscal Year 1995. Included are accomplishments in research funded by OHER`s Analytical Technologies, Environmental Research, Health Effects, General Life Sciences, and Carbon Dioxide Research programs; BES`s Materials Science, Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geoscience, and Applied Mathematical Sciences programs; and PNL`s LDRD Program. Summaries are given for 70 projects.

  19. NCI intramural research highlighted at 2014 AACR meeting

    Cancer.gov

    This year’s American Association for Cancer Research meeting featured plenary talks by two NCI scientists, Steven Rosenberg, M.D., and Louis Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., that highlighted the challenges in developing varied and potentially synergistic treatments f

  20. Ophthalmological ideas of the Byzantine author Meletius.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Tsirou, M

    1990-02-01

    The authors study and analyze the ophthalmological knowledge of the monk Meletius of the Monastery of St. Trinity in Tiveriopoli, as they appear in his paper 'De Natura Hominis'. The ophthalmological knowledge of Meletius mainly concerns the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The authors reach the conclusion that Meletius' ophthalmological knowledge for the greater part is compiled from that of the ancient authors; but they define a great number of pioneering medical ideas of Meletius, of which further research could discover the origin. PMID:2209365

  1. Highlights of Aeroacoustics Research in the U.S. 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; McLaughlin, Dennis K.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights of aeroacoustics research in the United States of America during 1998 are reported in a summary compiled from information provided by members of the Aeroacoustics Technical Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other leading research groups in industry, national laboratories, and academia. The past few years have seen significant progress in aeroacoustics. Research has steadily progressed toward enhanced safety, noise benefits, and lower costs. Since industrial progress is generally not published in the archival literature, it is particularly important to highlight these accomplishments. This year we chose to report on five topics of great interest to the aerospace industry including a synopsis of fundamental research at universities and national laboratories. The topics chosen are: (1) Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), (2) High Speed Research (HSR), (3) Rotorcraft, (4) Weapons bay aeroacoustics control and (5) Academic research including Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA). Although the information presented in this review is not all encompassing we hope that the topics covered will provide some insights into aeroacoustics activity in the U.S.

  2. American Academy of Ophthalmology

    MedlinePlus

    ... of millions of patients around the world. OPHTHALMOLOGY JOB CENTER Associate Vitreoretinal Surgeon & Medical Retina Physician | The ... physician hiring ophthalmologist / partnership opportunity | Confidential See all jobs Shop the Academy Store Focal Points 2016 Module: ...

  3. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  4. Ophthalmology in Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9th century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7th century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored. In addition to numerous books and articles in various fields, he authored a great medical Encyclopedia (al-Hawi al-Kabir) in 25 volumes. In this article, we are going to compare Rhazes’ particular viewpoints about ophthalmology with those of other famous Persian physicians and some recent essays and textbooks. For this purpose we reviewed Rhazes’ second volume of al-Hawi that is dedicated exclusively to ophthalmology and contains some major topics of ophthalmology including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diseases, disorders and treatments. Important themes were carefully extracted and compared with the tenets of modern ophthalmology. After collating Rhazes’ viewpoints with the latest findings in this field, it was concluded that he had brilliantly written about the signs and symptoms, etiology and treatment of many eye disorders more than a thousand years ago. The amazing point is that there was no accurate equipment at the time to help him in his investigations. This study proved that Rhazes’ theories conform to recent knowledge about ophthalmology in many aspects, and could therefore be the subject of further investigations. PMID:26587199

  5. Children's Ophthalmologic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Richard M.

    1977-01-01

    The author points out the need for early screening for ophthalmologic disorders and reviews symptoms of various eye disorders. Among the types of eye pathology considered are retinoblastoma, retrolental fibroplasia, congenital glaucoma, congenital cataracts, congenital strabismus, chlamydia oculogenitalis, orbital cellulitis, and eye injuries.…

  6. "Counseling" in Ophthalmology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, J.

    1976-01-01

    The need to counsel patients with genetic ophthalmological problems is stressed in the article. Assessment of autosomal dominance or autosomal recessitivity in an individual is explained and sex-linked heredity is traced. Practical examples of genetic abnormalities, such as pigmentary retinopathy and chorodineremia, are discussed. (PHR)

  7. Research highlights: natural passive samplers--plants as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, interest in boosting the collection of data on environmental pollutants while reducing costs has spurred intensive research into passive samplers, instruments that monitor the environment through the free flow of chemical species. These devices, although relatively inexpensive compared to active sampling technologies, are often tailored for collection of specific contaminants or monitoring of a single phase, typically water or air. Plants as versatile, natural passive samplers have gained increased attention in recent years due to their ability to absorb a diverse range of chemicals from the air, water, and soil. Trees, lichens, and other flora have evolved exquisite biological features to facilitate uptake of nutrients and water from the ground and conduct gas exchange on an extraordinary scale, making them excellent monitors of their surroundings. Sampling established plant specimens in a region also provides both historical and spatial data on environmental contaminants at relatively low cost in a non-invasive manner. This Highlight presents several recent publications that demonstrate how plant biomonitoring can be used to map the distribution of a variety of pollutants and identify their sources. PMID:25980391

  8. Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles. PMID:21283153

  9. Laser ophthalmological trainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovva, Anatoly I.; Strinadko, Miroslav T.; Strinadko, Marina M.

    1997-12-01

    The laser ophthalmological trainer is offered. It provides stimulation of an optic analyzer by means of the simultaneous influence of different sensor zones optic auditory by the modulated laser radiation and the sound signal of the proper frequency. The trainer includes the assembly providing individual control of the permissible dose of radiation and can be used for treatment of partial atrophy of optic nerve, dystrophy of cornea, cornea syndrome after refraction surgery, inflammatory diseases of cornea, and conjunctivitis.

  10. Optoacoustic imaging for ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, Uwe; Jansen, Birte; Bruder, Ingo; Lubatschowski, Holger; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2001-10-01

    The feasibility of optoacoustic imaging was investigated for ophthalmologic application in the treatment of glaucoma. Difficulties in the treatment with laser cyclophotocoagulation are mainly due to uncertainties in the localization of the ciliary body. With laser optoacoustics it is possible to localize the position of the ciliary body on enucleated porcine and rabbit eyes. Additionally, the changes in the optical properties of the tissue induced by coagulation with a diode laser were observed.

  11. Clinical application of MRI in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kelly A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    MRI has long been applied to clinical medical and neurological cases for the structural assessment of tissues as well as their physiological and functional needs and processes. These uses are at a variety of developmental stages in ophthalmology, from common use of clinical structural assessment for neuro-ophthalmology and evaluation of space-occupying lesions to the beginning stages of experimentally measuring functional activation of specific layers within the retina and measurement of physiological oxygen responses. New MRI methodologies, such as the use of orbital coils and Gd-DTPA image enhancement, have been researched, developed, and validated in the eye, opening new possibilities for this technology to enter the clinic. This review aims to summarize the clinical ophthalmological uses of MRI, focusing on the current use of the technology and future applications. PMID:18384176

  12. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH AT HIGH TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives highlights of EPA high-temperature and high-pressure programs aimed at demonstrating control technology to meet environmental standards for the ambient concentration of particles and the emission rate of particles from new sources. Among the control devices consi...

  13. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON FABRIC FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report highlights significant developments in fabric filtration technology. It reviews results of several field and laboratory studies performed over the last 10 years, by or under the sponsorship of the EPA, so that the reader may be better able to assess filtration equipmen...

  14. Using Publication Metrics to Highlight Academic Productivity and Research Impact

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Cone, David C.; Sarli, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of widely available measures of academic productivity and impact using publication data and highlights uses of these metrics for various purposes. Metrics based on publication data include measures such as number of publications, number of citations, the journal impact factor score, and the h-index, as well as emerging metrics based on document-level metrics. Publication metrics can be used for a variety of purposes for tenure and promotion, grant applications and renewal reports, benchmarking, recruiting efforts, and administrative purposes for departmental or university performance reports. The authors also highlight practical applications of measuring and reporting academic productivity and impact to emphasize and promote individual investigators, grant applications, or department output. PMID:25308141

  15. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Selected examples of research accomplishments related to remote sensing are compiled. A brief statement is given to highlight the significant results of each research project. A list of 1981 publication and location contacts is given also. The projects cover emission and reflectance analysis, identification of crop and soil parameters, and the utilization of remote sensing data.

  16. Neuro-Ophthalmological Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, João

    2015-01-01

    Neuro-ophthalmological emergencies constitute vision or life-threatening conditions if diagnosis and treatment are not promptly undertaken. Even with immediate therapy, these clinical entities carry a high rate of morbidity. They may present with diplopia, visual loss, and/or anisocoria. Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is an ominous condition, which can cause permanent and severe vision loss, stroke, or aortic dissection, requiring immediate steroid therapy. Pituitary apoplexy may go unnoticed if only computed axial tomography is performed. Diseases affecting the cavernous sinus and orbital apex region, such as cavernous sinus thrombosis or mucormycosis, can give rise to simultaneous vision loss and diplopia and, if not treated, may extend to the brain parenchyma causing permanent neurological sequela. An isolated third nerve palsy may be the harbinger of a cerebral aneurysm, carrying a significant risk of mortality. Horner syndrome can be the initial presentation of a carotid dissection, an important cause of stroke in the young adult. The neurohospitalist should be familiar with the workup and management of neuro-ophthalmological emergencies. PMID:26425250

  17. Hysterical symptoms in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Weller, M; Wiedemann, P

    1989-09-01

    Ophthalmologic symptoms are often not sufficiently accounted for by organic pathology. The complaints of these patients have been labeled hysterical, psychogenic, non-organic, or functional. The psychiatric nosology in this area may be the most confusing in the whole field of clinical medicine. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) offers a classification designed to reduce non-empirical concepts and ideology to a minimum. On this background, we discuss the hysterical symptoms encountered in clinical ophthalmology with special emphasis on psychogenic amblyopia and blepharospasm. Motor symptoms are commonly not of psychogenic origin. It is suggested that ophthalmologists are most likely to treat patients with psychogenic symptoms, using suggestion, patience, and reassurance. Few patients require psychiatric consultation and a specific psychiatric therapy. The association of hysteria with organic brain disease and the issue of symptom lateralization are briefly discussed. Eventually, we reject the psychoanalytic approach and suggest that the concept of abnormal illness behavior and the neurobiological models involving corticofugal inhibition, primitive reflex mechanisms, and an attention disturbance, serve best to understand the nature of the phenomenon hysteria. PMID:2698334

  18. Workshop Highlight - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    As omics science moves forward, identifying methodologies and applications based on specific types of omic data, as well as their integration, becomes increasingly important as it provides new insights to be rapidly tested in basic or applied research.

  19. Highlights of twenty years of optical space research.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1967-12-01

    The most important first discoveries in optical space research are reviewed for the twenty years since the beginning in 1946. Only research conducted from space vehicles is included: rockets, earth orbiting vehicles, both unmanned and manned, space probes, and lunar landings. The optical fields involved are: measurements of extreme uv and x rays from the sun, including spectra, spectroheliograms, and monitoring; the white light solar corona; x-rays and extreme uv from stars and nebulae; the airglow; photography of the moon, Mars, and the earth; the technical breakthroughs that made the work possible. An extensive bibliography is included. PMID:20062361

  20. Research highlights: microfluidic-enabled single-cell epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Manjima; Khojah, Reem; Tay, Andy; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-11-01

    Individual cells are the fundamental unit of life with diverse functions from metabolism to motility. In multicellular organisms, a single genome can give rise to tremendous variability across tissues at the single-cell level due to epigenetic differences in the genes that are expressed. Signals from the local environment or a history of signals can drive these variations, and tissues have many cell types that play separate roles. This epigenetic heterogeneity is of biological importance in normal functions such as tissue morphogenesis and can contribute to development or resistance of cancer, or other disease states. Therefore, an improved understanding of variations at the single cell level are fundamental to understanding biology and developing new approaches to combating disease. Traditional approaches to characterize epigenetic modifications of chromatin or the transcriptome of cells have often focused on blended responses of many cells in a tissue; however, such bulk measures lose spatial and temporal differences that occur from cell to cell, and cannot uncover novel or rare populations of cells. Here we highlight a flurry of recent activity to identify the mRNA profiles from thousands of single-cells as well as chromatin accessibility and histone marks on single to few hundreds of cells. Microfluidics and microfabrication have played a central role in the range of new techniques, and will likely continue to impact their further development towards routine single-cell epigenetic analysis. PMID:26405849

  1. Highlights from Research on School and Classroom Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The research summarized here suggests that: Children learn more than academic content from their school experiences, especially how to behave in nonfamily groups. Congruence between the school and community can contribute significantly to a sense of community among both adults and youth, but at some…

  2. Diving and hyperbaric ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Butler, F K

    1995-01-01

    Exposure of the human body to ambient pressures greater than that at sea level may result in various disorders, some of which have ocular manifestations. Additionally, some eye disorders and postoperative states may be adversely affected by the underwater environment or other hyperbaric exposures. The prevalence of recreational, military, and commercial diving, as well as the medical use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, requires that ophthalmologists be familiar with the effects of the hyperbaric environment on the normal and diseased eye. The ophthalmology and diving medical literatures were surveyed for publications relating to the ophthalmic aspects of diving and hyperbaric exposures. Underwater optics, underwater refractive correction, and ophthalmic aspects of a fitness-to-dive evaluation are summarized. The evaluation and management of ocular manifestations of decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism are reviewed and guidelines for diving after ocular surgery are proposed. PMID:7604359

  3. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

  4. Fibrin glue in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Anita; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Abhiyan; Bansal, Raseena; Bhartiya, Shibal

    2009-01-01

    Suturing is a time consuming task in ophthalmology and suture induced irritation and redness are frequent problems. Postoperative wound infection and corneal graft rejection are examples of possible suture related complications. To prevent these complications, ophthalmic surgeons are switching to sutureless surgery. A number of recent developments have established tissue adhesives like cyanoacrylate glue and fibrin glue as attractive alternatives to sutures. A possible and promising new application for tissue adhesives is to provide a platform for tissue engineering. Currently, tissue glue is being used for conjunctival closure following pterygium and strabismus surgery, forniceal reconstruction surgery, amniotic membrane transplantation, lamellar corneal grafting, closure of corneal perforations and descematoceles, management of conjunctival wound leaks after trabeculectomy, lid surgery, adnexal surgery and as a hemostat to minimise bleeding. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available information on fibrin glue. PMID:19700876

  5. Neuroimaging in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, James D.; Hashemi, Nafiseh; Gelman, Rachel; Lee, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In the past three decades, there have been countless advances in imaging modalities that have revolutionized evaluation, management, and treatment of neuro-ophthalmic disorders. Non-invasive approaches for early detection and monitoring of treatments have decreased morbidity and mortality. Understanding of basic methods of imaging techniques and choice of imaging modalities in cases encountered in neuro-ophthalmology clinic is critical for proper evaluation of patients. Two main imaging modalities that are often used are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, variations of these modalities and appropriate location of imaging must be considered in each clinical scenario. In this article, we review and summarize the best neuroimaging studies for specific neuro-ophthalmic indications and the diagnostic radiographic findings for important clinical entities. PMID:23961025

  6. Therapeutic antibodies in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Magdelaine-Beuzelin, Charlotte; Pinault, Coralie; Paintaud, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    More than a century after the first successful use of serotherapy, antibody-based therapy has been renewed by the availability of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. As in the past, current clinical experience has prompted new pharmacological questions and induced much debate among practitioners, notably in the field of ophthalmology. An examination of the history of antibodies as treatments for ocular disorders reveals interesting parallels to the modern era. The fact that a treatment administered by a systemic route could be efficacious in a local disease was not widely accepted and the “chemical” nature of antibodies was not clearly understood in the late 19th century. Clinical studies by Henry Coppez, a Belgian ophthalmologist, established in 1894 that antidiphtheric antitoxins could be used to treat conjunctival diphtheria. Nearly 20 years later, Coppez and Danis described age-related macular degeneration, a disorder which today benefits from ranibizumab therapy. The product, a locally-administered recombinant monoclonal Fab fragment, is directed against vascular endothelial growth factor A. Interestingly, its full-size counterpart, bevacizumab, which is approved for the treatment of solid tumors, has also demonstrated efficacy in age-related macular degeneration when administered either intravenously or locally, which raises new questions about antibody pharmacology and biodistribution. In order to shed some light on this debate, we recount the early history of serotherapy applied to ophthalmology, review the exact molecular differences between ranibizumab and bevacizumab, and discuss what is known about IgG and the blood-retina barrier and the possible role of FcRn, an IgG transporter. PMID:21358858

  7. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  8. Recent highlights in biosynthesis research using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rinkel, Jan; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2015-01-01

    The long and successful history of isotopic labeling experiments within natural products research has both changed and deepened our understanding of biosynthesis. As demonstrated in this article, the usage of isotopes is not at all old-fashioned, but continues to give important insights into biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. This review with 85 cited references is structured by separate discussions of compounds from different classes including polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, their hybrids, terpenoids, and aromatic compounds formed via the shikimate pathway. The text does not aim at a comprehensive overview, but instead a selection of recent important examples of isotope usage within biosynthetic studies is presented, with a special emphasis on mechanistic surprises. PMID:26734097

  9. Recent highlights in biosynthesis research using stable isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Rinkel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The long and successful history of isotopic labeling experiments within natural products research has both changed and deepened our understanding of biosynthesis. As demonstrated in this article, the usage of isotopes is not at all old-fashioned, but continues to give important insights into biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. This review with 85 cited references is structured by separate discussions of compounds from different classes including polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, their hybrids, terpenoids, and aromatic compounds formed via the shikimate pathway. The text does not aim at a comprehensive overview, but instead a selection of recent important examples of isotope usage within biosynthetic studies is presented, with a special emphasis on mechanistic surprises. PMID:26734097

  10. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  11. Skin Deep: Highlights of NREL Surface Analysis PV Research

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, S.; Pankow, J.; Perkins, C.; Reedy, R.; Teeter, G.; Young, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Surface Analysis project provides measurement support and leadership for collaborative research activities involving surface chemistry and physics in all areas of the PV program. Significant results from the past fiscal year include the following: i) in-situ XPS, UPS, and AES studies of chemical-bath exposure of CIGS surfaces demonstrated that Group-III elements are preferentially removed from the surface, that type conversion of the surface occurs, and that the addition of a surfactant improves CdS deposition and thus device performance; ii) XPS studies of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) candidate backsheet materials have shown that plasma exposure prior to oxide-barrier deposition results in the formation of low-molecular-weight fragments that result in the formation of a weak interfacial layer that fails during damp-heat exposure; iii) an empirical relation was derived for the source geometry that leads to optimal film-thickness uniformity in rotating-substrate physical-vapor deposition (PVD) systems; and iv) PVD flux-distribution calculations were performed to develop a novel method for combinatorial thin-film synthesis.

  12. Highlights of recent progress in plant lipid research.

    PubMed

    Lessire, R; Cahoon, E; Chapman, K; Dyer, J; Eastmond, P; Heinz, E

    2009-06-01

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of energy for the production of raw materials. This is the context in which the 18th International Symposium on Plant lipids (ISPL) was held in Bordeaux from 20th to 25th July 2008 at "La Cité Mondiale". The 18th ISPL gathered 270 researchers from 33 countries. Sixty nine oral communications and 136 posters were presented during the 12 sessions of the Symposium. The sessions have covered all the different aspects of the Plant Lipid field including: Surface lipids: suberin, cutin and waxes, Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, Plant lipids as renewable sources of energy, Seed oils and bioengineering of metabolic pathways, Lipid catabolism, Models for lipid studies: lower plants, micro-organisms and others, Modifications of proteins by lipids, Sphingolipids, sterols and isoprenoids, Lipid signaling and plant stress responses, Lipid trafficking and membrane dynamics, New methods and technologies: functional lipidomics, fluxome, modelling. During the ISPL 2008 Bordeaux, important and new information was reported in the different fields. A selection of these results is presented here. PMID:19328004

  13. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  14. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  15. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  16. NSTX: Facility/Research Highlights and Near Term Facility Plans

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono

    2008-11-19

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a collaborative mega-ampere-class spherical torus research facility with high power heating and current drive systems and the state-of-the-art comprehensive diagnostics. For the 2008 experimental campaign, the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating efficiency in deuterium improved significantly with lithium evaporation and produced a record central Te of 5 keV. The HHFW heating of NBI-heated discharges was also demonstrated for the first time with lithium application. The EBW emission in H-mode was also improved dramatically with lithium which was shown to be attributable to reduced edge collisional absorption. Newly installed FIDA energetic particle diagnostic measured significant transport of energetic ions associated with TAE avalanche as well as n=1 kink activities. A full 75 channel poloidal CHERS system is now operational yielding tantalizing initial results. In the near term, major upgrade activities include a liquid-lithium divertor target to achieve lower collisionality regime, the HHFW antenna upgrades to double its power handling capability in H-mode, and a beam-emission spectroscopy diagnostic to extend the localized turbulence measurements toward the ion gyro-radius scale from the present concentration on the electron gyro-radius scale. For the longer term, a new center stack to significantly expand the plasma operating parameters is planned along with a second NBI system to double the NBI heating and CD power and provide current profile control. These upgrades will enable NSTX to explore fully non-inductive operations over a much expanded plasma parameter space in terms of higher plasma temperature and lower collisionality, thereby significantly reducing the physics parameter gap between the present NSTX and the projected next-step ST experiments.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Reference Standards for Image-based Telemedicine Diagnosis and Clinical Research Studies in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael C.; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn; Berrocal, Audina; Drenser, Kimberly; Horowitz, Jason; Lee, Thomas C.; Simmons, Charles; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria-Ana; Chan, R.V. Paul; Chiang, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems managing image-based data for telemedicine or clinical research applications require a reference standard representing the correct diagnosis. Accurate reference standards are difficult to establish because of imperfect agreement among physicians, and discrepancies between clinical vs. image-based diagnosis. This study is designed to describe the development and evaluation of reference standards for image-based diagnosis, which combine diagnostic impressions of multiple image readers with the actual clinical diagnoses. We show that agreement between image reading and clinical examinations was imperfect (689 [32%] discrepancies in 2148 image readings), as was inter-reader agreement (kappa 0.490-0.652). This was improved by establishing an image-based reference standard defined as the majority diagnosis given by three readers (13% discrepancies with image readers). It was further improved by establishing an overall reference standard that incorporated the clinical diagnosis (10% discrepancies with image readers). These principles of establishing reference standards may be applied to improve robustness of real-world systems supporting image-based diagnosis. PMID:25954463

  18. [Emphasis on the application of precision medicine in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Sun, X D; Zhu, H

    2016-02-01

    Accompany with dramatically growth of large-scale biological databases (such as human genome sequence), improvement of life science and development of international clinical trials, science offers great potential for improving health care through precision medicine. As a hot topic recently, precision medicine might launch a revolution of the methodology in medical research. How to achieve precision medicine in clinical ophthalmology by means of biological data mining is a challenge for ophthalmologist-scientists. The best approach for advanced individual medicine is to buildup the digital ophthalmology, which includes human eye biobank, national biological databases network, clinical department, basic research lab, and international clinical trial center. The system of digital ophthalmology could explore the methods for ophthalmology research, integrate the source of eye biologic databases, promote international cooperation, and thus eventually supply the opportunity for translational medicine. PMID:26906701

  19. Research Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metal Nanoparticle Blended Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Performance Enhancement or Degeneration? Watching atoms and electrons move: freeze-frame snapshots of ultrafast phenomena Nanoelectronics: High performance nano-switches Nanomaterials: "Superheated" Water that can Corrode Diamonds An Emerging New Age in Biological Microscopy

  20. Lasers in clinical ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Paulo A.

    1992-03-01

    The clinical application of lasers in ophthalmology is schematized, showing for each anatomic eye structure, pathologies that may be treated through this procedure. In the cornea, the unusual laser practice for suture removals and the promising possibility of the excimer laser in refractive surgery are discussed. In the iris, the camerular angle, and the ciliary body, the laser application is essentially used to treat the glaucoma and other situations that are not so frequent. The capsulotomy with YAG LASER is used in the treatment of structures related with crystalline and, at least, the treatment of the retina and choroid pathology is expanded. A. A. explained the primordial interest and important of laser in the diabetic retinopathy treatment and some results in patients with more than 5 years of evolution are: 55 of the patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (RDP) treated for more than 5 years noticed their vision improved or stabilized; 5 years after treating patients with PDR, 49.3 had their vision stabilized or even improved, provided the diabetics had declared itself more than 20 years ago, versus 61.7 provided the diabetics had declared itself less than 20 years before; finally, 53.8 of the patients under 40-years-old when the diabetics was diagnosed, had their vision improved or at least stabilized 5 years after the beginning of the treatment. On the other side, when patients were over 40 years old when the diabetics was diagnosed percentage increased to 55.9. This study was established in the follow-up of 149 cases over 10 years.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career

    PubMed Central

    Spitze, Arielle; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Lam, Peter; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology. PMID:25449937

  2. 10 New NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Research Update 10 New NIH Research Highlights Spring 2016 Table of Contents ... Tumor Test May Help Women Avoid Chemotherapy A new test may help some women diagnosed with early- ...

  3. 10 New NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Research Update 10 New NIH Research Highlights Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... Tumor Test May Help Women Avoid Chemotherapy A new test may help some women diagnosed with early- ...

  4. Ophthalmology Teaching-Learning in Undergraduate Classes: Roadblocks and The Remedies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum needs to run apace with the changing morbidity pattern and social needs. Teaching methodology requires constant evolution. With a static curriculum and teaching methods undergraduate ophthalmology proves difficult for many students. This article briefly analyses the ophthalmology curriculum, highlights the problems of teaching and offers some solutions. PMID:26435971

  5. The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Zvornicanin, Edita; Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Hadziefendic, Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Smart phones are being increasingly used among health professionals. Ophthalmological applications are widely available and can turn smart phones into sophisticated medical devices. Smart phones can be useful instruments for the practice of evidence-based medicine, professional education, mobile clinical communication, patient education, disease self-management, remote patient monitoring or as powerful administrative tools. Several applications are available for different ophthalmological examinations that can assess visual acuity, color vision, astigmatism, pupil size, Amsler grid test and more. Smart phones can be useful ophthalmic devices for taking images of anterior and posterior eye segment. Professional literature and educational material for patients are easily available with use of smart phones. Smart phones can store great amount of informations and are useful for long term monitoring with caution for patient confidentiality. The use of smart phones especially as diagnostic tools is not standardized and results should be carefully considered. Innovative role of smartphone technology and its use in research, education and information sharing makes smart phones a future of ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:25132717

  6. The Use of Smart phones in Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Zvornicanin, Edita; Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Hadziefendic, Bahrudin

    2014-06-01

    Smart phones are being increasingly used among health professionals. Ophthalmological applications are widely available and can turn smart phones into sophisticated medical devices. Smart phones can be useful instruments for the practice of evidence-based medicine, professional education, mobile clinical communication, patient education, disease self-management, remote patient monitoring or as powerful administrative tools. Several applications are available for different ophthalmological examinations that can assess visual acuity, color vision, astigmatism, pupil size, Amsler grid test and more. Smart phones can be useful ophthalmic devices for taking images of anterior and posterior eye segment. Professional literature and educational material for patients are easily available with use of smart phones. Smart phones can store great amount of informations and are useful for long term monitoring with caution for patient confidentiality. The use of smart phones especially as diagnostic tools is not standardized and results should be carefully considered. Innovative role of smartphone technology and its use in research, education and information sharing makes smart phones a future of ophthalmology and medicine. PMID:25132717

  7. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 1, April 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Family Research Project, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Research Update synthesizes findings from the profiles of 15 research and evaluation reports added to the Out-of-School Time Program Research and Evaluation Database in December 2006. It highlights strategies for assessing program processes as well as key outcomes and features of programs that promote positive outcomes. The Harvard Family…

  8. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This "Research Update" synthesizes findings from the profiles of 13 research and evaluation reports added to the Out-of-School Time Program Research and Evaluation Database in August 2007. It highlights innovations and developments in the out-of-school time field and looks at the important benefits out-of-school time programs can provide to youth,…

  9. Introduction to metabolomics and its applications in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Tan, S Z; Begley, P; Mullard, G; Hollywood, K A; Bishop, P N

    2016-06-01

    Metabolomics is the study of endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological systems, which aims to provide comparative semi-quantitative information about all metabolites in the system. Metabolomics is an emerging and potentially powerful tool in ophthalmology research. It is therefore important for health professionals and researchers involved in the speciality to understand the basic principles of metabolomics experiments. This article provides an overview of the experimental workflow and examples of its use in ophthalmology research from the study of disease metabolism and pathogenesis to identification of biomarkers. PMID:26987591

  10. [Application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Retinal oximeter is a new machine which has been used in the diagnose, treatment and research of several ophthalmic diseases for recent years. It allows ophthalmologists to gain retinal oxygen saturation directly. Therefore, retinal oximeter might be useful for ophthalmologists to understand ophthalmic diseases more deeper and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal function. It has been reported in the literatures that retinal oximeter has potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, et al. In this thesis, the application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology is reviewed. PMID:26850588

  11. Institutional supporting research highlights in physics and mathematics, fiscal year 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, J. C.

    1984-03-01

    Highlights of FY 1983 Institutional Supporting Research and Development activities within the six Physics and Mathematics divisions and the Center for Nonlinear Studies are presented. The highlights are but a fraction of the ISRD activities in the Directorate and are intended to be a representative sample of progress in the various research areas. FY 1983 ISRD activities within the Physics and Mathematics divisions included both basic and applied research and were divided into 11 research areas: mathematics and numerical methods, low-energy nuclear physics, medium- and high-energy nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, solid-state physics and materials science, fluid dynamics, plasma physics and intense particle beam theory, astrophysics and space physics, particle transport methods, accelerator and fusion technology, and biophysics. Highlights from each of these areas are presented.

  12. Smartphones in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Chhablani, Jay; Kaja, Simon; Shah, Vinay A

    2012-01-01

    The potential usefulness of smartphones in the medical field is evolving everyday. This article describes various tools available on smartphones, largely focusing on the iPhone, for the examination of an ophthalmic patient, for patient and physician education, as well as reference tools for both ophthalmologists and vision researchers. Furthermore, the present article discusses how smartphones can be used for ophthalmic photography and image management, and foremost, the usefulness of the applications such as the Eye Handbook for the ophthalmologist and interested students, patients, physicians, and researchers, currently available in the iPhone. PMID:22446908

  13. Frontiers: Research Highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1996-01-01

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  14. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  15. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  16. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education.

    PubMed

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  17. Excellence in Ophthalmology: Continuous Certification.

    PubMed

    Siatkowski, R Michael

    2016-09-01

    Over the course of a century, American medical specialty boards including the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) have developed significant expertise in assessing physician competence on completion of postgraduate training and, more recently, in defining appropriate criteria for continuous learning and quality improvement in practicing physicians. This article explores why maintaining career-long excellence is an evolving challenge, but one that is at the heart of the ABO's mission to protect the public by improving patient care. PMID:27549998

  18. Ophthalmologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos; Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Schor, Paulo; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Ophthalmic manifestations are within the extra-intestinal manifestations, and can be divided into those of autoimmune disorders or those due to absorptive disabilities. This article reviewed the ophthalmologic manifestation of celiac disease. Ophthalmic symptoms are rare, but should be investigated in patients with celiac disease and taken into consideration as the first systemic manifestation. PMID:26949627

  19. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2013 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. J.; Kennedy, J.; Meskell, C.; Carley, M.; Jordan, P.; Rice, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2013, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. During 2013, a number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights from other programmes funded by national programmes or by industry. Furthermore, a concise summary of the CEAS-ASC workshop "Atmospheric and Ground Effects on Aircraft Noise" held in Seville, Spain in September 2013 is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection. This issue of the "highlights" paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. John A. Fitzpatrick, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, and a valued member of the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee. John passed away in September 2012 and is fondly missed across the globe by the friends he made in the Aeroacoustics Community. This paper is edited by PhD graduates and colleagues of John's who conduct research in aeroacoustics, inspired by his thirst for knowledge.

  20. OPHTHALMOLOGY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN TUZLA CANTON HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Zvornicanin, Edita; Sabanovic, Zekerijah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze organization of ophthalmology health care in Tuzla canton and use of information technologies(IT). Introduction: IT in ophthalmology is the technology required for the data processing and other information important for patient and essential for building an electronic health record(EHR). IT in ophthalmology should include the study, science, and solution sets for all aspects of data, information and knowledge management in health information processing. Material and methods: We have analyzed organization of ophthalmology health care in Tuzla canton. Data relevant for this research were acquired from annual reports of Tuzla Canton health ministry. All institutions and ambulances were visited and all health care professionals interviewed. A questionnaire was made which included questions for health care professionals about knowledge and use of computers, internet and information technology. Results: Ophthalmology health care in Tuzla canton has paper based medical record. There is no information system with any possibility to exchange data electronically. None of the medical devices is directly connected to the Internet and all data are typed, printed and delivered directly to the patient. All interviewed health care professionals agree that implementation of IT and EHR would contribute and improve work quality. Conclusion: Computer use and easy information access will make a qualitative difference in eye-care delivery in Tuzla canton. Implementation phase will be difficult because it will likely impact present style of practice. Strategy for implementation of IT in medicine in general must be made at the country level. PMID:23322959

  1. [Patient-reported and patient-weighted outcomes in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Scheibler, F; Finger, R P; Grosselfinger, R; Dintsios, C-M

    2010-03-01

    Considering patients' values and preferences in comparative effectiveness research (CER) is one of the main challenges in ophthalmology (value-based medicine). This article defines core terms in CER. The concept of patient-relevant (or patient-important) outcomes is distinguished from patient-reported outcomes (PRO) by means of examples in the field of ophthalmology. In order to be able to give a consistant recommendation if an intervention leads to conflicting results for different outcomes (trade-off), a ranking of outcomes will be necessary. Examples of studies in glaucoma patients are provided that demonstrate the possibilities of ranking of outcomes based on patient preferences. PMID:20024566

  2. Research highlights of the global modeling and simulation branch for 1986-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Wayman (Editor); Susskind, Joel (Editor); Pfaendtner, James (Editor); Randall, David (Editor); Atlas, Robert (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the research conducted in the Global Modeling and Simulation Branch and highlights the most significant accomplishments in 1986 to 1987. The Branch has been the focal point for global weather and climate prediction research in the Laboratory for Atmospheres through the retrieval and use of satellite data, the development of global models and data assimilation techniques, the simulation of future observing systems, and the performance of atmospheric diagnostic studies.

  3. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detandt, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  4. Highlights from the 2016 Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, April 2-6, 2016.

    PubMed

    Solis, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) Conference, held in Florence, Italy, attracted approximately 1,800 attendees from over 54 countries to the stately Firenze Fiera Conference Center from April 2-6, 2016. Providing plenary sessions, special sessions, symposia, workshops, oral presentations and poster presentations, this 5th Biennial SIRS Conference focused on "Deconstructing Schizophrenia towards Targeted Treatment." In conjunction with the Schizophrenia Research Forum, a Web project of the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, and with our thanks to the SIRS organizers and staff, we bring you the following selected highlights. PMID:27440209

  5. Highlights of the 2012 research workshop: Using nutrigenomics and metabolomics in clinical nutrition research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Research Workshop, "Using Nutrigenomics and Metabolomics in Clinical Nutrition Research," was held on January 21, 2012, in Orlando, Florida. The conference brought together experts in human nutrition who use nutrigenomic and meta...

  6. Tests for malingering in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Incesu, Ali Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of optical coherence tomography, frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:24195054

  7. Brookhaven highlights. Report on research, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Belford, M.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report highlights the research activities of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period dating from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. There are contributions to the report from different programs and departments within the laboratory. These include technology transfer, RHIC, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, physics, biology, national synchrotron light source, applied science, medical science, advanced technology, chemistry, reactor physics, safety and environmental protection, instrumentation, and computing and communications.

  8. Recent highlights in anti-protozoan drug development and resistance research

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Waters, Norman C.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of research presented in January, 2012, at the Keystone Symposium on “Drug Discovery for Protozoan Parasites” held in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This symposium which convenes approximately every 2 years provides a forum for leading investigators around the world to present data covering basic sciences to clinical trials relating to anti-protozoan drug development and drug resistance. Many talks focused on malaria, but other protozoan diseases receiving attention included African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis. The new research, most of it unpublished, provided insights into the latest developments in the field. PMID:24533285

  9. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  10. Agricultural Research Service research highlights in remote sensing for calendar year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The AR research mission in remote sensing is to develop the basic understanding of the soil plant animal atmosphere continuum in agricultural ecosystems and to determine when remotely sensed data can be used to provide information about these agricultural ecosystems. A brief statement of the significant results of each project is given. A list of 1980 publication and location contacts is also given.

  11. At the crossroads of biomacromolecular research: highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of the field

    PubMed Central

    Livesay, Dennis R

    2007-01-01

    Due to their complexity and wide-ranging utility, biomacromolecular research is an especially interdisciplinary branch of chemistry. It is my goal that the Biomacromolecules subject area of Chemistry Central Journal will parallel this richness and diversity. In this inaugural commentary, I attempt to set the stage for achieving this by highlighting several areas where biomacromolecular research overlaps more traditional chemistry sub-disciplines. Specifically, it is discussed how Materials Science and Biotechnology, Analytical Chemistry, Cell Biology and Chemical Theory are each integral to modern biomacromolecular research. Investigators with reports in any of these areas, or any other dealing with biomacromolecules, are encouraged to submit their research papers to Chemistry Central Journal. PMID:17939851

  12. [The applications of informatics in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Cristina, V; Bărar, A; Gârceag, V; Brumaru, G; Ion, D

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports on the applications of information science in Romania in ophthalmology, and mainly in glaucoma, in the diagnosis of: degenerative affections of the fundus oculi, uveitis, strabismus, in functional exploration of the chromatic sense, ergo-ophthalmology, pupillary reflex and forms of the pupil, etc. The Romanian made computers Felix, Independent, Coral, Cobra, etc. were used. PMID:1811738

  13. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) research highlights, September--October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    New AFOSR-sponsored research shows that exhausts from solid-fueled rocket motors have very limited impact on stratospheric ozone. The research provides the Air Force with hard data to support continued access to space using the existing fleet of rockets and rocket technology. This basic research data allows the Air Force to maintain a strongly proactive environmental stance, and to meet federal guidelines regarding environmental impacts. Long-standing conjecture within the international rocket community suggests that chlorine compounds and alumina particulates produced in solid rocket motor (SRM) exhausts could create localized, temporary ozone toss in rocket plumes following launches. The extent of a local depletion of ozone and its environmental impact depends on details of the composition and chemistry in these plumes. Yet direct measurements of plume composition and plume chemistry in the stratosphere had never been made. Uncertainty about these details left the Air Force and commercial space launch capability potentially vulnerable to questions about the environmental impact of rocket launches. In 1995, APOSR and the Space and Missiles Systems Center Launch Programs Office (SMC/CL) jointly began the Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone (RISO) program to make the first-ever detailed measurements of rocket exhaust plumes. These measurements were aimed at understanding how the exhaust from large rocket motors effect the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. The studies determined: the size distribution of alumina particles in these exhausts, the amount of reactive chlorine in SRM exhaust, and the size and duration of localized ozone toss in the rocket plumes.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  15. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  16. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on"CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, D.; Sherlock, D.; Daley, T.; Huang, L.; Lawton, D.; Masters, R.; Verliac, M.; White, D.

    2010-01-15

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on CO2 Sequestration Geophysics was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee (see side bar) representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier (Figures 1-2). Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO2 sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  17. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on ""CO2 sequestration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Lumley, David; Sherlock, Don; Daley, Tom; Lawton, Don; Masters, Ron; Verliac, Michel; White, Don

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on 'CO{sub 2} Sequestration Geophysics' was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier. Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO{sub 2} sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  18. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2010 highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs Nagy, Attila

    2011-10-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. In this context, "aeroacoustics" encompasses all aerospace acoustics and related areas. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is a report on highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2010, compiled from information provided to the ASC of the CEAS. At the end of 2010, project X-NOISE EV of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission has been launched as a continuation of the X-Noise series, with objectives of reducing aircraft noise and reaching the goal set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. Some contributions submitted to the editor summarizes selected findings from European projects launched before or concluded in 2010, while other articles cover issues supported by national associations or by industries. Furthermore, a concise summary of the workshop on "Aeroacoustics of High-Speed Aircraft Propellers and Open Rotors" held in Warsaw in October is included in this report. Enquiries concerning all contributions should be addressed to the authors who are given at the end of each subsection.

  19. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 – 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 – 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963–1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957–1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services. PMID:27493377

  20. Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery M&M 2016-2017 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 01: Update on General Medicine Print 2016-2017 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 02: Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology ...

  1. Research highlights: laboratory studies of the formation and transformation of atmospheric organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; Lin, Vivian S

    2016-04-20

    Atmospheric particles are emitted from a variety of anthropogenic and natural precursors and have direct impacts on climate, by scattering solar irradiation and nucleating clouds, and on health, by causing oxidative stress in the lungs when inhaled. They may also form from gaseous precursors, creating complex mixtures of organic and inorganic material. The chemical composition and the physical properties of aerosols will evolve during their one-week lifetime which will consequently change their impact on climate and health. The heterogeneity of aerosols is difficult to model and thus atmospheric aerosol research strives to characterize the mechanisms involved in nucleating and transforming particles in the atmosphere. Recent advances in four laboratory studies of aerosol formation and aging are highlighted here. PMID:27050080

  2. Papillomavirus research update: highlights of the Barcelona HPV 2000 international papillomavirus conference

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F; Rohan, T; Schneider, A; Frazer, I; Pfister, H; Castellsague, X; de Sanjose, S; Moreno, V; Puig-Tintore, L; Smith, P; Munoz, N; zur Hausen, H

    2001-01-01

    The 18th international papillomavirus conference took place in Barcelona, Spain in July 2000. The HPV clinical workshop was jointly organised with the annual meeting of the Spanish Association of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. The conference included 615 abstracts describing ongoing research in epidemiology, diagnosis/screening, treatment/prognosis, immunology/human immunodeficiency virus, vaccine development/trials, transformation/progression, replication, transcription/translation, viral protein functions, and viral and host interactions. This leader summarises the highlights presented at the conference (the full text of the abstracts and lectures can be found at www.hpv2000.com). Relevant material in Spanish can be found at www.aepcc.org. Key Words: papillomavirus • epidemiology • immunology • biology • screening PMID:11253126

  3. [Current problems in pediatric ophthalmologic oncology].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Koutecký, J; Mottl, H

    1991-09-01

    The authors give an account of contemporary problems of child ophthalmological oncology from the paediatrician's aspect. The most serious intraocular tumors are retinoblastomas, in the orbitopalpebral area rhabdomyosarcomas. The authors draw attention to the five main alarming symptoms typical for tumorous processes at these sites: red painful eye, leukokoria, acute visual failure, acute strabism and various rapidly developing protrusions of the bulbus. Subsequently they inform on possible ophthalmological complications of comprehensive oncological treatment. PMID:1751981

  4. Selected Highlights in Nuclear Research in the Southeast by Vanderbilt and ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    On the one hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the nucleus, selected highlights in nuclear research by Vanderbilt scientists and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists as well as their joint research are described. These will include the earliest work involving the first confirmation of neutron induced fission and classic papers on the fission process. This was followed by the development of the barrier for the gaseous diffusion separation of ^235U from ^238U. In the 1940's the first working nuclear reactor became operational at ORNL, to make ^239Pu followed by the first radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, neutron scattering to probe materials leading to a Nobel Prize and the first observation of the β decay of the free neutron. In 1953 Hill and Wheeler published their classic nuclear theory paper that has over 2000 citations. In the 1960's large E0 transitions were observed in decays of β but not γ vibrational bands to confirm the predictions of Bohr and Mottelson that β vibrations change the nuclear deformation. Then the first failures of the B-M model were observed. In the 1970's the paradigm that each nucleus had one fixed shape was changed when the discovery of the coexistence of overlapping bands built on different deformations were observed. This was made possible, in part, by universities building the first isotope separator on-line to the Oak Ridge cyclotron. This was followed by the discovery of the reinforcement of proton and neutron shell gaps at the same deformation to give superdeformed double magic nuclei. Other highlights will be presented, including the recent discovery of the new element 117 and confirmation of new elements 113 and 115.

  5. [Selection and training in Canadian ophthalmology residency. A concept to be meditated?].

    PubMed

    Angioi-Duprez, K; Corriveau, C; Charlin, B; Boucher, M C

    2002-10-01

    The authors describe in detail the modalities for the selection of students applying to the ophthalmology programs in the various Canadian universities; the university of Montréal will serve as a model. The characteristics of their 5-year training assured by numerous teachers and short training rotations as well as by a compulsory research project are explained. They highlight the meticulous organization and the compulsory constraints for students, teachers and universities. In absence of evaluation criteria on the efficiency of interventionist training compared to less detailed apprenticeship-program training such as that dispensed in France, they note the differences between the two systems, a necessary precursor to the standardization of training programs which would allow more complete recognition of degrees in the context of a globalization of professional activities. PMID:12471356

  6. The Neuro-Ophthalmology of Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J. Alexander; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Because of the predilection of mitochondrial disorders to involve the optic nerves, extraocular muscles, retina, and even the retrochiasmal visual pathways, the ophthalmologist is often the first physician to be consulted. Disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can result from abnormalities in either the mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial proteins. Inheritance of these mutations will follow patterns specific to their somatic or mitochondrial genetics. Genotype-phenotype correlations are inconstant, and considerable overlap may occur among these syndromes. The diagnostic approach to the patient with suspected mitochondrial disease entails a detailed personal and family history, careful ophthalmic, neurologic, and systemic examination, directed investigations, and attention to potentially life-threatening sequelae. Although curative treatments for mitochondrial disorders are currently lacking, exciting research advances are being made, particularly in the area of gene therapy. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, with its window of opportunity for timely intervention and its accessibility to directed therapy, offers a unique model to study future therapeutic interventions. Most patients and their relatives benefit from informed genetic counseling. PMID:20471050

  7. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    PubMed Central

    Onelli, Elisabetta; Idilli, Aurora I.; Moscatelli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules (MTs) have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, MTs also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, MTs influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites. In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of MTs in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of MTs in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of MTs in polarized growth. PMID:25713579

  8. Integrating the Internship into Ophthalmology Residency Programs: Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology American Academy of Ophthalmology White Paper.

    PubMed

    Oetting, Thomas A; Alfonso, Eduardo C; Arnold, Anthony; Cantor, Louis B; Carter, Keith; Cruz, Oscar A; Feldon, Steven; Mondino, Bartly; Parke, David W; Pershing, Suzann; Uhler, Tara; Volpe, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Future ophthalmologists will need to have broad skills to thrive in complex health care organizations. However, training for ophthalmologists does not take advantage of all of the postgraduate years (PGYs). Although the traditional residency years seem to have little excess capacity, enhancing the internship year does offer an opportunity to expand the time for ophthalmology training in the same 4 PGYs. Integrating the internship year into residency would allow control of all of the PGYs, allowing our profession to optimize training for ophthalmology. In this white paper, we propose that we could capture an additional 6 months of training time by integrating basic ophthalmology training into the intern year. This would allow 6 additional months to expand training in areas such as quality improvement or time for "mini-fellowships" to allow graduates to develop a deeper set of skills. PMID:27423312

  9. Using qualitative research to facilitate the interpretation of quantitative results from a discrete choice experiment: insights from a survey in elderly ophthalmologic patients

    PubMed Central

    Vennedey, Vera; Danner, Marion; Evers, Silvia MAA; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie; Dirksen, Carmen D; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    or infrequently. The results of our qualitative research facilitated the interpretation of the quantitative data collected in this study. PMID:27350743

  10. [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Blázquez, Esther Ezquerro; Redondo, Mi; García, T

    2008-01-01

    The appearance of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) meant a revolution in medicine, which has also affected Ophthalmology: the routine presence of ophthalmological pathologies which until then had been exceptional, such as retinitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the appearance of other new pathologies such as progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN). The generalised use of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the second half of the 1990s represented a turning point, since when the immunological improvement of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) resulted in a fall in the cases with ophthalmological pathology associated to immunodepression (HIV retinopathy, retinitis due to CMV, PORN...), and the spontaneous improvement of symptoms which until then had had a torpid evolution (Kaposi's ocular sarcoma, Palpebral Molluscum...). On the other hand, the continuous increase in the prevalence of syphilis in these patients means an increase in the number of cases of ocular syphilis unassociated with immunodepression. New ophthalmological alterations also appear that are related to HAART: uveitis due to immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis in complete remission and the enophthalmos due to the atrophy of orbital fat in the context of lipodystrophy, associated with antiretrovirals. At present preventive ophthalmological checks must be carried out on patients with severe immunodepression until a count of lymphocytes above 100 cells/microl is confirmed. If they also show HIV retinopathy, a monthly check up is advisable until immune recovery, given the greater risk of infection by CMV. PMID:19169296

  11. [The psychosomatic factors in ophthalmology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P; Dobossy, M

    1975-04-01

    The importance of the psychosomatic factors is gradually increasing in the ophthalmological practice. In cases with hysterical symptoms they cause amaurosis and changes of refraction. Emotional factors lead to strabism and photophoby. Anxiety conditions and stress effect lead to glaucoma. In a short review the principles of psychosomatic treatment are dealt with. PMID:1206927

  12. Ophthalmologic safety profile of antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Rynes, R I; Bernstein, H N

    1993-02-01

    The ophthalmologic safety of antimalarial drugs is well established, but absolute safety cannot be assured. Three types of side effects may develop. Corneal deposits and neuromuscular-associated blurred vision are always reversible and therefore benign. Visual loss has occurred in patients with retinopathy. Retinopathy may be divided into true retinopathy and premaculopathy. It is true retinopathy that may be associated with visual loss, while premaculopathy consists of subtle visual field and funduscopic abnormalities. These premaculopathic changes are generally completely reversible with drug discontinuation and have not been shown to progress. Hydroxychloroquine appears safer than chloroquine when currently accepted equivalent doses are used. Fewer than 20 patients with true retinopathy caused by hydroxychloroquine have been reported; more patients have developed true retinopathy when taking chloroquine. The safety profile is most dependent on low daily dose and regular ophthalmologic monitoring. The optimal strategy of ophthalmologic testing has not yet been determined, but visual acuity, funduscopic examination and visual field examination should be monitored. Self-administered ophthalmologic testing with Amsler grids may contribute additional safety but is not a replacement for physician testing. PMID:8485566

  13. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, James G; Drexler, Wolfgang; Schuman, Joel S; Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2009-03-01

    The Optical Society (OSA) is pleased to present this special issue of Optics Express on "Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Ophthalmology" as part of the new Interactive Science Publishing (ISP) project. The project is being performed in collaboration with the National Library of Medicine and represents a new paradigm for the publication of digital image and large dataset information. PMID:19259239

  15. Usage possibilities of laser stimulation in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The laser stimulation is used in ophthalmology as a supplement toother way of therapy. Nowadays, the following types of procedures are being performed: eyeball anterior segment stimulation, lacrimal gland stimulation, eyeball posterior pole stimulation, trigeminal nerve opening stimulation. Laser stimulation can be used as an independent procedure or together with pharmacological treatment.

  16. Langley Research Highlights 1999: Advanced Aerospace Technology Clouds That Help Create the Ozone Hole Capturing Comet Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications made by NASA Langley Research Center and its university partners and industry colleagues during 1999. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research. The Center's historic national role since 1917 continues in Aerospace Technology research with an additional major role in Earth Science research. Langley also partners closely with other NASA Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Space Science and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. A color version is available at http://larcpubs.larc.nasa.gov/randt/1999/. For further information, contact Dennis Bushnell, Senior Scientist, Mail Stop 110, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681-2199, (757)-864-8987, e-mail address: d.m.bushnell@larc.nasa.gov.

  17. Research highlights: modelling to assess climate change impacts and promote development.

    PubMed

    Luxem, Katja E; Lin, Vivian S

    2015-08-01

    We highlight four recent articles on biophysical modelling for the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta system. These publications are part of a themed collection in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts and contribute to a larger body of collaborative work that aims to assess the impacts of changing climate, policy, and development efforts on vulnerable populations in the GBM delta. PMID:26186156

  18. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article. PMID:25159591

  19. Research Update: Highlights from the Out-of-School Time Database. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This "Research Update" explores two major themes: (1) Using evaluation to shape program improvement and planning; and (2) Out-of-school time benefits to older youth and their families. Themes were culled from 13 research and evaluation reports added to the Out-of-School Time (OST) Program Research and Evaluation Bibliography in September 2008.…

  20. Highlights from the 2010 BAS/BSCR spring meeting: New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research.

    PubMed

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Stegemann, Christin; Mayr, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    The British Atherosclerosis Society (BAS)/British Society for Cardiovascular Research (BSCR) spring meeting was held in Manchester, UK, on 7-8 June 2010. Experts in the field of systems biology, proteomics, metabolomics and miRNAs presented how these techniques can be used to discover 'New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research'. The conference was attended by over 150 participants, mainly from the UK. A total of 2 days of presentations and a poster session with 55 posters provided the possibility to discuss the latest research results and showed the opportunities that new techniques can offer in cardiovascular research. PMID:21142882

  1. Ophthalmological findings in patients with Takayasu disease.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, M; Baba, T

    1998-10-01

    We examined 65 (61 female and 4 male) Takayasu patients. Patient age ranged from 17 to 78 years old (mean 50.2); age of onset was from 11 to 60 years old (mean 32.8); and duration from onset to referral ranged from 1 month to 43 years (mean 16.8 years). Routine ophthalmological examinations were performed. Fluorescein angiography, kinetic perimetry by Goldmann perimetry, static perimetry by Octopus 1-2-3, electroretinography (ERG), and measurements of central retinal arterial pressure were also performed, as appropriate. Major causes of impaired visual acuity (less than 16/20) were cataract. A few patients had low visual acuity caused by Takayasu disease itself. On the other hand, although not many complained of visual disturbance, about 35% of patients had subnormal visual functions. Because the visual deterioration may be based on ocular hypoperfusion, which may subsequently lead to more serious changes, regular ophthalmological examination for every Takayasu disease patient is recommended. PMID:9951814

  2. [Fundamental ophthalmology: the role of electrophysiological studies].

    PubMed

    Zueva, M V

    2014-01-01

    Studying of functional aspects of eye disease pathogenesis by electrophysiological methods is widely demanded in fundamental ophthalmology. Introduction of modern methods of functional assessment into experimental and clinical projects significantly broadens knowledge of normal and pathological functioning of the visual system and is the basis for further development of new strategies of pathogenetic treatment, diagnostics and expert evaluation. Some problems of ophthalmology, including those that concern age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other diseases, are considered in the context of how much electrophysiology contributes to their solution. The role of functional examinations of the retina in studying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, is also discussed. PMID:25715550

  3. Highlights from the Biennial International Congress on Schizophrenia Research (ICOSR), April 21-25, 2013.

    PubMed

    Curley, Allison A; Fisher, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, held in Orlando Grande Lakes, Florida, attracted over 1,000 attendees to the JW Marriott Hotel from 21-25 April 2013, not to mention the satellite meetings on cognition and the schizophrenia prodrome. With thanks to the Schizophrenia Research Forum (www.schizophreniaforum.org), a project of the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, we bring you the following report on the Congress' sessions concerning DSM-5/ICD-11 and the psychosis continuum. We also want to thank Congress directors Carol Tamminga and Chuck Schulz, as well as meeting staff Dorothy Denton and Cristan Tamminga, for their gracious assistance. PMID:23841955

  4. Treatment regimens for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: highlighting a research gap.

    PubMed

    Stagg, H R; Hatherell, H-A; Lipman, M C; Harris, R J; Abubakar, I

    2016-07-01

    Treatment guidance for non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) rifampicin-resistant (RMP-R) tuberculosis (TB) is variable. We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) data behind such guidelines to identify the most efficacious treatment regimens. Ovid MEDLINE, the Web of Science and EMBASE were mined using search terms for TB, drug therapy and RCTs. Despite 12 604 records being retrieved, only three studies reported treatment outcomes by regimen for patients with non-MDR RMP-R disease, preventing meta-analysis. Our systematic review highlights a substantial gap in the literature regarding evidence-based treatment regimens for RMP-R TB. PMID:27287636

  5. The American Board of Ophthalmology Tie.

    PubMed

    Wand, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the efforts of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) to recognize and celebrate the contributions of its volunteers to certification programs and processes. In recognition of service to the ABO, all directors and examiners received ties for men and scarves for women bearing the ABO logo and colors. This article briefly describes the rationale and the importance of these articles for those who receive them. PMID:27550002

  6. Joint research towards a better radiation protection-highlights of the Fifth MELODI Workshop.

    PubMed

    Aerts, A M; Impens, N R E N; Baatout, S; Benotmane, M A; Camps, J; Dabin, J M; Derradji, H; Grosche, B; Horemans, N; Jourdain, J-R; Moreels, M; Perko, T; Quintens, R; Repussard, J; Rühm, W; Schneider, T; Struelens, L; Hardeman, F

    2014-12-01

    MELODI is the European platform dedicated to low-dose radiation risk research. From 7 October through 10 October 2013 the Fifth MELODI Workshop took place in Brussels, Belgium. The workshop offered the opportunity to 221 unique participants originating from 22 countries worldwide to update their knowledge and discuss radiation research issues through 118 oral and 44 poster presentations. In addition, the MELODI 2013 workshop was reaching out to the broader radiation protection community, rather than only the low-dose community, with contributions from the fields of radioecology, emergency and recovery preparedness, and dosimetry. In this review, we summarise the major scientific conclusions of the workshop, which are important to keep the MELODI strategic research agenda up-to-date and which will serve to establish a joint radiation protection research roadmap for the future. PMID:25431966

  7. Early Avian Research at the Savannah River Site: Historical Highlights and Possibilities for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.

    2000-10-01

    Avian biology was a major component of early research and baseline surveys. The focus of research shifted and the SRS evolved from open fields to forest cover. In the early years avian species richness and abundance increased with successional age of the vegetation from old-field to forest. During the early years resident game birds increased. More recent studies will help to understand the role of habitat in local and regional extinctions. A variety of survey techniques is needed.

  8. Berries and human health: research highlights from the Fifth Biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-05-01

    The fifth biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium showcased recent research supporting the positive effects of berry consumption on human health and disease. Remarkably, the vast majority of oral papers covered data accumulated from in vivo studies, which underscores how berry health research has advanced since the inception of this symposium in 2005. Similar to the past, research presented at this meeting was primarily focused on the major commercially cultivated berries in North America, namely, blackberry, blueberry, black raspberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry. Despite this, on the basis of similar compositional chemistry, it is possible that similar biological effects may also be extended to other small soft-fleshed "berry-type" fruits popular in other parts of the world including Europe, Asia, and South America. Overall, this symposium continues to add to the growing body of data supporting the positive impact of berry fruit consumption on human health promotion and disease risk reduction. PMID:24148006

  9. Highlights of Research on Right and Left Hemispheres of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Simplified interpretations of brain function portraying rationality solely in the left hemisphere and creativity solely in the right are incorrect, but the two sides of the brain do differ in important ways. Researchers have discovered that: In the vast majority of right handers, speech is almost…

  10. Highlights of the Public Radio Programming Study, Fiscal Year 1996. CPB Research Notes, No. 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lisa Nackerud

    The Corporation for Public Broadcasting funded a national study of public radio programming since 1986. The 1996 programming study was conducted by National Public Radio's Audience Research department and had participation by 633 stations. Two-thirds of the stations reported broadcasting 24 hours per day, compared to one-third of stations in 1986.…

  11. Highlighting the Need for Further Response to Intervention Research in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara; Albritton, Kizzy; Roach, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RtI) provides a framework for effective prevention and intervention at all achievement levels. RtI also allows school districts to use an alternative method for identifying students with disabilities, but there is a paucity of published empirical research aimed to inform RtI best practices among general educators. The…

  12. Activating the Teaching-Research Nexus in Smaller Universities: Case Studies Highlighting Diversity of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William E.; O'Reilly, Meg; Bucher, Danny; Fisher, Kath; Morton, Anja; Harrison, Peter Lynton; Nuske, Elaine; Coyle, Rebecca; Rendall, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The teaching-research nexus (TRN) has become an important process in the modern University, providing both identity to university scholarship and a device for the integration of academics' work. Over the last decade many reports have identified the need to both establish institution-wide processes to embed and support TRN, and assist in academic…

  13. Measuring Young Children's Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities: Highlights from the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Young children with disabilities are increasingly attending inclusive early childhood programs with their typically developing peers. Within these programs, research efforts and practice have supported young children's understanding and acceptance of peers with disabilities. However, there is limited information about the measures used to assess…

  14. Highlighting ten years of physics education research in the upper division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) has for over thirty years provided insights into student thinking and guided the development and assessment of reformed teaching strategies and practices in introductory physics courses. In the last decade or so, researchers have expanded the domain of such investigations to upper-division courses where undergraduate majors study more advanced content and begin to see themselves as future physicists. The upcoming Focused Collection on Upper Division PER brings together work from researchers active in these new frontiers of PER. In this presentation we provide an overview of the studies in this collection, which offer to the PER and greater physics education communities: new insights about the thinking, behavior, and beliefs of students in the upper division; new tools to innovate instruction, assess student learning, and evaluate teaching effectiveness; and groundbreaking studies of identity development and ``thinking like a physicist'' among physics majors. In this session we also recognize the ten-year anniversary of Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research, an occasion that we will celebrate with an informal reception immediately following the conclusion of this invited session.

  15. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  16. Making It Easier for School Staff to Help Traumatized Students. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggio, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, RAND researchers joined colleagues at the Los Angeles Unified School District and the University of California Los Angeles to confront the issue of the large number of children who go to school weighed down by experiencing or witnessing some form of violence, trauma, or maltreatment. The Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for…

  17. High-Stakes Testing: Implications for Career and Technical Education. The Highlight Zone: Research @ Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, James T.; Mahlman, Robert A.

    The topic of high-stakes testing (HST) is important because HST has direct and indirect effects on career-technical education (CTE) programs and timely because HST increasingly enters public discussion and has produced a large body of research and practice that generalizes to CTE. A review of HST has identified two persisting dilemmas: policy and…

  18. Research Infrastructure for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science: Planning Highlights and Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    In response to the need for research infrastructure in hydrologic sciences, a group of over 35 universities has formed a Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI). With support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has initiated a science planning process aimed at building research infrastructure in three main areas: i) Long Term Hydrologic Observatories, to provide the consistent, integrated, long-term information from point to continental scales ii) a Hydrologic Information System program, to support the data, information, and analysis requirements of the community and iii) a Hydrologic Measurement Technology program to develop and operate state-of-the-art systems and provide support services for hydrologic research. Scientifically, this infrastructure initiative aims to support research to provide new understanding about priority questions in hydrologic and related sciences, including: i) spatial and temporal properties of precipitation and snow processes, ii) surface water generation and transport at scales from hectares to continental-scale basins, iii) linked water, carbon and other chemical cycles, and changes in response to varying temperature, precipitation and land-use patterns, iii) environmental stresses on aquatic and riparian ecosystems related to groundwater pumping and other perturbations, iv) basin-scale subsurface water and solute movement, particularly as related to patterns of precipitation, evapotranspiration and recharge, and v) feedback between regional evaporation and transpiration and patterns of precipitation and humidity. It has become apparent that the science infrastructure in hydrologic and related sciences is currently inadequate to meet many of these priority science questions and societal needs. Specifically, investments are needed to: i) maintain, supplement and upgrade existing field facilities, ii) establish measurement programs that can deliver consistent data over the long

  19. Researchers Demonstrate Microstructure and Charge Yield in Semiconducting Polymers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Microstructure determines the yield of free charge in neat semiconducting polymers. Understanding the fundamental photophysics of poly(3-hyxylthiophene) films, and that of conjugated polymers in general, is essential if we are to realize their full potential as low-cost active layers for coal-competitive solar power generation. Yet, the value of one of the most basic photophysical parameters of these materials - the yield of free charges upon photoexcitation of neat films - has remained controversial because of a wide variation between previous measurements. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have resolved this controversy by showing that the yield of free charges depends sensitively on the solid-state microstructure of the film. The microstructure was varied systematically through control of the polymers molecular weight and processing conditions, while the charge carrier yield was measured using time-resolved microwave conductivity - a unique technique to which only a few groups in the world have access. The researchers found that the yield of long-lived free charges depends on the co-existence of amorphous and crystalline domains in the polymer, and this behavior was attributed to charge separation at the interface between these two domains of order.

  20. Research Highlights and Recent Enhancements at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Hegarty, P.; Seale, S. H.; Lamere, T.; Stinson, E.; Wojcik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NEES@UCSB facility consists of experimental facilities and cyber infrastructure for active testing and passive earthquake monitoring at instrumented geotechnical field sites. There have been a number of facility enhancements to both the experimental facilities and the cyber infrastructure for facilitating research at the sites and access to the data they produce. Through both the maintenance and operations and the NEES Research program funding sources, the scope of monitoring at the field sites continues to expand. A permanent cross-hole source and sensor array has been installed at both the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and at the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) field sites. This enhancement provides daily measurements of shear-wave velocity and automated post-earthquake observations of velocity to examine soil modulus reduction and recovery. After a very large event, where nonlinear soil behavior is expected, cross-hole hammer source time intervals are as short as 5 minutes. While waiting for larger earthquakes to occur, the daily cross-hole hammer tests are providing interesting data on shear-wave velocity changes with seasonal water table height. Testing of a small reconfigurable structure at both the WLA and GVDA sites was conducted using the NEES@UCLA mobile shakers. The structure, which is a smaller version of a permanent structure at GVDA, has been left at the GVDA site and can be used for future experiments or site instrumentation enhancements. The large soil-foundation-interaction structure at GVDA has a 1D shaker mounted under its roof slab. This shaker runs nightly and the data provide insight into the influence of environmental conditions on the response of the structure. At WLA, additional sensors have been installed in a dense Shape Accelerometer Array (SAA). Each of the seven arrays contain 24 3-component MEMS accelerometers at approximately 0.3 meter spacing that span the upper 8 meters of the site, from above to below the liquefiable

  1. Highlights of advances in the field of hydrometeorological research brought about by the DRIHM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caumont, Olivier; Hally, Alan; Garrote, Luis; Richard, Évelyne; Weerts, Albrecht; Delogu, Fabio; Fiori, Elisabetta; Rebora, Nicola; Parodi, Antonio; Mihalović, Ana; Ivković, Marija; Dekić, Ljiljana; van Verseveld, Willem; Nuissier, Olivier; Ducrocq, Véronique; D'Agostino, Daniele; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The FP7 DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology, http://www.drihm.eu, 2011-2015) project intends to develop a prototype e-Science environment to facilitate the collaboration between meteorologists, hydrologists, and Earth science experts for accelerated scientific advances in Hydro-Meteorology Research (HMR). As the project comes to its end, this presentation will summarize the HMR results that have been obtained in the framework of DRIHM. The vision shaped and implemented in the framework of the DRIHM project enables the production and interpretation of numerous, complex compositions of hydrometeorological simulations of flood events from rainfall, either simulated or modelled, down to discharge. Each element of a composition is drawn from a set of various state-of-the-art models. Atmospheric simulations providing high-resolution rainfall forecasts involve different global and limited-area convection-resolving models, the former being used as boundary conditions for the latter. Some of these models can be run as ensembles, i.e. with perturbed boundary conditions, initial conditions and/or physics, thus sampling the probability density function of rainfall forecasts. In addition, a stochastic downscaling algorithm can be used to create high-resolution rainfall ensemble forecasts from deterministic lower-resolution forecasts. All these rainfall forecasts may be used as input to various rainfall-discharge hydrological models that compute the resulting stream flows for catchments of interest. In some hydrological simulations, physical parameters are perturbed to take into account model errors. As a result, six different kinds of rainfall data (either deterministic or probabilistic) can currently be compared with each other and combined with three different hydrological model engines running either in deterministic or probabilistic mode. HMR topics which are allowed or facilitated by such unprecedented sets of hydrometerological forecasts

  2. The New Zealand experience of varroa invasion highlights research opportunities for Australia.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Jay M; Barratt, Barbara I P; Lord, Janice M; Mercer, Alison R; Dickinson, Katharine J M

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is implicated as a major disease factor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide. Honey bees are extensively relied upon for pollination services, and in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where honey bees have been introduced specifically for commercial pollinator services, the economic effects of any decline in honey bee numbers are predicted to be profound. V. destructor established in New Zealand in 2000 but as yet, Australia remains Varroa-free. Here we analyze the history of V. destructor invasion and spread in New Zealand and discuss the likely long-term impacts. When the mite was discovered in New Zealand, it was considered too well established for eradication to be feasible. Despite control efforts, V. destructor has since spread throughout the country. Today, assessing the impacts of the arrival of V. destructor in this country is compromised by a paucity of data on pollinator communities as they existed prior to invasion. Australia's Varroa-free status provides a rare and likely brief window of opportunity for the global bee research community to gain understanding of honey bee-native pollinator community dynamics prior to Varroa invasion. PMID:26133152

  3. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  4. Performance in the Duke–Elder ophthalmology undergraduate prize examination and future careers in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, L; Shanmuganathan, V A; Kneebone, R L; Amoaku, W

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cognitive factors (eg, academic achievement) have had a significant role in selecting postgraduate surgical trainees in the past. This project sought to determine the role of a national undergraduate ophthalmology prize examination (Duke–Elder examination) in the selection of postgraduate ophthalmology trainees. This would also serve as a quality assurance exercise for the assessment, in which the ultimate aim is to encourage trainees into ophthalmology. Methods A retrospective analysis of the top 20 ranked candidates in the Duke–Elder examination from 1989 to 2005 (except 1995) was carried out to determine which of them subsequently entered the ophthalmic training and General Medical Council Specialist Registers. Results Out of the top 20 candidates in the exam, 29.5% went into specialist training in ophthalmology. Some appeared in the top 20 more than once, with 56% of them going into ophthalmic training, but they had a similar median time to enter training as those who appeared in the top 20 once. There was no significant evidence to suggest that the overall median ranking scores between the UK medical schools differed (P=0.23; Kruskal–Wallis test). However, there was a marked difference in frequency of top 20 candidates from each medical school, which could not be explained by the size of the medical school alone. Conclusion It is difficult to conclude from these findings the importance that the Duke–Elder examination has in the selection of trainees into ophthalmology. The role of cognitive factors in selection into postgraduate medical/surgical training is discussed, along with the potential academic criteria, which may influence interview scores. PMID:21587276

  5. [Johannes Kepler's contributions to ophthalmologic optics].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1986-02-01

    Until the beginning of the 17th century it was held that an image is formed in the eye on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. Ophthalmological optics as a scientific discipline only began with a discovery made by Johannes Kepler. Without performing new experiments, and solely by application of the laws of light refraction, he analyzed the path of light through the eye and demonstrated that an image is formed on the retina and that it is inverted. Acceptance of this discovery was impeded by contemporary prejudices which could imagine nothing but an upright image in the eye, even though this attitude could not explain certain phenomena. Kepler's discovery of the path of light in the eye made it possible to explain the following physical phenomena: central visual acuity, visual field, dark adaptation, and errors of refraction. Physiological diplopia and the mechanism of accommodation were discovered later. The law stating that the intensity of light decreases with the square of distance was also formulated by Johannes Kepler; this law, too, could only be demonstrated after the path of light through the eye had been discovered. In recent years the Keplerian telescope has assumed a practical significance in ophthalmological optics. As a reading aid for individuals with impaired vision it offers a significantly higher magnification than any other optical visual aid. PMID:3520121

  6. Ophthalmologic identification of cerebral malaria in adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Catarina Areias; Santos, Cristina; Coutinho, Inês; Lisboa, Maria; Teixeira, Susana; Silva, Filomena; Pires, Graça; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical presentation of malarial retinopathy in an adult, emphasizing the importance of this diagnosis for the clinical suspicion and prognosis of cerebral malaria. Methods: A 39-year-old caucasian man presented with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acidemia and acute renal failure, developing severe encephalopathy. The diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was done and after systemic stabilization, the patient noticed a central scotoma in the left eye. Ophthalmological examination revealed retinal features of malarial retinopathy. Results: At one-month follow-up, the patient had improved his systemic condition and the left eye scotoma had disappeared. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and on examination almost all lesions had regressed. Conclusion: Malarial retinopathy is a diagnostic factor and a prognosis indicator of severe P. falciparum infection, usually with brain involvement. The knowledge of the ophthalmological features associated with severe malaria, which is more frequent in children but can also occur in adults, becomes imperative in order to reduce the risk of neurologic sequelae and associated mortality.

  7. Brief Report: Incidence of Ophthalmologic Disorders in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Jamie; Davitt, Bradley V.; Ultmann, Monica; Maxim, Rolanda; Cruz, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of ophthalmologic disorders in children with autism and related disorders. Design: Retrospective chart review. Four hundred and seven children diagnosed with autism or a related disorder between 1998 and 2006. One hundred and fifty-four of these children completed a comprehensive ophthalmology exam by a…

  8. A ferrofluidic deformable mirror for ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, J. B.; Thibault, S.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A. M.; Carufel, N.; Asselin, D.; Jerominek, H.; Campbell, M. C. W.

    2005-09-01

    Optical aberrations reduce the imaging quality of the human eye. In addition to degrading vision, this limits our ability to illuminate small points of the retina for therapeutic, surgical or diagnostic purposes. When viewing the rear of the eye, aberrations cause structures in the fundus to appear blurred, limiting the resolution of ophthalmoscopes (diagnostic instruments used to image the eye). Adaptive optics, such as deformable mirrors may be used to compensate for aberrations, allowing the eye to work as a diffraction-limited optical element. Unfortunately, this type of correction has not been widely available for ophthalmic applications because of the expense and technical limitations of current deformable mirrors. We present preliminary design and characterisation of a deformable mirror suitable for ophthalmology. In this ferrofluidic mirror, wavefronts are reflected from a fluid whose surface shape is controlled by a magnetic field. Challenges in design are outlined, as are advantages over traditional deformable mirrors.

  9. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  10. The ACGME Milestone Project in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew G; Arnold, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    The ACGME is moving towards the next generation of accreditation in the USA called the Next Accreditation System (NAS). The NAS is anticipated to reduce the burden on programs to comply with accreditation requirements; to produce meaningful, innovative, and continuous benchmark outcomes data; to use ongoing individual and programmatic milestones to judge performance; and ultimately to produce better trained residents, to improve the quality of care, to reduce health care costs and health care disparities, and to provide objective evidence to the public and other external stakeholders of the quality of graduate medical education across the specialties of medicine. We describe the ACGME milestone development process for ophthalmology. If successful, the NAS will benefit all programs by reducing the programmatic burden and paperwork; increasing accreditation cycle length; and improving all programs through formative and summative feedback. PMID:23768922

  11. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  12. Femtosecond Lasers in Ophthalmology: Surgery and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bille, J. F.

    Ophthalmology has traditionally been the field with prevalent laser applications in medicine. The human eye is one of the most accessible human organs and its transparency for visible and near-infrared light allows optical techniques for diagnosis and treatment of almost any ocular structure. Laser vision correction (LVC) was introduced in the late 1980s. Today, the procedural ease, success rate, and lack of disturbing side-effects in laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) have made it the most frequently performed refractive surgical procedure (keratomileusis(greek): cornea-flap-cutting). Recently, it has been demonstrated that specific aspects of LVC can take advantage of unique light-matter interaction processes that occur with femtosecond laser pulses.

  13. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood. PMID:23948249

  14. Creation of an Accurate Algorithm to Detect Snellen Best Documented Visual Acuity from Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Notes

    PubMed Central

    French, Dustin D; Gill, Manjot; Mitchell, Christopher; Jackson, Kathryn; Kho, Abel; Bryar, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual acuity is the primary measure used in ophthalmology to determine how well a patient can see. Visual acuity for a single eye may be recorded in multiple ways for a single patient visit (eg, Snellen vs. Jäger units vs. font print size), and be recorded for either distance or near vision. Capturing the best documented visual acuity (BDVA) of each eye in an individual patient visit is an important step for making electronic ophthalmology clinical notes useful in research. Objective Currently, there is limited methodology for capturing BDVA in an efficient and accurate manner from electronic health record (EHR) notes. We developed an algorithm to detect BDVA for right and left eyes from defined fields within electronic ophthalmology clinical notes. Methods We designed an algorithm to detect the BDVA from defined fields within 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes with visual acuity data present. About 5668 unique responses were identified and an algorithm was developed to map all of the unique responses to a structured list of Snellen visual acuities. Results Visual acuity was captured from a total of 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes during the study dates. The algorithm identified all visual acuities in the defined visual acuity section for each eye and returned a single BDVA for each eye. A clinician chart review of 100 random patient notes showed a 99% accuracy detecting BDVA from these records and 1% observed error. Conclusions Our algorithm successfully captures best documented Snellen distance visual acuity from ophthalmology clinical notes and transforms a variety of inputs into a structured Snellen equivalent list. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first attempt at capturing visual acuity accurately from large numbers of electronic ophthalmology notes. Use of this algorithm can benefit research groups interested in assessing visual acuity for patient centered outcome. All codes used for this study are currently

  15. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  16. Langley test highlights, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Significant aircraft tests which were performed are highlighted. The broad range of the research and technology activities. The conributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  17. [Hypercoagulable workup in ophthalmology. When and what].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Casas-Lleras, P; Pérez-López, M; Rebolleda, G

    2009-07-01

    Most ophthalmologic disorders secondary to hypercoagulabe state are due to the confluence of congenital and adquired factors. A systematic workup is mandatory. Most of congenital coagulation disorders cause venous trombosis and are inherited autosomal dominantly. In order of frequency these are factor V Leiden mutation (activated protein C resistance), G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gen and protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies. Sickle cell anemia can determine arerial and venous thrombosis. In relation with arterial occlusion, the markers most frequently involved are homcysteine fasting levels and the markers of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Both of them can also determine venous thrombosis. Several acquired factors can lead to hypoercoagulable state, especially hyperhomocysteinemia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hepatic disease, alcohol and tobacco intake, oral contraceptives, immobilization, surgeries and malignancies. In central venous occlusion is only necessary to rule out hyperhomocysteinemia and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in young patients without known risk factors. In central artery occlusion, hypercoagulable workup is only recommended for patients less than 50 years-old with unknown emboli source. In this cases protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome will ruled out. In non arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy hypercoagulable work up is not necessary. In amaurosis fugax without known emboli source, it is recommended to rule out etiologies of arterial occlusion, especially antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. PMID:19658050

  18. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  19. Ophthalmological findings in elite amateur Turkish boxers

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, M; Beyleroglu, M; Subasi, M; Or, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nature and incidence of pathological ocular conditions in boxing. Methods: A group of 20 active, elite, amateur, asymptomatic Turkish boxers were examined and compared with a control group composed of 20 age matched sportsmen who were not boxers. The boxers had been actively boxing for 5–20 years (mean 9.65), were aged 16–34 (mean 22.25), and weighed 51–91 kg (mean 73.07). They had been involved in 67–500 fights (mean 143.8), with 5–40 losses (mean 17.75). All were championship title holders at the national, European, Olympic, or World level. Results: An atrophic retinal hole was found in one boxer, which was treated with laser prophylaxis. In this series, the incidence of traumatic eye injuries was much lower than in the literature. Possible reasons are their young age, their division being mainly lightweight or middleweight, few fight losses, being elite boxers, their fighting distance being near or distant, protective methods, and racial factors. Conclusion: Boxing does not appear to be as hazardous to the eyes as previously reported, but prospective, longitudinal studies need to be carried out, including boxers of all divisions, ages, boxing experience, and level, and using various methods of fighting and protection. It should be made mandatory for all boxers to have a complete ophthalmological examination at the beginning of their careers and periodically thereafter. PMID:12453836

  20. Lasers in ophthalmology: achievements and new directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Apostol, Silvia; Gafencu, Otilia L.

    1995-03-01

    The main characteristics of the laser radiations are: directivity, monochromaticity and spatially and temporally coherence. Using the aggregation state as a criterion for classification, we describe solid, liquid and gaseous active media. Concerning the methods used to realize the population inversion, we also describe: optically, electrically and high energy particles pumped lasers. Depending on the laser media and the mode of excitation, a laser may operate in multiple ways: the continuous-wave operation, the long-pulsed operation, the Q-switched mode of operation and the mode-locked operation. The interaction of laser radiations with the living matter is based upon four main effects: the thermal, mechanical, electrical and biological effect. The main field of therapeutical use of lasers are: the management of lid tumors and intraocular tumors, dacryocystorhinostomy, the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, thromboembolic retinal syndromes, inflammatory choriretinal disease, chorioroetinal degenerations, retinal angimatosis, retinal breaks and retinal detachment, corneal diseases, glaucoma, lens diseases. Laser has also nontherapeutical applications in diagnosis and prognosis of ophthalmologic diseases.

  1. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy in ophthalmology and eye banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwasser, George O. D.

    1999-06-01

    Echography has become a valuable diagnostic tool in ophthalmology. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) in particular may be applied to the evaluation of small lesions of the anterior segment of the eye. Disease processes such as conjunctival and iris melanoma, other forms of neoplasia, intraocular cysts, narrow angle glaucoma, and intraocular foreign bodies can be diagnostically evaluated and followed longitudinally by UBM. Combining UBM with spectroscopy may become useful in determining cell type origins of a variety of tumors. Eye banking also has an increased need for UBM in corneal tissue banking. The recent development of the Laser In Situ Keratomileusis procedure has allowed corneal surgeries to create a partial thickness flap of tissue in the cornea, remove tissue from the base of the cornea with excimer laser ablation, and replace the hinged flap. This causes a substantial change in refractive error while thinning the cornea and leaving an interface within the corneal stroma. The ability to detect this type of surgery is essential in eye banking. Ultrasonic pachymetry to determine central thickness and biomicroscopy to detect the presence of an interface are essential in avoiding the use of these corneas for transplantation purposes. Determining the topography of the preserved corneas is another potential application for ultrasonography. Using this information to reduce optical aberration after transplant is crucial in improving visual performance post transplantation. A review of the anatomy of the eye, pathology of ocular diseases relevant to UBM, and principles of eye banking will be presented.

  2. A condensed history of ophthalmology in Cincinnati (1827-1999).

    PubMed

    Asbury, T

    2000-01-01

    The history of ophthalmology in Cincinnati dates back to 1827, when Dr. Daniel Drake founded the Eye Institute of Cincinnati. Since that time, many other individuals have influenced the course of ophthalmology in the city and region. Included among these were Elkanah Williams, first chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Miami Medical College of Ohio (the forerunner of the University of Cincinnati), William Seeley, Robert Sattler, Christian Holmes, Derrick T. Vail and his illustrious son Derrick T. Vail, Jr., Clarence King, Karl Ascher, Donald Lyle, and Mary Knight Asbury. The author presents brief biographical summaries and interesting anecdotes about each of these individuals and several others of importance to Cincinnati ophthalmology. PMID:10734244

  3. Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832): father of Italian ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832) was a prominent scholar who contributed greatly to otolaryngology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neuroanatomy, and surgery. In 1801, he published a textbook on ophthalmology, the first Italian textbook on this subject and the most propagated European ophthalmic textbook in the first half of the 19th century. The book included important descriptions of lacrimal system disorders, many oculoplastic procedures, and the first description of posterior staphyloma. PMID:24366769

  4. “Coffee Ring Effect” in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Sharifzadeh, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The process of formation of Marx line is studied in this article. Various theories have been proposed previously, in order to explain the mechanisms which lead to the development of Marx line. These theories are based on the characteristics of stained area and do not pay attention to the behavior of dye solution itself on the surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the latter behavior and introduce a new theory based on it, in order to explain the process of the Marx line formation. This study also introduces “Coffee Ring Effect” and its possible applications in explaining some ophthalmological phenomena. The effect of dye solution's behavior on the beneath surface is adopted in order to propose a novel theory. This new hypothesis is called “Anionic Dye Deposition” which was based on “Coffee Ring Effect” phenomenon. For evaluation of this theory, Evaporation pattern of Rose Bengal and fluorescein were analyzed on different surfaces. Furthermore, the effect of tear meniscus alteration on lid margin staining is studied. During the evaporation process of dye solutions, it was observed that almost all of the solute was deposited at the edge of the drop on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, in the study of lid margin staining, it is observed that tear meniscus alteration during gaze affects staining pattern. This observation invalidates former hypotheses which only focus on stained surface characteristics. According to the observations in this study, it is proposed that Marx line staining occurs as a result of “anionic dye deposition” due to evaporation. PMID:27057835

  5. Brookhaven highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides a broad overview of the research programs and efforts being conducted, built, designed, and planned at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work covers a broad range of scientific disciplines. Major facilities include the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), with its newly completed booster, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and the RHIC, which is under construction. Departments within the laboratory include the AGS department, accelerator development, physics, chemistry, biology, NSLS, medical, nuclear energy, and interdepartmental research efforts. Research ranges from the pure sciences, in nuclear physics and high energy physics as one example, to environmental work in applied science to study climatic effects, from efforts in biology which are a component of the human genome project to the study, production, and characterization of new materials. The paper provides an overview of the laboratory operations during 1992, including staffing, research, honors, funding, and general laboratory plans for the future.

  6. Highlights 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Current research programs at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are presented. The topics include: the genetic basis for breast cancer, the Advanced Light Source, selenium characterization in soils via x-ray absorption spectroscopy, automated colony sorting in efforts of map the human genome, cancer drugs, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), atomic force microscopes (AFM), mapping the radon risk in homes, ketene research, tracking B mesons and the search for the top quark, computerized scientific visualization, technology transfer efforts, and astronomy in the classroom.

  7. Highlights of 1978 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    General highlights of NASA's activities for 1978 are presented. The highlights are categorized into topics such as space science, space transportation systems, space and terrestrial applications, environment, technology utilization, aeronautics, space research and technology, energy programs, and international. A list of the 1978 launches including: (1) launch date; (2) payload designation; (3) launch vehicle; (4) launch site and (5) mission remarks is also presented.

  8. NASA Langley Highlights, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  9. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  10. Modified Team-Based Learning in an Ophthalmology Clerkship in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuxian; Ao, Yong; Xin, Wei; Jia, Yu; Yang, Ying; Cai, Yu; Xu, Chaochao; Yang, Yangfan; Lin, Haotian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Team-based learning (TBL) is an increasingly popular teaching method in medical education. However, TBL hasn’t been well-studied in the ophthalmology clerkship context. This study was to examine the impact of modified TBL in such context and to assess the student evaluations of TBL. Methods Ninety-nine students of an 8-year clinical medicine program from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, were randomly divided into four sequential units and assigned to six teams with the same faculty. The one-week ophthalmology clerkship module included traditional lectures, gross anatomy and a TBL module. The effects of the TBL module on student performance were measured by the Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT), the Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT), the Group Application Problem (GAP) and final examination scores (FESs). Students’ evaluations of TBL were measured by a 16-item questionnaire. IRAT and GRAT scores were compared using a paired t-test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and subgroup analysis compared the effects among quartiles that were stratified by the Basic Ophthalmology Levels (BOLs). The BOLs were evaluated before the ophthalmology clerkship. Results In TBL classes, the GRAT scores were significantly higher than the IRAT scores in both the full example and the BOL-stratified groups. It highlighted the advantages of TBL compared to the individual learning. Quartile-stratified ANOVA comparisons showed significant differences at FES scores (P < 0.01). In terms to IRAT, GRAT and GAP scores, there was no significant result. Moreover, IRAT scores only significantly differed between the first and fourth groups. The FES scores of the first three groups are significantly higher than the fourth group. Gender-specific differences were significant in FES but not the IRAT. Overall, 57.65% of student respondents agreed that TBL was helpful. Male students tended to rate TBL higher than female students. Conclusion The application

  11. Satellite clinics in academic ophthalmology programs: an exploratory study of successes and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Major academic ophthalmology departments have been expanding by opening multi-office locations (“satellites”). This paper offers a first glimpse into satellites of academic ophthalmology departments. Methods Leaders of seven medium to large, geographically diverse departments agreed to participate. One- to two-hour phone interviews were conducted to assess the features of their satellite practices. Results Success as clinical entities, profitability, and access to patients were stated goals for most satellites. In approximate descending order, refractive surgery, retina, oculoplastics, and pediatric ophthalmology were the most common subspecialties offered. Faculty staffing ranged from recruitment specifically for satellites to rotation of existing faculty. Except for a department with only one academic track, satellite doctors were a mix of tenure and mostly non-tenure track faculty. According to these department leaders, scholarly productivity of satellite faculty was similar to that of colleagues at the main campus, though research was more community-based and clinical in nature. Fellowship but little resident education occurred at satellites. Though it was agreed that satellite practices were integral to department finances, they accounted for a smaller percentage of revenues than of total departmental visits. Conclusions Satellite offices have offered access to a better payor mix and have boosted the finances of academic ophthalmology departments. Challenges include maintaining collegiality with referring community physicians, integrating faculty despite geographic distance, preserving the department’s academic “brand name,” and ensuring consistent standards and operating procedures. Satellite clinics will likely help departments meet some of the challenges of health care reform. PMID:24330741

  12. The role of ophthalmology departments in overcoming health care disparities

    PubMed Central

    Salowe, Rebecca J.; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-shuang; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmology departments can play a unique role in providing care for at-risk patients. This study analyzed the age, gender, and socioeconomic measures for 267,286 unique African American patients seen at University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS). Patients seen by the Ophthalmology Department (n=33,801) were older and more likely to be from impoverished zip codes than those seen by other UPHS specialists. These results hint at several inherent advantages of ophthalmology departments in recruiting older, disadvantaged patients to their clinics. We found that supplementing this advantage with strong patient relationships, involvement of community leaders, and customized outreach efforts was key to overcoming access-to-care issues and to reaching these patients. This provides ophthalmologists with a unique opportunity to capture and refer systemic conditions with ocular manifestations and to possibly reduce disparities such as post-hospitalization readmission and mortality observed disproportionately in impoverished populations. PMID:26819970

  13. Stepwise approach to establishing an ophthalmology wet laboratory.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Bonnie An; Grimes, Kelly J; Fintelmann, Robert E; Oetting, Thomas A

    2009-06-01

    Wet laboratories (wet labs) play an increasingly important role in ophthalmology surgical residency training. We summarize the necessary components in establishing and maintaining a well-functioning wet lab and offer a stepwise guide for educators to improve the quality of the wet lab experience. We present 6 key factors in creating an ophthalmology wet lab; that is, setting up the physical space, establishing appropriate faculty and curriculum, obtaining the practice eye, stabilizing the eye, preparing the eye, and funding the wet lab. PMID:19465299

  14. Highlights of Reading Research in the Labs and Centers of the U.S. Department of Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildssen, Shawna

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) promotes excellence and equity in education by conducting research and demonstration projects, collecting statistics, disseminating information, and providing technical assistance to those working to improve education. OERI supports two major research and…

  15. New Perspectives on Marijuana and Youth: Abstainers Are Not Maladjusted, but Lone Users Face Difficulties. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…

  16. Personal reminiscences of ophthalmology giants of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Tasman, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper records personal reminiscences of seven 20th century ophthalmologists who each in his own way metaphorically split the atom and, thereby, changed ophthalmology forever. In addition to their major contributions, they each shared some very desirable traits. They were gentlemen who were devoted to their families and their families to them. PMID:23768923

  17. History of the American Board of Ophthalmology Oral Examination.

    PubMed

    Hamming, Nancy A; Kline, Lanning B; Keltner, John C; Orcutt, James C; Farber, Martha J

    2016-09-01

    The oral examination has been an integral part of certification by the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) since its founding in 1916. An overview is provided regarding the history, evolution, and application of new technology for the oral examination. This part of the certifying process allows the ABO to assess candidates for a variety of competencies, including communication skills and professionalism. PMID:27549997

  18. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  19. Ophthalmological outcomes of patients treated for pineal region tumors.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Elizabeth V; Lyons, Christopher J; Hukin, Juliette; Cochrane, David D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The ophthalmological outcomes of children treated for pineal tumors have received limited attention in the literature. METHODS This paper reviews the outcomes of 29 children treated for pineal and posterior third ventricular tumors in the contemporary era using chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and resection as defined by the histology and/or marker profile of the tumor. RESULTS At the time of diagnosis, all patients except 1 had hydrocephalus and all had ophthalmological involvement. Papilledema was found in 69% of patients. Seventy-five percent of patients had partial or complete Parinaud's syndrome, and diplopia or blurred vision was noted in the remaining patients. Visual acuity was impaired in 8 patients. Outcomes were dependent on the histology of the tumor and the treatment required. Those patients who did not requiring resection showed a lower rate of ophthalmological worsening during treatment and greater long-term improvement, in particular with respect to up-gaze palsy. Patients who underwent resection for postchemotherapy residual disease or primary resection showed greater worsening during treatment and lesser degrees of recovery. All patients with impaired visual acuity improved with treatment. CONCLUSIONS As the mortality of germ cell and other pineal tumors decreases, posttreatment morbidity remains, specifically that related to convergence nystagmus, accommodation, and diplopia. In addition to survival, ophthalmological morbidity should be reported in studies concerning the outcomes of treatment for pineal neoplasms. PMID:26799411

  20. Future directions for bone metastasis research - highlights from the 2015 bone and the Oncologist new updates conference (BONUS).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Siegel, Peter; Komarova, Svetlana; Hilton, John; Addison, Christina; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Werier, Joel; Dennis, Kristopher; Singh, Gurmit; Amir, Eitan; Jarvis, Virginia; Emmenegger, Urban; Mazzarello, Sasha; Clemons, Mark

    2016-06-01

    In an era of reduced peer-reviewed grant funding, performing academic bone oncology-related research has become increasingly challenging. Over the last 10 years we have held an annual meeting to bring together clinicians, clinician/scientists and basic biomedical researchers interested in the effects of cancer and its treatment on skeletal tissues. In the past these "Bone and the Oncologist New Updates Conference (BONUS)" meetings have served as critical catalyst for initiating productive research collaborations between attendees. The 2015 BONUS meeting format focused on potential key research themes that could form the basis of a coordinated national research strategy to tackle unmet clinical and research needs related to complications associated with cancer metastasis to bone. The three themes planned for discussion were: Is bone metastases-related pain the main issue facing patients? Are there new therapeutic targets for patients with bone metastases? How do we more firmly link basic science with clinical practice? We present a summary of lectures and commentaries from the attendees to serve as an example that other similarly motivated groups can model and share their experiences. It is our hope that these presentations will result in comments, feedback and suggestions from all those researchers interested in this important area. PMID:27335772

  1. Materials research at selected Japanese laboratories. Based on a 1992 visit: Overview, summary of highlights, notes on laboratories and topics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.

  2. The Impact of the Economy and Recessions on the Marketplace Demand for Ophthalmologists (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Ron A.; Nwanze, Chukwuemeka C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a help-wanted index (HWI) to measure trends in marketplace demand for ophthalmologists, to identify the economic drivers of demand, and to determine the impact of economic recessions on the ophthalmology job market. Methods Review of physician recruitment advertisements appearing in the journals Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, and Archives of Ophthalmology from January 1980 through June 2006. Results Over the 26-year study period a consistent increase in the demand for subspecialists (31% of HWI in 1980 to 80% in 2005) was noted. There was also an increase in the demand for academic ophthalmologists. The need for academic ophthalmologists seems to be correlated with national research expenditure and stock market gains (P = .00191), whereas demand for private practice ophthalmologists seems to be correlated with the national economic well-being, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) (P < .001). Residency applicants (P = .0128) and fellowship applicants (P = .0198) respond to marketplace demand. During the recessions, the demand for ophthalmologists fell 2 to 3 years after the economic downturn. Conclusions Over a 26-year period, HWI data suggest an increased need for subspecialists and academic ophthalmologists. The ophthalmic community has been quick to respond to marketplace demand. National research expenditure, stock market gains, GDP, and discretionary health care expenditure have been associated with the ophthalmology job market. These factors tend to decline with economic recessions. Historically, the demand for ophthalmologists has declined 2 to 3 years following a recession, which may mean lower demand in the near future, given the recent recession. PMID:22253483

  3. New Version of BEopt Software Provides Analysis Capabilities for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers enhanced this building energy optimization tool to analyze existing homes and identify upgrade packages that achieve specified energy efficiency levels at the lowest possible cost.

  4. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service. PMID:27323605

  5. Research highlights for the period February 1, 1980-July 31, 1980. [Joseph Henry Labs. , Dept. of Physics, Princeton Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, F C

    1980-08-01

    Very brief summaries of research during the period February 1, 1980 to July 31, 1980 are given. The subjects included muon interactions, charmed particles, muon pair production, and the eta/sub c/ meson. Completed work has been published. (RWR)

  6. NASA Langley Highlights, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Langley's mission is accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government Agencies, industry, other NASA Centers, the educational community, and the local community. This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made by Langley researchers and by our university and industry colleagues during the past year. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research. A color electronic version of this report is available at URL http://larcpubs.larc.nasa.gov/randt/1998/.

  7. Highlights of the eleventh annual meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute, 1-4 November 2015, Liverpool, UK.

    PubMed

    Nailor, Audrey; Lewis, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The annual meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI), held in Liverpool, UK, has a solid reputation of being a multidisciplinary conference. It brings the diverse cancer interests of the United Kingdom together, from funders to researchers to clinicians. Key themes for the coming year's innovation emerge. At this meeting, particularly notable topics were immunotherapy and prevention, with sessions on Big Data and e-cigarettes generating significant interest and discussion. Broad themes included discussions around cancer evolution, and the economic challenges of the United Kingdom's cancer burden. PMID:26823684

  8. Highlights of the eleventh annual meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute, 1–4 November 2015, Liverpool, UK

    PubMed Central

    Nailor, Audrey; Lewis, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The annual meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI), held in Liverpool, UK, has a solid reputation of being a multidisciplinary conference. It brings the diverse cancer interests of the United Kingdom together, from funders to researchers to clinicians. Key themes for the coming year’s innovation emerge. At this meeting, particularly notable topics were immunotherapy and prevention, with sessions on Big Data and e-cigarettes generating significant interest and discussion. Broad themes included discussions around cancer evolution, and the economic challenges of the United Kingdom’s cancer burden. PMID:26823684

  9. The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The Scientific Strategy, the Field Phase, and Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Behrendt, Andreas; Kottmeir, Christoph; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Barthlott, Christian; Craig, George C.; Hagen, Martin; Althausen, Dietrich; Aoshima, Fumiko; Arpagaus, Marco; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Bennett, Lindsay; Blyth, Alan; Brandau, Christine; Champollion, Cedric; Crewell, Susanne; Dick, Galina; di Girolamo, Paolo; Dorninger, Manfred; Dufournet, Yann; Eigenmann, Rafael; Engelmann, Ronny; Flamant, C.; Foken, Thomas; Gorgas, Theresa; Grzeschik, Matthias; Handwerker, Jan; Hauck, Christian; Holler, Hartmut; Junkermann, W.; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kiemle, Christoph; Klink, Stefan; Konig, Marianne; Krauss, Liane; Long, Charles N.; Madonna, Fabio; Mobbs, S.; Neininger, Bruno; Pal, Sandip; Peters, Gerhard; Pigeon, Gregoire; Richard, Evelyne; Rotach, Mathias W.; Russchenberg, Herman; Schwitalla, Thomas; Smith, Victoria; Steinacker, Reinhold; Trentman, Jorg; Turner, David D.; van Baelen, Joel; Vogt, Siegfried; Volkert, Hans; Weckwerth, Tammy; Wernli, Heini; Wieser, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2011-02-24

    Within the frame of the international field campaign COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study), a large suite of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation was operated, partially combined for the first time. The COPS field phase was performed from 01 June - 31 August 2007 in a low-mountain area in southwestern Germany/eastern France covering the Vosges Mountains, the Rhine valley and the Black Forest Mountains. The collected data set covers the entire evolution of convective precipitation events in complex terrain from their initiation, to their development and mature phase up to their decay. 18 Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) with 34 operation days and 8 additional Special Observation Periods (SOPs) were performed providing a comprehensive data set covering different forcing conditions. In this paper an overview of the COPS scientific strategy, the field phase, and its first accomplishments is given. Some highlights of the campaign are illustrated with several measurement examples. It is demonstrated that COPS provided new insight in key processes leading to convection initiation and to the modification of precipitation by orography, in the improvement of QPF by the assimilation of new observations, and in the performance of ensembles of convection permitting models in complex terrain.

  10. When Do Secondary School Graduates Go on to Post-Secondary Education? Research Question 2. Student Transition Project Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this newsletter is Student Transitions Project Research Question #2: What is the nature and distribution of the transition of students from the kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) education system into B.C. public post-secondary institutions over a multi-year period? (For secondary school graduates of 2001/02 to 2003/04 and post-secondary…

  11. Be brave, look for meaning: highlights of the tenth annual meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Nailor, Audrey; Pearce, Sioned; Lewis, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The tenth Annual Meeting of the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) conference took place in Liverpool, UK. Just under 2000 delegates were estimated to have attended the conference, predominantly from the UK and Europe. It was a multidisciplinary gathering aimed at cancer professionals at every level. The conference included primers on basic science and public communication as well as workshops on more advanced topics.The conference was grouped into six main themes, which this report will address in greater detail. PMID:25624881

  12. Highlights of mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology.

    PubMed

    Anker, Markus S; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-02-21

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease-related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years have seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia, focusing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in this still insufficiently known field. PMID:23515589

  13. Highlights of the mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology.

    PubMed

    Anker, Markus S; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-01-10

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years has seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia focussing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in the still not well enough known field. PMID:23174169

  14. Highlights of mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Markus S.; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease-related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years have seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia, focusing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in this still insufficiently known field. PMID:23515589

  15. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  16. NASA highlights, 1986 - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA research from 1986 to 1988 are discussed. Topics covered include Space Shuttle flights, understanding the Universe and its origins, understanding the Earth and its environment, air and space transportation, using space to make America more competitive, using space technology an Earth, strengthening America's education in science and technology, the space station, and human exploration of the solar system.

  17. London 2012: prescribing for athletes in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, R G H; Thomas, G P L; Potter, M J; Norris, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aims Prescribing for athletes requires an up-to-date knowledge of the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances. As the London 2012 Olympic Games attract athletes from around the world, we review the current guidelines with respect to all medications licensed for ophthalmic use in the United Kingdom. We describe the process that an ophthalmologist can use to check for permissible medications and also highlight treatments that are contraindicated. Methods We systematically reviewed all 77 drugs listed in Section 11 of the British National Formulary (Issue 63) for use in the treatment of ophthalmic conditions, and referenced these against the 2012 Prohibited List published by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Results The majority of ophthalmic preparations are suitable for use in- and out-of-competition. Some preparations, such as glucocorticoids, are prohibited when administered systemically but permitted for topical administration. Beta-blockers are prohibited in-competition and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are prohibited in- and out-of competition. Conclusion The 2012 Prohibited List has important implications for the pharmacological treatment of ophthalmic conditions in athletes. Clinicians prescribing for athletes have a duty to familiarise themselves with the list in order to avoid causing significant damage to their patient's career and reputation. PMID:22744394

  18. Early avian research at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina: historical highlights and possibilities for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Avian biology and collection of baseline population data was a major part of the first decade (1951-1961) of field research at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Baseline inventories involving organisms and land-use types were part of the mission in the early contracts between the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy) and the University of Georgia prior to the establishment of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) as a National Environmental Research Park Laboratory. About 27% of the SREL publications during this first decade dealt with birds. Since that time, research on the SRS landscape has expanded and broadened with less than 10% of the publications dealing with birds. SRS changed also from an agriculturally dominated area with ca. 40% open areas (fields, crops, pastures) to a timber-managed area with ca. 80% forests, 12% open areas, and 2% open water impoundments. Baseline breeding bird populations of the SRS in the 1950s were typical for the region with avian species richness and density increasing with the age and succession of the vegetation (0-26 species and densities of 0-741 pairs/km2 for the habitats surveyed). During the first decade at the SRS, the resident game bird population of Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) increased and the Mourning Dove (Zenaida rnacroura) population, a migratory upland game bird, remained stable. Current avian research efforts, as well as new opportunities to reexamine the breeding bird populations and the landscape of SRS, will provide a better understanding of the potential causes of declines of neotropical migratory birds, declines of resident and migratory game birds, and how habitat influences invasions and extinctions of breeding birds in the region. Emphasis for future research and monitoring should be on neotropical migratory bird populations in decline (Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus; Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens; Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina; Prairie Warbler

  19. Creation of the American Board of Ophthalmology: The Role of the American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth D

    2016-09-01

    In the early 20th century, the American Medical Association (AMA), specifically its Section on Ophthalmology, played a central role in the founding of America's first medical specialty board, the American Board of Ophthalmology. With the American Ophthalmological Society and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, the AMA's contributions to the formation of the American Board of Ophthalmology led to the establishment of sound educational standards for practicing ophthalmologists and helped to advance the culture of medical excellence within the profession that is synonymous with board certification today. PMID:27550009

  20. New Multijunction Design Leads to Ultra-Efficient Solar Cell; Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    NREL has demonstrated a 45.7% conversion efficiency for a four-junction solar cell at 234 suns concentration. This achievement represents one of the highest photovoltaic research cell efficiencies ever achieved across all types of solar cells. NREL's new solar cell, which is designed for operation in a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system where it can receive more than 1,000 suns of concentrated sunlight, greatly improves earlier designs by adding an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency.

  1. Barker-coded excitation in ophthalmological ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jun; Ji, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yan-Qun

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is an attractive means to obtain fine-resolution images of biological tissues for ophthalmologic imaging. To solve the tradeoff between axial resolution and detection depth, existing in the conventional single-pulse excitation, this study develops a new method which uses 13-bit Barker-coded excitation and a mismatched filter for high-frequency ophthalmologic imaging. A novel imaging platform has been designed after trying out various encoding methods. The simulation and experiment result show that the mismatched filter can achieve a much higher out signal main to side lobe which is 9.7 times of the matched one. The coded excitation method has significant advantages over the single-pulse excitation system in terms of a lower MI, a higher resolution, and a deeper detection depth, which improve the quality of ophthalmic tissue imaging. Therefore, this method has great values in scientific application and medical market. PMID:25356093

  2. Chloroquine: Ophthalmological Safety, and Clinical Assessment in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Percival, S. P. B.; Meanock, I.

    1968-01-01

    272 patients on long-term chloroquine therapy were assessed with respect to ocular toxicity and clinical benefit. A simple scheme for rendering patients ophthalmologically safe is presented, employing the recording of central fields to red targets. Under this it was possible to diagnose a state of premaculopathy, which was reversible on stopping treatment. The incidence of premaculopathy was 41% in 143 patients who otherwise displayed no abnormality of the fundus oculi and who had received a mean total dose of 410 g. of chloroquine phosphate or the hydroxychloroquine sulphate equivalent. Under this joint ophthalmological and rheumatological supervision it was considered that the minor side-effects that may be caused by chloroquine are outweighed by its therapeutic value. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:4875645

  3. Trends in ophthalmology resident surgical experience from 2009 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Nisha; Liu, Ji; Maslin, Jessica S; Teng, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Background Resident procedure minimums have been established in surgical training programs to ensure adequate training experience. However, achievement of these minimums may fluctuate. Review of resident experience is essential for maintaining successful training curricula. Objective To evaluate trends in ophthalmology resident surgical experience from 2009 to 2015. Methods This was a database study reviewing Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ophthalmology resident surgical case logs. Case logs from 2,797 US ophthalmology residents were reviewed for trends in average surgical cases performed by residents as primary surgeon in the area of cataract, cornea, retina, glaucoma, pediatrics, plastics, and trauma from 2009 to 2015. Results Significant trends in resident surgical experience were demonstrated in the areas of cataract, retina, and glaucoma, while experience in cornea, pediatrics, plastics, and trauma remained stable. These trends included an increase in average cases of phacoemulsification cataract surgery from 143.8 to 173.6, vitreous tap/inject procedures from 31.3 to 93.1, and glaucoma shunt surgery from 4.5 to 6.7, with a decline in average cases of nonphacoemulsification cataract surgery from 3.8 to 2.2, retinal photocoagulation from 59.6 to 45.5, and filtering surgery from 6 to 4.5. Conclusion Trends in ophthalmology surgical experience in cataract, retina, and glaucoma paralleled new surgical or therapeutic developments as well as practice pattern shifts in these fields. Educators should be cognizant of the impact of such trends on resident experience and determine if curricular adjustments should be made to maintain comprehensive education of physicians-in-training. PMID:27418803

  4. The U.S.-Japan Cooperative Cancer Research Program: some highlights of seminars, interdisciplinary program area, 1981-1996.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W

    1996-03-01

    Thirty-one seminars have been held in the 16 years since 1981. A principal interest from the beginning was the genetics of cancer, well before this subject became widely popular. This interest arose in part because of marked binational differences in type-specific cancer rates, such as the very low rates among Japanese for Hodgkin's disease in the young, testicular cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, superficial spreading melanoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Wilms' tumor (half the U.S. frequency). Three seminars were devoted to the seeming reciprocal relationship between B-cell lymphoma (low in Japan) and certain autoimmune diseases (high in Japan), which is perhaps similar in origin to the male/female differences in the rates for these diseases. A seminar on Li-Fraumeni syndrome led to the recognition of cases among Japanese pedigrees brought to the meeting, and generated a study of its occurrence in Japanese families with adrenocortical carcinoma in a child. Another seminar revealed a marked clustering of rare cancers in Werner's (premature aging) syndrome in Japan, and led to a binational study and analysis of case-reports worldwide. Three seminars on pathology heightened appreciation of the importance of subclassifying cancer by subsite and subtype for racial and other comparisons. Four seminars on biostatistics in cancer research generated a substantial exchange of specialists and trainees in this field. PMID:8613422

  5. The human resource crisis in neuro-ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Frohman, Larry P

    2008-09-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is facing a serious human resource issue. Few are entering the subspecialty, which is perceived as being poorly compensated compared with other subspecialties of ophthalmology. The low compensation comes from the fact that 1) non-procedural encounters remain undervalued, 2) efforts that benefit other medical specialists are not counted, and 3) the relatively low expenses of neuro-ophthalmologists are not factored into compensation formulas. Mission-based budgeting, which forces academic departments to be financially accountable without the expectation of fiscal relief from medical schools or practice plans, has exacerbated the compensation issue. Solutions must come from within neuro-ophthalmology, academic departments, medical schools, and medical practice plans. They include 1) providing educational resources so that neuro-ophthalmologists need not spend so much time teaching the basics, 2) factoring into compensation the impact of neuro-ophthalmologists in teaching and on revenue generation by procedure-based specialists, 3) improving the efficiency of neuro-ophthalmologists in their consultative practices by providing ample clerical support and other measures, 4) providing contractual salary compensation by departments such as neurosurgery to recognize the contributions made by neuro-ophthalmologists, and 5) reorganizing the academic clinical effort as multidisciplinary rather than departmental. PMID:18769291

  6. Sentinel Events in Ophthalmology: Experience from Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Shiu Ting

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To arouse ophthalmologists' awareness in patient safety by reviewing sentinel events in Ophthalmology submitted to a web-based incident reporting system involving all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods. Sentinel events in Ophthalmology reported from November 2007 to October 2014 were identified and classified into different categories for further presentation and analysis. Key contributing factors attributing to the occurrence of the incidents were described. Suggestions aiming to prevent future occurrence of similar events were made. Relevant literature and case law were discussed. Results. Twelve sentinel events were included in this observational case series. They were classified into 4 main categories, namely “wrong eye” (5 cases, 41%), “wrong prescription” (3 cases, 25%), “wrong patient and surgery” (2 cases, 17%), and “retained surgical items” (2 cases, 17%). The key contributing factor leading to the occurrence of the incidents was largely human error. Increased staff awareness and proper time-out procedures were recommended to help prevent occurrence of these errors. Conclusion. Sentinel events in Ophthalmology do occur. Many of these incidents were attributed to human error. Surgeon's awareness and willingness to prevent occurrence of sentinel events are warranted. PMID:25821586

  7. Acid Mine Drainage Research in Gauteng Highlighting Impacts on Infrastructure and Innovation of Concrete-Based Remedial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, S.; Ekolu, S.; Azene, F.

    2013-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is presently one of the most important environmental problems in in the densely populated Gauteng Province, South Africa. The threat of acid mine drainage has demanded short-term interventions (some of which are being implemented by government) but more importantly sustainable long-term innovative solutions. There have been moments of public apprehension with some media reports dubbing the current scenario as a future 'nightmare of biblical proportions' and 'South Africa's own Chernobyl' that could cause dissolving of concrete foundations of buildings and reinforcement steel, leading to collapse of structures. In response to the needs of local and provincial authorities, this research was conducted to (1) generate scientific understanding of the effects of AMD on infrastructure materials and structures, and (2) propose innovative long-term remedial systems based on cementitious materials for potential AMD treatment applications of engineering scale. Two AMD solutions from the goldfields and two others from the coalfields were used to conduct corrosion immersion tests on mild steel, stainless steel, mortars, pastes and concretes. Results show that AMD water from the gold mines is more corrosive than that from the coal mines, the corrosion rate of the former being about twice that of the latter. The functionality of metal components of mild steel can be expected to fail within one month of exposure to the mine water. The investigation has also led to development of a pervious concrete filter system of water-cement ratio = 0.27 and cement content = 360 kg/m3, to be used as a permeable reactive barrier for AMD treatment. Early results show that the system was effective in removing heavy metal contaminants with removal levels of 30% SO4, 99% Fe, 50-83% Mn, 85% Ca, and 30% TDS. Further work is on-going to improve and optimise the system prior to field demonstration studies.

  8. Simulator Developed to Drastically Reduce Time of Multijunction PV Device Efficiency Measurements (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL's new simulator helps speed up research in the race to improve photovoltaic efficiency. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) needed a quick and accurate method to predict energy generated from multijunction photovoltaic (PV) test devices. This method had to take into account the nonlinear behavior of multijunction PV. NREL achieved this by developing the One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator (OSMSS), which reduces the time for this type of reference spectrum efficiency measurement from hours or days to minutes. The OSMSS is an automated, spectrally adjustable light source that builds a unique simulator spectrum that causes a multijunction PV device to behave as it would under a reference spectrum. This new simulator consists of four light sources separated into nine wavelength bands between 350 and 2,000 nm. The irradiance in each band is adjustable from zero to about 1.5 suns. All bands are recombined via optical fibers and integrating optics to produce a nearly 10 cm x 10 cm uniform spot. The operator simply links the OSMSS to the quantum efficiency data for the test device, and the OSMSS does the rest. The OSMSS can also determine the power as a function of the spectral irradiance (beyond the reference spectra), total irradiance, and temperature. Major components of the system were built to NREL specification by LabSphere, Inc. NREL developed a new, fully automated tool that rapidly builds a spectrum under which all junctions of a multijunction PV device behave as they would under a reference spectrum. Such a spectrum is essential to properly characterize multijunction devices. The OSMSS reduces the time for building spectra for current vs. voltage measurements from hours or days to minutes. This makes it possible to quickly characterize a multijunction device under many different conditions. The OSMSS will be an important tool to help predict the yearly energy output of a multijunction PV device in a particular environment when provided

  9. [Occupational ophthalmology and ergoophthalmology: a developing field].

    PubMed

    Piccoli, B; Zambelli, P L; Grosso, D; Assini, R

    2003-01-01

    In 1979 it was decided to activate, within the Institute of Occupational Health of the Milan "Università degli Studi", a new Unit of Ergophthalmology. This decision was taken owing to the progressive diffusion of "optical instruments", particularly computer-based equipment, in the world of work and to the relevance that this topic assumed among Italian occupational physicians. Since its beginning, one of the main characteristics of the Ergophthalmology Unit was an interdisciplinary approach, where occupational physicians, ophthalmologists, occupational hygienists and lighting engineers were collaborating on a daily basis. Research activities, which developed over many years and in several phases, were concerned with four main topics: 1. analysis and quantification of "near work load"; initially the investigations were mainly aimed at the evaluation of the observation distance in different tasks, followed by the development of a method which, by means of specifically designed electronic equipment, allows quantification of the accommodation and convergence required by the task; 2. development of a new method aimed at evaluating, by a photometric procedure, the luminance ratios in the "occupational visual field"; this research was carried out, both in the laboratory and during on-site investigations, in collaboration with the Dept. of Electrotechnics of Milan Polytechnic; 3. studies on the relationships between indoor microbial pollution and Computer Assisted Design work, considering that ocular conjunctiva and cornea, due to their external position, can be easily inoculated by micro-organisms present on periocular tissue and hands; this research showed that bacteria and fungi pathogenic for the eye (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida sp., Aspergillus sp.) are present on desk, keyboard and mouse, as well as in the conjunctival sac of the exposed operators; 4. studies on "blue light" and its effects on the Pigmented Retinal Epithelium (PRE) in workers exposed to halide

  10. The gene therapy revolution in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saikhan, Fahad I.

    2013-01-01

    The advances in gene therapy hold significant promise for the treatment of ophthalmic conditions. Several studies using animal models have been published. Animal models on retinitis pigmentosa, Leber’s Congenital Amaurosis (LCA), and Stargardt disease have involved the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver functional genes into mice and canines. Mice models have been used to show that a mutation in cGMP phosphodiesterase that results in retinitis pigmentosa can be corrected using rAAV vectors. Additionally, rAAV vectors have been successfully used to deliver ribozyme into mice with a subsequent improvement in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. By using dog models, researchers have made progress in studying X-linked retinitis pigmentosa which results from a RPGR gene mutation. Mouse and canine models have also been used in the study of LCA. The widely studied form of LCA is LCA2, resulting from a mutation in the gene RPE65. Mice and canines that were injected with normal copies of RPE65 gene showed signs such as improved retinal pigment epithelium transduction, visual acuity, and functional recovery. Studies on Stargardt disease have shown that mutations in the ABCA4 gene can be corrected with AAV vectors, or nanoparticles. Gene therapy for the treatment of red–green color blindness was successful in squirrel monkeys. Plans are at an advanced stage to begin clinical trials. Researchers have also proved that CD59 can be used with AMD. Gene therapy is also able to treat primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in animal models, and studies show it is economically viable. PMID:24227970

  11. MO-E-BRF-01: Research Opportunities in Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (Highlight of ASTRO NCI 2013 Workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S; Jaffray, D; Chetty, I; Benedict, S

    2014-06-15

    efficacy, and provided a glimpse into the future. Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of technology on the field of radiation therapy To learn about the trends of technology development for the field of radiation oncology To understand the opportunities for in innovative technology research.

  12. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior

  13. Development of community based curriculum on ophthalmology for under graduate medical course in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A K; Hussain, A Z M I

    2012-08-01

    finally for validation. On the basis of the opinion of the respondents, reviewing literature, analyzing the ocular disease pattern in Bangladesh and also analyzing the present ophthalmology curriculum, a community and need based ophthalmology curriculum for undergraduate medical course in Bangladesh was developed. This research would help developing community and need based ophthalmology curriculum for undergraduate medical course in Bangladesh. PMID:23227628

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acids: recent research highlights

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds are organic chemicals in which all hydrogen molecules of the carbon-chain are substituted by fluorine molecules. Generally, there are two types of perfluorinated compounds, the perfluoroalkanes that are primarily used clinically for oxygenation and respir...

  15. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  16. Combination Therapies in Ophthalmology: Implications for Intravitreal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Gholam A.; Hosseini, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Most pathological processes involve complex molecular pathways that can only be modified or blocked by a combination of medications. Combination therapy has become a common practice in medicine. In ophthalmology, this approach has been used effectively to treat bacterial, fungal, proliferative/neoplastic, and inflammatory eye diseases and vascular proliferation. Combination therapy also encompasses the synergistic effect of electromagnetic radiation and medications. However, combination therapy can augment inherent complications of individual interventions, therefore vigilance is required. Complications of combination therapy include potential incompatibility among compounds and tissue toxicity. Understanding these effects will assist the ophthalmologist in his decision to maximize the benefits of combination therapy while avoiding an unfavorable outcome. PMID:22454705

  17. Giant cell arteritis: a closer look at its ophthalmological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Pinto Ferreira, Nuno G; Menezes Falcão, Luiz; Alves, Antonio T; Campos, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis with ocular involvement is an ocular emergency. Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) is the most common ophthalmological manifestation associated with this disease. Visual loss is usually permanent with rare cases showing visual recovery. Visual improvement, if it occurs, is generally limited, and the visual field defects are persistent and severe. The main goal of AAION treatment is the preservation of vision in the fellow eye. In patients with neurophthalmological manifestations, high-dose corticosteroids should be initiated immediately and aggressively, and maintained thereafter. We present a case of AAION and severe vision loss where significant visual recovery was seen after treatment. PMID:26416775

  18. [Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and its Application in Ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Lindner, T; Langner, S; Paul, K; Pohlmann, A; Hadlich, S; Niendorf, T; Jünemann, A; Guthoff, R F; Stachs, O

    2015-12-01

    The value of diffusion-weighted magnet resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) has been demonstrated for an ever growing range of clinical indications. DWI is sensitive to the diffusion of water molecules and probes their random displacement within tissue. DWI provides both qualitative and quantitative information on tissue characteristics, e.g. tissue cellularity. This review provides an overview of diffusion-weighted imaging and its emerging applications in ophthalmology. The basic physics and technical foundations of DWI are introduced. The emerging applications of DWI are surveyed, particularly in diseases of the eye, orbit and optical nerve. PMID:26678901

  19. Ophthalmology residency training in Jordan: an evaluation of quality and comparison with international standards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salem, Khalil M.; Al-Sarayra, Fawwaz A.; Abu Al-Dabaat, Mohammad; Shihadeh, Wisam; Al-Salem, Mohammad M.; Al-Salem, Mahmoud K.; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate Jordanian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and residents' satisfaction with available training programs in Jordan, and to highlight weakness points that may be improved and strengthened. METHODS A closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to all ophthalmologists who completed their training in Jordanian institutions between 2006 and 2011, to measure the quality of residency training and satisfaction level with regards to clinical conferences, journal clubs, scientific lectures, wet lab sessions, simulations, outpatient clinics and operating room training. Barriers to a successful board exam were cited. All ophthalmologists had official residency training in Jordanian Hospitals; this includes military, university, governmental and private sector hospitals. RESULTS Sixty-one questionnaires completed out of 69 circulated. Males (75.4%) were more than females. Mean age was 32.5±3.27y. A total 21 (34.4%) responders expressed an overall satisfaction, 38 (62.3%) were dissatisfied and 2 (3.3%) were equivocal. Respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation 57 (93.4%), or refraction and glasses prescription 34 (55.7%). Regarding operative experiences, the mean cataract extraction per-resident was 43 cataracts; the number of phacoemulsification surgery was 2.96 per-resident, 46 (75.4%) of responders never did a single phacoemulsification during residency. Nine (14.8%) had training in refractive surgery, and 15 (24.6%) assisted orbital surgery. Forty-four (72.1%) never assisted in vitreoretinal surgery. Among The graduates surveyed, 14 (23.0%) passed Jordanian licensing board exam at the first attempt, and felt that their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. CONCLUSION Around two thirds (62.3%) of ophthalmologists expressed dissatisfaction with residency training at Jordanian programs, further study is required to assess

  20. Tele-ophthalmology: Opportunities for improving diabetes eye care in resource- and specialist-limited Sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Matimba, Alice; Woodward, Richmond; Tambo, Ernest; Ramsay, Michele; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Guramatunhu, Solomon

    2016-07-01

    Tele-ophthalmology using portable retinal imaging technology, mobile phone and Internet connectivity offers a solution to improve access to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening services in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries where the burden of diabetes is increasing and there is limited access to eye care services and specialists. The Zimbabwe Retinopathy Telemedicine Project (ZRTP) established routine DR screening at a hospital-based diabetic clinic in the urban capital city, Harare. A handheld 'point and shoot' digital camera operated by a trained nurse was used to acquire retina images of 203 diabetic patients. A secured 'store-and forward' approach was set up and used for sharing and transfer of images to a retinal specialist at a remote site for reading. This method enabled detection of non-macular DR (11%), diabetic macular oedema (5%), cataract (5%) and glaucoma (6%) among the patients screened. ZRTP demonstrated the utility of tele-ophthalmology for routine retinal screening for diabetic patients in Zimbabwe who have limited access to eye care services. In addition, ZRTP showed how tele-ophthalmology services can provide an empirical framework for providing patient education, and a platform for research in the detection of DR. This approach could be used as a model to address the DR challenges in other countries in SSA. PMID:26407990

  1. Structured curricula and curriculum development in ophthalmology residency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew G; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    There has been a shift in graduate medical education (GME) from the traditional "apprenticeship" model to a more curriculum-based and competency driven model. Reflecting a global trend towards residency education reform, the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) introduced a resident and specialist curriculum and several live educational programs to promote standardization and more effective GME and continuing professional training. Implementation of these educational innovations will require efforts by local educator champions; modification and customization of teaching and assessing tools to the local learning environment; alignment of the implementation blueprint with available resources; and creation of accountability and sustainability mechanisms to insure long-term viability of the educational reforms. An ultimate goal of the ICO curriculum is to allow real world testing and modification so that the ideas generated in one part of the world might be applicable and generalizable in other areas. We aim to describe the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies in the United States (US) and ICO curriculum, as well as to provide a step-by-step plan for implementation of an ophthalmology residency curriculum. PMID:24791099

  2. Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2011-01-01

    Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

  3. Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2011-01-01

    Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

  4. Single-channel stereoscopic ophthalmology microscope based on TRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, Edalat; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    A stereoscopic imaging modality was developed for the application of ophthalmology surgical microscopes. A previous study has already introduced a single-channel stereoscopic video imaging modality based on a transparent rotating deflector (SSVIM-TRD), in which two different view angles, image disparity, are generated by imaging through a transparent rotating deflector (TRD) mounted on a stepping motor and is placed in a lens system. In this case, the image disparity is a function of the refractive index and the rotation angle of TRD. Real-time single-channel stereoscopic ophthalmology microscope (SSOM) based on the TRD is improved by real-time controlling and programming, imaging speed, and illumination method. Image quality assessments were performed to investigate images quality and stability during the TRD operation. Results presented little significant difference in image quality in terms of stability of structural similarity (SSIM). A subjective analysis was performed with 15 blinded observers to evaluate the depth perception improvement and presented significant improvement in the depth perception capability. Along with all evaluation results, preliminary results of rabbit eye imaging presented that the SSOM could be utilized as an ophthalmic operating microscopes to overcome some of the limitations of conventional ones.

  5. Use and Misuse of Laplace's Law in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cheuk Wang; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Sigal, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Laplace's Law, with its compactness and simplicity, has long been employed in ophthalmology for describing the mechanics of the corneoscleral shell. We questioned the appropriateness of Laplace's Law for computing wall stress in the eye considering the advances in knowledge of ocular biomechanics. Methods In this manuscript we recapitulate the formulation of Laplace's Law, as well as common interpretations and uses in ophthalmology. Using numerical modeling, we study how Laplace's Law cannot account for important characteristics of the eye, such as variations in globe shape and size or tissue thickness, anisotropy, viscoelasticity, or that the eye is a living, dynamic organ. Results We show that accounting for various geometrical and material factors, excluded from Laplace's Law, can alter estimates of corneoscleral wall stress as much as 456% and, therefore, that Laplace's Law is unreliable. Conclusions We conclude by illustrating how computational techniques, such as finite element modeling, can account for the factors mentioned above, and are thus more suitable tools to provide quantitative characterization of corneoscleral biomechanics. PMID:26803799

  6. Johnson Space Center 2012 Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    The year has seen many highlights at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, Houston in the realm of human spaceflight exploration, international and commercial partnerships, and research and technology dev...

  7. Langley aerospace test highlights, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The role of the NASA Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and spaceflight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests that were performed during calendar year 1989 in the NASA Langley Research Center test facilities are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the NASA Langley Research Center are illustrated along with the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research. Other highlights of Langley research and technology for 1989 are described in Research and Technology 1989 - Langley Research Center.

  8. Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology update.

    PubMed

    Gold, Daniel R; Zee, David S

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes topical papers from the fields of neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology published from August 2013 to February 2015. The main findings are: (1) diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri have been updated, and the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial evaluated the efficacy of acetazolamide in patients with mild vision loss, (2) categorization of vestibular disorders through history and ocular motor examination is particularly important in the acute vestibular syndrome, where timely distinction between a central or peripheral localization is essential, (3) the newly described "sagging eye syndrome" provides a mechanical explanation for an isolated esodeviation that increases at distance in the aging population and (4) eye movement recordings better define how cerebellar dysfunction and/or sixth nerve palsy may play a role in other patients with esodeviations that increase at distance. PMID:26122540

  9. [Automated perimetry and neuro-ophthalmology. Topographic correlation].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Negrete, F J; Rebolleda, G

    2002-08-01

    Visual fields continue to be a key exploration for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients in neuro-ophthalmology. The pattern of visual field defects helps, and in many cases allows, the identification of brain damage location. Manual kinetic perimetry has been replaced by automated methods. 24-2 SITA (Humphrey Visual Field Analyser) and TOP (Octopus) are regarded as the standard perimetric explorations in neuro-ophthalmology. Goldmann perimetry remains as an useful exploration for temporal crescent detection in occipital lobe diseases, and it could be more accurate and consistent for studying lesions in the post-geniculate pathway. Frequency doubling perimetry could be useful for detecting neuro-ophthalmic visual field defects, but does not provide an accurate characterisation of the lesions. From the neuro-ophthalmic point of view, visual field defects could be divided in pre-chiasmatics, chiasmatics and post-chiasmatics. Pre-chiasmatic defects are strictly unilateral, do not respect the vertical meridian, often have a nasal step associated and are usually accompanied by ocular pathology detectable in an ophthalmic examination. The characteristic perimetric pattern of chiasmal disease is bi-temporal hemianopsia. Homonymous contralateral defects are the characteristic perimetric pattern of post-chiasmal disease, and their congruency increases when the lesions are closer to the occipital lobe. Neuroimage studies are mandatory in all patients with a perimetric defect pattern compatible with chiasmal or post-chiasmal lesions. Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be normal in a patient with homonymous defects in Alzheimer's disease, the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakobs disease, carbon monoxide poisoning and mild occipital ischemia demonstrated by SPECT or PET imaging (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2002; 77: 413-428). PMID:12185617

  10. Ophthalmologic outcome of direct and indirect carotid cavernous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Grumann, Astor Junior; Boivin-Faure, Laeticia; Chapot, René; Adenis, Jean Paul; Robert, Pierre Yves

    2012-04-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) can be classified as direct and indirect, depending on their flow rates and their etiology. Both forms can cause the same characteristic ophthalmological symptoms and signs. We analyzed these ocular characteristics and determined the prognostics factors associated with treatment outcome. Forty-seven patients with an angiographically confirmed diagnosis of CCF, a preoperative ophthalmic evaluation and at least one ophthalmic sign or symptom at the initial presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were followed-up ophthalmically until the end of treatment, and the complications and the remaining ophthalmological signs and symptoms were then recorded. The patients' ages ranged from 13 to 89 years, with an average of 55.78 (±20.73) years, and a predominance of 28 female (57.8 %) patients. The patients with a direct CCF had a lower average age (p = 0.02). The most common symptoms were blurred vision in 17 (36.2 %) and proptosis in 37 (78.7 %) patients. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was more prevalent in patients with an indirect CCF (p = 0.02). Thrill was more prevalent in patients with direct CCF (p = 0.01). The presence of an initial decrease of visual acuity at the first ophthalmic evaluation was significantly associated with the persistence of ocular symptoms after fistula treatment (odds ratio 3.33). In conclusion our study shows a slight difference in ophthalmic symptoms among patients with different types of fistula. Elevated IOP was significantly associated with indirect fistulas, whereas thrill was significantly associated with direct fistulas. The presence of an initial decrease of visual acuity was significantly associated with a worse ophthalmic prognosis. PMID:22447030