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Sample records for opossum didelphis virginiana

  1. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  2. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  3. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; et al

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  4. Prevalence of sarcocystis species sporocysts in wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2000-08-01

    Sarcocystis sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings from 24 (54.5%) of 44 opossums (Didelphis virginiana). The number of sporocysts varied from a few (< 10,000) to 245 million. Sporocysts from 23 of 24 opossums were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatas), and the inocula from 21 opossums were infective, indicating the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. Sporocysts from 24 opossums were fed to gamma-interferon-knockout (KO) or nude mice; inocula from 14 opossums were infective to mice. Sarcocystis neurona was detected in tissues of KO mice by specific staining with anti-S. neurona antibodies, and the parasite was cultured in vitro from the brains of KO mice fed sporocysts from 8 opossums. Sarcocystis speeri was identified by specific staining with anti-S. speeri antibodies in tissues of KO mice fed inocula from 8 opossums; 3 opossums had mixed S. neurona and S. speeri infections. Thus, the prevalences of sporocysts of different species of Sarcocystis in opossums were: S. falcatula 21 of 44 (47.7%), S. neurona 8 of 44 (18.1%), and S. speeri 8 of 44 (18.1%) opossums. Sarcocystis neurona alone was found in 1 opossum, and S. speeri alone was found in 1 opossum. Mixed Sarcocystis infections were present in 21 opossums. PMID:10958444

  5. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico. PMID:27200271

  6. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Castro, M.; Noh-Pech, H.; Puerto-Hernández, R.; Reyes-Hernández, B.; Panti-May, A.; Hernández-Betancourt, S.; Yeh-Gorocica, A.; González-Herrera, L.; Zavala-Castro, J.; Puerto, F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico. PMID:27200271

  7. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California.

    PubMed

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Miller, Melissa A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Nichelason, Amy E; Melli, Ann C; Packham, Andrea E; Jessup, David A; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoal parasite shed by opossums (Didelphis virginiana), has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in horses, sea otters, and other marine mammals. Over the course of 3 years (fall 2005-summer 2008), opossums from central California were tested for infection with S. neurona. Of 288 opossums sampled, 17 (5.9%) were infected with S. neurona based on the molecular characterization of sporocysts from intestinal scrapings or feces. Risk factors evaluated for association with S. neurona infection in opossums included: age, sex, location, season, presence of pouch young in females, concomitant infection, and sampling method (live-trapped or traffic-killed). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that opossums in the Central Valley were 9 times more likely to be infected than those near the coast (p=0.009). Similarly, opossum infection was 5 times more likely to be detected during the reproductive season (March-July; p=0.013). This first investigation of S. neurona infection prevalence and associated risk factors in opossums in the western United States can be used to develop management strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of S. neurona infections in susceptible hosts, including horses and threatened California sea otters (Enhydra lutris neries). PMID:19735983

  9. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Bowman, D D; Horton, K M; Venturini, C; Venturini, L

    2000-06-01

    Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum Didelphis albiventris was successfully transmitted to the North American opossum Didelphis virginiana. Sporocysts from a naturally infected D. albiventris from Argentina were fed to 2 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. The mice were killed 64 and 71 days after sporocyst feeding (DAF). Muscles containing sarcocysts from the KO mouse killed 71 DAF were fed to a captive D. virginiana; this opossum shed sporocysts 11 days after ingesting sarcocysts. Sporocysts from D. virginiana were fed to 9 KO mice and 4 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Schizonts, sarcocysts, or both of S. speeri were found in tissues of all 7 KO mice killed 29-85 DAF; 2 mice died 39 and 48 DAF were not necropsied. Sarcocystis stages were not found in tissues of the 4 budgerigars fed S. speeri sporocysts and killed 35 DAE These results indicate that S. speeri is distinct from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona, and that S. speeri is present in both D. albiventris and D. virginiana. PMID:10864267

  10. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  11. DNA barcodes effectively identify the morphologically similar Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from areas of sympatry in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Fernando A; Arcangeli, Jésica; Hortelano-Moncada, Yolanda; Borisenko, Alex V

    2010-12-01

    Two morphologically similar species of opossum from the genus Didelphis-Didelphis virginiana and Didelphis marsupialis-cooccur sympatrically in Mexico. High intraspecific variation complicates their morphological discrimination, under both field and museum conditions. This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of using DNA barcodes (short standardized genome fragments used for DNA-based identification) to distinguish these two species. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) mitochondrial gene were obtained from 12 D. marsupialis and 29 D. virginiana individuals and were compared using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm with Kimura's two-parameter (K2P) model of nucleotide substitution. Average K2P distances were 1.56% within D. virginiana and 1.65% in D. marsupialis. Interspecific distances between D. virginiana and D. marsupialis varied from 7.8 to 9.3% and their barcode sequences formed distinct non-overlapping clusters on NJ trees. All sympatric specimens of both species were effectively discriminated, confirming the utility of Cox1 barcoding as a tool for taxonomic identification of these morphologically similar taxa. PMID:21271858

  12. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    PubMed

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. PMID:20226596

  13. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California

    PubMed Central

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A.; Grigg, Michael E.; Crosbie, Paul R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. PMID:20226596

  14. Sarcocystis speeri N. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    1999-10-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is host to at least 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystisfalcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, and a recently recognized Sarcocystis sp. A new name, Sarcocystis speeri, is proposed for the third unnamed Sarcocystis. Immunodeficient mice are an experimental intermediate host for S. speeri. Sarcocystis speeri sporocysts are 12-15 x 8-10 microm in size, and its schizonts are found in many organs of mice. Sarcocysts of S. speeri are found in skeletal muscles and they are up to 5 mm long and filiform. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall is thin (<1 microm thick); ultrastructurally, the cyst wall is up to 1.8 microm thick and has characteristic steeple-shaped villar protrusions surmounted by a spire. Sarcocystis speeri schizonts are morphologically and antigenically distinct from schizonts of S. neurona, and S. speeri sporocysts were not infective to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). PMID:10577729

  15. CUTANEOUS EPITHELIOTROPIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA WITH METASTASES IN A VIRGINIA OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA).

    PubMed

    Higbie, Christine T; Carpenter, James W; Choudhary, Shambhunath; DeBey, Brad; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Eshar, David

    2015-06-01

    A 2-yr-old, captive, intact female Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) with a 7-mo history of ulcerative dermatitis and weight loss was euthanatized for progressive worsening of clinical signs. Initially the opossum was treated with several courses of antibiotics, both topically and systemically; systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication; and, later, systemic glucocorticoids, with no improvement in clinical signs. Histopathologic samples of skin lesions taken 3 mo into the course of disease revealed no evidence of neoplasia; however, cytologic samples of a skin lesion taken 5 mo into the course of disease revealed mature lymphocytes, and were suggestive of cutaneous lymphoma. Postmortem histopathology revealed neoplastic cells consistent with lymphoma; these were found in the haired skin of the forearm, axilla, hind limb, face, and lateral body wall, as well as the liver, kidney, axillary lymph node, heart, and spleen. Multifocal neutrophilic and eosinophilic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis and folliculitis of the haired skin were also present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of cutaneous lymphoma in a Virginia opossum and the first documented case with visceral metastases in a marsupial. PMID:26056906

  16. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum

  17. Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. PMID:23152195

  18. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Karla A.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated), four joeys were noninoculated (exposed), and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums. PMID:22701815

  19. Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Fenger, C K; Granstrom, D E; Gajadhar, A A; Williams, N M; McCrillis, S A; Stamper, S; Langemeier, J L; Dubey, J P

    1997-02-01

    Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts developing in the leg muscles. Sparrows were euthanized 13 and 17 wpi and their carcasses were fed to four laboratory raised opossums. Sporocysts were detected in the feces of two opossums on 15 days post inoculation (dpi) and in a third opossum on 40 dpi. Fecal samples from the fourth opossum remained negative; however, sporocysts were found in intestinal digests from all four opossums. Sporocysts were not found in feces or intestinal digest of an additional opossum that was fed three uninoculated sparrows. Five foals were fed sporocysts (Foals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) and two foals were maintained as uninoculated controls (Foals 1 and 6). Sporocysts from two additional feral opossums also were fed to foals. Foal 5 was given 0.05 mg kg-1 dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily beginning 2 days before inoculation for a total of 2 weeks. Horse sera were tested three times per week, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested biweekly for anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies by Western blot analysis. No foals had any S. neurona-specific antibodies by Western blot analysis prior to sporocysts ingestion. Seroconversion occurred in Foals 3, 5, and 7 by 24 dpi, followed by positive CSF tests on 28 dpi. Foals 2 and 4 seroconverted by 40 dpi. Cerebrospinal fluid from Foal 2 tested positive by 42 dpi, but Foal 4 remained seronegative throughout the study. Sera and CSF from control Foals 1 and 6 remained seronegative. All foals with positive CSF developed neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic disease

  20. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo Antonio; Puc-Franco, Miguel Angel; Flores-Abuxapqui, Javier; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Cardenas-Marrufo, María Fidelia

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by Leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum Didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the Yucatán State, México. Ninety-one opossums were captured during the period April 1996 and May 1998. From a total of 17 feces samples, four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum, and Minnesota), and one Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:- were isolated. Some opossums presented mixed infections. From 81 sera samples, four (4.9%) were positive to antibodies to Leptospira serovars pomona and wolfii. Both animals infected with Salmonella enterica and those serologically positive to Leptospira interrogans were captured in peridomestic habitat. Opossums infected with Salmonella enterica, were captured in dry season, and those seropositive to Leptospira interrogans during the rainy season. The implications of infection and reactivity of these zoonotic pathogens in D. virginiana in the Yucatan state are briefly discussed. PMID:12219118

  1. The opossum Didelphis virginiana as a synanthropic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Dzidzilché, Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo A; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-07-01

    In México, the role of mammals in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is poorly known. In the State of Yucatán, an endemic area of Chagas disease, both Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis occur sympatrically. However, until now, only the former species had been found infected with T. cruzi. To evaluate the role of D. virginiana in a peridomestic transmission, nine periods of capture-recapture were performed around the village of Dzidzilché, Yucatán. The sex, age, reproductive status, location, and presence of infection with T. cruzi were recorded for each opossum. The chromosome morphology was used to identify the opossum species. T. cruzi was identified by the presence of pseudocysts of amastigotes in cardiac muscle fibers of Balb/c mice inoculated with strains isolated from opossums. However, xenodiagnosis was the best diagnostic method. Triatoma dimidiata, the vector, were collected in and around the opossums' nests, and human dwellings; and were checked for T. cruzi. From 102 blood samples of D. virginiana examined 55 (53.9%) were positive to T. cruzi, the only two D. marsupialis captured were negative. Significant differences were found between infection, and both sex and reproductive condition. Eight out of 14 triatomines collected in peridomestic nests (57.1%), and 32 of 197 captured inside houses (16.3%) were found infected, suggesting a peridomestic transmission. The statistically high abundance of infected opossums and triatomines during the dry season (March to May) suggested the existence of a seasonality in the peridomestic transmission of T. cruzi in Dzidzilché. PMID:12219121

  2. Isolation of a third species of Sarcocystis in immunodeficient mice fed feces from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were found to be hosts for 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula with an avian intermediate host, S. neurona with an undetermined intermediate host, and a third, unnamed, species. Sporocysts from the intestines of 2 opossums (nos. 26 and 47) were fed to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), nude mice, and gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. Sporocysts of S. falcatula were not infective to nude or KO mice. Sporocysts of S. neurona induced encephalitis in KO and nude mice; only schizonts and merozoites were found in tissues of mice, and they reacted with anti-S. neurona serum raised against the SN-2 isolate of S. neurona originally obtained from tissues of a paralyzed horse. All 3 species of Sarcocystis were present in opossum no. 47. Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in cell culture from this opossum. Sporocysts from opossum no. 47 were lethal to budgerigars, indicating S. falcatula infection. Only 1 species of Sarcocystis (the third species) was found in opossum no. 26; the sporocysts were infective to KO and nude mice. Schizonts and merozoites of this species were predominantly in the liver but were also found in other tissues; schizonts did not react with anti-S. neurona serum. Merozoites of the third species were ultrastructurally distinct from S. falcatula and S. neurona merozoites. Sarcocysts were found in leg muscles of 2 mice killed 50 and 54 days after they were fed sporocysts from opossum no. 26. These sarcocysts had steeple-shaped protrusions on the cyst wall and were distinct from sarcocysts of S. falcatula and any other species of Sarcocystis. PMID:9920306

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively. PMID:21158620

  4. Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    PubMed

    Martin, G F; Terman, J R; Wang, X M

    2000-11-15

    Opossums are born in an immature, fetal-like state, making it possible to lesion their spinal cord early in development without intrauterine surgery. When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is transected on postnatal day 5, and injections of Fast Blue (FB) are made caudal to the lesion site 30-40 days or 6 months later, neurons are labeled in all of the spinal and supraspinal areas that are labeled after comparable injections in age-matched, unlesioned controls. Double-labeling studies document that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of axons through the lesion site and behavioral studies show that animals lesioned on postnatal day 5 use their hindlimbs in normal appearing locomotion as adults. The critical period for developmental plasticity of descending spinal axons extends to postnatal day 26, although axons which grow through the lesion site become fewer in number and more restricted as to origin with increasing age. Animals lesioned between postnatal day 12 and 26 use the hindlimbs better than animals lesioned as adults, but hindlimb function is markedly abnormal and uncoordinated with that of the forelimbs. We conclude that restoration of anatomical continuity occurs after transection of the spinal cord in developing opossums, that descending axons grow through the lesion site, that regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth, and that animals lesioned early enough in development have relatively normal motor function as adults. PMID:11165803

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  6. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  7. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E. )

    1990-06-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of (G-{sup 3}H) hypoxanthine (Hy) into ({sup 3}H) labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate ({sup 3}H) ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation.

  8. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  9. Relationships among Sarcocystis species transmitted by New World opossums (Didelphis spp.).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, B M; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

    2001-02-26

    At least three species of Sarcocystis (S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. speeri) have recently been shown to use opossums of the genus Didelphis as their definitive host. In order to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among Sarcocystis spp. isolates from the Americas, and to determine whether organisms representing the same parasite lineages are transmitted north and south of the Panamanian isthmus, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships from nucleotide sequence variation in parasites isolated from three opossum species (D. virginiana, D. albiventris, D. marsupialis). In particular, we used variation in the 25/396 marker to compare several isolates from Brazil, Argentina, and the United States to each other and to cloned S. neurona and S. falcatula whose morphology and host affinities have been defined in the laboratory. S. neurona was identified from a Brazilian D. albiventris, as well as from North American D. virginiana. Parasites resembling the Cornell isolate of S. falcatula are transmitted both south and north of the Panamanian isthmus by D. albiventris and D. virginiana, respectively. Distinct attributes at two genetic loci differentiated a Brazilian isolate of S. falcatula from all other known parasite lineages. We confirm S. neurona as the causative agent of recently reported neurologic disease in Southern sea otters, Enhydra lutris nereis. And we found that S. speeri could not be compared to the other opossum-derived Sarcocystis isolates on the basis of nucleotide variation at the 25/396 locus. The widespread distribution of certain species of Sarcocystis may derive from their ability to parasitize migratory bird hosts in their intermediate stage. PMID:11223194

  10. Natural resistance of opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) to the mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Pifano, F; Aguilar, I; Giron, M E; Gamboa, N; Rodriguez-Acosta, A

    1993-01-01

    The inactivation of local and general effects of the Mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) venom by Opossum's (Didelphis marsupialis) serum fractions was tested using an in vivo assay and an in vitro preincubation experiment. A serum fraction of the Opossum serum has been obtained by immunochemical purification. It is only present in opossum's protective opossum serum fraction (F-0.1). PMID:8186456

  11. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  12. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; RUIZ-PIÑA, Hugo A.; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; DZUL-ROSADO, Karla; ZAVALA-CASTRO, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  13. The laminar structure of the common opossum masseter (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Deguchi, T; Takemura, A; Suwa, F

    2001-03-01

    Using three heads of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), which may be considered to have a primitive mammalian form and therefore be appropriate for this study, the laminar structure of the masseter was investigated. We also attempted a comparative anatomical study of the relationships of food habits to the laminar structures of the masseter, zygomatic arch and mandibular ramus. In the common opossum masseter, a total of six layers, the primary and secondary sublayers of the superficial layer, the intermediate layer, and the primary, secondary and third sublayers of the deep layer as a proper masseter, were observed. These layers showed a typical reverse laminar structure, with the layers of tendons and muscles alternating. The maxillomandibularis and zygomaticomandibularis muscles were observed in one layer each, as an improper masseter. The laminar structure of the common opossum masseter was shown to be more similar to that of carnivorous placental animals than that of the herbivorous red kangaroo, a similar marsupial. In regard to the number of layers in the laminar structure of the masseter, the results of both this study and those of our predecessors' showed that differences in food habits affect the deep layer in the proper masseter of marsupials and placental mammals, and that of the maxillomandibularis muscle of placental mammals in the improper masseter. PMID:11392012

  14. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barretto, O C de O; Oshiro, M; Oliveira, R A G; Fedullo, J D L; Nonoyama, K

    2006-05-01

    In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 +/- 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 +/- 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH) in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa). The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 microM) for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 microM) were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively). A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate. PMID:16648898

  15. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  16. Detection of an antibothropic fraction in opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) milk that neutralizes Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, P B; Neves-Ferreira, A G; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    1999-01-01

    An antibothropic fraction (ABF) from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum) serum, which is responsible for the neutralization of Bothrops jararaca venom was isolated by Perales et al. [Perales, J., Moussatché, H., Marangoni, S., Oliveira, B. and Domont, G. B. (1994). Isolation and partial characterization of an antibothropic complex from the serum of South American Didelphidae. Toxicon 32, 1237-1249]. The aim of this work was to verify the presence of this factor in opossum's milk, which could represent an additional protection for the neonatal opossum against bothropic venoms. An active milk fraction was isolated and showed similar physicochemical, structural, antigenic and biological properties when compared to ABF, indicating that they are probably the same protein. PMID:9920488

  17. Isolation of Sarcocystis falcatula from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Venturini, L; Venturini, C; Basso, W; Unzaga, J

    1999-10-15

    Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of four opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina were identified as Sarcocystis falcatula based on schizogonic stages and pathogenicity to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Seven budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum feces died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14 days after inoculation. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs and other organs of the budgerigars were identified as S. falcatula based on structure and immunoreactivity with S. falcatula-specific antibody. Sarcocystis falcatula was also isolated in bovine monocyte cell cultures inoculated with lung tissue from a budgerigar that died nine days after ingesting sporocysts. Two budgerigars inoculated subcutaneously with 1,000,000 culture-derived S. falcatula died 11 and 12 days post-inoculation. This is the first report of S. falcatula infection in South America. PMID:10536981

  18. Characterization of Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from the Argentinian opossum, Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Venturini, L; Venturini, C

    2000-01-01

    Two isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula were obtained from the lungs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from two naturally-infected South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris). The two isolates were designated SF-1A and SF-2A. Both isolates induced fatal infections in budgerigars. Both isolates underwent schizogony in African green monkey kidney cells. The structure of schizonts in the lungs of budgerigars was more variable than that observed in cell culture. The two isolates were identified as S. falcatula by the two species-specific Hinf 1 restriction fragments dervied from digestion of a PCR amplification using primers JNB33/JNB54. Thus, the South American opossum, D. albiventris, is a definitive host for S. falcatula. PMID:10847342

  19. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata.

    PubMed

    Tasca, T; De Carli, G A; Glock, L; Jeckel-Neto, E A

    2001-02-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927) Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described. PMID:11285508

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

    2012-10-01

    We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

  1. Sarcocystis lindsayi-like (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystinae) of the opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stabenow, Cristiane S; De Oliveira, Francisco C R; Albuquerque, George R; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2008-09-01

    Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were obtained from intestinal scrapings of three out of five opossums (Didelphis aurita) trapped in the southeastern region, of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifteen caged budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) received, orally, twenty-six sporocysts in 500 mL PBS, but only five belonging to one of the groups developed clinical signs, that consisted of anorexia, lethargy, ruffled feathers and dyspnoea, and parasitism in tissues. Two of the five budgerigars died on the 25th and 29th days after infection (DAI). The other three budgerigars were posted on the 30th DAI. In all the five infected birds were observed meronts in the capillaries of the lungs and cysts in muscles, mainly in the tongue and legs. PMID:20059875

  2. Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M; Speer, C A

    2001-01-01

    A new species, Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp., is proposed for a parasite resembling Sarcocystis falcatula. It was obtained from the lungs and muscles of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from a naturally-infected South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Jaboticabal, Brazil. Sarcocysts of S. lindsayi n. sp. in budgerigars are microscopic, up to 600 microm long and up to 50 microm wide. The cyst wall is up to 2 microm thick. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall consists of numerous slender villar protrusions (up to 2.0 microm long and up to 0.3 microm wide), each with a stylet at its tip. Schizonts in cell culture divide by endopolygeny leaving a residual body. Sporocysts are approximately 12 x 7 microm. The parasite is genetically distinct from other organisms that also cycle between opossums and avian species and resemble S. falcatula. Diagnostic genetic variation has been observed in the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), and each of two other genetic loci. Although the structure of the sarcocyst wall may not provide sufficient grounds for differential diagnosis, several other attributes including schizont morphology and genetic variation at each of these genetic loci permit identification of S. lindsayi n. sp.. Natural intermediate hosts for S. lindsayi n. sp. are not known, and fuller characterization of these and other Sarcocystis species would benefit from experimental avian hosts that are more permissive to the maturation of sarcocysts. PMID:11596925

  3. Heterogeneous patterns of oligodendroglial differentiation in the forebrain of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barradas, P C; Gomes, S S; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-01-01

    The differentiation of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) has been studied by the immunohistochemical identification of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and by the autoradiographic detection of the uptake of 3H-thymidine. CNPase is expressed early in oligodendroglia somata and fibre sheaths (myelin) in the forebrain and its persistence in the cell bodies is regionally heterogeneous, being ephemeral in cells within the optic pathway, supraoptic decussation, and posterior commissure, of intermediate duration in the mamillo-thalamic fascicle, and stria medullaris, and long-lasting in other diencephalic and in telencephalic tracts. In the cerebral cortex, most CNPase+ cells have small somata and multiple processes (types I and II). CNPase-expressing oligodendrocytes are also regionally heterogeneous in terms of proliferative capability, which could not be detected in forebrain tracts or diencephalon, but has appeared in a small proportion of cells in the neocortical white matter and in the fimbria. Our findings provide additional evidence in favour of the heterogeneity of oligodendrocytes. PMID:9530996

  4. Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Kerber, C E; Kasai, N; Pena, H F; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Gennari, S M

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums were characterized based on biological and morphological criteria. Sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of 1 Didelphis marsupialis and 8 Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil, were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Budgerigars fed sporocysts from all 9 isolates became ill and S. falcatula-like schizonts were identified in sections of their lungs by immunohistochemical staining. Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms were cultured from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from D. marsupialis and from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from 3 of 8 D. albiventris. The 33/54 locus amplified by polymerase chain reaction from culture-derived merozoites contained both a HinfI endonuclease recognition site previously suggested to diagnose S. falcatula and a DraI site thought to diagnosed S. neurona. Development of the isolate from D. marsupialis was studied in cell culture; its schizonts divided by endopolygeny, leaving a residual body. Morphological and genetic variation differentiated this Sarcocystis isolate originating in D. marsupialis from the Cornell I isolate of S. falcatula. This is the first report of a S. falcatula infection in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis. PMID:11780836

  5. Morphologic characterization and distribution of endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Soares, Ítalo Augusto da Costa; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the morphology and distribution of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of the opossum D. aurita were collected, processed, and submitted for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The tunics of the large intestine of D. aurita presented morphological characteristics that have already been described for eutherian mammals. The morphometric data showed that the inner circular layer of all portions and regions analyzed is thicker relative to the longitudinal layer, and these layers in the rectum are thicker compared to the cecum and ascending colon. The majority of mucus-secreting cells have acid and neutral mucins, suggesting that the production of mucus is mixed. The number of these cells increases in the region of the cecum toward the rectum. Important findings include the occurrence of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in all segments of the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the presence of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). PMID:23810437

  6. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  7. Characterization of an unidentified Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rezende, P C; Costa, A J

    2000-01-01

    An unidentified isolate of a Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite was obtained from the lungs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from a naturally-infected South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil. Four captive budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum intestine died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 10, and 12 days after oral inoculation (DAI); one budgerigar was killed 12 DAI when it was lethargic. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs of the budgerigars reacted mildly with polyclonal S. falcatula antibody. The parasite was isolated in equine kidney cell cultures inoculated with lung tissue from a budgerigar that was killed 12 DAI. Two budgerigars inoculated subcutaneously with 100,000 culture-derived S. falcatula merozoites developed acute sarcocystosis and S. falcatula-like schizonts were found in their lungs 15 and 16 DAI. Four budgerigars kept as unfed controls in the same environment remained free of Sarcocystis infection. The parasite underwent schizogony in African green monkey kidney cells and bovine turbinate cells. Merozoites divided by endopolygeny, often leaving a residual body. Polymerase chain reaction studies using primers JNB33/JNB54 and Hinf I and Dra I digestion indicated that the isolate was not S. falcatula. Results of this study indicated that the South American opossum, D. albiventris, is a definitive host for yet another S. falcatula-like parasite. PMID:11128705

  8. Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

  9. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-01

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:27276663

  10. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria marmosopos (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Duszynski, Donald

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous life cycle of Eimeria marmosopos was studied in experimentally infected young opossums, Didelphis marsupialis . All the endogenous stages were located in the epithelial cells of villi in the small intestine. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were studied for the diagnosis of all the life cycle stages. Eimeria marmosopos has 3 generations of meronts (M) that differ by size, shape, and number of merozoites (m), which also differ in their size, shape, and location of their nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M(1)-M(3), respectively, had 8-15 (m(1)), 4-9 (m(2)), and 22-30 (m(3)) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, completed the sexual cycle, finishing with the formation of unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected opossums. There are 56 Eimeria species known from all marsupials worldwide, but this is the first complete life cycle in which both the asexual and sexual stages have been documented. PMID:25807059

  11. Humoral immune response kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis infected and immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi employing an immunofluorescence antibody test.

    PubMed

    Legey, A P; Pinho, A P; Chagas Xavier, S C; Leon, L L; Jansen, A M

    1999-01-01

    Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1) IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2) both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3) experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4) the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi. PMID:10348985

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the lingual papillae of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials. PMID:16079016

  14. Experimental infection of opossums Didelphis aurita by Rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks Amblyomma cajennense.

    PubMed

    Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Casagrande, Renata A; Saito, Tais B; Rosa, Simone C; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Matushima, Eliana R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of opossums (Didelphis aurita) by Rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of R. rickettsii to Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Three groups of opossums were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (G1) was inoculated intraperitoneally with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and group 3 (G3) was the uninfected control group. Opossum rectal temperature was measured daily. Blood samples were collected every 2 to 4 days during 30 days, and used to (1) inoculate guinea pigs intraperitoneally; (2) extract DNA followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the rickettsial gene gltA; (3) study hematology; (4) detect R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 30 to 180, to be tested by serology. Opossums were infested by uninfected A. cajennense larvae and nymphs from days 3 to 15. Engorged ticks were collected and allowed to molt in an incubator. Thereafter, the subsequent flat ticks were allowed to feed on uninfected rabbits, which were tested for seroconversion by IFA. Samples of flat ticks were also tested by real-time PCR. All G1 and G2 opossums became infected by R. rickettsii, as demonstrated by realtime PCR or/and guinea pig inoculation, but they showed no clinical abnormality. Rickettsemia was first detected at days 2 to 8, lasting intermittently till days 1 to 30. Approximately 18% and 5% of the flat ticks previously fed on G1 and G2 opossums, respectively, became infected by R. rickettsii, but only the rabbits infested with G1-derived ticks seroconverted. The study demonstrated that R. rickettsii was capable of infecting opossums without causing illness and developing rickettsemia capable of causing infection in guinea pigs and ticks, although the infection rate in ticks was low. PMID:18945194

  15. Inhibition of the hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni) venom by opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum: isolation of Didelphis marsupialis 0.15Dm fraction on DEAE-cellulose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pineda, María E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Sánchez, Elda E; Aguilar, Irma; Fernandez, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Scannone, Héctor; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed the ability of sera from several mammals to neutralize the toxic effects of snake venom. The Venezuelan opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) is one that has been found to inhibit hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of venoms from many species of snakes. In this article it is shown that the opossum sera and its 0.15DM fraction were able to completely neutralize both hemorrhagic and hydrolysis (proteolysis) of casein effects induced by venom of the Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni). We have used DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography to collect protein fractions from D. marsupialis sera which were able to defend mice from the lethal effects of P.l. hutmanni venom. The fractions separated were homogeneous by conventional electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE. The protein bands obtained contained molecular weights of approximately 6 to 220 kDa. These results revealed the presence of proteases inhibitors in the opossum sera fractions and the inhibition of venom activity by opossum sera suggesting a reciprocal adaptation at the molecular level. PMID:18800269

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yai, L E O; Cañon-Franco, W A; Geraldi, V C; Summa, M E L; Camargo, M C G O; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 396 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (IFAT, approximately 1:25) to N. caninum were found in 84 opossums (D. marsupialis) in titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 17, and 1:400 in 1. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the IFAT. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, approximately 1:25) were found in 82 (20.4%) of the 396 opossums, in titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 26, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 13, and 1:800 in 1. The IFAT antibodies to T. gondii were found in 148 of 396 opossums, in titers of 1:16 in 41, 1:32 in 23, 1:64 in 13, 1:128 in 6, 1:256 in 20, 1:512 in 17, 1:1,024 in 10, 1:2,048 in 10, 1:4,096 in 7, and 1:8,192 in 1. This is the first report of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in D. marsupialis. PMID:14533710

  17. Synaptogenesis in retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Correa-Gillieron, E M; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-08-01

    The maturation of the neuropil and synapse formation were examined in the retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus (SCr-r) in the opossum from a period prior to the onset of arborization of retinocollicular fibers (postnatal day 22 - P22), at 44% of the coecal period (CP), to the end of the fast phase of optic fiber myelination and weaning time (P81 - 118% CP). Development of the SCr-r neuropil follows a protracted time course and can be divided into three broad stages, which are characterized by (I) Large extracellular spaces, numerous growth cones that participate rarely in synaptic junctions, vesicles-poor immature synapses (P22-P30), (II) Synapses of varied morphology with abundant synaptic vesicles, and small terminals with dark mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles (RSD terminals) synapsing mostly onto dendritic shafts, flat-vesicles (F) terminals (P40-P56), (III) Sequential appearance of retinal (R) and pleomorphic-vesicles (P) terminals and of RSD terminals synapsing onto spine or spine-like processes, appearance of glomerulus-like synaptic arrays (synaptic islets) (P61-P81). The advancement of synaptogenesis in SCr-r from stage I to II and from stage II to III correlates closely with the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, respectively. PMID:10529520

  18. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Schallig, Henk D F H; da Silva, Eduardo S; van der Meide, Wendy F; Schoone, Gerard J; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, an important focus of human leishmaniasis in Brazil, is reported. All animals were serologically tested with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination tests (DAT) based on L. (L.) donovani or L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. A sub-population (n = 20) was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. For species identification, PCR-positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Depending on the sero-diagnostic test employed, the sero-prevalence varied between 8.1% (9/111 animals positive with DAT test based on L. braziliensis antigen) and 21.6% (24/111 animals positive with IFAT). Five out of 20 samples analyzed with PCR tested positive for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. RFLP analysis revealed that two samples contained L. braziliensis complex DNA, one contained L. donovani complex DNA, and two samples could not be typed with the methodology used. These data suggest a potential role for the opossum as a reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the region. PMID:17767408

  19. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  20. Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) from the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis from Mexico, the first proteocephalidean tapeworm from a mammal.

    PubMed

    Cañeda-Guzmán, I C; de Chambrier, A; Scholz, T

    2001-06-01

    Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis L. (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new genus differs from all proteocephalidean genera in the morphology of the scolex that is formed by 4 well separated lobes each containing 1 noncircular sucker opening laterally inside the exterolateral cavity, a large-sized body (length up to 1 m), a large number of testes, the shape of gravid proglottids that are inversely craspedote (the anterior border of a proglottid overlaps the posterior border of a preceding proglottid), eggs in groups mostly of 4-6 eggs each, and an embryophore bearing digitiform projections on its external surface. This is the first tapeworm of the Proteocephalidea, the members of which were previously reported exclusively from poikilotherm vertebrates (freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles), found in a homoiotherm vertebrate. PMID:11426729

  1. New methodology for the obtainment of antibothropic factors from the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and jararaca snake (Bothrops jararaca).

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Valente, R H; Sá, P G; Rocha, S L; Moussatché, H; Domont, G B; Perales, J

    1999-10-01

    The antibothropic factor (ABF) from D. marsupialis was collected from perforated hollow plastic golf balls which were surgically implanted subcutaneously in anesthetized opossums, a technique originally described for the production of polyclonal antibodies. Two months after the implantation of the balls, approximately 15 ml of seromatous fluid from D. marsupialis (SFDm-50 mg total protein/ml) could be recovered monthly. Opossum serum as well as SFDm showed similar SDS-PAGE profiles and antihemorrhagic potencies against Bothrops jararaca snake venom (Bjv). The presence of ABF in SFDm was confirmed by immunoblotting, using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against ABF isolated from opossum serum. ABF isolated from SFDm or from serum by ion-exchange chromatography showed identical chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles. ABF fromboth sources displayed very similar antihemorrhagic and anticaseinolytic activities against Bjv. In the case of B. jararaca, polyethylene perforated tubes were inserted in the abdominal cavity and two months after implantation, approximately 4 ml of seromatous fluid from B. jararaca (SFBj-23 mg total protein/ml) were recovered. B.jararaca serum and SFBj showed the same native and SDS-PAGE band pattern. Both serum and SFBj inhibited Bjv hemorrhagic activity. We conclude that this new methodology is very suitable for continuously obtaining opossum ABF and SFBj, in large scale and in an easier way, avoiding animal suffering and eventual sacrifice. PMID:10414866

  2. Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. PMID:24359801

  3. Inhibition of the hyperalgesic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S L; Frutuoso, V S; Domont, G B; Martins, M A; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    2000-06-01

    The antibothropic fraction (ABF) already isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum, inhibits the haemorrhagic, oedematogenic, myonecrotic and lethal activities of Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv). The aim of this work was to verify the capability of ABF to inhibit the hyperalgesic activity of Bjv. Intraplantar injection of Bjv induced hyperalgesia in a time- and dose-dependent manner and ABF administered in situ concomitantly with Bjv or i.v. 30 min before venom injection reduced the induced hyperalgesia. This same effect was observed when ABF was intravenously injected at 5 and 15 min after Bjv. Our results show that ABF inhibits also the hyperalgesia induced by Bjv. PMID:10695972

  4. Neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Perales, J; Amorim, C Z; Rocha, S L; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H

    1992-11-01

    The pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BJV) has been studied. Intraplantar injection of BJV (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. BJV heated at 100 degrees C for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. The BJV oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, the inhibitor of histamine and serotonin, cyproheptadine, PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2170 or by the anti-leukotrienes C4/D4, LY 171883. Dexamethasone, aspirin, indomethacin, and the dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor BW 755C inhibited BJV-induced oedema indicating that arachidonic acid metabolism products via the cyclooxygenase pathway participate in its genesis and/or maintenance. The antibothropic fraction (ABF) (25-200 micrograms/paw) isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum neutralized the oedema induced by the venom with and without heating, the hemorrhage induced by BJV and partially blocked the oedema induced by bradykinin and by cellulose sulphate. The oedema produced by histamine, serotonin, PAF-acether or leukotriene C4 was not inhibited. PMID:1295374

  5. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. PMID:22712460

  6. [Amyloidosis in infected Didelphis marsupialis].

    PubMed

    Roa, Diana Milena; Sarmiento, Ladys; Rodríguez, Gerzaín

    2002-09-01

    A male opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, captured in Teruel (Huila), Colombia, was inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of Leishmania chagasi (MHOM/CO/84/CL044B). The animal died 5 weeks after inoculation. Autopsy revealed signs of visceral leishmaniasis along with amastigote parasite form in Kupffer cells and spleen macrophages. Amyloid deposits in liver and spleen were demonstrated by histological staining and electron microscopy. The rapid death was considered a consequence of a secondary, reactive amyloidosis. PMID:12404923

  7. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan Dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  8. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  9. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

    SciTech Connect

    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  10. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detecta...

  11. Imprinting of opossum Igf2r in the absence of differential methylation and air.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jennifer R; Dolinoy, Dana C; Maloney, Kristin A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Jirtle, Randy L

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic comparison of extant mammals with divergent imprint status is a powerful method for identifying critical components of imprint regulation at individual loci. The entire genomic region of Igf2r in the imprinted marsupials, Didelphis virginiana and Monodelphis domestica, and the non-imprinted monotreme, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, was isolated and sequenced. Genetic and epigenetic comparisons of over 160 kb of sequence were then performed in five distinct mammalian species. Surprisingly, opossum Igf2r is imprinted and maternally expressed despite the absence of the intron 2 CpG island (CpG2), antisense Igf2r RNA (Air) and differential methylation of the promoter (CpG1) required for imprinting of this gene in mice. These findings demonstrate that the genomic elements necessary for imprinted Igf2r expression in eutherians are not required for imprinting of this locus in metatherians. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms of Igf2r imprinting did not evolve convergently within the Therian subclass of mammals. PMID:17998818

  12. X-Linked Gene Expression in the Virginia Opossum: Differences between the Paternally Derived Gpd and Pgk-A Loci

    PubMed Central

    Samollow, Paul B.; Ford, Allen L.; VandeBerg, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells (i.e., partial paternal allele expression). The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgk-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes. The data establish the similarity between the American and Australian marsupial patterns of X-linked gene regulation and, thus, support the hypothesis that this form of dosage compensation was present in the early marsupial lineage that gave rise to these modern marsupial divisions. In addition, the data provide the first documentation of the differential expression of two X

  13. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed. PMID:25517533

  14. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: S. falcatula, S. neurona, and S. speeri. It appears that there may be additional undescribed species of Sarcocystis in D. virginiana feces. The South American opossums (D. albive...

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  16. Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 μm in length and 14.0 to 29.4 μm in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 μm in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

  17. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  18. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A.; Maia, Paula F.; Magalhães, Arthur R.; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother–pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  19. Morphological study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2007-05-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine of opossums Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis albiventris, and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The isolate used in this study was from L. crassicaudata and it was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy showed the fine morphological features of the trophozoites: the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the axostyle and posterior flagellum. In addition, we described spherical forms that are probably pseudocysts. Our data will contribute to a better understanding of surface structures in T. didelphidis. PMID:17252276

  20. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  1. Plant Tissue Cultures of Juniperus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Jirina; Cvak, Ladislav; Siatka, Tomáš; Martin, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Callus cultures of Juniperus virginiana L. (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from fresh leaves of garden-grown trees on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The growth characteristics of one-year-old and two-years-old cultures were determined. The maximum biomass in all varieties was achieved on the 35th day of the cultivation period. The increase in fresh weights of two-years-old callus cultures, when compared with one-year-old callus cultures, was as follows: variety 'Hetzii' by 25%, variety 'Glauca' by 29% and variety 'Grey Owl' by 49%. J. virginiana suspension cultures (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from two-years-old callus cultures on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The maximum biomass of all varieties was found on the 21st day of the cultivation period. These results indicate that a sub-cultivation interval of 35 days for callus cultures and of 21st days for suspension cultures can be recommended. The callus and suspension cultures of J. virginiana of the variety 'Glauca' have the best survivability and thus provide the most biomass. PMID:27319150

  2. Nitric oxide synthase expression in the opossum superior colliculus: a histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giraldi-Guimarães, A; Tenório, F; Brüning, G; Mayer, B; Mendez-Otero, R; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-12-01

    The expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis was studied by NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry. In addition, the activity of nNOS was quantified by measurement of [(3)H]-L-arginine conversion to [(3)H]-L-citrulline in tissue extracts from SC superficial layers in opossums and rats. Our results show that the number of NADPH-d stained cells was small and virtually identical in stratum opticum (SO) and stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) and their staining was very light, particularly in SGS. Neuropil staining was heavier in the stratum zonale (SZ) than in SGS or SO. The intermediate and deep layers contained heavily stained cells and moderate neuropil staining. Surprisingly, nNOS-immunoreactive cells were far more numerous than NADPH-d+ cells in every layer. The production of [(3)H]-L-citrulline from [(3)H]-L-arginine in tissue extracts enriched in superficial layers indicated that nNOS specific activity is as high in the opossum as in the rat. Our results suggest that the location of nNOS-expressing neurons in retino-receptive layers may be related to inter-specific differences in the processing of visual information. PMID:10681601

  3. Growth kinetic study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata and interaction with a prokaryotic cell.

    PubMed

    Tasca, T; DeCarli, G A

    2001-08-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum and colon of opossums, Didelphis marsupialis. This work reports the occurrence of T. didelphidis in another opossum species, Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strain was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The growth kinetic study of T. didelphidis showed a longer time of growth and a higher number of trophozoites when inoculated with E. coli than in axenic cultures, in aerobiosis as well as under anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacteria adhered throughout the protozoan body and probably evoked endocytic channels, strongly suggesting the existence of endocytosis of rods by T. didelphidis. Our preliminary results suggest that the in vitro culture of T. didelphidis depends on E. coli as a growth-promoting partner, and requires monoxenic cultivation. PMID:11510998

  4. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  5. Reconstruction of the Strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, Using Native Genotypes of F. virginiana and F. chiloensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm base of strawberries is restricted. The major cultivated strawberry species, Fragaria ananassa, originated about 250 years ago when South American F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis forma chiloensis and North American F. virginiana subsp. virginiana accidentally hybridized in European ga...

  6. Successful laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage in uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Ades, Alex; Hong, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of uterus didelphys is around 3/10,000 women. It is a class III Müllerian duct anomaly resulting from a complete non-fusion of the paired Müllerian ducts between the 12th and 16th weeks of gestation. Although the prevalence of cervical insufficiency in women with uterus didelphys is unknown, the incidence of cervical insufficiency in women with Müllerian anomalies has been reported as high as 30%. We present a case of successful pregnancy outcome following a laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage in a woman with uterus didelphys and cervical insufficiency. The case demonstrates that laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage can be performed successfully in women with uterus didelphys and a satisfactory obstetric outcome can be achieved. PMID:26578507

  7. The opossum MHC genomic region revisited.

    PubMed

    Krasnec, Katina V; Sharp, Alana R; Williams, Tracey L; Miller, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is one of the few marsupial species for which a high quality whole genome sequence is available and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been annotated. Previous analyses revealed only a single locus within the opossum MHC region, designated Modo-UA1, with the features expected for encoding a functionally classical class I α-chain. Nine other class I genes found within the MHC are highly divergent and have features usually associated with non-classical roles. The original annotation, however, was based on an early version of the opossum genome assembly. More recent analyses of allelic variation in individual opossums revealed too many Modo-UA1 sequences per individual to be accounted for by a single MHC class I locus found in the genome assembly. A reanalysis of a later generation assembly, MonDom5, revealed the presence of two additional loci, now designated Modo-UA3 and UA4, in a region that was expanded and more complete than in the earlier assembly. Modo-UA1, UA3, and UA4 are all transcribed, although Modo-UA4 transcripts are rarer. Modo-UA4 is also relatively non-polymorphic. Evidence presented support the accuracy of the later assembly and the existence of three related class I genes in the opossum, making opossums more typical of mammals and most tetrapods by having multiple apparent classical MHC class I loci. PMID:25737310

  8. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis. PMID:20090034

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi in the scent glands of Didelphis marsupialis: the kinetics of colonization.

    PubMed

    Carreira, J C; Jansen, A M; de Nazareth Meirelles, M; Costa e Silva, F; Lenzi, H L

    2001-03-01

    This study examined the dynamics of colonization of Trypanosoma cruzi in the scent glands of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis following direct inoculation with 10(5) epimastigotes of isolate G-49 (an opossum-derived strain). One, three, and five days, 1 month, and 1 year after inoculation, scent glands were fixed for analysis using brightfield and electron microscopies. One day after inoculation the parasites, mainly as epimastigotes, were randomly distributed into the lumen. From the third day on, the parasites still in the form of epimastigotes tended to concentrate closer to the epithelium. The flagellates reached the definitive distribution pattern on the fifth day, when they formed huge clusters deep into the foveae. In samples collected 1 month and 1 year after inoculation, the ratio of epimastigotes:trypomastigotes was 1:1, with epimastigotes predominating near the epithelium and trypomastigotes far from it. Our observations suggest that T. cruzi grows continuously in the scent glands and does not depend on adhesion to promote metacyclogenesis. Metacyclogenesis far from the epithelium seems to be an important selective advantage to both host and parasite, since it assures the elimination of the infective forms of the parasite when the host expels the glands' contents, which occurs in frightening situations or at times of stress. The morphological characteristics of infected and noninfected scent glands using transmission and scanning electron microscopies were also described. PMID:11312575

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-06-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  11. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  12. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

  13. Estimating eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) biomass using satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L), is an aggressively spreading native species in Oklahoma grasslands, which decreases rangeland productivity and land value, increases fire hazard, and has been implicated in reducing stream flow and ground water recharge. Companies are considering large inv...

  14. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoitia darlingi and B. neotomofelis are tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and southern planes woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the preva...

  15. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) as a new natural intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive hos...

  16. Isolation and characterization of DM40 and DM43, two snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Cardinale, N; Rocha, S L; Perales, J; Domont, G B

    2000-05-01

    From Didelphis marsupialis serum, two antihemorrhagic proteins were isolated by DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl-Sepharose and Superdex 200 and characterized. Their masses by mass spectrometry were 40318 AMU for DM40 and 42373 and 43010 AMU for DM43, indicating the presence of isoforms for the last. Molecular masses of 44.8 and 47.3 were obtained by SDS-PAGE, respectively for DM40 and DM43. Both inhibitors showed isoelectric points lower than 3.5 and glycosylation percentages varying from 20.5 to 29.0%, as estimated by chemical deglycosylation and amino acid analysis. N-terminal sequences of the first 17 residues of DM40 and DM43 were identical except for the exchange of R9 for P9. Both were homologous to oprin, a similar inhibitor from Didelphis virginiana serum. No evidence of complex formation between DM40 and DM43 was observed either by native PAGE or gel filtration chromatography. In addition to the antihemorrhagic activity, DM40 and DM43 inhibited the hydrolysis of casein, fibrinogen and fibronectin by Bothrops jararaca venom. DM43 also showed antilethal, antiedematogenic and antihyperalgesic activities. None of the inhibitors showed enzymatic activity on casein. Both proteins formed stable complexes with jararhagin and inhibited its hemorrhagic effect as well as the enzymatic activity of this toxin on fluorogenic substrate. PMID:10779682

  17. Isolation and characterization of a bactericidal withanolide from Physalis virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kathleen A.; Reese, R. Neil; Halaweish, Fathi T.; Ren, Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physalis virginiana (Virginia Groundcherry) is a member of the family Solenaceae. Several species of the Physalis genus have been used traditionally by American Indians as medicinal treatments. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the antibacterial activity of chemicals extracted from P. virginiana through antibacterial disc and cytotoxicity assays. Isolation and purification of an antimicrobial compound was achieved through flash chromatography and preparative HPLC. Finally, identification of chemical structure was determined from 1H and 13C NMR and MS. Results: Disc assays showed that crude ethanol extracts were effective antibacterial agents against one gram-negative and seven gram-positive bacterial strains. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that it is less toxic than gentamicin controls. Isolation of the active component showed it to be a relatively polar compound. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts together with HRMS indicated a similar structure to withanolides previously identified from Physalis angulata. HRMS analysis showed a molecular mass of 472.2857 which corresponds to a molecular formula C28H40O6. Conclusion: An antibacterial withanolide was isolated from P. virginiana using flash chromatography and HPLC separations. The chemical structure was determined by NMR and MS to be the withanolide physagulin V. PMID:22438659

  18. Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?

    PubMed

    Narciso, M S; Hokoç, J N; Martinez, A M

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of Wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. Right optic nerves of opossums Didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. The optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. Among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. Our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing" process (Griffin et al 1995). We also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. We also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations. PMID:11404785

  19. Diversity of Sarcocystis spp shed by opossums in Brazil inferred with phylogenetic analysis of DNA coding ITS1, cytochrome B, and surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Samantha Y O B; da Silva, Juliana I G; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Keid, Lara B; Zwarg, Ticiana; de Oliveira, Alice S; Sanches, Thaís C; Joppert, Adriana M; Pena, Hilda F J; Oliveira, Tricia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2016-05-01

    Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed. We found four allele variants of cytB, seven allele variants of ITS1, 10 allele variants of sag2, 13 allele variants of sag3, and 6 allele variants of sag4. None of the sporocyst-derived sequences obtained from Brazilian opossums revealed 100% identity to SN138 at cytB gene, nor to SN138 or SF1 at ITS1 locus. In addition, none of the sag alleles were found identical to either SF1 or SN138 homologous sequences, and a high number of new sag allele types were found other than those previously described in Brazil. Out of ten sag2 alleles, four are novel, while eight out of 13 sag3 alleles are novel and one out of six sag4 alleles is novel. Further studies are needed to clarify if such a vast repertoire of allele variants of Sarcocystis is the consequence of re-assortments driven by sexual exchange, in order to form individuals with highly diverse characteristics, such as pathogenicity, host spectrum, among others or if it only represents allele variants of different species with different biological traits. PMID:26905780

  20. Immunocytochemical study of the ontogeny of Peyer's patches in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, H B; Nogueira, J C; King, G; Coutinho, V B; Robalinho, T I; Amorim, A M; Cavalcanti, V M; Robins, R A; Sewell, H F

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ontogenetic immunocytochemical study is reported on gut-associated lymphoid development in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris. This employed antibody probes raised to evolutionarily conserved peptides which have been shown to detect HLA-DR-like (class II MHC) antigens and T and B cell markers in a wide range of animal species. Cells with macrophage and dendritic morphology expressing class II MHC and a few cells expressing the T cell marker CD3 were found in the lamina propria of duodenal villi in early (approximately 24 mm crown-rump length) latent opossum. Cells with B cell markers were not detected until lactent animals reached > 60 mm. Development of Peyer's patches (PP) was seen first in the duodenum in 45-60 mm lactent animals, progressing to well developed PP in the duodenum and ileum in lactent animals > 80 mm. These PP, like those in weanling and juvenile animals, consisted of follicles with a network of class II MHC positive dendritic cells and round cells lacking T and B markers, but lacking well defined mantle zones. B cells were present mainly in the lymphatic sinuses, with CD3 T cells present between follicles in the PP and intraepithelially in the villi. The study reveals the sequential development of class II MHC positive dendritic cells, T cells and B cells in the intestinal ontogeny of the opossum PP. These features occurred initially exclusively in the duodenum and subsequently in the ileum, paralleling the physiological maturation of the gut in eutheria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7961141

  1. Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R; Luby, J; Furnier, G; Hancock, J

    1997-05-01

    Relationships among 37 North American octoploid strawberry populations were studied by evaluating 44 morphological traits and 36 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both data sets were analyzed by principal components analysis and UPGMA clustering based on genetic distances. Morphological data defined five groups: east of the Missouri River (Fragaria virginiana ssp. virginiana), the Black Hills (F. virginiana ssp. virginiana and ssp. glauca), from the eastern Cascades to the eastern Rocky Mountains (F. virginiana ssp. glauca), the western Cascades and Olympic Peninsula (F. virginiana ssp. platypetala), and the Pacific coast (F. chiloensis). Canonical discriminant analysis clearly discriminated populations into these provenances, suggesting that these groups are morphologically distinct. RAPD data defined three groups, one with F. virginiana ssp. virginiana and ssp. glauca, another with F. chiloensis, and a third with F. virginiana ssp. platypetala. The latter was more similar to F. chiloensis than F. virginiana, suggesting it is likely a subspecies of F. chiloensis. All octoploid North American strawberries have likely derived from a common ancestor and have differentiated into F. chiloensis and F. virginiana by adapting to moister and drier environments, respectively. PMID:21708613

  2. PO41, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor isolated from Philander opossum serum.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, Patrícia B; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2003-11-01

    PO41 was isolated from Philander opossum serum by DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl Superose and Superdex 200 chromatographies and showed a molecular mass of 41,330 Da by MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular masses of 81.5 and 84.5 kDa were obtained by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic laser light scattering, respectively, suggesting that PO41 is dimeric. Its isoelectric point was estimated to be lower than 3.5. PO41 presented similar amino terminal sequence to those of DM40 and DM43, two antihaemorrhagins previously isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum and was recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against D. marsupialis antibothropic fraction. To study the inhibitory properties of this protein, the metalloproteinases bothrolysin and jararhagin were isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom by chromatographies on Superdex 200 and Phenyl Superose. Jararhagin was further submitted to a Mono Q column. The proteolytic and haemorrhagic effects of these haemorrhagins were neutralized by PO41. Both snake venom metalloproteinases formed stable complexes with PO41. The stoichiometry of the complex PO41-jararhagin was one inhibitor subunit to one molecule of the enzyme. These results show that PO41 has physicochemical, structural, immunoreactive and biological properties similar to other metalloproteinase inhibitors belonging to the supergene family of immunoglobulins. PMID:14602117

  3. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  4. Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala:: Plagiorhynchidae) from mammals in southeastern Mexico, first known occurrence of Porrorchis in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-02-01

    Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. is described from the intestine of the gray four-eyed opossum Philander opossum (type host), the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, the common opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and the white-nosed coati Nasua narica. Hosts were collected in southeastern Mexico in the Los Tuxtlas region of the state of Veracruz (type locality) and in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. This new species is distinguished from other Porrorchis species by its small proboscis (0.286-0.428 mm long x 0.273-0.438 mm wide), a proboscis armature consisting of 22-24 vertical rows of 7 or 8 hooks per row, and the male reproductive system extending postequatorially and occupying only half of the trunk. This is the first known occurrence of a Porrorchis species in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:12058721

  5. Functional analysis of DM64, an antimyotoxic protein with immunoglobulin-like structure from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Lomonte, Bruno; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Ho, Paulo L; Domont, Gilberto B; Gutiérrez, José M; Perales, Jonas

    2002-12-01

    Bothrops snake venoms are known to induce local tissue damage such as hemorrhage and myonecrosis. The opossum Didelphis marsupialis is resistant to these snake venoms and has natural venom inhibitors in its plasma. The aim of this work was to clone and study the chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of DM64, an antimyotoxic protein from opossum serum. DM64 is an acidic protein showing 15% glycosylation and with a molecular mass of 63 659 Da when analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. It was cloned and the amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from D. marsupialis serum, and to human alpha1B-glycoprotein, indicating the presence of five immunoglobulin-like domains. DM64 neutralized both the in vivo myotoxicity and the in vitro cytotoxicity of myotoxins I (mt-I/Asp49) and II (mt-II/Lys49) from Bothrops asper venom. The inhibitor formed noncovalent complexes with both toxins, but did not inhibit the PLA2 activity of mt-I. Accordingly, DM64 did not neutralize the anticoagulant effect of mt-I nor its intracerebroventricular lethality, effects that depend on its enzymatic activity, and which demonstrate the dissociation between the catalytic and toxic activities of this Asp49 myotoxic PLA2. Furthermore, despite its similarity with metalloproteinase inhibitors, DM64 presented no antihemorrhagic activity against Bothrops jararaca or Bothrops asper crude venoms, and did not inhibit the fibrinogenolytic activity of jararhagin or bothrolysin. This is the first report of a myotoxin inhibitor with an immunoglobulin-like structure isolated and characterized from animal blood. PMID:12473101

  6. Photic Preference of the Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Seelke, Adele M. H.; Dooley, James C.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2014-01-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a nocturnal South American marsupial that has been gaining popularity as a laboratory animal. However, compared to traditional laboratory animals like rats, very little is known about its behavior, either in the wild or in a laboratory setting. Here we investigated the photic preference of the short-tailed opossum. Opossums were placed in a circular testing arena and allowed to move freely between dark (0 lux) and light (~1.4, 40, or 400 lux) sides of the arena. In each of these conditions opossums spent significantly more time in the dark than in the illuminated side and a greater proportion of time in the dark than would be expected by chance. In the high-contrast (~400 lux) illumination condition, the mean bout length (i.e., duration of one trip on the light or dark side) was significantly longer on the dark side than on the light side. When we examined the number of bouts greater than 30 and 60 sec in duration, we found a significant difference between the light and dark sides in all light contrast conditions. These data indicate that the short-tailed opossum prefers the dark to the light, and can also detect very slight differences in light intensity. We conclude that although rats and opossums share many similar characteristics, including ecological niche, their divergent evolutionary heritage results in vastly different behavioral capabilities. Only by observing the behavioral capabilities and preferences of opossums will we be able to manipulate the experimental environment to best elicit and elucidate their behavior and alterations in behavior that can arise from experimental manipulations. PMID:24709041

  7. Extensively variable surface antigens of Sarcocystis spp. infecting Brazilian marsupials in the genus Didelphis occur in myriad allelic combinations, suggesting sexual recombination has aided their diversification.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R M; Keid, L B; Richtzenhain, L J; Valadas, S Y; Muller, G; Soares, R M

    2013-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula are very similar species of Apicomplexan protozoa that use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. These mammals can serve as definitive hosts not only for these two parasites, but for other Sarcocystis such as Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. Sarcocystis shed by opossums (with the exception of S. neurona) can cause disease in a great variety of birds, being commonly associated with acute pulmonary sarcocystosis in zoos. S. neurona is the most commonly associated parasite with the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses. Herein we assessed the variability of Sarcocystis spp. isolated from opossums of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by sequencing fragments of genes coding for glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigens (termed surface antigen or SAG), SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4. Two genetic groups were identified, one of them related to S. falcatula and the other related to S. neurona. Various allelic combinations of SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4 occur among S. falcatula related isolates and strong evidences suggest that such isolates may exchange high divergent alleles in possible sexual recombination processes. Regarding the group S. neurona-like (isolates G37 and G38), none of the individuals in this group share alleles with individuals of the other group. Comparing G37 and G38 strains and North American strains of S. neurona, four polymorphisms were identified at SAG-3, five at SAG-2 and three at SAG-4. Gene sequences of locus SAG-3 from isolates G37 and G38 differed from the other sequences by an insertion 81bp long. This insertion contains several dinucleotide repeats of AT, resembling a microsatellite locus and has already been detected in SAG3 sequences of S. neurona from North America. When aligned against North American strains of S. neurona, G37 and G38 isolates have a deletion of 8 nucleotides within this intron which indicate that S. neurona strains of South America are

  8. Uterine Carcinosarcoma in a Patient with Didelphys Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, C.; Kokka, F.; Sahdev, A.; Singh, N.; Reynolds, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Didelphys uterus is a noncommon finding in women. Till now, few cases with benign mesenchymal tumors in patients with didelphys uterus are described. We present a case of a patient with carcinosarcoma arising in a didelphys uterus. Case. A 73-year-old patient presented with profuse watery postmenopausal bleeding. On examination under anesthesia, left and right cervixes were identified. Tumor extended from the left cervix into the lower third of the vagina and was adherent to the right vaginal sidewall. There was no evidence of parametrial extension. Tissue was sent for biopsy which revealed high-grade uterine carcinosarcoma. Two uterine fundi and two vaginas in keeping with uterine didelphys were identified on imaging. The patient underwent vaginal excision of the protruding tumor measuring 8 × 6 cm with harmonic scalpel followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Although a number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were also identified on imaging, she was not planned for lymphadenectomy after MDT (multidisciplinary team) discussion because of her comorbidities. The final histology confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. According to our knowledge, this is the second case of carcinosarcoma arising in didelphys uterus in the world literature. PMID:23533863

  9. Uterine carcinosarcoma in a patient with didelphys uterus.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C; Kokka, F; Sahdev, A; Singh, N; Reynolds, K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Didelphys uterus is a noncommon finding in women. Till now, few cases with benign mesenchymal tumors in patients with didelphys uterus are described. We present a case of a patient with carcinosarcoma arising in a didelphys uterus. Case. A 73-year-old patient presented with profuse watery postmenopausal bleeding. On examination under anesthesia, left and right cervixes were identified. Tumor extended from the left cervix into the lower third of the vagina and was adherent to the right vaginal sidewall. There was no evidence of parametrial extension. Tissue was sent for biopsy which revealed high-grade uterine carcinosarcoma. Two uterine fundi and two vaginas in keeping with uterine didelphys were identified on imaging. The patient underwent vaginal excision of the protruding tumor measuring 8 × 6 cm with harmonic scalpel followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Although a number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were also identified on imaging, she was not planned for lymphadenectomy after MDT (multidisciplinary team) discussion because of her comorbidities. The final histology confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. According to our knowledge, this is the second case of carcinosarcoma arising in didelphys uterus in the world literature. PMID:23533863

  10. Critical Fluid Extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and Bioactivity of Extracts Against Subterranean Termites and Wood-Rot Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) (Cupresseaceae) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as we...

  11. Water Relations of Leaf Epidermal Cells of Tradescantia virginiana12

    PubMed Central

    Tomos, Alun Deri; Steudle, Ernst; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Schulze, Ernst-Detlev

    1981-01-01

    Water-relation parameters (cell turgor pressure [P], volumetric elastic modulus [ε] and hydraulic conductivity [Lp]) of individual leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana have been determined with the pressure-probe technique. Turgor was 4.5 ± 2.1 [41] bar (mean ± sd; in brackets the number of cells) and ranged from 0.9 to 9.6 bar. By vacuum infiltration with nutrient solution, it was raised to 7.5 ± 1.5 [5] bar (range: 5.3-8.8 bar). There was a large variability in the absolute value of ε of individual cells. ε ranged from 40 to 360 bar; mean ± sd: 135 ± 83 bar; n = 50 cells. ε values of individual cells seemed to be rather independent of changes in cell turgor. A critical assessment of the errors incurred in determining ε by the technique is included. The half-times of water exchange of individual cells ranged from 1 to 35 seconds, which gave values of 0.2 to 11 × 10−6 centimeters per second per bar for Lp (mean ± sd: 3.1 ± 2.3 × 10−6 centimeters per second per bar; n = 39 cells). The large range in Lp and ε is believed to be due to the difficulties in determining the effective surface area of water exchange of the cells. Lp is not influenced by active salt pumping driven by respiration energy inasmuch as it was not altered by 0.1 millimolar KCN. The temperature dependence of Lp (T½) was measured for the first time in individual higher-plant cells. Lp increased by a factor of 2 to 4, when the temperature was increased by 10 C. The activation energy of water exchange was found to be between 50 and 186 kilojoules per mole. Within the large range of variation it was found that T½, Lp, and ε did not change under various experimental conditions (intact and excised tissue, water content and turgidity, age, etc.). Similar results were obtained for the epidermal cells of Tradescantia andersoniana. The measurements suggest that the entire epidermis would respond very rapidly (i.e. with a half-time of 1 to 30 s) to a demand for water from the

  12. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  13. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a “trash or nuisance” tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  14. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  15. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  16. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris D.; Arnts, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine ( Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. P. taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions in all seasons. α-pinene and β-pinene were the most abundant emissions, while β-caryophyllene had the highest sesquiterpene emission rate from this species. β-phellandrene was the dominant compound emitted from P. virginiana, followed by the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. Sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana have not been reported in the literature previously. Summer sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana were nearly as high as monoterpene emissions, but were 4-12 times lower than monoterpene emissions in the other seasons. Oxygenated monoterpenes and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol were emitted at higher rates from P. taeda than from P. virginiana. Temperature response of the pinenes from P. taeda is similar to previously reported values used in emission models, while that for other compounds falls at the lower end of the previously reported range. Temperature response of all compounds from P. virginiana is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values from other pine species. There is evidence of light dependence of sesquiterpene emission after accounting for temperature response from both species. This effect is somewhat stronger in P. taeda. Bud break, needle expansion, and needle fall (and therefore wind events) seemed to increase monoterpene emission during non-summer seasons. In some instances springtime monoterpene emissions were higher than summertime emissions despite cooler temperatures. Emissions of individual compounds within monoterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene classes were highly correlated with each other. Compounds from different classes were much less correlated within each species. This is due

  17. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Lindsay, D S; Stich, R W; Stanek, J F; Speert, C A; Rosenthal, B M; Njoku, C J; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Reed, S M

    2000-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of a neurologic disease in horses, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The complete life cycle of S. neurona, including the description of sarcocysts and intermediate hosts, has not been completed until now. Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are definitive hosts, and horses and other mammals are aberrant hosts. In the present study, laboratory-raised domestic cats (Felis domesticus) were fed sporocysts from the intestine of a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Microscopic sarcocysts, with a maximum size of 700 x 50 microm, developed in the muscles of the cats. The DNA of bradyzoites released from sarcocysts was confirmed as S. neurona. Laboratory-raised opossums (D. virginiana) fed cat muscles containing the sarcocysts shed sporocysts in their feces. The sporocysts were approximately 10(-12) x 6.5-8.0 microm in size. Gamma interferon knockout mice fed sporocysts from experimentally infected opossums developed clinical sarcocystosis, and S. neurona was identified in their tissues using S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit serum. Two seronegative ponies fed sporocysts from an experimentally-infected opossum developed S. neurona-specific antibodies within 14 days. PMID:11191904

  18. Didelphys Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Shadi; Bisram, Pameela; Lora Alcantara, Isamarie; Upadhyay, Ruchi; Lara, Carla; Elmadjian, Malvina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. A didelphys uterus, also known as a “double uterus,” is one of the least common amongst MDAs. This report discusses a case of didelphys uterus that successfully conceived, carried her pregnancy to term, and delivered vaginally without any significant complications. Case. Patient is a 29-year-old G2P0010 from Bangladesh, initially came a year prior in her first pregnancy, with spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pelvic Sonogram at that time showed a diagnosis of bicornuate versus didelphys uterus. There were no renal anomalies on subsequent abdominal CT scan. Patient presented with the second pregnancy and had uncomplicated prenatal care and did not have signs of preterm labor; fetus showed appropriate growth and the pregnancy was carried in the left uterus. Patient presented at 38 4/7 wks with Premature Rupture of Membrane and underwent induction of labor with Cytotec. Antibiotics were started for chorioamnionitis. Patient had a vaginal delivery with left mediolateral episiotomy and complete tear of vaginal septum. Third stage of labor was complicated with retained placenta, which was removed manually in the operating room with total EBL of 600 cc. PMID:26435865

  19. Didelphys Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; Bisram, Pameela; Lora Alcantara, Isamarie; Upadhyay, Ruchi; Lara, Carla; Elmadjian, Malvina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. A didelphys uterus, also known as a "double uterus," is one of the least common amongst MDAs. This report discusses a case of didelphys uterus that successfully conceived, carried her pregnancy to term, and delivered vaginally without any significant complications. Case. Patient is a 29-year-old G2P0010 from Bangladesh, initially came a year prior in her first pregnancy, with spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pelvic Sonogram at that time showed a diagnosis of bicornuate versus didelphys uterus. There were no renal anomalies on subsequent abdominal CT scan. Patient presented with the second pregnancy and had uncomplicated prenatal care and did not have signs of preterm labor; fetus showed appropriate growth and the pregnancy was carried in the left uterus. Patient presented at 38 4/7 wks with Premature Rupture of Membrane and underwent induction of labor with Cytotec. Antibiotics were started for chorioamnionitis. Patient had a vaginal delivery with left mediolateral episiotomy and complete tear of vaginal septum. Third stage of labor was complicated with retained placenta, which was removed manually in the operating room with total EBL of 600 cc. PMID:26435865

  20. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Nguyen, Hoang; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

  1. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia) and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Abreu, M S L; Machado, R; Barbieri, F; Freitas, N S; Oliveira, L R

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp.) in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival. PMID:23644801

  2. Ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors in a South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1991-01-01

    A total of 19 male and 21 female South American opossums (Monodelphis domestica) were exposed to 250 J/m2 ultraviolet radiation from FS-40 sunlamps (280-400 nm) three times weekly for 70 weeks. The backs of the opossums were shaved as necessary to remove hair. In order to prevent photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers by the light-dependent photolyase enzyme of the opossum, ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums were housed under red lights (600-800 nm). The opossum photolyase requires light in the 320-450 nm range for its activity. Twenty-nine control opossums (14 males and 15 females) were irradiated by fluorescent lights with emission spectra primarily in the visible light range (320-700 nm); these control opossums were also housed under red lights, and their backs were also shaved to remove hair. No skin tumors were observed in control opossums, while ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums developed a variety of hyperplastic and neoplastic skin lesions on the backs and on a single ear. Hyperplastic lesions included foci of epithelial hyperplasia, dermal fibroplasia, and focal proliferation of dermal melanocytes. A total of 20 ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums (50%) developed skin tumors, and 13 opossums (32.5%) had more than a single tumor. Epithelial tumors included 25 papillomas, four keratoacanthomas, seven carcinomas in situ, three microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, two invasive squamous cell carcinomas, and a single basal cell tumor. Ten dermal spindle cell tumors also occurred; most of these appeared to be fibrosarcomas. Two benign melanomas and one malignant melanoma were observed. PMID:2017828

  3. Central nervous system regeneration: from leech to opossum.

    PubMed

    Mladinic, M; Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G

    2009-06-15

    A major problem of neurobiology concerns the failure of injured mammalian spinal cord to repair itself. This review summarizes work done on two preparations in which regeneration can occur: the central nervous system of an invertebrate, the leech, and the spinal cord of an immature mammal, the opossum. The aim is to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote and prevent regeneration. In the leech, an individual axon regrows successfully to re-establish connections with its synaptic target, while avoiding other neurons. Functions that were lost are thereby restored. Moreover, pairs of identified neurons become re-connected with appropriate synapses in culture. It has been shown that microglial cells and nitric oxide play key roles in leech CNS regeneration. In the opossum, the neonatal brain and spinal cord are so tiny that they survive well in culture. Fibres grow across spinal cord lesions in neonatal animals and in vitro, but axon regeneration stops abruptly between postnatal days 9 and 12. A comprehensive search has been made in spinal cords that can and cannot regenerate to identify genes and establish their locations. At 9 days, growth-promoting genes, their receptors and key transcription molecules are up-regulated. By contrast at 12 days, growth-inhibitory molecules associated with myelin are prominent. The complete sequence of the opossum genome and new methods for transfecting genes offer ways to determine which molecules promote and which inhibit spinal cord regeneration. These results lead to questions about how basic research on mechanisms of regeneration could be 'translated' into effective therapies for patients with spinal cord injuries. PMID:19525562

  4. Comparative study of the chemical composition and biological activities of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia virginiana flower essential oils.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A

    2013-01-01

    The biological activities and the determined major volatile components in the Magnolia grandiflora and M. virginiana flowers extracts were compared. Volatile components were detected in the essential oil by dynamic headspace sampling (HS). 2-Phenylethanol (40% and 61%) was found as the main constituent in the essential oil and HS samples of M. virginiana, respectively. In the M. grandiflora oil sample, (E,E)-farnesol (18%) and 2-phenylethanol (10%) were found as main constituents, whereas germacrene D (17%) and β-bisabolene (17%) were the main components of the HS sample. The essential oil in M. virginiana displayed a moderate antioxidant activity relative to vitamin E, whereas both essential oils were active against human lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines, even at concentrations higher than 200 µg mL(-1). PMID:22690913

  5. Antiinflammatory agents protect opossum esophagus during radiotherapy. [Cobalt 60

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Eastwood, G.L.; Libshitz, H.I.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1982-10-01

    Eighteen opossums received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co to the entire esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with 600 mg aspirin, 25 mg/kg hydrocortisone, or saline before irradiation and twice daily for 1 week after irradiation. At 10 days postirradiation, animals were evaluated for signs of acute esophagitis by esophagoscopy and barium esophagram. Each animal was then killed and the esophagus removed and evaluated histologically. Animals treated with either aspirin or hydrocortisone had significantly milder esophagitis than control irradiated animals.

  6. Cage Change Intervals for Opossums (Monodelphis domestica) in Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Sarah O; Criley, Jennifer M; Kim, Ji Young; Goodly, Lyndon J

    2011-01-01

    The opossum Monodelphis domestica is the most commonly used marsupial in biomedical research. At our institution, these opossums are housed in polycarbonate (35.6 cm × 25.4 cm × 17.8 cm) individually ventilated cages. Previous studies of the cage microenvironment of rodents housed in individually ventilated cages have demonstrated that the cage-change frequency could be extended from 7 to 14 d, without detriment to the animals’ wellbeing. We sought to determine whether the cage change frequency for opossums housed in individually ventilated cages could be extended to 14 d. Opossums were placed into 3 experimental groups: singly housed males, singly housed females, and females housed with litters. The 14-d testing period was repeated twice, with temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels tested on days 0, 7, and 14. Acceptable ranges for the cage microenvironment were based on standards followed by our institution for housing rodents: temperature between 22 to 26 °C, relative humidity between 30% to 70%, and ammonia less than 25 ppm. Throughout both 14-d testing periods, temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels for singly housed male and singly housed female opossums were within acceptable ranges. However, ammonia levels exceeded the recommended 25 ppm on day 7 of both testing periods for female opossums housed with litters. In summary, the cage-change frequency for a singly housed opossum in an individually ventilated cage can be extended to 14 d. PMID:22330710

  7. Hamamelitannin from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) displays specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Fernández-Cachón, María L; Carreras, Anna; Mateos-Martín, M Luisa; Costoya, Noelia; Moyer, Mary P; Nuñez, María J; Torres, Josep L; Cascante, Marta

    2012-01-27

    Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) bark is a rich source of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins reported to exert a protective action against colon cancer. The present study characterizes different witch hazel tannins as selective cytotoxic agents against colon cancer. To cover the structural diversity of the tannins that occur in H. virginiana bark, the hydrolyzable tannins, hamamelitannin and pentagalloylglucose, together with a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (F800H4) were selected for the study. Treatment with these compounds reduced tumor viability and induced apoptosis, necrosis, and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle of HT29 cells, with hamamelitannin being the most efficient. Owing to polyphenol-mediated H(2)O(2) formation in the incubation media, the antiproliferative effect was determined in the presence and absence of catalase to rule out any such interference. The presence of catalase significantly changed the IC(50) only for F800H4. Furthermore, at concentrations that inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by 50%, hamamelitannin had no harmful effects on NCM460 normal colonocytes, whereas pentagalloylglucose inhibited both cancerous and normal cell growth. Using the TNPTM assay, we identified a highly reactive phenolic position in hamamelitannin, which may explain its efficacy at inhibiting colon cancer growth. PMID:22216935

  8. Opossums and Cat Fleas: New Insights in the Ecology of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Idowu, Boluwatife M; Tatsch, Tyler N; Henderson, Joshua M; Bouyer, Donald H; Walker, David H

    2016-08-01

    Murine typhus is an acute undifferentiated febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi The classic reservoir (Rattus spp.) and flea vector (Xenopsylla cheopis) were once culprits of murine typhus in the United States. Vector and rodent control efforts have drastically decreased the prevalence of disease, except in a few endemic foci where opossums and cat fleas play a role in transmission. Since 2012, there has been a reemergence of murine typhus in Galveston, TX. We hypothesize that opossums and cat fleas are involved in the transmission of R. typhi in Galveston. To explore this, we sought to find the seroprevalence of typhus group antibodies from opossums. We also sought to find the prevalence of R. typhi in fleas parasitizing these animals. We collected blood from 12 opossums and found that eight (66.7%) had the presence of anti-R. typhi antibodies. All opossums were infested with fleas; a total of 250 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were collected from these animals. Seven opossums (53.8%) were infested with fleas that had molecular evidence of R. typhi infection, while six (46.2%) were infested with fleas that contained Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis, an organism closely related to R. felis The minimum flea infection rate for R. typhi was 7.0%. The minimum infection rate for Candidatus R. senegalensis was 6.1%. Our study demonstrates that fleas infected with R. typhi parasitize opossums in Galveston. It is therefore likely that opossums and their fleas play a role in the city's recent reemergence of murine typhus. PMID:27273642

  9. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystic neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Asmundsson, I.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Dubey, J.P.; Rosenthal, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  10. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei Juniperus Buchholz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that several Juniperus species are utilized as an antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, antirheumatic, antifungal and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., J. occide...

  11. oPOSSUM-3: Advanced Analysis of Regulatory Motif Over-Representation Across Genes or ChIP-Seq Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Arenillas, David J.; Hunt, Rebecca Worsley; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2012-01-01

    oPOSSUM-3 is a web-accessible software system for identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and TFBS families in either DNA sequences of co-expressed genes or sequences generated from high-throughput methods, such as ChIP-Seq. Validation of the system with known sets of co-regulated genes and published ChIP-Seq data demonstrates the capacity for oPOSSUM-3 to identify mediating transcription factors (TF) for co-regulated genes or co-recovered sequences. oPOSSUM-3 is available at http://opossum.cisreg.ca. PMID:22973536

  12. Conformational plasticity of DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from Didelphis marsupialis: chemical and pressure-induced equilibrium (un)folding studies.

    PubMed

    Chapeaurouge, Alex; Martins, Samantha M; Holub, Oliver; Rocha, Surza L G; Valente, Richard H; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Ferreira, Sérgio T; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the folding of DM43, a homodimeric metalloproteinase inhibitor isolated from the serum of the South American opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Denaturation of the protein induced by GdnHCl (guanidine hydrochloride) was monitored by extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. While the equilibrium (un)folding of DM43 followed by tryptophan fluorescence was well described by a cooperative two-state transition, bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid) fluorescence measurements revealed an intensity maximum at the midpoint of the unfolding transition (2 M GdnHCl), indicating a partially folded intermediate state. We further investigated the DM43 intermediate stabilized at 2 M GdnHCl using size exclusion chromatography. This analysis revealed that the folding intermediate can be best described as partially folded DM43 monomers. Thermodynamic analysis of the GdnHCl-induced denaturation of DM43 revealed Gibbs free-energy changes of 13.57 kcal/mol for dimer dissociation and 1.86 kcal/mol for monomer unfolding, pointing to a critical role of dimerization as a determinant of the structure and stability of this protein. In addition, by using hydrostatic pressure (up to 3.5 kbar) we were able to stabilize partially folded states different from those stabilized in the presence of GdnHCl. Taken together, these results indicate that the conformational plasticity of DM43 could provide this protein with the ability to adapt its conformation to a variety of different environments and biological partners during its biological lifetime. PMID:19332153

  13. Basic surface properties of mononuclear cells from Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Nacife, V P; de Meirelles, M de N; Silva Filho, F C

    1998-01-01

    The electrostatic surface charge and surface tension of mononuclear cells/monocytes obtained from young and adult marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis) were investigated by using cationized ferritin and colloidal iron hydroxyde, whole cell electrophoresis, and measurements of contact angles. Anionic sites were found distributed throughout the entire investigated cell surfaces. The results revealed that the anionic character of the cells is given by electrostatic charges corresponding to -18.8 mV (cells from young animals) and -29.3 mV (cells from adult animals). The surface electrostatic charge decreased from 10 to 65.2% after treatment of the cells with each one of trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The hydrophobic nature of the mononuclear cell surfaces studied by using the contact angle method revealed that both young and adult cells possess cell surfaces of high hidrofilicity since the angles formed with drops of saline water were 42.5 degrees and 40.8 degrees, respectively. Treatment of the cells with trypsin or neuraminidase rendered their surfaces more hydrophobic, suggesting that sialic acid-containing glycoproteins are responsible for most of the hydrophilicity observed in the mononuclear cell surfaces from D. marsupialis. PMID:9921307

  14. Marsupial morphology of reproduction: South America opossum male model.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Michelle Andrade; Panattoni Martins, João Flávio; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina; Gonçalves, Natalia; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlaneto; Vidane, Atanasio; Carvalho, Ana Flávia; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to describe the morphology of Didelphis sp. male genital organs (penis, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate, and bulbourethral gland). Ten male animals were used, eight for macroscopic and light microscopy analysis, and two for scanning electron microscopy. The testes and epididymis showed similarity to other eutherian mammals. The bifid penis showed the urethra ending in the medial region where the bifurcation begins, occurring in each segment extension of the urethral groove until the beginning of the glans. Histologically, the penis consists of a cavernous and spongy body, covered by stratified squamous epithelium with loose connective tissue. The urethra was lined by transitional stratified epithelium. In the prostate, prostatic segments were found consisting of tubular glands in a radial arrangement around the urethra, coated externally by a dense connective tissue associated with a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle arranged in two layers that surround the glandular tissue. The animals had three pairs of bulbourethral glands placed at the membranous and cavernous urethra junction with descending and parallel excretory ducts ending caudally in the urethral lumen. PMID:23362127

  15. Cystine and dibasic amino acid uptake by opossum kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    States, B.; Segal, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The characteristics of the uptake of L-cystine by the continuous opossum kidney cell line, OK, were examined. Uptake of cystine is rapid and, in contrast to other continuous cultured cell lines, these cells retain the cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated kidney tissue. Confluent monolayers of cells also fail to show the presence of the cystine/glutamate transport system present in LLC-PK1 cells, fibroblasts, and cultured hepatocytes. Uptake of cystine occurs via a high-affinity saturable process which is independent of medium sodium concentration. The predominant site of cystine transport is across the apical cell membrane. The intracellular concentration of GSH far exceeds that of cystine with a ratio greater than 100:1 for GSH:cysteine. Incubation of cells for 5 minutes with a physiological level of labelled cystine resulted in the labelling of 66% and 5% of the total intracellular cysteine and glutathione, respectively. The ability of these cells to reflect the shared cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system makes them a suitable model for investigation of the cystine carrier which is altered in human cystinuria.

  16. A case of successful pregnancy in a ewe with uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Aitken, R P; Milne, J S; David, A L; Wallace, J M

    2013-10-01

    Uterus didelphys is a rare congenital abnormality of the reproductive tract. Although it occurs in various species, there are no published reports describing pregnancy outcome in association with this abnormality. Herein we describe a case of successful unilateral singleton pregnancy in a ewe incidentally found to have uterus didelphys during the course of a biomedical research study. The pregnancy was established using assisted reproductive techniques and interrupted in late gestation, at which point the abnormality was identified. Serial ultrasound assessment of foetal biometry revealed a normal foetal growth trajectory. Despite a 45% reduction in placentome number, total placentome weight was near normal secondary to compensatory placentome growth and development. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of normal foetal growth in an animal with uterus didelphys and illustrates the ability of the ovine placenta to adapt to a reduced number of placentomes and maintain foetal nutrient supply. PMID:23772768

  17. Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina and haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Ara, R; Begum, S A; Chowdhury, S B; Hussain, M A; Mirza, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mullerian anomalies are a relatively uncommon occurrence with implication for adolescents and adults as they may result in specific gynaecologic, fertility and obstetrical issues. Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Patient may be asymptomatic and unaware of having double uterus or may present with severe dysmenorrhoea or dyspareunia or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We report a case of 12 year old girl with this condition who was diagnosed as uterus didelphys with unilateral haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the basis of clinical association, physical examination and sonography and intravenous urogram. PMID:25725693

  18. Isolation and amino acid sequences of opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and cholecystokinin octapeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Yu, J; Rattan, S; Yalow, R S

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary history suggests that the marsupials entered South America from North America about 75 million years ago and subsequently dispersed into Australia before the separation between South America and Antarctica-Australia. A question of interest is whether marsupial peptides resemble the corresponding peptides of Old or New World mammals. Previous studies had shown that "little" gastrin of the North American marsupial, the opossum, is identical in length to that of the New World mammals, the guinea pig and chinchilla. In this report, we demonstrate that opossum cholecystokinin octapeptide, like that of the Australian marsupials, the Eastern quoll and the Tamar wallaby, is identical to the cholecystokinin octapeptide of Old World mammals and differs from that of the guinea pig and chinchilla. However, opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide differs from the usual Old World mammalian vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in five sites: [sequence; see text]. PMID:1542675

  19. Antifungal Metabolites from the Roots of Diospyros virginiana by Overpressure Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Habib, Eman; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    A preparative overpressure layer chromatography (OPLC) method was successfully used for the separation of two new natural compounds, 4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (1) and Δ12,13-20,29-dihydrobetulin (2) together with nine known compounds including 7-methyl-juglone (3), diospyrin (4), isodiospyrin (5), shinanolone (6), lupeol (7), betulin (8), betulinic acid (9), betulinaldehyde (10), and ursolic acid (11) from the acetone extract of the roots of Diospyros virginiana. Their identification was performed with mono and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis obscurans, and P. viticola using in vitro micro-dilution broth assay. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 showed high antifungal activity against P. obscurans at 30 μM with 97.0 % and 81.4 % growth inhibition and moderate activity against P. viticola (54.3 % and 36.6 %). It appears that an optimized OPLC system offers a rapid and efficient method of exploiting bioactive natural products. PMID:22162171

  20. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  1. Host density drives the postglacial migration of the tree parasite, Epifagus virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Hsin Erica; Manos, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    To survive changes in climate, successful species shift their geographic ranges to remain in suitable habitats. For parasites and other highly specialized species, distributional changes not only are dictated by climate but can also be engineered by their hosts. The extent of host control on parasite range expansion is revealed through comparisons of host and parasite migration and demographic histories. However, understanding the codistributional history of entire forest communities is complicated by challenges in synthesizing datasets from multiple interacting species of differing datatypes. Here we integrate genetic and fossil pollen datasets from a host–parasite pair; specifically, the population structure of the parasitic plant (Epifagus virginiana) was compared with both its host (Fagus grandifolia) genetic patterns and abundance data from the paleopollen record of the last 21,000 y. Through tests of phylogeographic structure and spatial linear regression models we find, surprisingly, host range changes had little effect on the parasite's range expansion and instead host density is the main driver of parasite spread. Unlike other symbionts that have been used as proxies to track their host's movements, this parasite's migration routes are incongruent with the host and instead reflect the greater importance of host density in this community's assembly. Furthermore, these results confirm predictions of disease ecological models regarding the role of host density in the spread of pathogens. Due to host density constraints, highly specialized species may have low migration capacities and long lag times before colonization of new areas. PMID:20841421

  2. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

  3. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard B.; Spal, Scott E.; Smith, Kenneth R.; Nippert, Jesse B.

    2013-01-01

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ13C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ34S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ13C and δ34S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  4. Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Piazza, Mauri José; De, Newton Sergio Carvalho; Peixoto, Ana Paula Lisboa; Urbanetz, Almir Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to report a series of 19 cases of uterus didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. This retrospective descriptive observational study included the medical records of 19 patients seen at the Endocrinology Gynecology Sector of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Federal University of Paraná, and focused on clinical data, complementary exams, patient management, and follow-up. From the 229 patients with genital anomalies seen between 1984 and 2009, 19 (8.3%) were diagnosed with uterus didelphys with vaginal septum and renal agenesis. The patients had a median age of ±16.3 years. Eight subjects (42.6 %) reported abdominal pain; two of them (0.1%) had pelvic masses and seven (36.8%) had dysmenorrhea. Blood retention was confirmed by ultrasound and/ or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, which revealed the existence of a duplicated uterus of the didelphys type with a cystic mass containing old blood obliterating the hemivagina. Urinary tract examination revealed the existence of ipsilateral renal agenesis. Unusual manifestations such as associated infection and rupture of the vaginal septum during sexual intercourse were also reported. The prevalence of uterus didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis was 8.3% in a series of 229 genital anomalies. The observance of clinical features is essential for the early identification of the syndrome and the adequate management of the patients. PMID:27203202

  5. Unilateral lacrimal fistula in a patient with uterus didelphys and renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Turan-Vural, Ece; Atmaca, Fatih; Unlu, Cihan; Erdogan, Gurkan; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Bayramalar, Huseyin

    2012-02-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to our clinic because of lacrimation from an orifice close to the left lower eyelid. Ocular examinations and analyses revealed uterus didelphys and unilateral renal agenesis associated with a left lacrimal fistula. The patient underwent fistulectomy and external dacryocystorhinostomy. We decided to report on this patient owing to the unusual concurrent systemic abnormalities. PMID:22258183

  6. Uterus didelphys: report of a puerperal torsion and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cipullo, Lucio M A; Milosavljevic, Slobodan; van Oudgaarden, Elisabeth D

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old Para 2 was admitted to the emergency department with increasing lower abdominal pain. The patient had undergone an uncomplicated elective repeat caesarean section 7 days before being admitted to the emergency department. An emergency laparotomy revealed a uterus didelphys with a torsion of one of the uteri. PMID:22919522

  7. Virginia Opossums, Minimum Reproduction Age and Predators in the Penna Aging Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altevolmer, A. K.

    Age-specific predators are introduced into the Penna model of biological aging. It is shown that populations with a variable minimum reproduction age find a stable state with an earlier onset of reproduction, if older ages are eaten by the predators. This behavior agrees with the demographic data of the Virgina opossum.

  8. Implications of invasion by Juniperus virginiana on small mammals in the southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Ganguli, A.C.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examined effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on small mammals in 3 plant communities (tallgrass prairie, old field, and cross-timbers forest) in the cross-timbers ecoregion in Oklahoma. We sampled small mammals seasonally from May 2001 to August 2002 by using Sherman live traps and mark-recapture techniques on 3.24-ha, 450-trap grids in each plant community. We sampled vegetation in two hundred twenty-five 12 x 12-m cells within each grid. The structure of the small-mammal community differed among the 3 habitat types, with higher species diversity and richness in the tallgrass-prairie and old-field sites. Overall, the small-mammal community shifted along a gradient of increasing eastern red cedar. In the old-field and tallgrass-prairie plots, occurrence of grassland mammals decreased with increasing red cedar, whereas only 1 woodland mammal species increased. In the cross-timbers forest site, percent woody cover (<1 m in height), rather than cover of red cedar, was the most important factor affecting woodland mammal species. Examination of our data suggests that an increase in overstory cover from 0% to 30% red cedar can change a species-rich prairie community to a depauperate community dominated by 1 species, Peromyscus leucopus. Losses in species diversity and changes in mammal distribution paralleled those seen in avian communities invaded by eastern red cedar. Our results highlight ecological effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on diversity and function at multiple trophic levels. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Polarity of Water Transport across Epidermal Cell Membranes in Tradescantia virginiana1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Fei, Jiong; Knipfer, Thorsten; Matthews, Mark A.; Gambetta, Greg; Shackel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Using the automated cell pressure probe, small and highly reproducible hydrostatic pressure clamp (PC) and pressure relaxation (PR) tests (typically, applied step change in pressure = 0.02 MPa and overall change in volume = 30 pL, respectively) were applied to individual Tradescantia virginiana epidermal cells to determine both exosmotic and endosmotic hydraulic conductivity (LpOUT and LpIN, respectively). Within-cell reproducibility of measured hydraulic parameters depended on the method used, with the PR method giving a lower average coefficient of variation (15.2%, 5.8%, and 19.0% for half-time, cell volume [Vo], and hydraulic conductivity [Lp], respectively) than the PC method (25.4%, 22.0%, and 24.2%, respectively). Vo as determined from PC and PR tests was 1.1 to 2.7 nL and in the range of optically estimated Vo values of 1.5 to 4.9 nL. For the same cell, Vo and Lp estimates were significantly lower (about 15% and 30%, respectively) when determined by PC compared with PR. Both methods, however, showed significantly higher LpOUT than LpIN (LpOUT/LpIN ≅ 1.20). Because these results were obtained using small and reversible hydrostatically driven flows in the same cell, the 20% outward biased polarity of water transport is most likely not due to artifacts associated with unstirred layers or to direct effects of externally applied osmotica on the membrane, as has been suggested in previous studies. The rapid reversibility of applied flow direction, particularly for the PR method, and the lack of a clear increase in LpOUT/LpIN over a wide range of Lp values suggest that the observed polarity is an intrinsic biophysical property of the intact membrane/protein complex. PMID:24495955

  10. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  11. Expansion of Juniperus virginiana L. in the Great Plains: Changes in soil organic carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dixie L.; Johnson, Loretta C.

    2003-06-01

    Woody encroachment by Juniperus virginiana into Great Plains grasslands allowed us to answer: Does changing the type of plant input to soils alter soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution or soil carbon (C) storage? The answer is critical because woody encroachment may alter C cycling over millions of hectares in the Great Plains and Midwest. We predicted that (1) forest SOC would become concentrated in shallow soil layers compared to SOC distribution in grassland, (2) woody expansion would increase soil C storage, and (3) forest C would be apparent in the larger soil organic matter fractions. Using δ13C signatures of SOC, 1/5 of the C from 0 to 25 cm in juniper forest soils was derived from C3 juniper trees. Forest C3 input occurred primarily in shallow surface layers: Forest soils developed over former C4 prairie contained 42% C3-SOC from 0 to 2.5 cm depth, and decreased to 6% at 25 cm. Isotopic analysis of SOC size fractions revealed that at 0-2.5 cm, the forest soil fraction >212 μm was -25.7‰. The fraction <2 μm had a 13C isotope ratio of -17.0‰ at the same depth, reflecting the predominance of residual prairie C in the smallest fraction. In spite of fast dynamics of soil C turnover, there was no net change in SOC amounts over 40-60 years (cumulative mineral and organic SOC in forest, 8782 g C/m2 ± 810; in grassland, 7699 ± 1004). Thus as junipers expand into mesic areas of the Great Plains, juniper forests will provide little additional soil C storage.

  12. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome consisting of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Hsin; Wu, Trang-Tiau; Ng, Yan-Yan; Ng, Soo-Cheen; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Chen, Suh-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare variant of Müllerian duct anomalies consisting of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with HWW syndrome are usually asymptomatic until menarche, when they present with acute lower abdominal pain. Here we report a case of a female newborn with right renal agenesis diagnosed during the pregnancy. The patient presented with a protruding mass over the vaginal introitus that was associated with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys. PMID:22348499

  13. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri. PMID:26303093

  14. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain. PMID:16759954

  15. Uterus didelphys with obstructed right hemivagina, ipsilateral renal agenesis and right pyocolpos: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa; Razek, Yasser A; Hamdi, Ilham

    2011-11-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly of the female genital tract. Uterus didelphys occurs when the midline fusion of the mullerian ducts is arrested, either completely or incompletely. Women with didelphic uterus may be asymptomatic and unaware of having a double uterus. They may present with complaints of dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A 25 year old woman attending the infertility clinic at Nizwa regional referral hospital presented with history of dysmenorrhoea and foul vaginal discharge with right cystic pelvic mass. She was diagnosed as a case of double uterus with obstructed right hemivagina and right pyocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis after routine ultrasonography in the clinic followed by MRI. Excision of the right vaginal septum with drainage of 200 ml of purulent discharge was performed. She was relieved of her symptoms and conceived promptly after the surgical excision of the partial vaginal septum. PMID:22253958

  16. Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Right Hemivagina, Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis and Right Pyocolpos: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Hansa; Razek, Yasser A.; Hamdi, Ilham

    2011-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly of the female genital tract. Uterus didelphys occurs when the midline fusion of the mullerian ducts is arrested, either completely or incompletely. Women with didelphic uterus may be asymptomatic and unaware of having a double uterus. They may present with complaints of dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A 25 year old woman attending the infertility clinic at Nizwa regional referral hospital presented with history of dysmenorrhoea and foul vaginal discharge with right cystic pelvic mass. She was diagnosed as a case of double uterus with obstructed right hemivagina and right pyocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis after routine ultrasonography in the clinic followed by MRI. Excision of the right vaginal septum with drainage of 200 ml of purulent discharge was performed. She was relieved of her symptoms and conceived promptly after the surgical excision of the partial vaginal septum. PMID:22253958

  17. Inhibition of Crotalidae venom hemorrhagic activities by Didelphis marsupialis liver spheroids culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, L M; Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rivas-Vetencourt, P; Zerpa, M; Carillo, G; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E; Acevedo, C E; Gendzekhadze, K

    2001-05-01

    The main aim of this work was the development of a primary hepatocyte culture from Didelphis marsupialis, to determine the possible use of culture medium supernatants as a source of inhibitors of the Bothrops lanceolatus venom hemorrhagic activity. The cellular culture was carried out from isolated hepatocytes by the double perfusion technique, and digestion of the liver with collagenase and culturing the hepatocytes in a liquid media under continuous agitation at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2. The hemorrhagic activity inhibition assays were performed inoculating intradermically, a mixture of Bothrops lanceolatus venom plus a pool of liver spheroids culture supernatants, in mice. These liver Didelphis marsupialis spheroid cultures were adequate to obtain large supernatant volumes with inhibitors of hemorrhagic activity. PMID:11405280

  18. Independent uterine contractions in simultaneous twin pregnancy in each horn of the uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of synchronizing uterine contractions is not fully understood. We present a case of twin pregnancy in a uterus didelphys and objectively analyze the synchrony of bilateral uterine contractions. A 32-year-old woman, with a history of vaginal septal resection during her previous vaginal delivery, became pregnant with twins in a uterus didelphys in which each uterine horn had one fetus. At 37 weeks and 6 days, the first baby was delivered vaginally. The second baby was delivered by cesarean section due to recurrent late decelerations. Operative findings confirmed the didelphys uterus. We retrospectively reviewed the timing of contractions of both uteruses. The timing was determined by visual analysis as synchronous if both uteruses contracted within 5 s. Otherwise, contractions were considered solitary. Both uterine horns contracted independently in 90% of the incidence throughout labor and delivery. From this rare case of an 'experiment by nature', we speculated that the myometrium must be histologically connected in order to synchronize uterine contractions. PMID:24245492

  19. Receptors and cGMP signalling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, L.R.; Krause, W.J.; Freeman, R.H. Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Columbia, MO )

    1988-11-01

    Receptors for the heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli were found in the kidney and intestine of the North American opossum and in cultured renal cell lines. The enterotoxin markedly increased guanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production in slices of kidney cortex and medulla, in suspensions of intestinal mucosa, and in the opossum kidney (OK) and rat kangaroo kidney (PtK-2) cell lines. In contrast, atrial natriuretic factor elicited much smaller increases in cGMP levels of kidney, intestine, or cultured kidney cell lines. The enterotoxin receptors in OK cells had a molecular mass of approximately 120 kDa when measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of receptors crosslinked with {sup 125}I-enterotoxin. The occurrence of receptors for the E. coli peptide in OK implies that these receptors may be involved in the regulation of renal tubular function in the opossum. E. coli enterotoxin caused a much larger increase in urine cGMP excretion than did atrial natriuretic factor when these peptides were injected intravenously into opossums. However, atrial natriuretic factor elicited a marked diuresis, natriuresis, and increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In contrast, the enterotoxin did not acutely influence OK fluid and electrolyte excretion. Thus the substantial increase in cGMP synthesis produced by the bacterial peptide in OK cortex and medulla in vitro and the increased renal excretion of cGMP in vivo were not associated with changes in electrolyte or water excretion. Whether cGMP represents a second messenger molecule in the kidney is an interesting question that was raised but not answered in this series of experiments.

  20. Cranial Anatomy of the Earliest Marsupials and the Origin of Opossums

    PubMed Central

    Horovitz, Inés; Martin, Thomas; Bloch, Jonathan; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Kurz, Cornelia; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution of living marsupials is poorly understood in part because the early offshoots of this group are known almost exclusively from jaws and teeth. Filling this gap is essential for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among living marsupials, the biogeographic pathways that led to their current distribution as well as the successive evolutionary steps that led to their current diversity, habits and various specializations that distinguish them from placental mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first skull of a 55 million year old peradectid marsupial from the early Eocene of North America and exceptionally preserved skeletons of an Oligocene herpetotheriid, both representing critical groups to understand early marsupial evolution. A comprehensive phylogenetic cladistic analysis of Marsupialia including the new findings and close relatives of marsupials show that peradectids are the sister group of living opossums and herpetotheriids are the sister group of all living marsupials. Conclusions/Significance The results imply that North America played an important role in early Cenozoic marsupial evolutionary history and may have even been the center of origin of living marsupials and opossums. New data from the herpetotheriid postcranium support the view that the ancestral morphotype of Marsupialia was more terrestrial than opossums are. The resolution of the phylogenetic position of peradectids reveals an older calibration point for molecular estimates of divergence times among living marsupials than those currently used. PMID:20016823

  1. Adaptive Evolution of the Venom-Targeted vWF Protein in Opossums that Eat Pitvipers

    PubMed Central

    Jansa, Sharon A.; Voss, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid evolution of venom toxin genes is often explained as the result of a biochemical arms race between venomous animals and their prey. However, it is not clear that an arms race analogy is appropriate in this context because there is no published evidence for rapid evolution in genes that might confer toxin resistance among routinely envenomed species. Here we report such evidence from an unusual predator-prey relationship between opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) and pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae). In particular, we found high ratios of replacement to silent substitutions in the gene encoding von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a venom-targeted hemostatic blood protein, in a clade of opossums known to eat pitvipers and to be resistant to their hemorrhagic venom. Observed amino-acid substitutions in venom-resistant opossums include changes in net charge and hydrophobicity that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and one of its toxic snake-venom ligands, the C-type lectin-like protein botrocetin. Our results provide the first example of rapid adaptive evolution in any venom-targeted molecule, and they support the notion that an evolutionary arms race might be driving the rapid evolution of snake venoms. However, in the arms race implied by our results, venomous snakes are prey, and their venom has a correspondingly defensive function in addition to its usual trophic role. PMID:21731638

  2. Transcriptomic Changes Associated with Pregnancy in a Marsupial, the Gray Short-Tailed Opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Victoria Leigh; Schilkey, Faye Dorothy; Miller, Robert David

    2016-01-01

    Live birth has emerged as a reproductive strategy many times across vertebrate evolution; however, mammals account for the majority of viviparous vertebrates. Marsupials are a mammalian lineage that last shared a common ancestor with eutherians (placental mammals) over 148 million years ago. Marsupials are noted for giving birth to highly altricial young after a short gestation, and represent humans' most distant viviparous mammalian relatives. Here we ask what insight can be gained into the evolution of viviparity in mammals specifically and vertebrates in general by analyzing the global uterine transcriptome in a marsupial. Transcriptome analyses were performed using NextGen sequencing of uterine RNA samples from the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Samples were collected from late stage pregnant, virgin, and non-pregnant experienced breeders. Three different algorithms were used to determine differential expression, and results were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Over 900 opossum gene transcripts were found to be significantly more abundant in the pregnant uterus than non-pregnant, and over 1400 less so. Most with increased abundance were genes related to metabolism, immune systems processes, and transport. This is the first study to characterize the transcriptomic differences between pregnant, non-pregnant breeders, and virgin marsupial uteruses and helps to establish a set of pregnancy-associated genes in the opossum. These observations allowed for comparative analyses of the differentially transcribed genes with other mammalian and non-mammalian viviparous species, revealing similarities in pregnancy related gene expression over 300 million years of amniote evolution. PMID:27598793

  3. An Architectonic Study of the Neocortex of the Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    Short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) belong to the branch of marsupial mammals that diverged from eutherian mammals approximately 180 million years ago. They are small in size, lack a marsupial pouch, and may have retained more morphological characteristics of early marsupial neocortex than most other marsupials. In the present study, we used several different histochemical and immunochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of cortical areas in short-tailed opossums. Subdivisions of cortex were identified in brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, horizontal or tangential planes and processed for a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV), neurofilament protein epitopes recognized by SMI-32, the vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), and Nissl substance. These different procedures revealed similar boundaries among areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were detected. The results allowed a fuller description and more precise demarcation of previously identified sensory areas, and the delineation of additional subdivisions of cortex. Area 17 (V1) was especially prominent, with a densely populated layer 4, high myelination levels, and dark staining of PV and VGluT2 immunopositive terminations. These architectonic features were present, albeit less pronounced, in somatosensory and auditory cortex. The major findings support the conclusion that short-tailed opossums have fewer cortical areas and their neocortex is less distinctly laminated than most other mammals. PMID:19546531

  4. Torpor in the Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of daily torpor and hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M.

    2013-10-01

    Hibernation and daily torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong daily fluctuations of body temperatures (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of daily heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of daily torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.

  5. Opossum carboxylesterases: sequences, phylogeny and evidence for CES gene duplication events predating the marsupial-eutherian common ancestor

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Carboxylesterases (CES) perform diverse metabolic roles in mammalian organisms in the detoxification of a broad range of drugs and xenobiotics and may also serve in specific roles in lipid, cholesterol, pheromone and lung surfactant metabolism. Five CES families have been reported in mammals with human CES1 and CES2 the most extensively studied. Here we describe the genetics, expression and phylogeny of CES isozymes in the opossum and report on the sequences and locations of CES1, CES2 and CES6 'like' genes within two gene clusters on chromosome one. We also discuss the likely sequence of gene duplication events generating multiple CES genes during vertebrate evolution. Results We report a cDNA sequence for an opossum CES and present evidence for CES1 and CES2 like genes expressed in opossum liver and intestine and for distinct gene locations of five opossum CES genes,CES1, CES2.1, CES2.2, CES2.3 and CES6, on chromosome 1. Phylogenetic and sequence alignment studies compared the predicted amino acid sequences for opossum CES with those for human, mouse, chicken, frog, salmon and Drosophila CES gene products. Phylogenetic analyses produced congruent phylogenetic trees depicting a rapid early diversification into at least five distinct CES gene family clusters: CES2, CES1, CES7, CES3, and CES6. Molecular divergence estimates based on a Bayesian relaxed clock approach revealed an origin for the five mammalian CES gene families between 328–378 MYA. Conclusion The deduced amino acid sequence for an opossum cDNA was consistent with its identity as a mammalian CES2 gene product (designated CES2.1). Distinct gene locations for opossum CES1 (1: 446,222,550–446,274,850), three CES2 genes (1: 677,773,395–677,927,030) and a CES6 gene (1: 677,585,520–677,730,419) were observed on chromosome 1. Opossum CES1 and multiple CES2 genes were expressed in liver and intestine. Amino acid sequences for opossum CES1 and three CES2 gene products revealed conserved

  6. Growth inhibition and chromosomal instability of cultured marsupial (opossum) cells after treatment with DNA polymerase α inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kazama, Tomoko; Sakuma, Kurumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Oshima, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The DNA replication mechanism has been well established for eutherian mammals (placental mammals such as humans, mice, and cattle), but not, to date, for metatherian mammals (marsupials such as kangaroos, koalas, and opossums). In this study, we found that dehydroaltenusin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian (eutherian) DNA polymerase α, clearly suppressed the growth of metatherian (opossum and rat kangaroo) cultured cells. In cultured opossum (OK) cells, dehydroaltenusin also suppressed the progression of DNA replication. These results suggest that dehydroaltenusin inhibits metatherian as well as eutherian DNA replication. Dehydroaltenusin treatment of OK cells engendered fluctuations in the numbers of chromosomes in the OK cells as well as inhibition of cell growth and DNA replication. This suggests that partial inhibition of DNA replication by dehydroaltenusin causes chromosomal instability in cultured cells. PMID:21737927

  7. Structure of parasite component communities of didelphid marsupials: insights from a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Catzeflis, François; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-10-01

    The parasite fauna of the gray four-eyed opossum, Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758), and the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, in Camp du Tigre, French Guiana, is characterized. Nine species from the gastrointestinal system were recovered from both species, which shared 80% of their parasites. The parasite fauna comprised several monoxenous species (63%) and was dominated by Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1914, which exhibited high levels of prevalence and abundance in both communities. Only 2 species (Moennigia sp. and Spirura guianensis) had been recorded in other species of mammals. Both species richness and taxonomic composition at the level of component communities from this locality were compared against 11 communities present in the Virginia ( Didelphis virginiana ), white-bellied (Didelphis albiventris), and common opossum from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Neither host phylogeny nor taxonomy accounted for statistical differences in species richness. There was no statistical difference among species richness values among the 9 localities studied. Taxonomic similarity was analyzed by means of the Jaccard's similarity index, including all, and only common species (occurring in prevalence >10%). The results suggest that sympatric species of marsupials share more species of parasites than parasite communities occurring in conspecific marsupials from different localities. As a consequence, taxonomic composition of these parasite communities varied depending on the locality. Probably, marsupials of the monophyletic Didelphini offer the same compatibility toward their parasites, by presenting them with similar habitats. Subtle differences in lifestyles of the marsupials may determine the chance of encounter between the symbionts and prevent some parasites from completing their life cycles. Further and more rigorous tests are necessary to determine the roles of encounter and compatibility filters, as well as the role of

  8. Uterine didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Boram; Herndon, Christopher N; Rosen, Mitchell P; Wang, Z Jane; Daldrup-Link, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome is a rare complex of structural abnormalities of the female urogenital tract. A 17-year-old girl with uterine didelphys associated with OHVIRA syndrome presented with progressive development of cyclic lower abdominal discomfort and a large abdominopelvic mass. We describe the findings from ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the first case report of this syndrome to examine all three different imaging modalities in a single patient. We also review the literature on OHVIRA syndrome and discuss important considerations relevant to radiologists and other clinicians. PMID:27307842

  9. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  10. Plicae palmatae of the cervical canals in uterus didelphys: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Akiko; Koyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The plicae palmatae are normal endocervical folds on the anterior and posterior walls. The median longitudinal ridges of the plicae palmatae have been considered to represent a remnant of fused Müllerian ducts. We present a case of uterus didelphys in which the longitudinal ridge of the plicae palmatae were obviously demonstrated on both of the uterine cervices on axial T2-weighted image. The observation of the plicae palmatae on the duplicated uterine cervices indicates the plicae palmatae is an inherent structure of the cervical canal, not a remnant of fused Müllerian duct. PMID:22160342

  11. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  12. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Marie-Josée; Beauregard, France; Cabana, Thérèse; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL) from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC). We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC. PMID:26848758

  13. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Marie-Josée; Beauregard, France; Cabana, Thérèse; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL) from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC). We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC. PMID:26848758

  14. Novel use of a tracheobronchial stent in a patient with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Amber R.; Merritt, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a novel use for a tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after vaginal septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys. Design: Description of a novel technique Setting: University-affiliated Children’s Hospital Patient: One patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys who presented with hematometria and hematocolpos. Intervention: In order to maintain patency and decrease stenosis risk after vaginal septum excision, a coated tracheobronchial stent was deployed and left in place for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: To evaluate ease of stent placement and removal, re-epithelialization and patency of the neo-vagina, and post-operative assessment of pain and recurrent obstruction. Results: The tracheobroncheal stent was easily positioned and deployed with vaginoscopic guidance. Six weeks later it was removed without any tissue in-growth or granulation tissue noted. The vaginal walls were nicely epithelialized. Twelve months post-operatively the patient remained pain free with regular cycles and no evidence of obstruction or abnormality on ultrasound. Conclusion: Use of a coated tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina presents a safe, easy and effective option to diminish stenosis risk and avoid infectious complications or hysterectomy. PMID:19064265

  15. Different strategies of exploration and phenotypic variability of the locomotor behavior in new environment: Comparative study of the laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Klejbor, Ilona; Turlejski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous locomotor activity of opossums and Wistar rats during a two-hour session in the open field has been recorded, assessed and behavior of individuals of the two species compared. Afterwards, groups of highly active (HA) and low active (LA) opossums and rats were selected on the basis of the distance traveled in the test. Differences between the selected groups were evaluated. Opossums were generally more active, moving faster and covering longer distance. They spent more time in the central part of the open field and traveled across the center more times than rats, therefore they showed also a lower level of anxiety. These data confirm our previous results indicating that opossums preferentially use the risky exploration strategy while rats mainly rely on the defensive behavior. Opossums showed a higher variability of the volume of locomotor activity than rats. Comparison of the HA and LA groups of opossums and rats showed that in each species they differed on another principle: the level of anxiety in Wistar rats and level of locomotor activity in opossums. Therefore results of the open field test might measure different parameters in different species. PMID:23377274

  16. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic hyperpolarization of opossum esophageal circular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.; Murray, J.; Conklin, J.L.; Bates, J.N. )

    1991-03-15

    The electromyogram recorded from circular smooth muscle (SM) of opossum esophagus, either during peristalsis or when the intrinsic esophageal nerves are stimulated by an electrical field (EFS), consists of a hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. This membrane response results from the interaction of a nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitter with its receptors on SM membrane. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide (NO) were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of this NANC nerve-induced response. The transmembrane potential difference of circular SM cells of opossum esophagus was recorded with glass microelectrode. The nerve-mediated membrane response was evoked by EFS. L-NNA (50uM) abolished the initial hyperpolarization and reduced the amplitude of and the time to maximal depolarization. L-arginine (1mM), the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the effect of L-NNA. Neither L-NNA nor L-arginine altered the resting membrane potential. Exogenous NO produced hyperpolarization of SM membrane potential and attenuated the amplitude of EFS-induced hyperpolarization and depolarization. Nitrosocysteine, a NO-containing compound, also hyperpolarized the membrane potential. Effect of NO was neither blocked by L-NNA nor by TTX. The data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophageal SM membrane.

  17. In Situ Measurement of Epidermal Cell Turgor, Leaf Water Potential, and Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Brinckmann, Enno

    1985-01-01

    A combined system has been developed in which epidermal cell turgor, leaf water potential, and gas exchange were determined for transpiring leaves of Tradescantia virginiana L. Uniform and stable values of turgor were observed in epidermal cells (stomatal complex cells were not studied) under stable environmental conditions for both upper and lower epidermises. The changes in epidermal cell turgor that were associated with changes in leaf transpiration were larger than the changes in leaf water potential, indicating the presence of transpirationally induced within-leaf water potential gradients. Estimates of 3 to 5 millimoles per square meter per second per megapascal were obtained for the value of within-leaf hydraulic conductivity. Step changes in atmospheric humidity caused rapid changes in epidermal cell turgor with little or no initial change in stomatal conductance, indicating little direct relation between stomatal humidity response and epidermal water status. The significance of within-leaf water potential gradients to measurements of plant water potential and to current hypotheses regarding stomatal response to humidity is discussed. PMID:16664210

  18. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  19. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  20. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  1. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  2. Radiation esophagitis in the opossum: radioprotection with indomethacin. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Libshitz, H.I.; Osborne, B.M.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; West, J.H.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-five opossums were evaluated before irradiation by fiberoptic endoscopy and air-contrast barium esophagram examination. All animals received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co-irradiated in a single exposure to the entire esophagus and lower exophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with indomethacin. Acute esophagitis occurred 7 to 10 days postirradiation in control animals and was characterized by erythema, ulceration, and sloughing of esophageal mucosa as determined by air-contrast barium esophagram, endoscopy, and histology. Prostaglandin-treated animals showed more severe evidence of esophagitis than control animals. Indomethacin-treated animals showed no signs or only mild esophagitis posttreatment. It is concluded that indomethacin treatment may significantly reduce the severity of radiation esophagitis perhaps by blockade of prostaglandin synthesis.

  3. Particle size selection in cadmium uptake by the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, L.K.; Lasenby, D.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Fecal pellets of plankton play a key role in the recycling of trace contaminants within the aquatic environment. This is especially true for those plankton that undergo vertical migration in the water column. The opossum shrimp Mysis relicta is generally thought of as an omnivorous zooplankter occupying the pelagic zone of lakes, making itself available as a food source to a wide variety of fish. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the increase in concentration of metals from food source to fecal pellet. This study examines the feeding behavior of M. relicta to test the hypothesis that particle size selection can account for increased metal concentrations found in the fecal pellets of invertebrates.

  4. Odors as cues for orientation to mothers by weanling Virginia opossums

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether whole-body and pouch odors facilitate social cohesion between young Virginia opossums and their mothers just prior to weaning. In experiment 1, young oriented toward plastic buckets containing their mothers, directing significantly higher levels of investigative behavior and more distress vocalizations toward them than toward buckets containing unrelated lactating females. In experiment 2, young oriented toward and investigated empty buckets containing whole-body odors of their mothers more than empty buckets containing odors of other females. Similarly, more investigative behavior was directed toward plastic bucket lids containing pouch odors from subjects mothers than toward pouch odors from unrelated females in experiment 3. These results suggest that social odors help young didelphid marsupials maintain contact with their mothers, as in other mammals, and that whole-body and pouch gland odors are important chemical signals in this nongregarious species.

  5. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in the short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Gentles, Andrew J.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Kohany, Oleksiy; Gu, Wanjun; Batzer, Mark A.; Pollock, David D.; Jurka, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is notable for its large size (∼3.6 Gb). We characterized nearly 500 families of interspersed repeats from the Monodelphis. They cover ∼52% of the genome, higher than in any other amniotic lineage studied to date, and may account for the unusually large genome size. In comparison to other mammals, Monodelphis is significantly rich in non-LTR retrotransposons from the LINE-1, CR1, and RTE families, with >29% of the genome sequence comprised of copies of these elements. Monodelphis has at least four families of RTE, and we report support for horizontal transfer of this non-LTR retrotransposon. In addition to short interspersed elements (SINEs) mobilized by L1, we found several families of SINEs that appear to use RTE elements for mobilization. In contrast to L1-mobilized SINEs, the RTE-mobilized SINEs in Monodelphis appear to shift from G+C-rich to G+C-low regions with time. Endogenous retroviruses have colonized ∼10% of the opossum genome. We found that their density is enhanced in centromeric and/or telomeric regions of most Monodelphis chromosomes. We identified 83 new families of ancient repeats that are highly conserved across amniotic lineages, including 14 LINE-derived repeats; and a novel SINE element, MER131, that may have been exapted as a highly conserved functional noncoding RNA, and whose emergence dates back to ∼300 million years ago. Many of these conserved repeats are also present in human, and are highly over-represented in predicted cis-regulatory modules. Seventy-six of the 83 families are present in chicken in addition to mammals. PMID:17495012

  7. Nitric oxide suppresses a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl- current in smooth muscle cells of opossum esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Vogalis, F; Goyal, R K

    1998-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) hyperpolarizes visceral smooth muscles. Using the patch-clamp technique, we investigated the possibility that NO-mediated hyperpolarization in the circular muscle of opossum esophagus results from the suppression of a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl- current. Smooth muscle cells were dissociated from the circular layer and bathed in high-K+ Ca(2+)-EGTA-buffered solution. Macroscopic ramp currents were recorded from cell-attached patches. Contaminating K(+)-channel currents were blocked with tetrapentylammonium chloride (200 microM) added to all solutions. Raising bath Ca2+ concentration above 150 nM in the presence of A-23187 (10 microM) activated a leak current (IL-Ca) with an EC50 of 1.2 microM at -100 mV. The reversal potential (Erev) of IL-Ca (-8.5 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 8) was significantly different (P < 0.05) from Erev of the background current (+4.2 +/- 1.2 mV, n = 8). Equimolar substitution of 135 mM Cl- in the pipette solution with gluconate significantly shifted Erev of IL-Ca to +16.6 +/- 3.4 mV (n = 4) (P < 0.05 compared with background), whereas replacement of total Na+ with Tris+ suppressed IL-Ca but did not affect Erev (-15 +/- 3 mV, n = 3; P > 0.05). IL-Ca was inhibited by DIDS (500 microM). Diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (200 microM), a NO donor, and 8-bromo-cGMP (200 microM) suppressed IL-Ca by 59 +/- 15% (n = 5) and 62 +/- 21% (n = 4) at -100 mV, respectively. We conclude that in opossum esophageal smooth muscle NO-mediated hyperpolarization may be produced by suppression of a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl(-)-permeable conductance via formation of cGMP. PMID:9612270

  8. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E; Vandeberg, John L; Champagne, Donald E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa-e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n=3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7-14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21-84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  9. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol® Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol® Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Results: Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol® shampoo more than once. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol® Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia. PMID:25210333

  10. Uterus didelphys with an obstructed unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: A rare cause of dysmenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Gazi; Inan, Yücel; Küzılkale, Özge; Karateke, Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Didelphic uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare condition. It usually presents with pelvic pain following the menarche, dysmenorrhoea, and an increase in abdominal volume or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl who referred with recurrent pelvic pain, mainly at the time of menses, and irregular menstrual cycle complaints in this report. The patient underwent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis was performed. The diagnosis was uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesia. Laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Two separated hemiuteri and two cervices with hematometra and hematocolpos on the right side and ipsilateral renal agenesis were detected. The vaginal septum was excised completely and Strassman metroplasty was performed. Her complaints were resolved and she was absolutely asymptomatic after surgery. Diagnosis and management of this congenital anomaly is challenging due to the complexity of the anatomic structures, nonspecific complaints, and heterogenic presentation. These anomalies must always be considered while working-up female patients presenting with episodic abdominal pain and abdominopelvic mass. PMID:24592115

  11. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  12. Uterus didelphys with an obstructed unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: A rare cause of dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Gazi; Inan, Yücel; Küzılkale, Ozge; Karateke, Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Didelphic uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare condition. It usually presents with pelvic pain following the menarche, dysmenorrhoea, and an increase in abdominal volume or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl who referred with recurrent pelvic pain, mainly at the time of menses, and irregular menstrual cycle complaints in this report. The patient underwent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis was performed. The diagnosis was uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesia. Laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Two separated hemiuteri and two cervices with hematometra and hematocolpos on the right side and ipsilateral renal agenesis were detected. The vaginal septum was excised completely and Strassman metroplasty was performed. Her complaints were resolved and she was absolutely asymptomatic after surgery. Diagnosis and management of this congenital anomaly is challenging due to the complexity of the anatomic structures, nonspecific complaints, and heterogenic presentation. These anomalies must always be considered while working-up female patients presenting with episodic abdominal pain and abdominopelvic mass. PMID:24592115

  13. Structural and functional analyses of DM43, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Perales, Jonas; Fox, Jay W; Shannon, John D; Makino, Débora L; Garratt, Richard C; Domont, Gilberto B

    2002-04-12

    DM43, an opossum serum protein inhibitor of snake venom metalloproteinases, has been completely sequenced, and its disulfide bond pattern has been experimentally determined. It shows homology to human alpha(1)B-glycoprotein, a plasma protein of unknown function and a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family. Size exclusion and dynamic laser light scattering data indicated that two monomers of DM43, each composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, associated to form a homodimer in solution. Analysis of its glycan moiety showed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, and sialic acid, most probably forming four biantennary N-linked chains. DM43 inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activities of bothrolysin and jararhagin and formed 1:1 stoichiometric stable complexes with both metalloproteinases. DM43 was ineffective against atrolysin C or A. No complex formation was detected between DM43 and jararhagin C, indicating the essential role of the metalloproteinase domain for interaction. Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of a killer cell inhibitory receptor suggested the existence of an I-type Ig fold, a hydrophobic dimerization surface and six surface loops potentially forming the metalloproteinase-binding surface on DM43. PMID:11815628

  14. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  15. Seasonal population characteristics of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, James B.; DeGraeve, G.M.

    1972-01-01

    This study of depth distribution, abundance, growth, reproduction and standing crop of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan was based on monthly samples collected from August 1970 through July 1971 (except February and March). Population density was usually low at 10-20 fathoms, moderate at 25-30 fathoms and relatively high at 35 fathoms and deeper. Abundance was highest in midsummer and lowest in December. Free-living mysids were 3-25 mm long. Average growth rate was 1 mm per month. At maximum lengths, females were longer than males. Weight increased as approximately the cube of the length. The population consisted mostly of juveniles during summer and autumn and subadults and adults in winter and spring. Sizable numbers of adults apparently moved to relatively shallow water (10-35 fathoms) in winter, where they bred and released their young. In deeper water (40 fathoms or more), some reproduction occurred throughout the year. Most recruitment was in April and May. Standing crop ranged as high as 50 kg per hectare. Mysis apparently has a one-year life cycle in southeastern Lake Michigan.

  16. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-induced responses of opossum esophageal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Du, C.; Conklin, J.L.; Ledlow, A.; Bates, J.N. )

    1991-03-15

    Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nerves of the opossum esophagus mediate relaxation of circular muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the off contraction of circular esophageal muscle. The latencies between the end of the stimulus and the off contraction describe a gradient such that the latency is longest in muscle from the caudad esophagus. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of these nerve-induced responses. Both electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic esophageal nerves and exogenous NO relaxed LES muscle. Only EFS-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-NNA. L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the inhibitory effect of L-NNA. Exogenous NO neither relaxed nor contracted circular esophageal muscle. Both the amplitude and the latency of the off contraction were diminished by L-NNA. L-arginine antagonized the action of L-NNA. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine also attenuated the gradient in the latency of the off response by shortening latencies in muscle form the caudad esophagus. It had no effect on cholinergic nerve-induced contraction of longitudinal esophageal muscle. These data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophagus and LES.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed opossums (Didelphidae: Monodelphis): taxonomic implications and tests of evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Silvia E; Jansa, Sharon A; Voss, Robert S

    2014-10-01

    Short-tailed opossums (genus Monodelphis) represent one of the most speciose clades of New World marsupials, with 26 currently recognized species that collectively range from eastern Panama to northern Argentina. Here we present the first phylogenetic analyses of the genus based on dense taxonomic sampling and multiple genes. From most sampled species we obtained >4800bp of DNA sequence from one mitochondrial gene (CYTB), two autosomal exons (IRBP exon 1, BRCA1 exon 11), one autosomal intron (SLC38 intron 7), and one X-linked intron (OGT intron 14). Maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses of these data strongly support the monophyly of Monodelphis and recover six major clades within the genus. Additionally, our analyses support previous suggestions that several nominal taxa are synonyms of other species (M. "sorex" of M. dimidiata, M. "theresa" of M. scalops, M. "rubida" and M. "umbristriata" of M. americana, and M. "maraxina" of M. glirina). By contrast, four unnamed lineages recovered by our analyses may represent new species. Reconstructions of ancestral states of two discrete characters-dorsal pelage color pattern and habitat-suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Monodelphis was uniformly colored (with unpatterned dorsal pelage) and inhabited moist forest. Whereas some dorsal pelage patterns appear to have evolved homoplastically in Monodelphis, dorsal stripes may have had a unique historical origin in this genus. PMID:25017146

  18. Characteristics of albumin binding to opossum kidney cells and identification of potential receptors.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J; Nahorski, S; Walls, J

    1997-02-01

    Albumin re-absorption in the kidney proximal tubule may be pathophysiological in disease. Opossum kidney (OK) cell monolayers were used to investigate the characteristics of [125I]-labelled albumin binding at 4 degrees C. Two binding sites were identified, one with high affinity (KD 154.8 +/-7 mg/l) and low capacity, the other with low affinity (KD 8300 +/- 1000 mg/l) and high capacity. Binding was sensitive to lectins Glycine max and Ulex europaeus I, but not other lectins, indicating involvement of a glycoprotein(s) in the binding process. Binding was also sensitive to a number of agents known to inhibit binding to scavenger receptors. [125I]-Labelled albumin ligand blotting of OK cell membrane proteins identified several albumin-binding proteins with identical lectin affinities to those proteins mediating albumin binding to OK cell monolayers. These results provide initial evidence of the identity of albumin receptors in kidney tubules, and suggest that they may be members of the family of scavenger receptors. PMID:9000429

  19. Quantitative genetics of floral traits in a gynodioecious wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana: implications for the independent evolution of female and hermaphrodite floral phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ashman, T L

    1999-12-01

    The independent evolution of floral phenotype is an important part of the process of gender specialization during the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. However, we have little information on the genetic variation of floral traits in species with separate genders. Gynodioecious species (co-occurrence of females and hermaphrodites) have a breeding system intermediate between hermaphroditism and complete separation of the sexes (dioecy) and thus can provide insight into the genetic architecture underlying floral phenotype with respect to both primary (stamens and carpels) and secondary (petals) sexual traits. I used a nested breeding design to examine the potential for response to selection on floral traits and to examine whether this response would be similar in the two sex morphs of gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. There was significant genetic variation underlying all floral traits, although narrow-sense heritabilities (ranging from -0.25 to 0.44) were, in most cases, much lower than broad-sense ones (ranging from 0.28 to 1. 53). Moreover, the sex morphs differed significantly in their heritabilities for shared traits, such as stamen length, and showed a tendency towards differing significantly in others, like carpel number and petal length. In addition, correlations between the sex morphs for these traits (ranging from 0.41 to 0.58) were significantly greater than 0, but less than 1. These results indicate that greater sexual dimorphism could evolve in this population of F. virginiana, even if selection on these traits is not divergent. However, strong developmental integration of floral traits (e.g. stamen length and petal length) and high levels of nonadditive genetic variance may represent barriers to the evolution of complete sexual dimorphism. PMID:10651918

  20. Laparoscopic management of pregnancy in a patient with uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Nawfal, A Karim; Blacker, Charla M; Strickler, Ronald C; Eisenstein, David

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare and potentially lethal condition. The highest risk of rupture is reported to be during the late first and second trimester. The risk of rupture correlates with the thickness of the myometrium surrounding the fetal pole. In 2005, a 20-year-old woman was incompletely diagnosed by imaging studies and laparoscopy to have an absent right kidney, a bicornate uterus with a right rudimentary uterine horn and a single cervix, a transverse vaginal septum with hematocolpos, and endometriosis caused by reflux menstruation. The transverse vaginal septum was excised, and the surgeon observed a single cervix. Oral contraceptives were prescribed as complementary treatment for the endometriosis and associated dysmenorrhea. In 2009, magnetic resonance imaging confirmed resolution of hematocolpos and revealed a right cervix connected to the right horn of a uterus didelphys and covered by a partial longitudinal vaginal septum. The patient had a contraception failure and presented in 2010 at 9(6/7) weeks' gestation. By ultrasonography and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging, the pregnancy was in the right uterus and the corpus luteum was on the left ovary. The myometrium was thinned to 2 to 3 mm atop the gestational sac. Using the Harmonic ACE, laparoscopic excision of the right fallopian tube and a supracervical right hysterectomy with an intact pregnancy was performed. This case supports the Acién hypothesis that the vagina forms from both Müllerian and Wolffian duct elements, and it illustrates the risk for uterine rupture when pregnancy forms in a rudimentary structure; presumed transperitoneal migration of an ovum that was captured by the opposite fallopian tube; and surgical management of the in situ pregnancy by laparoscopic supracervical excision of the rudimentary uterine body. PMID:21545963

  1. Myosin isoform expression in the prehensile tails of didelphid marsupials: functional differences between arboreal and terrestrial opossums.

    PubMed

    Rupert, J E; Schmidt, E Cordero; Moreira-Soto, A; Herrera, B Rodríguez; Vandeberg, J L; Butcher, M T

    2014-08-01

    Prehensile tails are defined as having the ability to grasp objects and are commonly used as a fifth appendage during arboreal locomotion. Despite the independent evolution of tail prehensility in numerous mammalian genera, data relating muscle structure, physiology, and function of prehensile tails are largely incomplete. Didelphid marsupials make an excellent model to relate myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type with structure/function of caudal muscles, as all opossums have a prehensile tail and tail use varies between arboreal and terrestrial forms. Expanding on our previous work in the Virginia opossum, this study tests the hypothesis that arboreal and terrestrial opossums differentially express faster versus slower MHC isoforms, respectively. MHC isoform expression and percent fiber type distribution were determined in the flexor caudae longus (FCL) muscle of Caluromys derbianus (arboreal) and Monodelphis domestica (terrestrial), using a combination of gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry analyses. C. derbianus expresses three MHC isoforms (1, 2A, 2X) that are distributed (mean percentage) as 8.2% MHC-1, 2.6% 1/2A, and 89.2% 2A/X hybrid fibers. M. domestica also expresses MHC-1, 2A, and 2X, in addition to the 2B isoform, distributed as 17.0% MHC-1, 1.3% 1/2A, 9.0% 2A, 75.2% 2A/X, and 0.3% 2X/B hybrid fibers. The distribution of similar isoform fiber types differed significantly between species (P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, C. derbianus was observed to have larger cross-sectional area (CSA) for each corresponding fiber type along with a greater amount of extra-cellular matrix. An overall faster fiber type composition (and larger fibers) in the tail of an arboreal specialist supports our hypothesis, and correlates with higher muscle force required for tail hanging and arboreal maneuvering on terminal substrates. Conversely, a broader distribution of highly oxidative fibers in the caudal musculature is well suited for

  2. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  3. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the

  4. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26553608

  5. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Barbara; Liu, Xi; Corre, Erwan; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i) AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii) AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2%) exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at the onset of

  6. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Gasse, Barbara; Liu, Xi; Corre, Erwan; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i) AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii) AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2%) exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at the onset of

  7. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies. PMID:26867473

  8. Phylogenetic evaluation of taxonomic definition of didelphid mouse opossum of the genus Thylamys from valleys of Coquimbo region, Chile.

    PubMed

    Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Zúñiga-Reinoso, Álvaro; Cancino, Ricardo A; González-Acuña, Daniel; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Palma, R Eduardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Only two species of Didelphidae are currently recognized in Chile, the sister species Thylamys elegans, endemic of Mediterranean ecorregion and Thylamys pallidior, the inhabitant of the Puna and desert canyons. Three subspecies have been described for T. elegans: T. e. elegans, T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. soricinus. However, a recent study based on morphological analyses, synonymized T. elegans coquimbensis from the Coquimbo valleys (30-31° S) with T. pallidior and proposed that T. elegans and T. pallidior could be in sympatry at Coquimbo valleys between Fray Jorge (30°40'S) and Paiguano (30°02' S). We assess the current definition of T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. elegans, as well as this taxonomical conflict among the mouse opossums from the Coquimbo valleys through phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b mitochondrial gene sequences. In this study, for the first time, we used specimens from the type localities of T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. elegans. In addition, we analyzed diagnostic cranial structures for this taxonomic revision. The results supported two allopatric clades, allowing us to keep the taxonomic definition of T. e. elegans and T. e. coquimbensis as phylogenetic reciprocal monophyletic clades and polyphyletic with T. pallidior. This result corroborates previous morphological analyses, which support that mouse opossums from the Coquimbo valleys are T. e. coquimbensis, thus extending its geographic distribution to the coast of Coquimbo and Atacama regions. We don´t have evidence for sympatric distribution between T. elegans and T. pallidior in the Coquimbo region. PMID:27394783

  9. Ultrastructural aspects of oocyte growth in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    PubMed Central

    Falconnier, C; Kress, A

    1992-01-01

    The growth of the opossum Monodelphis oocyte does not correspond to the strict biphasic pattern so far described in eutherians and marsupials. The oocyte increases appreciably in size during the last stage of antral follicle development. During the primordial and primary follicle stage Balbiani bodies or paranuclear complexes are not detectable in Monodelphis oocytes. Organelles are randomly distributed. In addition to the nucleolus, perichromatin and ribonucleoprotein particles are other intranuclear structures which occur as regular components in the early Monodelphis oocyte. Clusters of particles are mostly seen in close association with the nuclear envelope. Similar material has been encountered in the cytoplasm as a type of freely-existing 'nuage' material but never as mitochondria-associated 'nuage' or 'cement'. Both types of particles, intranuclear and cytoplasmic, disappear by the time antral follicle formation begins. Mitochondria are at first of the typical transformed shape seen in most mammalian oocytes. They are large, round or oval in outline with a few, often arched, cristae and a light matrix. During the primary follicle stage, mitochondrial size and complexity decrease and the matrix becomes electron dense. A close relationship between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum appears early in the primordial and later in the primary follicle oocyte. Regularly detected structures in the ooplasm of preantrum oocytes are paired or 'confronting' cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum, which are lamellar complexes comprised of 2 or more parallel cisternae with intervening electron-dense material. The most conspicuous inclusions in the Monodelphis oocytes of the tertiary and graafian follicles are vesicles. All other organelles are confined to the peripheral zone of the oocyte. Golgi and endoplasmic vesicles both take part in the formation of multivesicular bodies which seems to be the starting point for the vesicle accumulation. Further increase in size

  10. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  11. Chromosome-wide profiling of X-chromosome inactivation and epigenetic states in fetal brain and placenta of the opossum, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Douglas, Kory C.; VandeBerg, John L.; Clark, Andrew G.; Samollow, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a few genes in diverse species suggests that X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in marsupials is characterized by exclusive, but leaky inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome. To study the phenomenon of marsupial XCI more comprehensively, we profiled parent-of-origin allele-specific expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications in fetal brain and extra-embryonic membranes in the gray, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The majority of X-linked genes (152 of 176 genes with trackable SNP variants) exhibited paternally imprinted expression, with nearly 100% of transcripts derived from the maternal allele; whereas 24 loci (14%) escaped inactivation, showing varying levels of biallelic expression. In addition to recently reported evidence of marsupial XCI regulation by the noncoding Rsx transcript, strong depletion of H3K27me3 at escaper gene loci in the present study suggests that histone state modifications also correlate strongly with opossum XCI. In contrast to mouse, the opossum did not show an association between X-linked gene expression and promoter DNA methylation, with one notable exception. Unlike all other X-linked genes examined, Rsx was differentially methylated on the maternal and paternal X chromosomes, and expression was exclusively from the inactive (paternal) X chromosome. Our study provides the first comprehensive catalog of parent-of-origin expression status for X-linked genes in a marsupial and sheds light on the regulation and evolution of imprinted XCI in mammals. PMID:24065774

  12. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    PubMed

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  13. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids.

    PubMed

    Rossano, M G; Kaneene, J B; Marteniuk, J V; Banks, B D; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2001-01-29

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona (the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) was performed on Michigan equids. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to S. neurona in Michigan equids and to identify specific risk factors for seropositivity. A random, weighted sample of Michigan horse farms (stratified by the state's opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population and the number of equids on each operation) was selected. Ninety-eight equine-operation owners agreed to participate, and blood collection occurred from late March through October of 1997. Data regarding the 98 farms' feeding and management practices were collected, as well as descriptive data for each of the 1121 individual horses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to S. neurona using a Western blot test. The true seroprevalence of antibodies specific to S. neurona was estimated to be 60%. Chi-square analysis showed that seroprevalence was lowest in the colder parts of the state that had the fewest opossums (P<0.0001). In two multivariable logistic-regression analyses with random effects grouped by herd, age and exposure to pasture were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, and feeding of sweet feed (grains mixed with molasses) was associated with decreased odds of testing positive. No association was found between farm size, animal gender, hay types, horse-housing types or exposure to natural surface water and seropositivity. PMID:11154784

  14. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods. PMID:25647587

  15. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  16. Sarcocyst Development in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) Inoculated with Different Strains of Sarcocystis neurona Culture-Derived Merozoites.

    PubMed

    Dryburgh, E L; Marsh, A E; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Reed, S M; Bolten, K E; Pei, W; Saville, W J A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the United States; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon muscles, and raccoons also develop clinical signs simulating EPM. The focus of this study was to determine if sarcocysts would develop in raccoons experimentally inoculated with different host-derived strains of in vitro-cultivated S. neurona merozoites. Four raccoons were inoculated with strains derived from a raccoon, a sea otter, a cat, and a horse. Raccoon tissues were fed to laboratory-raised opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ), the definitive host of S. neurona . Intestinal scraping revealed sporocysts in opossums who received muscle tissue from raccoons inoculated with the raccoon-derived or the sea otter-derived isolates. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can mature in raccoons inoculated with in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites. In contrast, the horse and cat-derived isolates did not produce microscopically or biologically detected sarcocysts. Immunoblot analysis revealed both antigenic and antibody differences when testing the inoculated raccoons. Immunohistochemical staining indicated differences in staining between the merozoite and sarcocyst stages. The successful infections achieved in this study indicates that the life cycle can be manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, thereby allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle. PMID:25811893

  17. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  18. Primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma of gastric type arising in adenosis: a report of 2 cases, 1 associated with uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Talia, Karen L; Scurry, James; Manolitsas, Thomas; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in adenosis in nondiethylstilbestrol-exposed women, 1 with uterus didelphys. Both tumors exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical features (MUC6 and/or HIK 1083 positivity) identical to the recently described cervical gastric-type adenocarcinoma, a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma that is non-human papillomavirus related and possibly related to adenoma malignum. Both neoplasms were intensely p53 positive, suggesting that TP53 mutation may be implicated in their development. We believe that the vaginal tumors arose from adenosis through atypical adenosis, as benign and atypical glands were present at the periphery of the neoplasms. In reporting these cases, we discuss atypical adenosis and other types of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated vaginal adenocarcinomas. At least 9 other examples of primary vaginal, or more uncommonly cervical, adenocarcinomas arising in non-diethylstilbestrol-exposed women with congenital genitourinary malformations have been reported, suggesting a probable causal association between congenital malformation, vaginal adenosis, and vaginal adenocarcinoma. PMID:22317878

  19. Sex differences and the development of social behavior in a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H; Corbett, A

    1997-06-01

    The effects of sex and age on social behavior were examined in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), small didelphid marsupials. Each animal received five behavior test batteries spanning prepubertal to postpubertal ages. Each test battery consisted of two tests with animals of the same age, one with a male and one with a female. Precopulatory behavior toward females, intermale fighting requiring test interruptions as well as scent marking behavior were seen at higher levels in males than in females and were seen more frequently around and after puberty than before puberty. Females showed more threat behavior than males in mixed-sex and in same-sex interactions. This sex difference was apparent after puberty in tests with male partners and prior to as well as around puberty in tests with female partners. Because climbing over and boxing with another animal were seen more frequently prior to than after puberty, these behaviors may be elements of play fighting (i.e. attack and defense without submission and threat). These findings are discussed with respect to the role of gonadal hormones in the organization and activation of behavior and with reference to their comparative significance in mammals. PMID:9177557

  20. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  1. Torpor at high ambient temperature in a neotropical didelphid, the grey short-tailed opossum ( Monodelphis domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Sebastian; Lutter, Dominik; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W.

    2014-11-01

    The grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, has been an established research animal for more than five decades, but relatively, little is known about its thermophysiology. Here we studied core body temperature ( T b) and metabolic rate (MR) of female adult M. domestica housed in the laboratory at an ambient temperature ( T a) of 26 °C. In expanding previous reports, the average recorded core T b of M. domestica was 34.3 °C. The T b of an individual M. domestica can drop below 30 °C (minimal T b: 28.6 °C) accompanied by a reduction in MR of up to 52 % even while having ad libitum access to food. These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of spontaneous torpor in M. domestica. Metabolic suppression at relatively high T a and T b furthermore broadens our perspective on the use of torpor as a metabolic strategy not just restricted to cold climates.

  2. Perinatal exposure to estradiol masculinizes aspects of sexually dimorphic behavior and morphology in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H

    2000-02-01

    The effects on adult sexually dimorphic behavior of perinatal exposure to estrogen were examined by treating male and female gray opossums with estradiol (EST), an estrogen receptor antagonist (tamoxifen:TX) or oil control (OIL) during the first week of life, a time period corresponding in this marsupial to late gestation in rodent species. Following gonadectomy and replacement therapy with testosterone in adulthood, males showed more scent-marking behavior than females and EST animals showed more scent marking than TX or OIL animals. Also, phalluses were longer and body weight was higher in males than in females and in EST-treated animals than in TX-treated animals; OIL animals were intermediate in these morphological measures. EST animals of both sexes showed less female-typical screeching threat behavior than OIL or TX animals. Because these hormone manipulations were conducted on the "fetus" directly in this marsupial (rather than via the maternal circulation as in previously studied eutherian species), these findings provide unique confirming evidence for masculinization of aspects of behavior and morphology by early exposure to estradiol in mammals. PMID:10712860

  3. Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome) suspected on the presence of hydrocolpos on prenatal sonography.

    PubMed

    Han, Byoung Hee; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Kyung Sang; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a female neonate with ipsilateral renal agenesis and uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina, also known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome. Prenatal sonography revealed the absence of the left kidney and a retrovesical cystic lesion suspected as hydrometrocolpos. Postnatal evaluation confirmed that the cystic lesion was a hydrocolpos associated with double uterus and blind hemivagina (HWW syndrome). HWW syndrome can be suspected prenatally if a retrovesical cystic lesion is detected in a female fetus with unilateral absence of kidney. PMID:22678931

  4. The impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on divergence times and historical population sizes in Thylamys opossums from the Andes.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Jansa, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Climate oscillations during the Quaternary altered the distributions of terrestrial animals at a global scale. In mountainous regions, temperature fluctuations may have led to shifts in range size and population size as species tracked their shifting habitats upslope or downslope. This creates the potential for both allopatric speciation and population size fluctuations, as species are either constrained to smaller patches of habitat at higher elevations or able to expand into broader areas at higher latitudes. We considered the impact of climate oscillations on three pairs of marsupial species from the Andes (Thylamys opossums) by inferring divergence times and demographic changes. We compare four different divergence dating approaches, using anywhere from one to 26 loci. Each pair comprises a northern (tropical) lineage and a southern (subtropical to temperate) lineage. We predicted that divergences would have occurred during the last interglacial (LIG) period approximately 125 000 years ago and that population sizes for northern and southern lineages would either contract or expand, respectively. Our results suggest that all three north-south pairs diverged in the late Pleistocene during or slightly after the LIG. The three northern lineages showed no signs of population expansion, whereas two southern lineages exhibited dramatic, recent expansions. We attribute the difference in responses between tropical and subtropical lineages to the availability of 'montane-like' habitats at lower elevations in regions at higher latitudes. We conclude that climate oscillations of the late Quaternary had a powerful impact on the evolutionary history of some of these species, both promoting speciation and leading to significant population size shifts. PMID:25809909

  5. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Callaway, Jennifer K; Ek, C Joakim; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7) or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling), which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the apparent absence of

  6. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase reduce receptor-mediated endocytosis in opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Sidaway, James E; Davidson, Robert G; McTaggart, Fergus; Orton, Terry C; Scott, Robert C; Smith, Graham J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-09-01

    Renal proximal tubule cells are responsible for the reabsorption of proteins that are present in the tubular lumen. This occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process that has a requirement for some GTP-binding proteins. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase used for the therapeutic reduction of cholesterol-containing plasma lipoproteins. However, they can also reduce intracellular levels of isoprenoid pyrophosphates that are derived from the product of the enzyme, mevalonate, and are required for the prenylation and normal function of GTP-binding proteins. The hypothesis that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in renal proximal tubule cells could reduce receptor mediated-endocytosis was therefore tested. Five different statins inhibited the uptake of FITC-labeled albumin by the proximal tubule-derived opossum kidney cell line in a dose-dependent manner and in the absence of cytotoxicity. The reduction in albumin uptake was related to the degree of inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Simvastatin (e.g., statin) inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis of both FITC-albumin and FITC-beta(2)-microglobulin to similar extents but without altering the binding of albumin to the cell surface. The effect on albumin endocytosis was prevented by mevalonate and by the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not by cholesterol. Finally, evidence that the inhibitory effect of statins on endocytosis of proteins may be caused by reduced prenylation and thereby decreased function of one or more GTP-binding proteins is provided. These data establish the possibility in principle that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins in proximal tubule cells may reduce tubular protein reabsorption. PMID:15339975

  7. Comparative Myology and Evolution of Marsupials and Other Vertebrates, With Notes on Complexity, Bauplan, and "Scala Naturae".

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Molnar, Julia L

    2016-09-01

    Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa. Our data indicate that there were many more muscle synapomorphic changes from the last common ancestor (LCA) of amniotes to the mammalian LCA (63) and from this LCA to the LCA of extant therians (48) than from this latter LCA to the LCA of extant placentals (10 or 11). Importantly, Didelphis is anatomically more plesiomorphic (only 14 changes from LCA of extant therians) than are rats (37 changes) and humans (63 changes), but its musculature is more complex (193 muscles) than that of humans (only 180 muscles). Of the 194 muscles of Didelphis, 172 (89%) are present in rats, meaning that their adult muscle anatomy is indeed very similar. This similarity supports the existence of a common, easy recognizable therian Bauplan, but one that is caused by developmental constraints and by evolutionary change driven by the needs of the embryos/neonates, rather than by a "goal" toward a specific adult plan/"archetype," as the name Bauplan suggests. Anat Rec, 299:1224-1255, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27342702

  8. A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Rhodes Jr., Olin E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  9. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James C; Atwood, Todd C; Byrne, Michael E; Vercauteren, Kurt C; Johnson, Shylo R; Rhodes, Olin E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but repeated

  10. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  11. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodaminemore » B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  12. Asp-ase Activity of the Opossum Granzyme B Supports the Role of Granzyme B as Part of Anti-Viral Immunity Already during Early Mammalian Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhirong; Thorpe, Michael; Akula, Srinivas; Hellman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Granzyme B is one of the key effector molecules in our defense against viruses and intracellular bacteria. This serine protease together with the pore forming protein perforin, induces caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis in target cells. Here we present the first characterization of a granzyme B homolog, the grathepsodenase, in a non-placental mammal, the American opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The recombinant enzyme was produced in a human cell line and used to study its primary and extended cleavage specificity using a panel of chromogenic substrates and recombinant protein substrates. The opossum granzyme B was found to have a specificity similar to human granzyme B, although slightly less restrictive in its extended specificity. The identification of a granzyme B homolog with asp-ase (cleaving after aspartic acid) specificity in a non-placental mammal provides strong indications that caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis by a serine protease with a conserved primary specificity has been part of anti-viral immunity since early mammalian evolution. This finding also indicates that an asp-ase together with a chymase were the first two serine protease genes to appear in the mammalian chymase locus. PMID:27152961

  13. Asp-ase Activity of the Opossum Granzyme B Supports the Role of Granzyme B as Part of Anti-Viral Immunity Already during Early Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhirong; Thorpe, Michael; Akula, Srinivas; Hellman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Granzyme B is one of the key effector molecules in our defense against viruses and intracellular bacteria. This serine protease together with the pore forming protein perforin, induces caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis in target cells. Here we present the first characterization of a granzyme B homolog, the grathepsodenase, in a non-placental mammal, the American opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The recombinant enzyme was produced in a human cell line and used to study its primary and extended cleavage specificity using a panel of chromogenic substrates and recombinant protein substrates. The opossum granzyme B was found to have a specificity similar to human granzyme B, although slightly less restrictive in its extended specificity. The identification of a granzyme B homolog with asp-ase (cleaving after aspartic acid) specificity in a non-placental mammal provides strong indications that caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis by a serine protease with a conserved primary specificity has been part of anti-viral immunity since early mammalian evolution. This finding also indicates that an asp-ase together with a chymase were the first two serine protease genes to appear in the mammalian chymase locus. PMID:27152961

  14. Action of anti-bothropic factor isolated from Didelphis marsupialis on renal effects of Bothrops erythromelas venom.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alice M C; Sousa, Fabiola C M; Barbosa, Paulo S F; Toyama, Marcos H; Toyama, Daniela O; Aprígio, Cleidiana C; Queiroz, Maria G R; Guarnieri, Mirian C; Havt, Alexandre; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Fonteles, Manassés C; Monteiro, Helena S A

    2005-11-01

    Acute renal failure is the most common complication in the lethal cases caused by snakebites in Brazil. Among the Brazilian venom snakes, Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for the majority of accidents in Northeastern Brazil. Didelphis marsupialis serum could inhibit myonecrotic, hemorrhagic, edematogenic hyperalgesic and lethal effects of envenomation determined by ophidian bites. In the present study, we evaluated the action of the anti-bothropic factor isolated from D. marsupialis on the renal effects promoted by B. erythromelas venom without systemic interference. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin. We analyzed renal perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), and the percentages of sodium and potassium tubular transport (%TNa+, %TK+). The B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) decreased the PP (ct = 108.71+/-5.09 mmHg; BE = 65.21+/-5.6 mmHg*) and RVR (ct = 5.76+/-0.65 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1); BE = 3.10+/-0.45 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1)*). On the other hand, the GFR decreased at 60 min (ct60 = 0.76+/-0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE60 = 0.42+/-0.12 mL g(-1) min(-1)*) and increased at 120 min (ct120 = 0.72+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE120 = 1.24+/-0.26 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The UF increased significantly when compared with the control group (ct = 0.14+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE = 0.47+/-0.08 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The venom reduced the %TNa(+) (ct90 = 79.18+/-0.88%; BE90 = 58.35+/-4.86%*) and %TK+ (ct90 = 67.20+/-4.04%; BE90 = 57.32+/-5.26%*) The anti-bothropic factor from D. marsupialis (10 microg mL(-1)) incubated with B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) blocked the effects on PP, RVR, %TNa+, and %TK+, but was not able to reverse the effects in UF and GFR promoted by venom alone. However, the highest concentration of D. marsupialis serum (30 microg mL(-1)) reversed all the renal effects induced by the venom. In

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in the Proteome Following Complete Spinal Cord Transection in a Postnatal South American Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Natassya M.; Steer, David L.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Ek, C. Joakim; Truettner, Jessie S.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Richardson, Samantha J.; Smith, A. Ian; VandeBerg, John L.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2011-01-01

    Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica), the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P) 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%), metabolism (26%), inflammation (19%) and structure (15%). More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3), brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were different for

  16. Albumin stimulates p44/p42 extracellular-signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Brunskill, N J

    2000-03-01

    The presence of protein in the urine of patients with renal disease is an adverse prognostic feature. It has therefore been suggested that proteinuria per se may be responsible for the development of renal tubulo-interstitial scarring and fibrosis, and disturbances in tubular cell growth and proliferation. We have used the opossum kidney proximal tubular cell line to investigate the effects of albumin on cell growth. The effect of albumin on cell proliferation was investigated by cell counting and measurement of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. We studied the effect of recombinant human albumin on the activity of p44/p42 extracellular-signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase ) using an in vitro kinase assay, and immunoblotting with antibodies against active extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The effects of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 were also examined. Recombinant human albumin was found to stimulate proliferation of opossum kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal stimulation at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In addition, recombinant human albumin activated ERK in a time-dependent (maximal after 5 min) and dose-dependent (maximal at 1 mg/ml) fashion. These effects on cell proliferation and ERK activity were inhibited by PD98059, and were not reproduced by ovalbumin or mannitol. The data therefore indicate that albumin is able to stimulate growth and proliferation of proximal tubular cells that is dependent on the ERK family of MAP kinases. The potential importance of this pathway in the development of renal disease is discussed. PMID:10677388

  17. Functional conservation of the lncRNA NEAT1 in the ancestrally diverged marsupial lineage: Evidence for NEAT1 expression and associated paraspeckle assembly during late gestation in the opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Souquere, Sylvie; Vernochet, Cécile; Heidmann, Thierry; Pierron, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely expressed and play various roles in cell homeostasis. However, because of their low conservation at the sequence level, recapitulating lncRNA evolutionary history is often challenging. While performing an ultrastructural analysis of viral particles present in uterine glands of gestating opossum females, we serendipitously noticed the presence of numerous structures similar to paraspeckles, nuclear bodies which in human and mouse cells are assembled around an architectural NEAT1/MENϵ/β lncRNA. Here, using an opossum kidney (OK) cell line, we confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy the presence of paraspeckles in marsupials. We then identified the orthologous opossum NEAT1 gene which, although poorly conserved at the sequence level, displays NEAT1 characteristic features such as short and long isoforms expressed from a unique promoter and for the latter an RNase P cleavage site at its 3'-end. Combining tissue-specific qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization at the optical and electron microscopic levels, we show that (i) NEAT1 is paraspeckle-associated in opossum (ii) NEAT1 expression is strongly induced in late gestation in uterine/placental extracts (iii) NEAT1 induction occurs in the uterine gland nuclei in which paraspeckles were detected. Finally, treatment of OK cells with proteasome inhibitors induces paraspeckle assembly, as previously observed in human cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate that paraspeckles are tissue-specific, stress-responding nuclear bodies in marsupials, illustrating their structural and functional continuity over 200 My of evolution throughout the mammalian lineage. In contrast, the rapid evolution of the NEAT1 transcripts highlights the relaxed constraint that, despite functional conservation, is exerted on this lncRNA. PMID:27315396

  18. Implications of raccoon latrines in the epizootiology of baylisascariasis.

    PubMed

    Page, L K; Swihart, R K; Kazacos, K R

    1999-07-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) frequently establish defecation sites, termed latrines, on large logs, stumps, rocks, and other horizontally oriented structures/surfaces. These latrines are important foci of infective eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis, a nematode parasite of raccoons which is pathogenic to numerous species of mammals and birds. To examine the role of raccoon latrines in this animal-parasite interaction, we documented animal visitations to raccoon latrines in two large forested tracts and two woodlots in Indiana (USA) during 1994 and 1995. Species richness of vertebrate visitors did not differ between sites or years, but species composition differed by site and year. Fourteen mammal and 15 bird species were documented visiting raccoon latrines. Small granivorous mammals, including white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, S. niger, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) were the most common visitors to latrine sites. White-footed mice, chipmunks, white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were photographed foraging on undigested seeds in raccoon feces. Active foraging at latrines also was shown experimentally; seeds embedded in raccoon feces were removed at a greater rate at latrine sites than at nonlatrines. We conclude that raccoon latrines are visited routinely by a variety of vertebrates, especially small granivorous rodents and birds which forage for seeds in raccoon feces, and that raccoon latrines are probable sites of transmission of B. procyonis to susceptible mammals and birds. PMID:10479081

  19. A novel Sarcocystis-associated encephalitis and myositis in racing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Olias, P; Gruber, A D; Heydorn, A O; Kohls, A; Mehlhorn, H; Hafez, H M; Lierz, M

    2009-04-01

    Sarcosporidian cysts in the skeletal muscle of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) have previously been attributed to infection with Sarcocystis falcatula, which is shed in the faeces of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Here, we describe fatal spontaneous encephalitis and myositis associated with Sarcocystis infections in three flocks of racing pigeons with 47 of 244 animals affected. The clinical course was characterized by depression, mild diarrhoea, torticollis, opisthotonus, paralysis and trembling. Histopathological examination of 13 pigeons revealed generalized severe granulomatous and necrotizing meningoencephalitis and myositis with sarcosporidian cysts. Light and transmission electron microscopy identified cysts in heart and skeletal muscle of 1 to 2 mm in length and 20 to 50 microm in width. These were subdivided into small chambers by fine septae and filled with lancet-shaped cystozoites (7.5 x 1.5 microm) and dividing metrocytes, which is characteristic for Sarcocystis. The cysts had smooth walls and were devoid of protrusions typical of S. falcatula. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and the complete 28S rRNA identified a novel Sarcocystis species with only 51% ITS-1 nucleotide sequence similarity with S. falcatula. A phylogenetic comparison of the 28S rRNA revealed close sequence homologies with Frenkelia microti, Frenkelia glareoli and Sarcocystis neurona. The clinical, histopathological, electron microscopic and genetic data are unlike any previously described protozoan infections in pigeons, suggesting a novel, severe disease due to an as yet undescribed Sarcocystis species. PMID:19322710

  20. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  1. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  2. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  3. Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.

    PubMed

    Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

    1988-10-01

    As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

  4. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, B.L.; Kus, B.E.; Deutschman, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  5. Phylogenetic footprint analysis of IGF2 in extant mammals.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jennifer R; Murphy, Susan K; Nolan, Catherine M; Dietrich, Fred S; Jirtle, Randy L

    2004-09-01

    Genomic imprinting results in monoallelic gene transcription that is directed by cis-acting regulatory elements epigenetically marked in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. We performed phylogenetic sequence and epigenetic comparisons of IGF2 between the nonimprinted platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and imprinted opossum (Didelphis virginiana), mouse (Mus musculus), and human (Homo sapiens) to determine if their divergent imprint status would reflect differences in the conservation of genomic elements important in the regulation of imprinting. We report herein that IGF2 imprinting does not correlate evolutionarily with differential intragenic methylation, nor is it associated with motif 13, a reported IGF2-specific "imprint signature" located in the coding region. Instead, IGF2 imprinting is strongly associated with both the lack of short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) and an intragenic conserved inverted repeat that contains candidate CTCF-binding sites, a role not previously ascribed to this particular sequence element. Our results are the first to demonstrate that comparative footprint analysis of species from evolutionarily distant mammalian clades, and exhibiting divergent imprint status is a powerful bioinformatics-based approach for identifying cis-acting elements potentially involved not only in the origins of genomic imprinting, but also in its maintenance in humans. PMID:15342558

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals. PMID:24807356

  7. High Prevalence of Porocephalus crotali Infection on a Barrier Island (Cumberland Island) off the Coast of Georgia, with Identification of Novel Intermediate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Cleveland, Christopher A; Ruckdeschel, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Porocephalus crotali is a pentastomid parasite that uses crotaline snakes as definitive hosts and a variety of rodents as intermediate hosts. A study of definitive and intermediate pentastome hosts on Cumberland Island, Georgia, revealed high prevalence of P. crotali infection in crotalid snakes as well as several mammalian species. Despite the presence of numerous nymphs in some animals, clinical signs of disease were not observed. In intermediate hosts, the liver, mesentery, and reproductive organs were most commonly infected. No gross evidence of tissue damage was noted in association with the numerous encysted nymphal pentastomes, and histopathology demonstrated minimal reaction to the encysted nymphs. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the parasites were P. crotali. In contrast to many previous reports in rodents, the prevalence on this barrier island was high, and this is the first report of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and any insectivore species as intermediate hosts. Although generally not considered pathogenic, the long-term consequences of high nymph intensities on individuals deserve attention. PMID:26042344

  8. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    PubMed

    Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  10. The early development of major projections from caudal levels of the spinal cord to the brainstem and cerebellum in the gray short-tailed Brazilian opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y Q; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1993-09-17

    The Brazilian short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born 14-15 days after copulation and is available for experimentation at stages of development corresponding to those which occur in utero in placental mammals. In the present study, we took advantage of the opossum's embryology to study the development of projections from caudal levels of the spinal cord to the brainstem and cerebellum using axonal tracing methods. In all cases, a 2-3 day survival time was used for axonal transport. When injections of Fast blue (FB) were made into caudal levels of the thoracic cord at postnatal day (PD) 1 or 2, axonal labeling could not be identified at supraspinal levels. When injections were made at PD3, however, labeled axons were found in the fasciculus gracilis at caudal medullary levels, within the ventrolateral medulla and pons, within an incipient inferior cerebellar peduncle, and within the cerebellar anlage. The dorsal root origin of at least some of the axons within the fasciculus gracilis was evidenced by the transganglionic transport of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase from the hindlimbs. After FB injections at PD7, a few labeled axons could be traced from the fasciculus gracilis into the nucleus gracilis and from the ventrolateral pathway to the inferior olive. Generally comparable results were obtained using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). In cases injected with FB at PD9, the pattern of brainstem labeling was adult-like. Although labeled axons were present within the cerebellum of animals injected with FB on PD3, they were limited to the marginal zone. Axonal labeling was present within an identifiable internal granular layer in cases injected with either FB or WGA-HRP at PD16, and it appeared to be limited to specific bands which foreshadowed those seen at later stages of development and in the adult animal. In some cases, labeled axons were present within the molecular layer where they were not