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Sample records for opossum didelphis virginiana

  1. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  2. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  3. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; et al

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  4. Prevalence of sarcocystis species sporocysts in wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    2000-08-01

    Sarcocystis sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings from 24 (54.5%) of 44 opossums (Didelphis virginiana). The number of sporocysts varied from a few (< 10,000) to 245 million. Sporocysts from 23 of 24 opossums were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatas), and the inocula from 21 opossums were infective, indicating the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. Sporocysts from 24 opossums were fed to gamma-interferon-knockout (KO) or nude mice; inocula from 14 opossums were infective to mice. Sarcocystis neurona was detected in tissues of KO mice by specific staining with anti-S. neurona antibodies, and the parasite was cultured in vitro from the brains of KO mice fed sporocysts from 8 opossums. Sarcocystis speeri was identified by specific staining with anti-S. speeri antibodies in tissues of KO mice fed inocula from 8 opossums; 3 opossums had mixed S. neurona and S. speeri infections. Thus, the prevalences of sporocysts of different species of Sarcocystis in opossums were: S. falcatula 21 of 44 (47.7%), S. neurona 8 of 44 (18.1%), and S. speeri 8 of 44 (18.1%) opossums. Sarcocystis neurona alone was found in 1 opossum, and S. speeri alone was found in 1 opossum. Mixed Sarcocystis infections were present in 21 opossums. PMID:10958444

  5. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico. PMID:27200271

  6. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Castro, M.; Noh-Pech, H.; Puerto-Hernández, R.; Reyes-Hernández, B.; Panti-May, A.; Hernández-Betancourt, S.; Yeh-Gorocica, A.; González-Herrera, L.; Zavala-Castro, J.; Puerto, F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico. PMID:27200271

  7. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California.

    PubMed

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Miller, Melissa A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Nichelason, Amy E; Melli, Ann C; Packham, Andrea E; Jessup, David A; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoal parasite shed by opossums (Didelphis virginiana), has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in horses, sea otters, and other marine mammals. Over the course of 3 years (fall 2005-summer 2008), opossums from central California were tested for infection with S. neurona. Of 288 opossums sampled, 17 (5.9%) were infected with S. neurona based on the molecular characterization of sporocysts from intestinal scrapings or feces. Risk factors evaluated for association with S. neurona infection in opossums included: age, sex, location, season, presence of pouch young in females, concomitant infection, and sampling method (live-trapped or traffic-killed). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that opossums in the Central Valley were 9 times more likely to be infected than those near the coast (p=0.009). Similarly, opossum infection was 5 times more likely to be detected during the reproductive season (March-July; p=0.013). This first investigation of S. neurona infection prevalence and associated risk factors in opossums in the western United States can be used to develop management strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of S. neurona infections in susceptible hosts, including horses and threatened California sea otters (Enhydra lutris neries). PMID:19735983

  9. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Bowman, D D; Horton, K M; Venturini, C; Venturini, L

    2000-06-01

    Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum Didelphis albiventris was successfully transmitted to the North American opossum Didelphis virginiana. Sporocysts from a naturally infected D. albiventris from Argentina were fed to 2 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. The mice were killed 64 and 71 days after sporocyst feeding (DAF). Muscles containing sarcocysts from the KO mouse killed 71 DAF were fed to a captive D. virginiana; this opossum shed sporocysts 11 days after ingesting sarcocysts. Sporocysts from D. virginiana were fed to 9 KO mice and 4 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Schizonts, sarcocysts, or both of S. speeri were found in tissues of all 7 KO mice killed 29-85 DAF; 2 mice died 39 and 48 DAF were not necropsied. Sarcocystis stages were not found in tissues of the 4 budgerigars fed S. speeri sporocysts and killed 35 DAE These results indicate that S. speeri is distinct from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona, and that S. speeri is present in both D. albiventris and D. virginiana. PMID:10864267

  10. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  11. DNA barcodes effectively identify the morphologically similar Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from areas of sympatry in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Fernando A; Arcangeli, Jésica; Hortelano-Moncada, Yolanda; Borisenko, Alex V

    2010-12-01

    Two morphologically similar species of opossum from the genus Didelphis-Didelphis virginiana and Didelphis marsupialis-cooccur sympatrically in Mexico. High intraspecific variation complicates their morphological discrimination, under both field and museum conditions. This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of using DNA barcodes (short standardized genome fragments used for DNA-based identification) to distinguish these two species. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) mitochondrial gene were obtained from 12 D. marsupialis and 29 D. virginiana individuals and were compared using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm with Kimura's two-parameter (K2P) model of nucleotide substitution. Average K2P distances were 1.56% within D. virginiana and 1.65% in D. marsupialis. Interspecific distances between D. virginiana and D. marsupialis varied from 7.8 to 9.3% and their barcode sequences formed distinct non-overlapping clusters on NJ trees. All sympatric specimens of both species were effectively discriminated, confirming the utility of Cox1 barcoding as a tool for taxonomic identification of these morphologically similar taxa. PMID:21271858

  12. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California

    PubMed Central

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A.; Grigg, Michael E.; Crosbie, Paul R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. PMID:20226596

  13. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    PubMed

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. PMID:20226596

  14. Sarcocystis speeri N. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    1999-10-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is host to at least 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystisfalcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, and a recently recognized Sarcocystis sp. A new name, Sarcocystis speeri, is proposed for the third unnamed Sarcocystis. Immunodeficient mice are an experimental intermediate host for S. speeri. Sarcocystis speeri sporocysts are 12-15 x 8-10 microm in size, and its schizonts are found in many organs of mice. Sarcocysts of S. speeri are found in skeletal muscles and they are up to 5 mm long and filiform. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall is thin (<1 microm thick); ultrastructurally, the cyst wall is up to 1.8 microm thick and has characteristic steeple-shaped villar protrusions surmounted by a spire. Sarcocystis speeri schizonts are morphologically and antigenically distinct from schizonts of S. neurona, and S. speeri sporocysts were not infective to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). PMID:10577729

  15. CUTANEOUS EPITHELIOTROPIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA WITH METASTASES IN A VIRGINIA OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA).

    PubMed

    Higbie, Christine T; Carpenter, James W; Choudhary, Shambhunath; DeBey, Brad; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Eshar, David

    2015-06-01

    A 2-yr-old, captive, intact female Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) with a 7-mo history of ulcerative dermatitis and weight loss was euthanatized for progressive worsening of clinical signs. Initially the opossum was treated with several courses of antibiotics, both topically and systemically; systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication; and, later, systemic glucocorticoids, with no improvement in clinical signs. Histopathologic samples of skin lesions taken 3 mo into the course of disease revealed no evidence of neoplasia; however, cytologic samples of a skin lesion taken 5 mo into the course of disease revealed mature lymphocytes, and were suggestive of cutaneous lymphoma. Postmortem histopathology revealed neoplastic cells consistent with lymphoma; these were found in the haired skin of the forearm, axilla, hind limb, face, and lateral body wall, as well as the liver, kidney, axillary lymph node, heart, and spleen. Multifocal neutrophilic and eosinophilic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis and folliculitis of the haired skin were also present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of cutaneous lymphoma in a Virginia opossum and the first documented case with visceral metastases in a marsupial. PMID:26056906

  16. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum

  17. Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. PMID:23152195

  18. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Karla A.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated), four joeys were noninoculated (exposed), and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums. PMID:22701815

  19. Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Fenger, C K; Granstrom, D E; Gajadhar, A A; Williams, N M; McCrillis, S A; Stamper, S; Langemeier, J L; Dubey, J P

    1997-02-01

    Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts developing in the leg muscles. Sparrows were euthanized 13 and 17 wpi and their carcasses were fed to four laboratory raised opossums. Sporocysts were detected in the feces of two opossums on 15 days post inoculation (dpi) and in a third opossum on 40 dpi. Fecal samples from the fourth opossum remained negative; however, sporocysts were found in intestinal digests from all four opossums. Sporocysts were not found in feces or intestinal digest of an additional opossum that was fed three uninoculated sparrows. Five foals were fed sporocysts (Foals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) and two foals were maintained as uninoculated controls (Foals 1 and 6). Sporocysts from two additional feral opossums also were fed to foals. Foal 5 was given 0.05 mg kg-1 dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily beginning 2 days before inoculation for a total of 2 weeks. Horse sera were tested three times per week, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested biweekly for anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies by Western blot analysis. No foals had any S. neurona-specific antibodies by Western blot analysis prior to sporocysts ingestion. Seroconversion occurred in Foals 3, 5, and 7 by 24 dpi, followed by positive CSF tests on 28 dpi. Foals 2 and 4 seroconverted by 40 dpi. Cerebrospinal fluid from Foal 2 tested positive by 42 dpi, but Foal 4 remained seronegative throughout the study. Sera and CSF from control Foals 1 and 6 remained seronegative. All foals with positive CSF developed neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic disease

  20. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo Antonio; Puc-Franco, Miguel Angel; Flores-Abuxapqui, Javier; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Cardenas-Marrufo, María Fidelia

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by Leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum Didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the Yucatán State, México. Ninety-one opossums were captured during the period April 1996 and May 1998. From a total of 17 feces samples, four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum, and Minnesota), and one Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:- were isolated. Some opossums presented mixed infections. From 81 sera samples, four (4.9%) were positive to antibodies to Leptospira serovars pomona and wolfii. Both animals infected with Salmonella enterica and those serologically positive to Leptospira interrogans were captured in peridomestic habitat. Opossums infected with Salmonella enterica, were captured in dry season, and those seropositive to Leptospira interrogans during the rainy season. The implications of infection and reactivity of these zoonotic pathogens in D. virginiana in the Yucatan state are briefly discussed. PMID:12219118

  1. The opossum Didelphis virginiana as a synanthropic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Dzidzilché, Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo A; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-07-01

    In México, the role of mammals in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is poorly known. In the State of Yucatán, an endemic area of Chagas disease, both Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis occur sympatrically. However, until now, only the former species had been found infected with T. cruzi. To evaluate the role of D. virginiana in a peridomestic transmission, nine periods of capture-recapture were performed around the village of Dzidzilché, Yucatán. The sex, age, reproductive status, location, and presence of infection with T. cruzi were recorded for each opossum. The chromosome morphology was used to identify the opossum species. T. cruzi was identified by the presence of pseudocysts of amastigotes in cardiac muscle fibers of Balb/c mice inoculated with strains isolated from opossums. However, xenodiagnosis was the best diagnostic method. Triatoma dimidiata, the vector, were collected in and around the opossums' nests, and human dwellings; and were checked for T. cruzi. From 102 blood samples of D. virginiana examined 55 (53.9%) were positive to T. cruzi, the only two D. marsupialis captured were negative. Significant differences were found between infection, and both sex and reproductive condition. Eight out of 14 triatomines collected in peridomestic nests (57.1%), and 32 of 197 captured inside houses (16.3%) were found infected, suggesting a peridomestic transmission. The statistically high abundance of infected opossums and triatomines during the dry season (March to May) suggested the existence of a seasonality in the peridomestic transmission of T. cruzi in Dzidzilché. PMID:12219121

  2. Isolation of a third species of Sarcocystis in immunodeficient mice fed feces from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were found to be hosts for 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula with an avian intermediate host, S. neurona with an undetermined intermediate host, and a third, unnamed, species. Sporocysts from the intestines of 2 opossums (nos. 26 and 47) were fed to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), nude mice, and gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. Sporocysts of S. falcatula were not infective to nude or KO mice. Sporocysts of S. neurona induced encephalitis in KO and nude mice; only schizonts and merozoites were found in tissues of mice, and they reacted with anti-S. neurona serum raised against the SN-2 isolate of S. neurona originally obtained from tissues of a paralyzed horse. All 3 species of Sarcocystis were present in opossum no. 47. Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in cell culture from this opossum. Sporocysts from opossum no. 47 were lethal to budgerigars, indicating S. falcatula infection. Only 1 species of Sarcocystis (the third species) was found in opossum no. 26; the sporocysts were infective to KO and nude mice. Schizonts and merozoites of this species were predominantly in the liver but were also found in other tissues; schizonts did not react with anti-S. neurona serum. Merozoites of the third species were ultrastructurally distinct from S. falcatula and S. neurona merozoites. Sarcocysts were found in leg muscles of 2 mice killed 50 and 54 days after they were fed sporocysts from opossum no. 26. These sarcocysts had steeple-shaped protrusions on the cyst wall and were distinct from sarcocysts of S. falcatula and any other species of Sarcocystis. PMID:9920306

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively. PMID:21158620

  4. Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    PubMed

    Martin, G F; Terman, J R; Wang, X M

    2000-11-15

    Opossums are born in an immature, fetal-like state, making it possible to lesion their spinal cord early in development without intrauterine surgery. When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is transected on postnatal day 5, and injections of Fast Blue (FB) are made caudal to the lesion site 30-40 days or 6 months later, neurons are labeled in all of the spinal and supraspinal areas that are labeled after comparable injections in age-matched, unlesioned controls. Double-labeling studies document that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of axons through the lesion site and behavioral studies show that animals lesioned on postnatal day 5 use their hindlimbs in normal appearing locomotion as adults. The critical period for developmental plasticity of descending spinal axons extends to postnatal day 26, although axons which grow through the lesion site become fewer in number and more restricted as to origin with increasing age. Animals lesioned between postnatal day 12 and 26 use the hindlimbs better than animals lesioned as adults, but hindlimb function is markedly abnormal and uncoordinated with that of the forelimbs. We conclude that restoration of anatomical continuity occurs after transection of the spinal cord in developing opossums, that descending axons grow through the lesion site, that regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth, and that animals lesioned early enough in development have relatively normal motor function as adults. PMID:11165803

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  6. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  7. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E. )

    1990-06-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of (G-{sup 3}H) hypoxanthine (Hy) into ({sup 3}H) labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate ({sup 3}H) ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation.

  8. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  9. Relationships among Sarcocystis species transmitted by New World opossums (Didelphis spp.).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, B M; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

    2001-02-26

    At least three species of Sarcocystis (S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. speeri) have recently been shown to use opossums of the genus Didelphis as their definitive host. In order to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among Sarcocystis spp. isolates from the Americas, and to determine whether organisms representing the same parasite lineages are transmitted north and south of the Panamanian isthmus, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships from nucleotide sequence variation in parasites isolated from three opossum species (D. virginiana, D. albiventris, D. marsupialis). In particular, we used variation in the 25/396 marker to compare several isolates from Brazil, Argentina, and the United States to each other and to cloned S. neurona and S. falcatula whose morphology and host affinities have been defined in the laboratory. S. neurona was identified from a Brazilian D. albiventris, as well as from North American D. virginiana. Parasites resembling the Cornell isolate of S. falcatula are transmitted both south and north of the Panamanian isthmus by D. albiventris and D. virginiana, respectively. Distinct attributes at two genetic loci differentiated a Brazilian isolate of S. falcatula from all other known parasite lineages. We confirm S. neurona as the causative agent of recently reported neurologic disease in Southern sea otters, Enhydra lutris nereis. And we found that S. speeri could not be compared to the other opossum-derived Sarcocystis isolates on the basis of nucleotide variation at the 25/396 locus. The widespread distribution of certain species of Sarcocystis may derive from their ability to parasitize migratory bird hosts in their intermediate stage. PMID:11223194

  10. Natural resistance of opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) to the mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Pifano, F; Aguilar, I; Giron, M E; Gamboa, N; Rodriguez-Acosta, A

    1993-01-01

    The inactivation of local and general effects of the Mapanare (Bothrops lanceolatus) venom by Opossum's (Didelphis marsupialis) serum fractions was tested using an in vivo assay and an in vitro preincubation experiment. A serum fraction of the Opossum serum has been obtained by immunochemical purification. It is only present in opossum's protective opossum serum fraction (F-0.1). PMID:8186456

  11. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  12. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    PENICHE-LARA, Gaspar; RUIZ-PIÑA, Hugo A.; REYES-NOVELO, Enrique; DZUL-ROSADO, Karla; ZAVALA-CASTRO, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households. PMID:27074326

  13. The laminar structure of the common opossum masseter (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Deguchi, T; Takemura, A; Suwa, F

    2001-03-01

    Using three heads of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), which may be considered to have a primitive mammalian form and therefore be appropriate for this study, the laminar structure of the masseter was investigated. We also attempted a comparative anatomical study of the relationships of food habits to the laminar structures of the masseter, zygomatic arch and mandibular ramus. In the common opossum masseter, a total of six layers, the primary and secondary sublayers of the superficial layer, the intermediate layer, and the primary, secondary and third sublayers of the deep layer as a proper masseter, were observed. These layers showed a typical reverse laminar structure, with the layers of tendons and muscles alternating. The maxillomandibularis and zygomaticomandibularis muscles were observed in one layer each, as an improper masseter. The laminar structure of the common opossum masseter was shown to be more similar to that of carnivorous placental animals than that of the herbivorous red kangaroo, a similar marsupial. In regard to the number of layers in the laminar structure of the masseter, the results of both this study and those of our predecessors' showed that differences in food habits affect the deep layer in the proper masseter of marsupials and placental mammals, and that of the maxillomandibularis muscle of placental mammals in the improper masseter. PMID:11392012

  14. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barretto, O C de O; Oshiro, M; Oliveira, R A G; Fedullo, J D L; Nonoyama, K

    2006-05-01

    In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 +/- 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 +/- 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH) in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa). The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 microM) for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 microM) were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively). A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate. PMID:16648898

  15. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  16. Detection of an antibothropic fraction in opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) milk that neutralizes Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, P B; Neves-Ferreira, A G; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    1999-01-01

    An antibothropic fraction (ABF) from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum) serum, which is responsible for the neutralization of Bothrops jararaca venom was isolated by Perales et al. [Perales, J., Moussatché, H., Marangoni, S., Oliveira, B. and Domont, G. B. (1994). Isolation and partial characterization of an antibothropic complex from the serum of South American Didelphidae. Toxicon 32, 1237-1249]. The aim of this work was to verify the presence of this factor in opossum's milk, which could represent an additional protection for the neonatal opossum against bothropic venoms. An active milk fraction was isolated and showed similar physicochemical, structural, antigenic and biological properties when compared to ABF, indicating that they are probably the same protein. PMID:9920488

  17. Isolation of Sarcocystis falcatula from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Venturini, L; Venturini, C; Basso, W; Unzaga, J

    1999-10-15

    Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of four opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina were identified as Sarcocystis falcatula based on schizogonic stages and pathogenicity to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Seven budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum feces died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14 days after inoculation. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs and other organs of the budgerigars were identified as S. falcatula based on structure and immunoreactivity with S. falcatula-specific antibody. Sarcocystis falcatula was also isolated in bovine monocyte cell cultures inoculated with lung tissue from a budgerigar that died nine days after ingesting sporocysts. Two budgerigars inoculated subcutaneously with 1,000,000 culture-derived S. falcatula died 11 and 12 days post-inoculation. This is the first report of S. falcatula infection in South America. PMID:10536981

  18. Characterization of Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from the Argentinian opossum, Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Venturini, L; Venturini, C

    2000-01-01

    Two isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula were obtained from the lungs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from two naturally-infected South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris). The two isolates were designated SF-1A and SF-2A. Both isolates induced fatal infections in budgerigars. Both isolates underwent schizogony in African green monkey kidney cells. The structure of schizonts in the lungs of budgerigars was more variable than that observed in cell culture. The two isolates were identified as S. falcatula by the two species-specific Hinf 1 restriction fragments dervied from digestion of a PCR amplification using primers JNB33/JNB54. Thus, the South American opossum, D. albiventris, is a definitive host for S. falcatula. PMID:10847342

  19. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata.

    PubMed

    Tasca, T; De Carli, G A; Glock, L; Jeckel-Neto, E A

    2001-02-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927) Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described. PMID:11285508

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

    2012-10-01

    We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

  1. Sarcocystis lindsayi-like (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystinae) of the opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stabenow, Cristiane S; De Oliveira, Francisco C R; Albuquerque, George R; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2008-09-01

    Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were obtained from intestinal scrapings of three out of five opossums (Didelphis aurita) trapped in the southeastern region, of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifteen caged budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) received, orally, twenty-six sporocysts in 500 mL PBS, but only five belonging to one of the groups developed clinical signs, that consisted of anorexia, lethargy, ruffled feathers and dyspnoea, and parasitism in tissues. Two of the five budgerigars died on the 25th and 29th days after infection (DAI). The other three budgerigars were posted on the 30th DAI. In all the five infected birds were observed meronts in the capillaries of the lungs and cysts in muscles, mainly in the tongue and legs. PMID:20059875

  2. Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M; Speer, C A

    2001-01-01

    A new species, Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp., is proposed for a parasite resembling Sarcocystis falcatula. It was obtained from the lungs and muscles of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from a naturally-infected South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Jaboticabal, Brazil. Sarcocysts of S. lindsayi n. sp. in budgerigars are microscopic, up to 600 microm long and up to 50 microm wide. The cyst wall is up to 2 microm thick. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall consists of numerous slender villar protrusions (up to 2.0 microm long and up to 0.3 microm wide), each with a stylet at its tip. Schizonts in cell culture divide by endopolygeny leaving a residual body. Sporocysts are approximately 12 x 7 microm. The parasite is genetically distinct from other organisms that also cycle between opossums and avian species and resemble S. falcatula. Diagnostic genetic variation has been observed in the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), and each of two other genetic loci. Although the structure of the sarcocyst wall may not provide sufficient grounds for differential diagnosis, several other attributes including schizont morphology and genetic variation at each of these genetic loci permit identification of S. lindsayi n. sp.. Natural intermediate hosts for S. lindsayi n. sp. are not known, and fuller characterization of these and other Sarcocystis species would benefit from experimental avian hosts that are more permissive to the maturation of sarcocysts. PMID:11596925

  3. Heterogeneous patterns of oligodendroglial differentiation in the forebrain of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barradas, P C; Gomes, S S; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-01-01

    The differentiation of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) has been studied by the immunohistochemical identification of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and by the autoradiographic detection of the uptake of 3H-thymidine. CNPase is expressed early in oligodendroglia somata and fibre sheaths (myelin) in the forebrain and its persistence in the cell bodies is regionally heterogeneous, being ephemeral in cells within the optic pathway, supraoptic decussation, and posterior commissure, of intermediate duration in the mamillo-thalamic fascicle, and stria medullaris, and long-lasting in other diencephalic and in telencephalic tracts. In the cerebral cortex, most CNPase+ cells have small somata and multiple processes (types I and II). CNPase-expressing oligodendrocytes are also regionally heterogeneous in terms of proliferative capability, which could not be detected in forebrain tracts or diencephalon, but has appeared in a small proportion of cells in the neocortical white matter and in the fimbria. Our findings provide additional evidence in favour of the heterogeneity of oligodendrocytes. PMID:9530996

  4. Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Kerber, C E; Kasai, N; Pena, H F; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Gennari, S M

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums were characterized based on biological and morphological criteria. Sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of 1 Didelphis marsupialis and 8 Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil, were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Budgerigars fed sporocysts from all 9 isolates became ill and S. falcatula-like schizonts were identified in sections of their lungs by immunohistochemical staining. Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms were cultured from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from D. marsupialis and from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from 3 of 8 D. albiventris. The 33/54 locus amplified by polymerase chain reaction from culture-derived merozoites contained both a HinfI endonuclease recognition site previously suggested to diagnose S. falcatula and a DraI site thought to diagnosed S. neurona. Development of the isolate from D. marsupialis was studied in cell culture; its schizonts divided by endopolygeny, leaving a residual body. Morphological and genetic variation differentiated this Sarcocystis isolate originating in D. marsupialis from the Cornell I isolate of S. falcatula. This is the first report of a S. falcatula infection in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis. PMID:11780836

  5. Morphologic characterization and distribution of endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Soares, Ítalo Augusto da Costa; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the morphology and distribution of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of the opossum D. aurita were collected, processed, and submitted for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. The tunics of the large intestine of D. aurita presented morphological characteristics that have already been described for eutherian mammals. The morphometric data showed that the inner circular layer of all portions and regions analyzed is thicker relative to the longitudinal layer, and these layers in the rectum are thicker compared to the cecum and ascending colon. The majority of mucus-secreting cells have acid and neutral mucins, suggesting that the production of mucus is mixed. The number of these cells increases in the region of the cecum toward the rectum. Important findings include the occurrence of argyrophil, argentaffins, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in all segments of the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the presence of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of the opossum (D. aurita). PMID:23810437

  6. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  7. Characterization of an unidentified Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rezende, P C; Costa, A J

    2000-01-01

    An unidentified isolate of a Sarcocystis falcatula-like parasite was obtained from the lungs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) fed sporocysts from a naturally-infected South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil. Four captive budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum intestine died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 10, and 12 days after oral inoculation (DAI); one budgerigar was killed 12 DAI when it was lethargic. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs of the budgerigars reacted mildly with polyclonal S. falcatula antibody. The parasite was isolated in equine kidney cell cultures inoculated with lung tissue from a budgerigar that was killed 12 DAI. Two budgerigars inoculated subcutaneously with 100,000 culture-derived S. falcatula merozoites developed acute sarcocystosis and S. falcatula-like schizonts were found in their lungs 15 and 16 DAI. Four budgerigars kept as unfed controls in the same environment remained free of Sarcocystis infection. The parasite underwent schizogony in African green monkey kidney cells and bovine turbinate cells. Merozoites divided by endopolygeny, often leaving a residual body. Polymerase chain reaction studies using primers JNB33/JNB54 and Hinf I and Dra I digestion indicated that the isolate was not S. falcatula. Results of this study indicated that the South American opossum, D. albiventris, is a definitive host for yet another S. falcatula-like parasite. PMID:11128705

  8. Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

  9. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-01

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:27276663

  10. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria marmosopos (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Duszynski, Donald

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous life cycle of Eimeria marmosopos was studied in experimentally infected young opossums, Didelphis marsupialis . All the endogenous stages were located in the epithelial cells of villi in the small intestine. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were studied for the diagnosis of all the life cycle stages. Eimeria marmosopos has 3 generations of meronts (M) that differ by size, shape, and number of merozoites (m), which also differ in their size, shape, and location of their nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M(1)-M(3), respectively, had 8-15 (m(1)), 4-9 (m(2)), and 22-30 (m(3)) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, completed the sexual cycle, finishing with the formation of unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected opossums. There are 56 Eimeria species known from all marsupials worldwide, but this is the first complete life cycle in which both the asexual and sexual stages have been documented. PMID:25807059

  11. Humoral immune response kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis infected and immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi employing an immunofluorescence antibody test.

    PubMed

    Legey, A P; Pinho, A P; Chagas Xavier, S C; Leon, L L; Jansen, A M

    1999-01-01

    Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1) IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2) both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3) experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4) the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi. PMID:10348985

  12. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the lingual papillae of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials. PMID:16079016

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  14. Experimental infection of opossums Didelphis aurita by Rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks Amblyomma cajennense.

    PubMed

    Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Casagrande, Renata A; Saito, Tais B; Rosa, Simone C; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Matushima, Eliana R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of opossums (Didelphis aurita) by Rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of R. rickettsii to Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Three groups of opossums were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (G1) was inoculated intraperitoneally with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and group 3 (G3) was the uninfected control group. Opossum rectal temperature was measured daily. Blood samples were collected every 2 to 4 days during 30 days, and used to (1) inoculate guinea pigs intraperitoneally; (2) extract DNA followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the rickettsial gene gltA; (3) study hematology; (4) detect R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 30 to 180, to be tested by serology. Opossums were infested by uninfected A. cajennense larvae and nymphs from days 3 to 15. Engorged ticks were collected and allowed to molt in an incubator. Thereafter, the subsequent flat ticks were allowed to feed on uninfected rabbits, which were tested for seroconversion by IFA. Samples of flat ticks were also tested by real-time PCR. All G1 and G2 opossums became infected by R. rickettsii, as demonstrated by realtime PCR or/and guinea pig inoculation, but they showed no clinical abnormality. Rickettsemia was first detected at days 2 to 8, lasting intermittently till days 1 to 30. Approximately 18% and 5% of the flat ticks previously fed on G1 and G2 opossums, respectively, became infected by R. rickettsii, but only the rabbits infested with G1-derived ticks seroconverted. The study demonstrated that R. rickettsii was capable of infecting opossums without causing illness and developing rickettsemia capable of causing infection in guinea pigs and ticks, although the infection rate in ticks was low. PMID:18945194

  15. Inhibition of the hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni) venom by opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum: isolation of Didelphis marsupialis 0.15Dm fraction on DEAE-cellulose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pineda, María E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Sánchez, Elda E; Aguilar, Irma; Fernandez, Irma; Vargas, Alba M; Scannone, Héctor; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed the ability of sera from several mammals to neutralize the toxic effects of snake venom. The Venezuelan opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) is one that has been found to inhibit hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities of venoms from many species of snakes. In this article it is shown that the opossum sera and its 0.15DM fraction were able to completely neutralize both hemorrhagic and hydrolysis (proteolysis) of casein effects induced by venom of the Lansberg's hognose pit viper (Porthidium lansbergii hutmanni). We have used DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography to collect protein fractions from D. marsupialis sera which were able to defend mice from the lethal effects of P.l. hutmanni venom. The fractions separated were homogeneous by conventional electrophoresis using SDS-PAGE. The protein bands obtained contained molecular weights of approximately 6 to 220 kDa. These results revealed the presence of proteases inhibitors in the opossum sera fractions and the inhibition of venom activity by opossum sera suggesting a reciprocal adaptation at the molecular level. PMID:18800269

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yai, L E O; Cañon-Franco, W A; Geraldi, V C; Summa, M E L; Camargo, M C G O; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 396 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (IFAT, approximately 1:25) to N. caninum were found in 84 opossums (D. marsupialis) in titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 17, and 1:400 in 1. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the IFAT. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, approximately 1:25) were found in 82 (20.4%) of the 396 opossums, in titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 26, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 13, and 1:800 in 1. The IFAT antibodies to T. gondii were found in 148 of 396 opossums, in titers of 1:16 in 41, 1:32 in 23, 1:64 in 13, 1:128 in 6, 1:256 in 20, 1:512 in 17, 1:1,024 in 10, 1:2,048 in 10, 1:4,096 in 7, and 1:8,192 in 1. This is the first report of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in D. marsupialis. PMID:14533710

  17. Synaptogenesis in retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Correa-Gillieron, E M; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-08-01

    The maturation of the neuropil and synapse formation were examined in the retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus (SCr-r) in the opossum from a period prior to the onset of arborization of retinocollicular fibers (postnatal day 22 - P22), at 44% of the coecal period (CP), to the end of the fast phase of optic fiber myelination and weaning time (P81 - 118% CP). Development of the SCr-r neuropil follows a protracted time course and can be divided into three broad stages, which are characterized by (I) Large extracellular spaces, numerous growth cones that participate rarely in synaptic junctions, vesicles-poor immature synapses (P22-P30), (II) Synapses of varied morphology with abundant synaptic vesicles, and small terminals with dark mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles (RSD terminals) synapsing mostly onto dendritic shafts, flat-vesicles (F) terminals (P40-P56), (III) Sequential appearance of retinal (R) and pleomorphic-vesicles (P) terminals and of RSD terminals synapsing onto spine or spine-like processes, appearance of glomerulus-like synaptic arrays (synaptic islets) (P61-P81). The advancement of synaptogenesis in SCr-r from stage I to II and from stage II to III correlates closely with the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, respectively. PMID:10529520

  18. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Schallig, Henk D F H; da Silva, Eduardo S; van der Meide, Wendy F; Schoone, Gerard J; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, an important focus of human leishmaniasis in Brazil, is reported. All animals were serologically tested with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination tests (DAT) based on L. (L.) donovani or L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. A sub-population (n = 20) was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. For species identification, PCR-positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Depending on the sero-diagnostic test employed, the sero-prevalence varied between 8.1% (9/111 animals positive with DAT test based on L. braziliensis antigen) and 21.6% (24/111 animals positive with IFAT). Five out of 20 samples analyzed with PCR tested positive for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. RFLP analysis revealed that two samples contained L. braziliensis complex DNA, one contained L. donovani complex DNA, and two samples could not be typed with the methodology used. These data suggest a potential role for the opossum as a reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the region. PMID:17767408

  19. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  20. Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) from the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis from Mexico, the first proteocephalidean tapeworm from a mammal.

    PubMed

    Cañeda-Guzmán, I C; de Chambrier, A; Scholz, T

    2001-06-01

    Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis L. (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new genus differs from all proteocephalidean genera in the morphology of the scolex that is formed by 4 well separated lobes each containing 1 noncircular sucker opening laterally inside the exterolateral cavity, a large-sized body (length up to 1 m), a large number of testes, the shape of gravid proglottids that are inversely craspedote (the anterior border of a proglottid overlaps the posterior border of a preceding proglottid), eggs in groups mostly of 4-6 eggs each, and an embryophore bearing digitiform projections on its external surface. This is the first tapeworm of the Proteocephalidea, the members of which were previously reported exclusively from poikilotherm vertebrates (freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles), found in a homoiotherm vertebrate. PMID:11426729

  1. New methodology for the obtainment of antibothropic factors from the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and jararaca snake (Bothrops jararaca).

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Valente, R H; Sá, P G; Rocha, S L; Moussatché, H; Domont, G B; Perales, J

    1999-10-01

    The antibothropic factor (ABF) from D. marsupialis was collected from perforated hollow plastic golf balls which were surgically implanted subcutaneously in anesthetized opossums, a technique originally described for the production of polyclonal antibodies. Two months after the implantation of the balls, approximately 15 ml of seromatous fluid from D. marsupialis (SFDm-50 mg total protein/ml) could be recovered monthly. Opossum serum as well as SFDm showed similar SDS-PAGE profiles and antihemorrhagic potencies against Bothrops jararaca snake venom (Bjv). The presence of ABF in SFDm was confirmed by immunoblotting, using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against ABF isolated from opossum serum. ABF isolated from SFDm or from serum by ion-exchange chromatography showed identical chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles. ABF fromboth sources displayed very similar antihemorrhagic and anticaseinolytic activities against Bjv. In the case of B. jararaca, polyethylene perforated tubes were inserted in the abdominal cavity and two months after implantation, approximately 4 ml of seromatous fluid from B. jararaca (SFBj-23 mg total protein/ml) were recovered. B.jararaca serum and SFBj showed the same native and SDS-PAGE band pattern. Both serum and SFBj inhibited Bjv hemorrhagic activity. We conclude that this new methodology is very suitable for continuously obtaining opossum ABF and SFBj, in large scale and in an easier way, avoiding animal suffering and eventual sacrifice. PMID:10414866

  2. Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. PMID:24359801

  3. Inhibition of the hyperalgesic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Rocha, S L; Frutuoso, V S; Domont, G B; Martins, M A; Moussatché, H; Perales, J

    2000-06-01

    The antibothropic fraction (ABF) already isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum, inhibits the haemorrhagic, oedematogenic, myonecrotic and lethal activities of Bothrops jararaca venom (Bjv). The aim of this work was to verify the capability of ABF to inhibit the hyperalgesic activity of Bjv. Intraplantar injection of Bjv induced hyperalgesia in a time- and dose-dependent manner and ABF administered in situ concomitantly with Bjv or i.v. 30 min before venom injection reduced the induced hyperalgesia. This same effect was observed when ABF was intravenously injected at 5 and 15 min after Bjv. Our results show that ABF inhibits also the hyperalgesia induced by Bjv. PMID:10695972

  4. Neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Perales, J; Amorim, C Z; Rocha, S L; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H

    1992-11-01

    The pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BJV) has been studied. Intraplantar injection of BJV (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. BJV heated at 100 degrees C for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. The BJV oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, the inhibitor of histamine and serotonin, cyproheptadine, PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2170 or by the anti-leukotrienes C4/D4, LY 171883. Dexamethasone, aspirin, indomethacin, and the dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor BW 755C inhibited BJV-induced oedema indicating that arachidonic acid metabolism products via the cyclooxygenase pathway participate in its genesis and/or maintenance. The antibothropic fraction (ABF) (25-200 micrograms/paw) isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum neutralized the oedema induced by the venom with and without heating, the hemorrhage induced by BJV and partially blocked the oedema induced by bradykinin and by cellulose sulphate. The oedema produced by histamine, serotonin, PAF-acether or leukotriene C4 was not inhibited. PMID:1295374

  5. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. PMID:22712460

  6. [Amyloidosis in infected Didelphis marsupialis].

    PubMed

    Roa, Diana Milena; Sarmiento, Ladys; Rodríguez, Gerzaín

    2002-09-01

    A male opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, captured in Teruel (Huila), Colombia, was inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of Leishmania chagasi (MHOM/CO/84/CL044B). The animal died 5 weeks after inoculation. Autopsy revealed signs of visceral leishmaniasis along with amastigote parasite form in Kupffer cells and spleen macrophages. Amyloid deposits in liver and spleen were demonstrated by histological staining and electron microscopy. The rapid death was considered a consequence of a secondary, reactive amyloidosis. PMID:12404923

  7. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan Dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  8. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  9. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

    SciTech Connect

    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  10. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detecta...

  11. Imprinting of opossum Igf2r in the absence of differential methylation and air.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jennifer R; Dolinoy, Dana C; Maloney, Kristin A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Jirtle, Randy L

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic comparison of extant mammals with divergent imprint status is a powerful method for identifying critical components of imprint regulation at individual loci. The entire genomic region of Igf2r in the imprinted marsupials, Didelphis virginiana and Monodelphis domestica, and the non-imprinted monotreme, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, was isolated and sequenced. Genetic and epigenetic comparisons of over 160 kb of sequence were then performed in five distinct mammalian species. Surprisingly, opossum Igf2r is imprinted and maternally expressed despite the absence of the intron 2 CpG island (CpG2), antisense Igf2r RNA (Air) and differential methylation of the promoter (CpG1) required for imprinting of this gene in mice. These findings demonstrate that the genomic elements necessary for imprinted Igf2r expression in eutherians are not required for imprinting of this locus in metatherians. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms of Igf2r imprinting did not evolve convergently within the Therian subclass of mammals. PMID:17998818

  12. X-Linked Gene Expression in the Virginia Opossum: Differences between the Paternally Derived Gpd and Pgk-A Loci

    PubMed Central

    Samollow, Paul B.; Ford, Allen L.; VandeBerg, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells (i.e., partial paternal allele expression). The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgk-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes. The data establish the similarity between the American and Australian marsupial patterns of X-linked gene regulation and, thus, support the hypothesis that this form of dosage compensation was present in the early marsupial lineage that gave rise to these modern marsupial divisions. In addition, the data provide the first documentation of the differential expression of two X

  13. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed. PMID:25517533

  14. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: S. falcatula, S. neurona, and S. speeri. It appears that there may be additional undescribed species of Sarcocystis in D. virginiana feces. The South American opossums (D. albive...

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  16. Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 μm in length and 14.0 to 29.4 μm in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 μm in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

  17. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A.; Maia, Paula F.; Magalhães, Arthur R.; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother–pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  18. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  19. Morphological study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2007-05-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine of opossums Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis albiventris, and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The isolate used in this study was from L. crassicaudata and it was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy showed the fine morphological features of the trophozoites: the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the axostyle and posterior flagellum. In addition, we described spherical forms that are probably pseudocysts. Our data will contribute to a better understanding of surface structures in T. didelphidis. PMID:17252276

  20. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  1. Plant Tissue Cultures of Juniperus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Jirina; Cvak, Ladislav; Siatka, Tomáš; Martin, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Callus cultures of Juniperus virginiana L. (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from fresh leaves of garden-grown trees on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The growth characteristics of one-year-old and two-years-old cultures were determined. The maximum biomass in all varieties was achieved on the 35th day of the cultivation period. The increase in fresh weights of two-years-old callus cultures, when compared with one-year-old callus cultures, was as follows: variety 'Hetzii' by 25%, variety 'Glauca' by 29% and variety 'Grey Owl' by 49%. J. virginiana suspension cultures (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from two-years-old callus cultures on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The maximum biomass of all varieties was found on the 21st day of the cultivation period. These results indicate that a sub-cultivation interval of 35 days for callus cultures and of 21st days for suspension cultures can be recommended. The callus and suspension cultures of J. virginiana of the variety 'Glauca' have the best survivability and thus provide the most biomass. PMID:27319150

  2. Nitric oxide synthase expression in the opossum superior colliculus: a histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giraldi-Guimarães, A; Tenório, F; Brüning, G; Mayer, B; Mendez-Otero, R; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-12-01

    The expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis was studied by NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry. In addition, the activity of nNOS was quantified by measurement of [(3)H]-L-arginine conversion to [(3)H]-L-citrulline in tissue extracts from SC superficial layers in opossums and rats. Our results show that the number of NADPH-d stained cells was small and virtually identical in stratum opticum (SO) and stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) and their staining was very light, particularly in SGS. Neuropil staining was heavier in the stratum zonale (SZ) than in SGS or SO. The intermediate and deep layers contained heavily stained cells and moderate neuropil staining. Surprisingly, nNOS-immunoreactive cells were far more numerous than NADPH-d+ cells in every layer. The production of [(3)H]-L-citrulline from [(3)H]-L-arginine in tissue extracts enriched in superficial layers indicated that nNOS specific activity is as high in the opossum as in the rat. Our results suggest that the location of nNOS-expressing neurons in retino-receptive layers may be related to inter-specific differences in the processing of visual information. PMID:10681601

  3. Growth kinetic study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata and interaction with a prokaryotic cell.

    PubMed

    Tasca, T; DeCarli, G A

    2001-08-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum and colon of opossums, Didelphis marsupialis. This work reports the occurrence of T. didelphidis in another opossum species, Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strain was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The growth kinetic study of T. didelphidis showed a longer time of growth and a higher number of trophozoites when inoculated with E. coli than in axenic cultures, in aerobiosis as well as under anaerobic conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacteria adhered throughout the protozoan body and probably evoked endocytic channels, strongly suggesting the existence of endocytosis of rods by T. didelphidis. Our preliminary results suggest that the in vitro culture of T. didelphidis depends on E. coli as a growth-promoting partner, and requires monoxenic cultivation. PMID:11510998

  4. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  5. Reconstruction of the Strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, Using Native Genotypes of F. virginiana and F. chiloensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germplasm base of strawberries is restricted. The major cultivated strawberry species, Fragaria ananassa, originated about 250 years ago when South American F. chiloensis subsp. chiloensis forma chiloensis and North American F. virginiana subsp. virginiana accidentally hybridized in European ga...

  6. Successful laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage in uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Ades, Alex; Hong, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of uterus didelphys is around 3/10,000 women. It is a class III Müllerian duct anomaly resulting from a complete non-fusion of the paired Müllerian ducts between the 12th and 16th weeks of gestation. Although the prevalence of cervical insufficiency in women with uterus didelphys is unknown, the incidence of cervical insufficiency in women with Müllerian anomalies has been reported as high as 30%. We present a case of successful pregnancy outcome following a laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage in a woman with uterus didelphys and cervical insufficiency. The case demonstrates that laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage can be performed successfully in women with uterus didelphys and a satisfactory obstetric outcome can be achieved. PMID:26578507

  7. The opossum MHC genomic region revisited.

    PubMed

    Krasnec, Katina V; Sharp, Alana R; Williams, Tracey L; Miller, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is one of the few marsupial species for which a high quality whole genome sequence is available and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been annotated. Previous analyses revealed only a single locus within the opossum MHC region, designated Modo-UA1, with the features expected for encoding a functionally classical class I α-chain. Nine other class I genes found within the MHC are highly divergent and have features usually associated with non-classical roles. The original annotation, however, was based on an early version of the opossum genome assembly. More recent analyses of allelic variation in individual opossums revealed too many Modo-UA1 sequences per individual to be accounted for by a single MHC class I locus found in the genome assembly. A reanalysis of a later generation assembly, MonDom5, revealed the presence of two additional loci, now designated Modo-UA3 and UA4, in a region that was expanded and more complete than in the earlier assembly. Modo-UA1, UA3, and UA4 are all transcribed, although Modo-UA4 transcripts are rarer. Modo-UA4 is also relatively non-polymorphic. Evidence presented support the accuracy of the later assembly and the existence of three related class I genes in the opossum, making opossums more typical of mammals and most tetrapods by having multiple apparent classical MHC class I loci. PMID:25737310

  8. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis. PMID:20090034

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi in the scent glands of Didelphis marsupialis: the kinetics of colonization.

    PubMed

    Carreira, J C; Jansen, A M; de Nazareth Meirelles, M; Costa e Silva, F; Lenzi, H L

    2001-03-01

    This study examined the dynamics of colonization of Trypanosoma cruzi in the scent glands of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis following direct inoculation with 10(5) epimastigotes of isolate G-49 (an opossum-derived strain). One, three, and five days, 1 month, and 1 year after inoculation, scent glands were fixed for analysis using brightfield and electron microscopies. One day after inoculation the parasites, mainly as epimastigotes, were randomly distributed into the lumen. From the third day on, the parasites still in the form of epimastigotes tended to concentrate closer to the epithelium. The flagellates reached the definitive distribution pattern on the fifth day, when they formed huge clusters deep into the foveae. In samples collected 1 month and 1 year after inoculation, the ratio of epimastigotes:trypomastigotes was 1:1, with epimastigotes predominating near the epithelium and trypomastigotes far from it. Our observations suggest that T. cruzi grows continuously in the scent glands and does not depend on adhesion to promote metacyclogenesis. Metacyclogenesis far from the epithelium seems to be an important selective advantage to both host and parasite, since it assures the elimination of the infective forms of the parasite when the host expels the glands' contents, which occurs in frightening situations or at times of stress. The morphological characteristics of infected and noninfected scent glands using transmission and scanning electron microscopies were also described. PMID:11312575

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-06-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  11. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  12. Dual Extraction of Essential Oil and Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus virginiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves (needles) of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) contain two important natural products: essential oil and podophyllotoxin. The hypothesis of this study was that it may be possible to extract both essential oil and podophyllotoxin from the leaves of the tree, by using a dual extra...

  13. Estimating eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) biomass using satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L), is an aggressively spreading native species in Oklahoma grasslands, which decreases rangeland productivity and land value, increases fire hazard, and has been implicated in reducing stream flow and ground water recharge. Companies are considering large inv...

  14. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoitia darlingi and B. neotomofelis are tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and southern planes woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the preva...

  15. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) as a new natural intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive hos...

  16. Isolation and characterization of DM40 and DM43, two snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Cardinale, N; Rocha, S L; Perales, J; Domont, G B

    2000-05-01

    From Didelphis marsupialis serum, two antihemorrhagic proteins were isolated by DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl-Sepharose and Superdex 200 and characterized. Their masses by mass spectrometry were 40318 AMU for DM40 and 42373 and 43010 AMU for DM43, indicating the presence of isoforms for the last. Molecular masses of 44.8 and 47.3 were obtained by SDS-PAGE, respectively for DM40 and DM43. Both inhibitors showed isoelectric points lower than 3.5 and glycosylation percentages varying from 20.5 to 29.0%, as estimated by chemical deglycosylation and amino acid analysis. N-terminal sequences of the first 17 residues of DM40 and DM43 were identical except for the exchange of R9 for P9. Both were homologous to oprin, a similar inhibitor from Didelphis virginiana serum. No evidence of complex formation between DM40 and DM43 was observed either by native PAGE or gel filtration chromatography. In addition to the antihemorrhagic activity, DM40 and DM43 inhibited the hydrolysis of casein, fibrinogen and fibronectin by Bothrops jararaca venom. DM43 also showed antilethal, antiedematogenic and antihyperalgesic activities. None of the inhibitors showed enzymatic activity on casein. Both proteins formed stable complexes with jararhagin and inhibited its hemorrhagic effect as well as the enzymatic activity of this toxin on fluorogenic substrate. PMID:10779682

  17. Isolation and characterization of a bactericidal withanolide from Physalis virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kathleen A.; Reese, R. Neil; Halaweish, Fathi T.; Ren, Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physalis virginiana (Virginia Groundcherry) is a member of the family Solenaceae. Several species of the Physalis genus have been used traditionally by American Indians as medicinal treatments. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the antibacterial activity of chemicals extracted from P. virginiana through antibacterial disc and cytotoxicity assays. Isolation and purification of an antimicrobial compound was achieved through flash chromatography and preparative HPLC. Finally, identification of chemical structure was determined from 1H and 13C NMR and MS. Results: Disc assays showed that crude ethanol extracts were effective antibacterial agents against one gram-negative and seven gram-positive bacterial strains. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that it is less toxic than gentamicin controls. Isolation of the active component showed it to be a relatively polar compound. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts together with HRMS indicated a similar structure to withanolides previously identified from Physalis angulata. HRMS analysis showed a molecular mass of 472.2857 which corresponds to a molecular formula C28H40O6. Conclusion: An antibacterial withanolide was isolated from P. virginiana using flash chromatography and HPLC separations. The chemical structure was determined by NMR and MS to be the withanolide physagulin V. PMID:22438659

  18. Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?

    PubMed

    Narciso, M S; Hokoç, J N; Martinez, A M

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of Wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. Right optic nerves of opossums Didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. The optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. Among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. Our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing" process (Griffin et al 1995). We also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. We also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations. PMID:11404785

  19. Diversity of Sarcocystis spp shed by opossums in Brazil inferred with phylogenetic analysis of DNA coding ITS1, cytochrome B, and surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Samantha Y O B; da Silva, Juliana I G; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Keid, Lara B; Zwarg, Ticiana; de Oliveira, Alice S; Sanches, Thaís C; Joppert, Adriana M; Pena, Hilda F J; Oliveira, Tricia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2016-05-01

    Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed. We found four allele variants of cytB, seven allele variants of ITS1, 10 allele variants of sag2, 13 allele variants of sag3, and 6 allele variants of sag4. None of the sporocyst-derived sequences obtained from Brazilian opossums revealed 100% identity to SN138 at cytB gene, nor to SN138 or SF1 at ITS1 locus. In addition, none of the sag alleles were found identical to either SF1 or SN138 homologous sequences, and a high number of new sag allele types were found other than those previously described in Brazil. Out of ten sag2 alleles, four are novel, while eight out of 13 sag3 alleles are novel and one out of six sag4 alleles is novel. Further studies are needed to clarify if such a vast repertoire of allele variants of Sarcocystis is the consequence of re-assortments driven by sexual exchange, in order to form individuals with highly diverse characteristics, such as pathogenicity, host spectrum, among others or if it only represents allele variants of different species with different biological traits. PMID:26905780

  20. Immunocytochemical study of the ontogeny of Peyer's patches in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris.

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, H B; Nogueira, J C; King, G; Coutinho, V B; Robalinho, T I; Amorim, A M; Cavalcanti, V M; Robins, R A; Sewell, H F

    1994-01-01

    A detailed ontogenetic immunocytochemical study is reported on gut-associated lymphoid development in the Brazilian marsupial Didelphis albiventris. This employed antibody probes raised to evolutionarily conserved peptides which have been shown to detect HLA-DR-like (class II MHC) antigens and T and B cell markers in a wide range of animal species. Cells with macrophage and dendritic morphology expressing class II MHC and a few cells expressing the T cell marker CD3 were found in the lamina propria of duodenal villi in early (approximately 24 mm crown-rump length) latent opossum. Cells with B cell markers were not detected until lactent animals reached > 60 mm. Development of Peyer's patches (PP) was seen first in the duodenum in 45-60 mm lactent animals, progressing to well developed PP in the duodenum and ileum in lactent animals > 80 mm. These PP, like those in weanling and juvenile animals, consisted of follicles with a network of class II MHC positive dendritic cells and round cells lacking T and B markers, but lacking well defined mantle zones. B cells were present mainly in the lymphatic sinuses, with CD3 T cells present between follicles in the PP and intraepithelially in the villi. The study reveals the sequential development of class II MHC positive dendritic cells, T cells and B cells in the intestinal ontogeny of the opossum PP. These features occurred initially exclusively in the duodenum and subsequently in the ileum, paralleling the physiological maturation of the gut in eutheria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7961141

  1. Morphological and molecular variation among populations of octoploid Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (Rosaceae) from North America.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R; Luby, J; Furnier, G; Hancock, J

    1997-05-01

    Relationships among 37 North American octoploid strawberry populations were studied by evaluating 44 morphological traits and 36 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both data sets were analyzed by principal components analysis and UPGMA clustering based on genetic distances. Morphological data defined five groups: east of the Missouri River (Fragaria virginiana ssp. virginiana), the Black Hills (F. virginiana ssp. virginiana and ssp. glauca), from the eastern Cascades to the eastern Rocky Mountains (F. virginiana ssp. glauca), the western Cascades and Olympic Peninsula (F. virginiana ssp. platypetala), and the Pacific coast (F. chiloensis). Canonical discriminant analysis clearly discriminated populations into these provenances, suggesting that these groups are morphologically distinct. RAPD data defined three groups, one with F. virginiana ssp. virginiana and ssp. glauca, another with F. chiloensis, and a third with F. virginiana ssp. platypetala. The latter was more similar to F. chiloensis than F. virginiana, suggesting it is likely a subspecies of F. chiloensis. All octoploid North American strawberries have likely derived from a common ancestor and have differentiated into F. chiloensis and F. virginiana by adapting to moister and drier environments, respectively. PMID:21708613

  2. PO41, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor isolated from Philander opossum serum.

    PubMed

    Jurgilas, Patrícia B; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2003-11-01

    PO41 was isolated from Philander opossum serum by DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl Superose and Superdex 200 chromatographies and showed a molecular mass of 41,330 Da by MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular masses of 81.5 and 84.5 kDa were obtained by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic laser light scattering, respectively, suggesting that PO41 is dimeric. Its isoelectric point was estimated to be lower than 3.5. PO41 presented similar amino terminal sequence to those of DM40 and DM43, two antihaemorrhagins previously isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum and was recognized by polyclonal antibodies raised against D. marsupialis antibothropic fraction. To study the inhibitory properties of this protein, the metalloproteinases bothrolysin and jararhagin were isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom by chromatographies on Superdex 200 and Phenyl Superose. Jararhagin was further submitted to a Mono Q column. The proteolytic and haemorrhagic effects of these haemorrhagins were neutralized by PO41. Both snake venom metalloproteinases formed stable complexes with PO41. The stoichiometry of the complex PO41-jararhagin was one inhibitor subunit to one molecule of the enzyme. These results show that PO41 has physicochemical, structural, immunoreactive and biological properties similar to other metalloproteinase inhibitors belonging to the supergene family of immunoglobulins. PMID:14602117

  3. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  4. Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala:: Plagiorhynchidae) from mammals in southeastern Mexico, first known occurrence of Porrorchis in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-02-01

    Porrorchis nickoli n. sp. is described from the intestine of the gray four-eyed opossum Philander opossum (type host), the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, the common opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and the white-nosed coati Nasua narica. Hosts were collected in southeastern Mexico in the Los Tuxtlas region of the state of Veracruz (type locality) and in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. This new species is distinguished from other Porrorchis species by its small proboscis (0.286-0.428 mm long x 0.273-0.438 mm wide), a proboscis armature consisting of 22-24 vertical rows of 7 or 8 hooks per row, and the male reproductive system extending postequatorially and occupying only half of the trunk. This is the first known occurrence of a Porrorchis species in the Western Hemisphere. PMID:12058721

  5. Functional analysis of DM64, an antimyotoxic protein with immunoglobulin-like structure from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Lomonte, Bruno; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de L M; Ho, Paulo L; Domont, Gilberto B; Gutiérrez, José M; Perales, Jonas

    2002-12-01

    Bothrops snake venoms are known to induce local tissue damage such as hemorrhage and myonecrosis. The opossum Didelphis marsupialis is resistant to these snake venoms and has natural venom inhibitors in its plasma. The aim of this work was to clone and study the chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of DM64, an antimyotoxic protein from opossum serum. DM64 is an acidic protein showing 15% glycosylation and with a molecular mass of 63 659 Da when analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. It was cloned and the amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from D. marsupialis serum, and to human alpha1B-glycoprotein, indicating the presence of five immunoglobulin-like domains. DM64 neutralized both the in vivo myotoxicity and the in vitro cytotoxicity of myotoxins I (mt-I/Asp49) and II (mt-II/Lys49) from Bothrops asper venom. The inhibitor formed noncovalent complexes with both toxins, but did not inhibit the PLA2 activity of mt-I. Accordingly, DM64 did not neutralize the anticoagulant effect of mt-I nor its intracerebroventricular lethality, effects that depend on its enzymatic activity, and which demonstrate the dissociation between the catalytic and toxic activities of this Asp49 myotoxic PLA2. Furthermore, despite its similarity with metalloproteinase inhibitors, DM64 presented no antihemorrhagic activity against Bothrops jararaca or Bothrops asper crude venoms, and did not inhibit the fibrinogenolytic activity of jararhagin or bothrolysin. This is the first report of a myotoxin inhibitor with an immunoglobulin-like structure isolated and characterized from animal blood. PMID:12473101

  6. Photic Preference of the Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Seelke, Adele M. H.; Dooley, James C.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2014-01-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a nocturnal South American marsupial that has been gaining popularity as a laboratory animal. However, compared to traditional laboratory animals like rats, very little is known about its behavior, either in the wild or in a laboratory setting. Here we investigated the photic preference of the short-tailed opossum. Opossums were placed in a circular testing arena and allowed to move freely between dark (0 lux) and light (~1.4, 40, or 400 lux) sides of the arena. In each of these conditions opossums spent significantly more time in the dark than in the illuminated side and a greater proportion of time in the dark than would be expected by chance. In the high-contrast (~400 lux) illumination condition, the mean bout length (i.e., duration of one trip on the light or dark side) was significantly longer on the dark side than on the light side. When we examined the number of bouts greater than 30 and 60 sec in duration, we found a significant difference between the light and dark sides in all light contrast conditions. These data indicate that the short-tailed opossum prefers the dark to the light, and can also detect very slight differences in light intensity. We conclude that although rats and opossums share many similar characteristics, including ecological niche, their divergent evolutionary heritage results in vastly different behavioral capabilities. Only by observing the behavioral capabilities and preferences of opossums will we be able to manipulate the experimental environment to best elicit and elucidate their behavior and alterations in behavior that can arise from experimental manipulations. PMID:24709041

  7. Extensively variable surface antigens of Sarcocystis spp. infecting Brazilian marsupials in the genus Didelphis occur in myriad allelic combinations, suggesting sexual recombination has aided their diversification.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R M; Keid, L B; Richtzenhain, L J; Valadas, S Y; Muller, G; Soares, R M

    2013-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula are very similar species of Apicomplexan protozoa that use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. These mammals can serve as definitive hosts not only for these two parasites, but for other Sarcocystis such as Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. Sarcocystis shed by opossums (with the exception of S. neurona) can cause disease in a great variety of birds, being commonly associated with acute pulmonary sarcocystosis in zoos. S. neurona is the most commonly associated parasite with the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses. Herein we assessed the variability of Sarcocystis spp. isolated from opossums of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by sequencing fragments of genes coding for glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigens (termed surface antigen or SAG), SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4. Two genetic groups were identified, one of them related to S. falcatula and the other related to S. neurona. Various allelic combinations of SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4 occur among S. falcatula related isolates and strong evidences suggest that such isolates may exchange high divergent alleles in possible sexual recombination processes. Regarding the group S. neurona-like (isolates G37 and G38), none of the individuals in this group share alleles with individuals of the other group. Comparing G37 and G38 strains and North American strains of S. neurona, four polymorphisms were identified at SAG-3, five at SAG-2 and three at SAG-4. Gene sequences of locus SAG-3 from isolates G37 and G38 differed from the other sequences by an insertion 81bp long. This insertion contains several dinucleotide repeats of AT, resembling a microsatellite locus and has already been detected in SAG3 sequences of S. neurona from North America. When aligned against North American strains of S. neurona, G37 and G38 isolates have a deletion of 8 nucleotides within this intron which indicate that S. neurona strains of South America are

  8. Uterine Carcinosarcoma in a Patient with Didelphys Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, C.; Kokka, F.; Sahdev, A.; Singh, N.; Reynolds, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Didelphys uterus is a noncommon finding in women. Till now, few cases with benign mesenchymal tumors in patients with didelphys uterus are described. We present a case of a patient with carcinosarcoma arising in a didelphys uterus. Case. A 73-year-old patient presented with profuse watery postmenopausal bleeding. On examination under anesthesia, left and right cervixes were identified. Tumor extended from the left cervix into the lower third of the vagina and was adherent to the right vaginal sidewall. There was no evidence of parametrial extension. Tissue was sent for biopsy which revealed high-grade uterine carcinosarcoma. Two uterine fundi and two vaginas in keeping with uterine didelphys were identified on imaging. The patient underwent vaginal excision of the protruding tumor measuring 8 × 6 cm with harmonic scalpel followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Although a number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were also identified on imaging, she was not planned for lymphadenectomy after MDT (multidisciplinary team) discussion because of her comorbidities. The final histology confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. According to our knowledge, this is the second case of carcinosarcoma arising in didelphys uterus in the world literature. PMID:23533863

  9. Uterine carcinosarcoma in a patient with didelphys uterus.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C; Kokka, F; Sahdev, A; Singh, N; Reynolds, K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Didelphys uterus is a noncommon finding in women. Till now, few cases with benign mesenchymal tumors in patients with didelphys uterus are described. We present a case of a patient with carcinosarcoma arising in a didelphys uterus. Case. A 73-year-old patient presented with profuse watery postmenopausal bleeding. On examination under anesthesia, left and right cervixes were identified. Tumor extended from the left cervix into the lower third of the vagina and was adherent to the right vaginal sidewall. There was no evidence of parametrial extension. Tissue was sent for biopsy which revealed high-grade uterine carcinosarcoma. Two uterine fundi and two vaginas in keeping with uterine didelphys were identified on imaging. The patient underwent vaginal excision of the protruding tumor measuring 8 × 6 cm with harmonic scalpel followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Although a number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were also identified on imaging, she was not planned for lymphadenectomy after MDT (multidisciplinary team) discussion because of her comorbidities. The final histology confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion. According to our knowledge, this is the second case of carcinosarcoma arising in didelphys uterus in the world literature. PMID:23533863

  10. Critical Fluid Extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and Bioactivity of Extracts Against Subterranean Termites and Wood-Rot Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) (Cupresseaceae) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as we...

  11. Water Relations of Leaf Epidermal Cells of Tradescantia virginiana12

    PubMed Central

    Tomos, Alun Deri; Steudle, Ernst; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Schulze, Ernst-Detlev

    1981-01-01

    Water-relation parameters (cell turgor pressure [P], volumetric elastic modulus [ε] and hydraulic conductivity [Lp]) of individual leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana have been determined with the pressure-probe technique. Turgor was 4.5 ± 2.1 [41] bar (mean ± sd; in brackets the number of cells) and ranged from 0.9 to 9.6 bar. By vacuum infiltration with nutrient solution, it was raised to 7.5 ± 1.5 [5] bar (range: 5.3-8.8 bar). There was a large variability in the absolute value of ε of individual cells. ε ranged from 40 to 360 bar; mean ± sd: 135 ± 83 bar; n = 50 cells. ε values of individual cells seemed to be rather independent of changes in cell turgor. A critical assessment of the errors incurred in determining ε by the technique is included. The half-times of water exchange of individual cells ranged from 1 to 35 seconds, which gave values of 0.2 to 11 × 10−6 centimeters per second per bar for Lp (mean ± sd: 3.1 ± 2.3 × 10−6 centimeters per second per bar; n = 39 cells). The large range in Lp and ε is believed to be due to the difficulties in determining the effective surface area of water exchange of the cells. Lp is not influenced by active salt pumping driven by respiration energy inasmuch as it was not altered by 0.1 millimolar KCN. The temperature dependence of Lp (T½) was measured for the first time in individual higher-plant cells. Lp increased by a factor of 2 to 4, when the temperature was increased by 10 C. The activation energy of water exchange was found to be between 50 and 186 kilojoules per mole. Within the large range of variation it was found that T½, Lp, and ε did not change under various experimental conditions (intact and excised tissue, water content and turgidity, age, etc.). Similar results were obtained for the epidermal cells of Tradescantia andersoniana. The measurements suggest that the entire epidermis would respond very rapidly (i.e. with a half-time of 1 to 30 s) to a demand for water from the

  12. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  14. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  15. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a “trash or nuisance” tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  16. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris D.; Arnts, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine ( Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. P. taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions in all seasons. α-pinene and β-pinene were the most abundant emissions, while β-caryophyllene had the highest sesquiterpene emission rate from this species. β-phellandrene was the dominant compound emitted from P. virginiana, followed by the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. Sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana have not been reported in the literature previously. Summer sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana were nearly as high as monoterpene emissions, but were 4-12 times lower than monoterpene emissions in the other seasons. Oxygenated monoterpenes and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol were emitted at higher rates from P. taeda than from P. virginiana. Temperature response of the pinenes from P. taeda is similar to previously reported values used in emission models, while that for other compounds falls at the lower end of the previously reported range. Temperature response of all compounds from P. virginiana is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values from other pine species. There is evidence of light dependence of sesquiterpene emission after accounting for temperature response from both species. This effect is somewhat stronger in P. taeda. Bud break, needle expansion, and needle fall (and therefore wind events) seemed to increase monoterpene emission during non-summer seasons. In some instances springtime monoterpene emissions were higher than summertime emissions despite cooler temperatures. Emissions of individual compounds within monoterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene classes were highly correlated with each other. Compounds from different classes were much less correlated within each species. This is due

  17. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Lindsay, D S; Stich, R W; Stanek, J F; Speert, C A; Rosenthal, B M; Njoku, C J; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Reed, S M

    2000-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of a neurologic disease in horses, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The complete life cycle of S. neurona, including the description of sarcocysts and intermediate hosts, has not been completed until now. Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are definitive hosts, and horses and other mammals are aberrant hosts. In the present study, laboratory-raised domestic cats (Felis domesticus) were fed sporocysts from the intestine of a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Microscopic sarcocysts, with a maximum size of 700 x 50 microm, developed in the muscles of the cats. The DNA of bradyzoites released from sarcocysts was confirmed as S. neurona. Laboratory-raised opossums (D. virginiana) fed cat muscles containing the sarcocysts shed sporocysts in their feces. The sporocysts were approximately 10(-12) x 6.5-8.0 microm in size. Gamma interferon knockout mice fed sporocysts from experimentally infected opossums developed clinical sarcocystosis, and S. neurona was identified in their tissues using S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit serum. Two seronegative ponies fed sporocysts from an experimentally-infected opossum developed S. neurona-specific antibodies within 14 days. PMID:11191904

  18. Didelphys Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; Bisram, Pameela; Lora Alcantara, Isamarie; Upadhyay, Ruchi; Lara, Carla; Elmadjian, Malvina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. A didelphys uterus, also known as a "double uterus," is one of the least common amongst MDAs. This report discusses a case of didelphys uterus that successfully conceived, carried her pregnancy to term, and delivered vaginally without any significant complications. Case. Patient is a 29-year-old G2P0010 from Bangladesh, initially came a year prior in her first pregnancy, with spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pelvic Sonogram at that time showed a diagnosis of bicornuate versus didelphys uterus. There were no renal anomalies on subsequent abdominal CT scan. Patient presented with the second pregnancy and had uncomplicated prenatal care and did not have signs of preterm labor; fetus showed appropriate growth and the pregnancy was carried in the left uterus. Patient presented at 38 4/7 wks with Premature Rupture of Membrane and underwent induction of labor with Cytotec. Antibiotics were started for chorioamnionitis. Patient had a vaginal delivery with left mediolateral episiotomy and complete tear of vaginal septum. Third stage of labor was complicated with retained placenta, which was removed manually in the operating room with total EBL of 600 cc. PMID:26435865

  19. Didelphys Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Shadi; Bisram, Pameela; Lora Alcantara, Isamarie; Upadhyay, Ruchi; Lara, Carla; Elmadjian, Malvina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. A didelphys uterus, also known as a “double uterus,” is one of the least common amongst MDAs. This report discusses a case of didelphys uterus that successfully conceived, carried her pregnancy to term, and delivered vaginally without any significant complications. Case. Patient is a 29-year-old G2P0010 from Bangladesh, initially came a year prior in her first pregnancy, with spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pelvic Sonogram at that time showed a diagnosis of bicornuate versus didelphys uterus. There were no renal anomalies on subsequent abdominal CT scan. Patient presented with the second pregnancy and had uncomplicated prenatal care and did not have signs of preterm labor; fetus showed appropriate growth and the pregnancy was carried in the left uterus. Patient presented at 38 4/7 wks with Premature Rupture of Membrane and underwent induction of labor with Cytotec. Antibiotics were started for chorioamnionitis. Patient had a vaginal delivery with left mediolateral episiotomy and complete tear of vaginal septum. Third stage of labor was complicated with retained placenta, which was removed manually in the operating room with total EBL of 600 cc. PMID:26435865

  20. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Nguyen, Hoang; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

  1. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia) and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Abreu, M S L; Machado, R; Barbieri, F; Freitas, N S; Oliveira, L R

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp.) in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival. PMID:23644801

  2. Ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors in a South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1991-01-01

    A total of 19 male and 21 female South American opossums (Monodelphis domestica) were exposed to 250 J/m2 ultraviolet radiation from FS-40 sunlamps (280-400 nm) three times weekly for 70 weeks. The backs of the opossums were shaved as necessary to remove hair. In order to prevent photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers by the light-dependent photolyase enzyme of the opossum, ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums were housed under red lights (600-800 nm). The opossum photolyase requires light in the 320-450 nm range for its activity. Twenty-nine control opossums (14 males and 15 females) were irradiated by fluorescent lights with emission spectra primarily in the visible light range (320-700 nm); these control opossums were also housed under red lights, and their backs were also shaved to remove hair. No skin tumors were observed in control opossums, while ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums developed a variety of hyperplastic and neoplastic skin lesions on the backs and on a single ear. Hyperplastic lesions included foci of epithelial hyperplasia, dermal fibroplasia, and focal proliferation of dermal melanocytes. A total of 20 ultraviolet radiation-exposed opossums (50%) developed skin tumors, and 13 opossums (32.5%) had more than a single tumor. Epithelial tumors included 25 papillomas, four keratoacanthomas, seven carcinomas in situ, three microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, two invasive squamous cell carcinomas, and a single basal cell tumor. Ten dermal spindle cell tumors also occurred; most of these appeared to be fibrosarcomas. Two benign melanomas and one malignant melanoma were observed. PMID:2017828

  3. Central nervous system regeneration: from leech to opossum.

    PubMed

    Mladinic, M; Muller, K J; Nicholls, J G

    2009-06-15

    A major problem of neurobiology concerns the failure of injured mammalian spinal cord to repair itself. This review summarizes work done on two preparations in which regeneration can occur: the central nervous system of an invertebrate, the leech, and the spinal cord of an immature mammal, the opossum. The aim is to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote and prevent regeneration. In the leech, an individual axon regrows successfully to re-establish connections with its synaptic target, while avoiding other neurons. Functions that were lost are thereby restored. Moreover, pairs of identified neurons become re-connected with appropriate synapses in culture. It has been shown that microglial cells and nitric oxide play key roles in leech CNS regeneration. In the opossum, the neonatal brain and spinal cord are so tiny that they survive well in culture. Fibres grow across spinal cord lesions in neonatal animals and in vitro, but axon regeneration stops abruptly between postnatal days 9 and 12. A comprehensive search has been made in spinal cords that can and cannot regenerate to identify genes and establish their locations. At 9 days, growth-promoting genes, their receptors and key transcription molecules are up-regulated. By contrast at 12 days, growth-inhibitory molecules associated with myelin are prominent. The complete sequence of the opossum genome and new methods for transfecting genes offer ways to determine which molecules promote and which inhibit spinal cord regeneration. These results lead to questions about how basic research on mechanisms of regeneration could be 'translated' into effective therapies for patients with spinal cord injuries. PMID:19525562

  4. Comparative study of the chemical composition and biological activities of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia virginiana flower essential oils.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A

    2013-01-01

    The biological activities and the determined major volatile components in the Magnolia grandiflora and M. virginiana flowers extracts were compared. Volatile components were detected in the essential oil by dynamic headspace sampling (HS). 2-Phenylethanol (40% and 61%) was found as the main constituent in the essential oil and HS samples of M. virginiana, respectively. In the M. grandiflora oil sample, (E,E)-farnesol (18%) and 2-phenylethanol (10%) were found as main constituents, whereas germacrene D (17%) and β-bisabolene (17%) were the main components of the HS sample. The essential oil in M. virginiana displayed a moderate antioxidant activity relative to vitamin E, whereas both essential oils were active against human lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines, even at concentrations higher than 200 µg mL(-1). PMID:22690913

  5. Antiinflammatory agents protect opossum esophagus during radiotherapy. [Cobalt 60

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Eastwood, G.L.; Libshitz, H.I.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1982-10-01

    Eighteen opossums received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co to the entire esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with 600 mg aspirin, 25 mg/kg hydrocortisone, or saline before irradiation and twice daily for 1 week after irradiation. At 10 days postirradiation, animals were evaluated for signs of acute esophagitis by esophagoscopy and barium esophagram. Each animal was then killed and the esophagus removed and evaluated histologically. Animals treated with either aspirin or hydrocortisone had significantly milder esophagitis than control irradiated animals.

  6. Cage Change Intervals for Opossums (Monodelphis domestica) in Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Sarah O; Criley, Jennifer M; Kim, Ji Young; Goodly, Lyndon J

    2011-01-01

    The opossum Monodelphis domestica is the most commonly used marsupial in biomedical research. At our institution, these opossums are housed in polycarbonate (35.6 cm × 25.4 cm × 17.8 cm) individually ventilated cages. Previous studies of the cage microenvironment of rodents housed in individually ventilated cages have demonstrated that the cage-change frequency could be extended from 7 to 14 d, without detriment to the animals’ wellbeing. We sought to determine whether the cage change frequency for opossums housed in individually ventilated cages could be extended to 14 d. Opossums were placed into 3 experimental groups: singly housed males, singly housed females, and females housed with litters. The 14-d testing period was repeated twice, with temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels tested on days 0, 7, and 14. Acceptable ranges for the cage microenvironment were based on standards followed by our institution for housing rodents: temperature between 22 to 26 °C, relative humidity between 30% to 70%, and ammonia less than 25 ppm. Throughout both 14-d testing periods, temperature, relative humidity, and ammonia levels for singly housed male and singly housed female opossums were within acceptable ranges. However, ammonia levels exceeded the recommended 25 ppm on day 7 of both testing periods for female opossums housed with litters. In summary, the cage-change frequency for a singly housed opossum in an individually ventilated cage can be extended to 14 d. PMID:22330710

  7. Hamamelitannin from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) displays specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Fernández-Cachón, María L; Carreras, Anna; Mateos-Martín, M Luisa; Costoya, Noelia; Moyer, Mary P; Nuñez, María J; Torres, Josep L; Cascante, Marta

    2012-01-27

    Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) bark is a rich source of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins reported to exert a protective action against colon cancer. The present study characterizes different witch hazel tannins as selective cytotoxic agents against colon cancer. To cover the structural diversity of the tannins that occur in H. virginiana bark, the hydrolyzable tannins, hamamelitannin and pentagalloylglucose, together with a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (F800H4) were selected for the study. Treatment with these compounds reduced tumor viability and induced apoptosis, necrosis, and S-phase arrest in the cell cycle of HT29 cells, with hamamelitannin being the most efficient. Owing to polyphenol-mediated H(2)O(2) formation in the incubation media, the antiproliferative effect was determined in the presence and absence of catalase to rule out any such interference. The presence of catalase significantly changed the IC(50) only for F800H4. Furthermore, at concentrations that inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by 50%, hamamelitannin had no harmful effects on NCM460 normal colonocytes, whereas pentagalloylglucose inhibited both cancerous and normal cell growth. Using the TNPTM assay, we identified a highly reactive phenolic position in hamamelitannin, which may explain its efficacy at inhibiting colon cancer growth. PMID:22216935

  8. Opossums and Cat Fleas: New Insights in the Ecology of Murine Typhus in Galveston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lucas S; Idowu, Boluwatife M; Tatsch, Tyler N; Henderson, Joshua M; Bouyer, Donald H; Walker, David H

    2016-08-01

    Murine typhus is an acute undifferentiated febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi The classic reservoir (Rattus spp.) and flea vector (Xenopsylla cheopis) were once culprits of murine typhus in the United States. Vector and rodent control efforts have drastically decreased the prevalence of disease, except in a few endemic foci where opossums and cat fleas play a role in transmission. Since 2012, there has been a reemergence of murine typhus in Galveston, TX. We hypothesize that opossums and cat fleas are involved in the transmission of R. typhi in Galveston. To explore this, we sought to find the seroprevalence of typhus group antibodies from opossums. We also sought to find the prevalence of R. typhi in fleas parasitizing these animals. We collected blood from 12 opossums and found that eight (66.7%) had the presence of anti-R. typhi antibodies. All opossums were infested with fleas; a total of 250 Ctenocephalides felis fleas were collected from these animals. Seven opossums (53.8%) were infested with fleas that had molecular evidence of R. typhi infection, while six (46.2%) were infested with fleas that contained Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis, an organism closely related to R. felis The minimum flea infection rate for R. typhi was 7.0%. The minimum infection rate for Candidatus R. senegalensis was 6.1%. Our study demonstrates that fleas infected with R. typhi parasitize opossums in Galveston. It is therefore likely that opossums and their fleas play a role in the city's recent reemergence of murine typhus. PMID:27273642

  9. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystic neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundar, N.; Asmundsson, I.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Dubey, J.P.; Rosenthal, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  10. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei Juniperus Buchholz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that several Juniperus species are utilized as an antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, antirheumatic, antifungal and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., J. occide...

  11. oPOSSUM-3: Advanced Analysis of Regulatory Motif Over-Representation Across Genes or ChIP-Seq Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Arenillas, David J.; Hunt, Rebecca Worsley; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2012-01-01

    oPOSSUM-3 is a web-accessible software system for identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and TFBS families in either DNA sequences of co-expressed genes or sequences generated from high-throughput methods, such as ChIP-Seq. Validation of the system with known sets of co-regulated genes and published ChIP-Seq data demonstrates the capacity for oPOSSUM-3 to identify mediating transcription factors (TF) for co-regulated genes or co-recovered sequences. oPOSSUM-3 is available at http://opossum.cisreg.ca. PMID:22973536

  12. Conformational plasticity of DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from Didelphis marsupialis: chemical and pressure-induced equilibrium (un)folding studies.

    PubMed

    Chapeaurouge, Alex; Martins, Samantha M; Holub, Oliver; Rocha, Surza L G; Valente, Richard H; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Ferreira, Sérgio T; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the folding of DM43, a homodimeric metalloproteinase inhibitor isolated from the serum of the South American opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Denaturation of the protein induced by GdnHCl (guanidine hydrochloride) was monitored by extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. While the equilibrium (un)folding of DM43 followed by tryptophan fluorescence was well described by a cooperative two-state transition, bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid) fluorescence measurements revealed an intensity maximum at the midpoint of the unfolding transition (2 M GdnHCl), indicating a partially folded intermediate state. We further investigated the DM43 intermediate stabilized at 2 M GdnHCl using size exclusion chromatography. This analysis revealed that the folding intermediate can be best described as partially folded DM43 monomers. Thermodynamic analysis of the GdnHCl-induced denaturation of DM43 revealed Gibbs free-energy changes of 13.57 kcal/mol for dimer dissociation and 1.86 kcal/mol for monomer unfolding, pointing to a critical role of dimerization as a determinant of the structure and stability of this protein. In addition, by using hydrostatic pressure (up to 3.5 kbar) we were able to stabilize partially folded states different from those stabilized in the presence of GdnHCl. Taken together, these results indicate that the conformational plasticity of DM43 could provide this protein with the ability to adapt its conformation to a variety of different environments and biological partners during its biological lifetime. PMID:19332153

  13. Basic surface properties of mononuclear cells from Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Nacife, V P; de Meirelles, M de N; Silva Filho, F C

    1998-01-01

    The electrostatic surface charge and surface tension of mononuclear cells/monocytes obtained from young and adult marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis) were investigated by using cationized ferritin and colloidal iron hydroxyde, whole cell electrophoresis, and measurements of contact angles. Anionic sites were found distributed throughout the entire investigated cell surfaces. The results revealed that the anionic character of the cells is given by electrostatic charges corresponding to -18.8 mV (cells from young animals) and -29.3 mV (cells from adult animals). The surface electrostatic charge decreased from 10 to 65.2% after treatment of the cells with each one of trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The hydrophobic nature of the mononuclear cell surfaces studied by using the contact angle method revealed that both young and adult cells possess cell surfaces of high hidrofilicity since the angles formed with drops of saline water were 42.5 degrees and 40.8 degrees, respectively. Treatment of the cells with trypsin or neuraminidase rendered their surfaces more hydrophobic, suggesting that sialic acid-containing glycoproteins are responsible for most of the hydrophilicity observed in the mononuclear cell surfaces from D. marsupialis. PMID:9921307

  14. Marsupial morphology of reproduction: South America opossum male model.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Michelle Andrade; Panattoni Martins, João Flávio; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina; Gonçalves, Natalia; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlaneto; Vidane, Atanasio; Carvalho, Ana Flávia; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to describe the morphology of Didelphis sp. male genital organs (penis, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate, and bulbourethral gland). Ten male animals were used, eight for macroscopic and light microscopy analysis, and two for scanning electron microscopy. The testes and epididymis showed similarity to other eutherian mammals. The bifid penis showed the urethra ending in the medial region where the bifurcation begins, occurring in each segment extension of the urethral groove until the beginning of the glans. Histologically, the penis consists of a cavernous and spongy body, covered by stratified squamous epithelium with loose connective tissue. The urethra was lined by transitional stratified epithelium. In the prostate, prostatic segments were found consisting of tubular glands in a radial arrangement around the urethra, coated externally by a dense connective tissue associated with a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle arranged in two layers that surround the glandular tissue. The animals had three pairs of bulbourethral glands placed at the membranous and cavernous urethra junction with descending and parallel excretory ducts ending caudally in the urethral lumen. PMID:23362127

  15. Cystine and dibasic amino acid uptake by opossum kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    States, B.; Segal, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The characteristics of the uptake of L-cystine by the continuous opossum kidney cell line, OK, were examined. Uptake of cystine is rapid and, in contrast to other continuous cultured cell lines, these cells retain the cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated kidney tissue. Confluent monolayers of cells also fail to show the presence of the cystine/glutamate transport system present in LLC-PK1 cells, fibroblasts, and cultured hepatocytes. Uptake of cystine occurs via a high-affinity saturable process which is independent of medium sodium concentration. The predominant site of cystine transport is across the apical cell membrane. The intracellular concentration of GSH far exceeds that of cystine with a ratio greater than 100:1 for GSH:cysteine. Incubation of cells for 5 minutes with a physiological level of labelled cystine resulted in the labelling of 66% and 5% of the total intracellular cysteine and glutathione, respectively. The ability of these cells to reflect the shared cystine/dibasic amino acid transport system makes them a suitable model for investigation of the cystine carrier which is altered in human cystinuria.

  16. A case of successful pregnancy in a ewe with uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Carr, D J; Aitken, R P; Milne, J S; David, A L; Wallace, J M

    2013-10-01

    Uterus didelphys is a rare congenital abnormality of the reproductive tract. Although it occurs in various species, there are no published reports describing pregnancy outcome in association with this abnormality. Herein we describe a case of successful unilateral singleton pregnancy in a ewe incidentally found to have uterus didelphys during the course of a biomedical research study. The pregnancy was established using assisted reproductive techniques and interrupted in late gestation, at which point the abnormality was identified. Serial ultrasound assessment of foetal biometry revealed a normal foetal growth trajectory. Despite a 45% reduction in placentome number, total placentome weight was near normal secondary to compensatory placentome growth and development. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of normal foetal growth in an animal with uterus didelphys and illustrates the ability of the ovine placenta to adapt to a reduced number of placentomes and maintain foetal nutrient supply. PMID:23772768

  17. Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina and haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Ara, R; Begum, S A; Chowdhury, S B; Hussain, M A; Mirza, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mullerian anomalies are a relatively uncommon occurrence with implication for adolescents and adults as they may result in specific gynaecologic, fertility and obstetrical issues. Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Patient may be asymptomatic and unaware of having double uterus or may present with severe dysmenorrhoea or dyspareunia or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We report a case of 12 year old girl with this condition who was diagnosed as uterus didelphys with unilateral haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the basis of clinical association, physical examination and sonography and intravenous urogram. PMID:25725693

  18. Isolation and amino acid sequences of opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and cholecystokinin octapeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Yu, J; Rattan, S; Yalow, R S

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary history suggests that the marsupials entered South America from North America about 75 million years ago and subsequently dispersed into Australia before the separation between South America and Antarctica-Australia. A question of interest is whether marsupial peptides resemble the corresponding peptides of Old or New World mammals. Previous studies had shown that "little" gastrin of the North American marsupial, the opossum, is identical in length to that of the New World mammals, the guinea pig and chinchilla. In this report, we demonstrate that opossum cholecystokinin octapeptide, like that of the Australian marsupials, the Eastern quoll and the Tamar wallaby, is identical to the cholecystokinin octapeptide of Old World mammals and differs from that of the guinea pig and chinchilla. However, opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide differs from the usual Old World mammalian vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in five sites: [sequence; see text]. PMID:1542675

  19. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  20. Host density drives the postglacial migration of the tree parasite, Epifagus virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Hsin Erica; Manos, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    To survive changes in climate, successful species shift their geographic ranges to remain in suitable habitats. For parasites and other highly specialized species, distributional changes not only are dictated by climate but can also be engineered by their hosts. The extent of host control on parasite range expansion is revealed through comparisons of host and parasite migration and demographic histories. However, understanding the codistributional history of entire forest communities is complicated by challenges in synthesizing datasets from multiple interacting species of differing datatypes. Here we integrate genetic and fossil pollen datasets from a host–parasite pair; specifically, the population structure of the parasitic plant (Epifagus virginiana) was compared with both its host (Fagus grandifolia) genetic patterns and abundance data from the paleopollen record of the last 21,000 y. Through tests of phylogeographic structure and spatial linear regression models we find, surprisingly, host range changes had little effect on the parasite's range expansion and instead host density is the main driver of parasite spread. Unlike other symbionts that have been used as proxies to track their host's movements, this parasite's migration routes are incongruent with the host and instead reflect the greater importance of host density in this community's assembly. Furthermore, these results confirm predictions of disease ecological models regarding the role of host density in the spread of pathogens. Due to host density constraints, highly specialized species may have low migration capacities and long lag times before colonization of new areas. PMID:20841421

  1. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

  2. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard B.; Spal, Scott E.; Smith, Kenneth R.; Nippert, Jesse B.

    2013-01-01

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ13C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ34S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ13C and δ34S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  3. Antifungal Metabolites from the Roots of Diospyros virginiana by Overpressure Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoning; Habib, Eman; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    A preparative overpressure layer chromatography (OPLC) method was successfully used for the separation of two new natural compounds, 4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (1) and Δ12,13-20,29-dihydrobetulin (2) together with nine known compounds including 7-methyl-juglone (3), diospyrin (4), isodiospyrin (5), shinanolone (6), lupeol (7), betulin (8), betulinic acid (9), betulinaldehyde (10), and ursolic acid (11) from the acetone extract of the roots of Diospyros virginiana. Their identification was performed with mono and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phomopsis obscurans, and P. viticola using in vitro micro-dilution broth assay. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 showed high antifungal activity against P. obscurans at 30 μM with 97.0 % and 81.4 % growth inhibition and moderate activity against P. viticola (54.3 % and 36.6 %). It appears that an optimized OPLC system offers a rapid and efficient method of exploiting bioactive natural products. PMID:22162171

  4. Unilateral lacrimal fistula in a patient with uterus didelphys and renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Turan-Vural, Ece; Atmaca, Fatih; Unlu, Cihan; Erdogan, Gurkan; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Bayramalar, Huseyin

    2012-02-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to our clinic because of lacrimation from an orifice close to the left lower eyelid. Ocular examinations and analyses revealed uterus didelphys and unilateral renal agenesis associated with a left lacrimal fistula. The patient underwent fistulectomy and external dacryocystorhinostomy. We decided to report on this patient owing to the unusual concurrent systemic abnormalities. PMID:22258183

  5. Uterus didelphys: report of a puerperal torsion and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cipullo, Lucio M A; Milosavljevic, Slobodan; van Oudgaarden, Elisabeth D

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old Para 2 was admitted to the emergency department with increasing lower abdominal pain. The patient had undergone an uncomplicated elective repeat caesarean section 7 days before being admitted to the emergency department. An emergency laparotomy revealed a uterus didelphys with a torsion of one of the uteri. PMID:22919522

  6. Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Piazza, Mauri José; De, Newton Sergio Carvalho; Peixoto, Ana Paula Lisboa; Urbanetz, Almir Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to report a series of 19 cases of uterus didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. This retrospective descriptive observational study included the medical records of 19 patients seen at the Endocrinology Gynecology Sector of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Federal University of Paraná, and focused on clinical data, complementary exams, patient management, and follow-up. From the 229 patients with genital anomalies seen between 1984 and 2009, 19 (8.3%) were diagnosed with uterus didelphys with vaginal septum and renal agenesis. The patients had a median age of ±16.3 years. Eight subjects (42.6 %) reported abdominal pain; two of them (0.1%) had pelvic masses and seven (36.8%) had dysmenorrhea. Blood retention was confirmed by ultrasound and/ or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, which revealed the existence of a duplicated uterus of the didelphys type with a cystic mass containing old blood obliterating the hemivagina. Urinary tract examination revealed the existence of ipsilateral renal agenesis. Unusual manifestations such as associated infection and rupture of the vaginal septum during sexual intercourse were also reported. The prevalence of uterus didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis was 8.3% in a series of 229 genital anomalies. The observance of clinical features is essential for the early identification of the syndrome and the adequate management of the patients. PMID:27203202

  7. Virginia Opossums, Minimum Reproduction Age and Predators in the Penna Aging Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altevolmer, A. K.

    Age-specific predators are introduced into the Penna model of biological aging. It is shown that populations with a variable minimum reproduction age find a stable state with an earlier onset of reproduction, if older ages are eaten by the predators. This behavior agrees with the demographic data of the Virgina opossum.

  8. Polarity of Water Transport across Epidermal Cell Membranes in Tradescantia virginiana1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hiroshi; Fei, Jiong; Knipfer, Thorsten; Matthews, Mark A.; Gambetta, Greg; Shackel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Using the automated cell pressure probe, small and highly reproducible hydrostatic pressure clamp (PC) and pressure relaxation (PR) tests (typically, applied step change in pressure = 0.02 MPa and overall change in volume = 30 pL, respectively) were applied to individual Tradescantia virginiana epidermal cells to determine both exosmotic and endosmotic hydraulic conductivity (LpOUT and LpIN, respectively). Within-cell reproducibility of measured hydraulic parameters depended on the method used, with the PR method giving a lower average coefficient of variation (15.2%, 5.8%, and 19.0% for half-time, cell volume [Vo], and hydraulic conductivity [Lp], respectively) than the PC method (25.4%, 22.0%, and 24.2%, respectively). Vo as determined from PC and PR tests was 1.1 to 2.7 nL and in the range of optically estimated Vo values of 1.5 to 4.9 nL. For the same cell, Vo and Lp estimates were significantly lower (about 15% and 30%, respectively) when determined by PC compared with PR. Both methods, however, showed significantly higher LpOUT than LpIN (LpOUT/LpIN ≅ 1.20). Because these results were obtained using small and reversible hydrostatically driven flows in the same cell, the 20% outward biased polarity of water transport is most likely not due to artifacts associated with unstirred layers or to direct effects of externally applied osmotica on the membrane, as has been suggested in previous studies. The rapid reversibility of applied flow direction, particularly for the PR method, and the lack of a clear increase in LpOUT/LpIN over a wide range of Lp values suggest that the observed polarity is an intrinsic biophysical property of the intact membrane/protein complex. PMID:24495955

  9. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  10. Implications of invasion by Juniperus virginiana on small mammals in the southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Ganguli, A.C.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examined effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on small mammals in 3 plant communities (tallgrass prairie, old field, and cross-timbers forest) in the cross-timbers ecoregion in Oklahoma. We sampled small mammals seasonally from May 2001 to August 2002 by using Sherman live traps and mark-recapture techniques on 3.24-ha, 450-trap grids in each plant community. We sampled vegetation in two hundred twenty-five 12 x 12-m cells within each grid. The structure of the small-mammal community differed among the 3 habitat types, with higher species diversity and richness in the tallgrass-prairie and old-field sites. Overall, the small-mammal community shifted along a gradient of increasing eastern red cedar. In the old-field and tallgrass-prairie plots, occurrence of grassland mammals decreased with increasing red cedar, whereas only 1 woodland mammal species increased. In the cross-timbers forest site, percent woody cover (<1 m in height), rather than cover of red cedar, was the most important factor affecting woodland mammal species. Examination of our data suggests that an increase in overstory cover from 0% to 30% red cedar can change a species-rich prairie community to a depauperate community dominated by 1 species, Peromyscus leucopus. Losses in species diversity and changes in mammal distribution paralleled those seen in avian communities invaded by eastern red cedar. Our results highlight ecological effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on diversity and function at multiple trophic levels. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Expansion of Juniperus virginiana L. in the Great Plains: Changes in soil organic carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dixie L.; Johnson, Loretta C.

    2003-06-01

    Woody encroachment by Juniperus virginiana into Great Plains grasslands allowed us to answer: Does changing the type of plant input to soils alter soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution or soil carbon (C) storage? The answer is critical because woody encroachment may alter C cycling over millions of hectares in the Great Plains and Midwest. We predicted that (1) forest SOC would become concentrated in shallow soil layers compared to SOC distribution in grassland, (2) woody expansion would increase soil C storage, and (3) forest C would be apparent in the larger soil organic matter fractions. Using δ13C signatures of SOC, 1/5 of the C from 0 to 25 cm in juniper forest soils was derived from C3 juniper trees. Forest C3 input occurred primarily in shallow surface layers: Forest soils developed over former C4 prairie contained 42% C3-SOC from 0 to 2.5 cm depth, and decreased to 6% at 25 cm. Isotopic analysis of SOC size fractions revealed that at 0-2.5 cm, the forest soil fraction >212 μm was -25.7‰. The fraction <2 μm had a 13C isotope ratio of -17.0‰ at the same depth, reflecting the predominance of residual prairie C in the smallest fraction. In spite of fast dynamics of soil C turnover, there was no net change in SOC amounts over 40-60 years (cumulative mineral and organic SOC in forest, 8782 g C/m2 ± 810; in grassland, 7699 ± 1004). Thus as junipers expand into mesic areas of the Great Plains, juniper forests will provide little additional soil C storage.

  12. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome consisting of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Hsin; Wu, Trang-Tiau; Ng, Yan-Yan; Ng, Soo-Cheen; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Chen, Suh-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare variant of Müllerian duct anomalies consisting of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with HWW syndrome are usually asymptomatic until menarche, when they present with acute lower abdominal pain. Here we report a case of a female newborn with right renal agenesis diagnosed during the pregnancy. The patient presented with a protruding mass over the vaginal introitus that was associated with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys. PMID:22348499

  13. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri. PMID:26303093

  14. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain. PMID:16759954

  15. Inhibition of Crotalidae venom hemorrhagic activities by Didelphis marsupialis liver spheroids culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, L M; Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rivas-Vetencourt, P; Zerpa, M; Carillo, G; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E; Acevedo, C E; Gendzekhadze, K

    2001-05-01

    The main aim of this work was the development of a primary hepatocyte culture from Didelphis marsupialis, to determine the possible use of culture medium supernatants as a source of inhibitors of the Bothrops lanceolatus venom hemorrhagic activity. The cellular culture was carried out from isolated hepatocytes by the double perfusion technique, and digestion of the liver with collagenase and culturing the hepatocytes in a liquid media under continuous agitation at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2. The hemorrhagic activity inhibition assays were performed inoculating intradermically, a mixture of Bothrops lanceolatus venom plus a pool of liver spheroids culture supernatants, in mice. These liver Didelphis marsupialis spheroid cultures were adequate to obtain large supernatant volumes with inhibitors of hemorrhagic activity. PMID:11405280

  16. Uterus didelphys with obstructed right hemivagina, ipsilateral renal agenesis and right pyocolpos: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa; Razek, Yasser A; Hamdi, Ilham

    2011-11-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly of the female genital tract. Uterus didelphys occurs when the midline fusion of the mullerian ducts is arrested, either completely or incompletely. Women with didelphic uterus may be asymptomatic and unaware of having a double uterus. They may present with complaints of dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A 25 year old woman attending the infertility clinic at Nizwa regional referral hospital presented with history of dysmenorrhoea and foul vaginal discharge with right cystic pelvic mass. She was diagnosed as a case of double uterus with obstructed right hemivagina and right pyocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis after routine ultrasonography in the clinic followed by MRI. Excision of the right vaginal septum with drainage of 200 ml of purulent discharge was performed. She was relieved of her symptoms and conceived promptly after the surgical excision of the partial vaginal septum. PMID:22253958

  17. Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Right Hemivagina, Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis and Right Pyocolpos: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Hansa; Razek, Yasser A.; Hamdi, Ilham

    2011-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly of the female genital tract. Uterus didelphys occurs when the midline fusion of the mullerian ducts is arrested, either completely or incompletely. Women with didelphic uterus may be asymptomatic and unaware of having a double uterus. They may present with complaints of dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A 25 year old woman attending the infertility clinic at Nizwa regional referral hospital presented with history of dysmenorrhoea and foul vaginal discharge with right cystic pelvic mass. She was diagnosed as a case of double uterus with obstructed right hemivagina and right pyocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis after routine ultrasonography in the clinic followed by MRI. Excision of the right vaginal septum with drainage of 200 ml of purulent discharge was performed. She was relieved of her symptoms and conceived promptly after the surgical excision of the partial vaginal septum. PMID:22253958

  18. Independent uterine contractions in simultaneous twin pregnancy in each horn of the uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of synchronizing uterine contractions is not fully understood. We present a case of twin pregnancy in a uterus didelphys and objectively analyze the synchrony of bilateral uterine contractions. A 32-year-old woman, with a history of vaginal septal resection during her previous vaginal delivery, became pregnant with twins in a uterus didelphys in which each uterine horn had one fetus. At 37 weeks and 6 days, the first baby was delivered vaginally. The second baby was delivered by cesarean section due to recurrent late decelerations. Operative findings confirmed the didelphys uterus. We retrospectively reviewed the timing of contractions of both uteruses. The timing was determined by visual analysis as synchronous if both uteruses contracted within 5 s. Otherwise, contractions were considered solitary. Both uterine horns contracted independently in 90% of the incidence throughout labor and delivery. From this rare case of an 'experiment by nature', we speculated that the myometrium must be histologically connected in order to synchronize uterine contractions. PMID:24245492

  19. Receptors and cGMP signalling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, L.R.; Krause, W.J.; Freeman, R.H. Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Columbia, MO )

    1988-11-01

    Receptors for the heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli were found in the kidney and intestine of the North American opossum and in cultured renal cell lines. The enterotoxin markedly increased guanosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production in slices of kidney cortex and medulla, in suspensions of intestinal mucosa, and in the opossum kidney (OK) and rat kangaroo kidney (PtK-2) cell lines. In contrast, atrial natriuretic factor elicited much smaller increases in cGMP levels of kidney, intestine, or cultured kidney cell lines. The enterotoxin receptors in OK cells had a molecular mass of approximately 120 kDa when measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of receptors crosslinked with {sup 125}I-enterotoxin. The occurrence of receptors for the E. coli peptide in OK implies that these receptors may be involved in the regulation of renal tubular function in the opossum. E. coli enterotoxin caused a much larger increase in urine cGMP excretion than did atrial natriuretic factor when these peptides were injected intravenously into opossums. However, atrial natriuretic factor elicited a marked diuresis, natriuresis, and increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In contrast, the enterotoxin did not acutely influence OK fluid and electrolyte excretion. Thus the substantial increase in cGMP synthesis produced by the bacterial peptide in OK cortex and medulla in vitro and the increased renal excretion of cGMP in vivo were not associated with changes in electrolyte or water excretion. Whether cGMP represents a second messenger molecule in the kidney is an interesting question that was raised but not answered in this series of experiments.

  20. Adaptive Evolution of the Venom-Targeted vWF Protein in Opossums that Eat Pitvipers

    PubMed Central

    Jansa, Sharon A.; Voss, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid evolution of venom toxin genes is often explained as the result of a biochemical arms race between venomous animals and their prey. However, it is not clear that an arms race analogy is appropriate in this context because there is no published evidence for rapid evolution in genes that might confer toxin resistance among routinely envenomed species. Here we report such evidence from an unusual predator-prey relationship between opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) and pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae). In particular, we found high ratios of replacement to silent substitutions in the gene encoding von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a venom-targeted hemostatic blood protein, in a clade of opossums known to eat pitvipers and to be resistant to their hemorrhagic venom. Observed amino-acid substitutions in venom-resistant opossums include changes in net charge and hydrophobicity that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and one of its toxic snake-venom ligands, the C-type lectin-like protein botrocetin. Our results provide the first example of rapid adaptive evolution in any venom-targeted molecule, and they support the notion that an evolutionary arms race might be driving the rapid evolution of snake venoms. However, in the arms race implied by our results, venomous snakes are prey, and their venom has a correspondingly defensive function in addition to its usual trophic role. PMID:21731638

  1. Transcriptomic Changes Associated with Pregnancy in a Marsupial, the Gray Short-Tailed Opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Victoria Leigh; Schilkey, Faye Dorothy; Miller, Robert David

    2016-01-01

    Live birth has emerged as a reproductive strategy many times across vertebrate evolution; however, mammals account for the majority of viviparous vertebrates. Marsupials are a mammalian lineage that last shared a common ancestor with eutherians (placental mammals) over 148 million years ago. Marsupials are noted for giving birth to highly altricial young after a short gestation, and represent humans' most distant viviparous mammalian relatives. Here we ask what insight can be gained into the evolution of viviparity in mammals specifically and vertebrates in general by analyzing the global uterine transcriptome in a marsupial. Transcriptome analyses were performed using NextGen sequencing of uterine RNA samples from the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Samples were collected from late stage pregnant, virgin, and non-pregnant experienced breeders. Three different algorithms were used to determine differential expression, and results were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Over 900 opossum gene transcripts were found to be significantly more abundant in the pregnant uterus than non-pregnant, and over 1400 less so. Most with increased abundance were genes related to metabolism, immune systems processes, and transport. This is the first study to characterize the transcriptomic differences between pregnant, non-pregnant breeders, and virgin marsupial uteruses and helps to establish a set of pregnancy-associated genes in the opossum. These observations allowed for comparative analyses of the differentially transcribed genes with other mammalian and non-mammalian viviparous species, revealing similarities in pregnancy related gene expression over 300 million years of amniote evolution. PMID:27598793

  2. An Architectonic Study of the Neocortex of the Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    Short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) belong to the branch of marsupial mammals that diverged from eutherian mammals approximately 180 million years ago. They are small in size, lack a marsupial pouch, and may have retained more morphological characteristics of early marsupial neocortex than most other marsupials. In the present study, we used several different histochemical and immunochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of cortical areas in short-tailed opossums. Subdivisions of cortex were identified in brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal, horizontal or tangential planes and processed for a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV), neurofilament protein epitopes recognized by SMI-32, the vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), and Nissl substance. These different procedures revealed similar boundaries among areas, suggesting that functionally relevant borders were detected. The results allowed a fuller description and more precise demarcation of previously identified sensory areas, and the delineation of additional subdivisions of cortex. Area 17 (V1) was especially prominent, with a densely populated layer 4, high myelination levels, and dark staining of PV and VGluT2 immunopositive terminations. These architectonic features were present, albeit less pronounced, in somatosensory and auditory cortex. The major findings support the conclusion that short-tailed opossums have fewer cortical areas and their neocortex is less distinctly laminated than most other mammals. PMID:19546531

  3. Torpor in the Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of daily torpor and hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M.

    2013-10-01

    Hibernation and daily torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong daily fluctuations of body temperatures (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of daily heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of daily torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.

  4. Cranial Anatomy of the Earliest Marsupials and the Origin of Opossums

    PubMed Central

    Horovitz, Inés; Martin, Thomas; Bloch, Jonathan; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Kurz, Cornelia; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution of living marsupials is poorly understood in part because the early offshoots of this group are known almost exclusively from jaws and teeth. Filling this gap is essential for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among living marsupials, the biogeographic pathways that led to their current distribution as well as the successive evolutionary steps that led to their current diversity, habits and various specializations that distinguish them from placental mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first skull of a 55 million year old peradectid marsupial from the early Eocene of North America and exceptionally preserved skeletons of an Oligocene herpetotheriid, both representing critical groups to understand early marsupial evolution. A comprehensive phylogenetic cladistic analysis of Marsupialia including the new findings and close relatives of marsupials show that peradectids are the sister group of living opossums and herpetotheriids are the sister group of all living marsupials. Conclusions/Significance The results imply that North America played an important role in early Cenozoic marsupial evolutionary history and may have even been the center of origin of living marsupials and opossums. New data from the herpetotheriid postcranium support the view that the ancestral morphotype of Marsupialia was more terrestrial than opossums are. The resolution of the phylogenetic position of peradectids reveals an older calibration point for molecular estimates of divergence times among living marsupials than those currently used. PMID:20016823

  5. Opossum carboxylesterases: sequences, phylogeny and evidence for CES gene duplication events predating the marsupial-eutherian common ancestor

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Carboxylesterases (CES) perform diverse metabolic roles in mammalian organisms in the detoxification of a broad range of drugs and xenobiotics and may also serve in specific roles in lipid, cholesterol, pheromone and lung surfactant metabolism. Five CES families have been reported in mammals with human CES1 and CES2 the most extensively studied. Here we describe the genetics, expression and phylogeny of CES isozymes in the opossum and report on the sequences and locations of CES1, CES2 and CES6 'like' genes within two gene clusters on chromosome one. We also discuss the likely sequence of gene duplication events generating multiple CES genes during vertebrate evolution. Results We report a cDNA sequence for an opossum CES and present evidence for CES1 and CES2 like genes expressed in opossum liver and intestine and for distinct gene locations of five opossum CES genes,CES1, CES2.1, CES2.2, CES2.3 and CES6, on chromosome 1. Phylogenetic and sequence alignment studies compared the predicted amino acid sequences for opossum CES with those for human, mouse, chicken, frog, salmon and Drosophila CES gene products. Phylogenetic analyses produced congruent phylogenetic trees depicting a rapid early diversification into at least five distinct CES gene family clusters: CES2, CES1, CES7, CES3, and CES6. Molecular divergence estimates based on a Bayesian relaxed clock approach revealed an origin for the five mammalian CES gene families between 328–378 MYA. Conclusion The deduced amino acid sequence for an opossum cDNA was consistent with its identity as a mammalian CES2 gene product (designated CES2.1). Distinct gene locations for opossum CES1 (1: 446,222,550–446,274,850), three CES2 genes (1: 677,773,395–677,927,030) and a CES6 gene (1: 677,585,520–677,730,419) were observed on chromosome 1. Opossum CES1 and multiple CES2 genes were expressed in liver and intestine. Amino acid sequences for opossum CES1 and three CES2 gene products revealed conserved

  6. Growth inhibition and chromosomal instability of cultured marsupial (opossum) cells after treatment with DNA polymerase α inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kazama, Tomoko; Sakuma, Kurumi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Oshima, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The DNA replication mechanism has been well established for eutherian mammals (placental mammals such as humans, mice, and cattle), but not, to date, for metatherian mammals (marsupials such as kangaroos, koalas, and opossums). In this study, we found that dehydroaltenusin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian (eutherian) DNA polymerase α, clearly suppressed the growth of metatherian (opossum and rat kangaroo) cultured cells. In cultured opossum (OK) cells, dehydroaltenusin also suppressed the progression of DNA replication. These results suggest that dehydroaltenusin inhibits metatherian as well as eutherian DNA replication. Dehydroaltenusin treatment of OK cells engendered fluctuations in the numbers of chromosomes in the OK cells as well as inhibition of cell growth and DNA replication. This suggests that partial inhibition of DNA replication by dehydroaltenusin causes chromosomal instability in cultured cells. PMID:21737927

  7. Structure of parasite component communities of didelphid marsupials: insights from a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Catzeflis, François; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-10-01

    The parasite fauna of the gray four-eyed opossum, Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758), and the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, in Camp du Tigre, French Guiana, is characterized. Nine species from the gastrointestinal system were recovered from both species, which shared 80% of their parasites. The parasite fauna comprised several monoxenous species (63%) and was dominated by Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1914, which exhibited high levels of prevalence and abundance in both communities. Only 2 species (Moennigia sp. and Spirura guianensis) had been recorded in other species of mammals. Both species richness and taxonomic composition at the level of component communities from this locality were compared against 11 communities present in the Virginia ( Didelphis virginiana ), white-bellied (Didelphis albiventris), and common opossum from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Neither host phylogeny nor taxonomy accounted for statistical differences in species richness. There was no statistical difference among species richness values among the 9 localities studied. Taxonomic similarity was analyzed by means of the Jaccard's similarity index, including all, and only common species (occurring in prevalence >10%). The results suggest that sympatric species of marsupials share more species of parasites than parasite communities occurring in conspecific marsupials from different localities. As a consequence, taxonomic composition of these parasite communities varied depending on the locality. Probably, marsupials of the monophyletic Didelphini offer the same compatibility toward their parasites, by presenting them with similar habitats. Subtle differences in lifestyles of the marsupials may determine the chance of encounter between the symbionts and prevent some parasites from completing their life cycles. Further and more rigorous tests are necessary to determine the roles of encounter and compatibility filters, as well as the role of

  8. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  9. Plicae palmatae of the cervical canals in uterus didelphys: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Akiko; Koyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The plicae palmatae are normal endocervical folds on the anterior and posterior walls. The median longitudinal ridges of the plicae palmatae have been considered to represent a remnant of fused Müllerian ducts. We present a case of uterus didelphys in which the longitudinal ridge of the plicae palmatae were obviously demonstrated on both of the uterine cervices on axial T2-weighted image. The observation of the plicae palmatae on the duplicated uterine cervices indicates the plicae palmatae is an inherent structure of the cervical canal, not a remnant of fused Müllerian duct. PMID:22160342

  10. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  11. Uterine didelphys associated with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Boram; Herndon, Christopher N; Rosen, Mitchell P; Wang, Z Jane; Daldrup-Link, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome is a rare complex of structural abnormalities of the female urogenital tract. A 17-year-old girl with uterine didelphys associated with OHVIRA syndrome presented with progressive development of cyclic lower abdominal discomfort and a large abdominopelvic mass. We describe the findings from ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the first case report of this syndrome to examine all three different imaging modalities in a single patient. We also review the literature on OHVIRA syndrome and discuss important considerations relevant to radiologists and other clinicians. PMID:27307842

  12. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Marie-Josée; Beauregard, France; Cabana, Thérèse; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL) from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC). We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC. PMID:26848758

  13. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Marie-Josée; Beauregard, France; Cabana, Thérèse; Pflieger, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL) from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC). We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC. PMID:26848758

  14. Novel use of a tracheobronchial stent in a patient with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Amber R.; Merritt, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a novel use for a tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after vaginal septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys. Design: Description of a novel technique Setting: University-affiliated Children’s Hospital Patient: One patient with an obstructed hemivagina and uterine didelphys who presented with hematometria and hematocolpos. Intervention: In order to maintain patency and decrease stenosis risk after vaginal septum excision, a coated tracheobronchial stent was deployed and left in place for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: To evaluate ease of stent placement and removal, re-epithelialization and patency of the neo-vagina, and post-operative assessment of pain and recurrent obstruction. Results: The tracheobroncheal stent was easily positioned and deployed with vaginoscopic guidance. Six weeks later it was removed without any tissue in-growth or granulation tissue noted. The vaginal walls were nicely epithelialized. Twelve months post-operatively the patient remained pain free with regular cycles and no evidence of obstruction or abnormality on ultrasound. Conclusion: Use of a coated tracheobronchial stent to maintain patency after septum excision in a patient with an obstructed hemivagina presents a safe, easy and effective option to diminish stenosis risk and avoid infectious complications or hysterectomy. PMID:19064265

  15. Different strategies of exploration and phenotypic variability of the locomotor behavior in new environment: Comparative study of the laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Klejbor, Ilona; Turlejski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous locomotor activity of opossums and Wistar rats during a two-hour session in the open field has been recorded, assessed and behavior of individuals of the two species compared. Afterwards, groups of highly active (HA) and low active (LA) opossums and rats were selected on the basis of the distance traveled in the test. Differences between the selected groups were evaluated. Opossums were generally more active, moving faster and covering longer distance. They spent more time in the central part of the open field and traveled across the center more times than rats, therefore they showed also a lower level of anxiety. These data confirm our previous results indicating that opossums preferentially use the risky exploration strategy while rats mainly rely on the defensive behavior. Opossums showed a higher variability of the volume of locomotor activity than rats. Comparison of the HA and LA groups of opossums and rats showed that in each species they differed on another principle: the level of anxiety in Wistar rats and level of locomotor activity in opossums. Therefore results of the open field test might measure different parameters in different species. PMID:23377274

  16. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic hyperpolarization of opossum esophageal circular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.; Murray, J.; Conklin, J.L.; Bates, J.N. )

    1991-03-15

    The electromyogram recorded from circular smooth muscle (SM) of opossum esophagus, either during peristalsis or when the intrinsic esophageal nerves are stimulated by an electrical field (EFS), consists of a hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. This membrane response results from the interaction of a nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitter with its receptors on SM membrane. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide (NO) were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of this NANC nerve-induced response. The transmembrane potential difference of circular SM cells of opossum esophagus was recorded with glass microelectrode. The nerve-mediated membrane response was evoked by EFS. L-NNA (50uM) abolished the initial hyperpolarization and reduced the amplitude of and the time to maximal depolarization. L-arginine (1mM), the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the effect of L-NNA. Neither L-NNA nor L-arginine altered the resting membrane potential. Exogenous NO produced hyperpolarization of SM membrane potential and attenuated the amplitude of EFS-induced hyperpolarization and depolarization. Nitrosocysteine, a NO-containing compound, also hyperpolarized the membrane potential. Effect of NO was neither blocked by L-NNA nor by TTX. The data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophageal SM membrane.

  17. In Situ Measurement of Epidermal Cell Turgor, Leaf Water Potential, and Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Brinckmann, Enno

    1985-01-01

    A combined system has been developed in which epidermal cell turgor, leaf water potential, and gas exchange were determined for transpiring leaves of Tradescantia virginiana L. Uniform and stable values of turgor were observed in epidermal cells (stomatal complex cells were not studied) under stable environmental conditions for both upper and lower epidermises. The changes in epidermal cell turgor that were associated with changes in leaf transpiration were larger than the changes in leaf water potential, indicating the presence of transpirationally induced within-leaf water potential gradients. Estimates of 3 to 5 millimoles per square meter per second per megapascal were obtained for the value of within-leaf hydraulic conductivity. Step changes in atmospheric humidity caused rapid changes in epidermal cell turgor with little or no initial change in stomatal conductance, indicating little direct relation between stomatal humidity response and epidermal water status. The significance of within-leaf water potential gradients to measurements of plant water potential and to current hypotheses regarding stomatal response to humidity is discussed. PMID:16664210

  18. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  19. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  20. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  1. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  2. Odors as cues for orientation to mothers by weanling Virginia opossums

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether whole-body and pouch odors facilitate social cohesion between young Virginia opossums and their mothers just prior to weaning. In experiment 1, young oriented toward plastic buckets containing their mothers, directing significantly higher levels of investigative behavior and more distress vocalizations toward them than toward buckets containing unrelated lactating females. In experiment 2, young oriented toward and investigated empty buckets containing whole-body odors of their mothers more than empty buckets containing odors of other females. Similarly, more investigative behavior was directed toward plastic bucket lids containing pouch odors from subjects mothers than toward pouch odors from unrelated females in experiment 3. These results suggest that social odors help young didelphid marsupials maintain contact with their mothers, as in other mammals, and that whole-body and pouch gland odors are important chemical signals in this nongregarious species.

  3. Radiation esophagitis in the opossum: radioprotection with indomethacin. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Libshitz, H.I.; Osborne, B.M.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; West, J.H.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-five opossums were evaluated before irradiation by fiberoptic endoscopy and air-contrast barium esophagram examination. All animals received 2250 rad /sup 60/Co-irradiated in a single exposure to the entire esophagus and lower exophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with indomethacin. Acute esophagitis occurred 7 to 10 days postirradiation in control animals and was characterized by erythema, ulceration, and sloughing of esophageal mucosa as determined by air-contrast barium esophagram, endoscopy, and histology. Prostaglandin-treated animals showed more severe evidence of esophagitis than control animals. Indomethacin-treated animals showed no signs or only mild esophagitis posttreatment. It is concluded that indomethacin treatment may significantly reduce the severity of radiation esophagitis perhaps by blockade of prostaglandin synthesis.

  4. Particle size selection in cadmium uptake by the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, L.K.; Lasenby, D.C. )

    1991-11-01

    Fecal pellets of plankton play a key role in the recycling of trace contaminants within the aquatic environment. This is especially true for those plankton that undergo vertical migration in the water column. The opossum shrimp Mysis relicta is generally thought of as an omnivorous zooplankter occupying the pelagic zone of lakes, making itself available as a food source to a wide variety of fish. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the increase in concentration of metals from food source to fecal pellet. This study examines the feeding behavior of M. relicta to test the hypothesis that particle size selection can account for increased metal concentrations found in the fecal pellets of invertebrates.

  5. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  6. Nitric oxide suppresses a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl- current in smooth muscle cells of opossum esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Vogalis, F; Goyal, R K

    1998-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) hyperpolarizes visceral smooth muscles. Using the patch-clamp technique, we investigated the possibility that NO-mediated hyperpolarization in the circular muscle of opossum esophagus results from the suppression of a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl- current. Smooth muscle cells were dissociated from the circular layer and bathed in high-K+ Ca(2+)-EGTA-buffered solution. Macroscopic ramp currents were recorded from cell-attached patches. Contaminating K(+)-channel currents were blocked with tetrapentylammonium chloride (200 microM) added to all solutions. Raising bath Ca2+ concentration above 150 nM in the presence of A-23187 (10 microM) activated a leak current (IL-Ca) with an EC50 of 1.2 microM at -100 mV. The reversal potential (Erev) of IL-Ca (-8.5 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 8) was significantly different (P < 0.05) from Erev of the background current (+4.2 +/- 1.2 mV, n = 8). Equimolar substitution of 135 mM Cl- in the pipette solution with gluconate significantly shifted Erev of IL-Ca to +16.6 +/- 3.4 mV (n = 4) (P < 0.05 compared with background), whereas replacement of total Na+ with Tris+ suppressed IL-Ca but did not affect Erev (-15 +/- 3 mV, n = 3; P > 0.05). IL-Ca was inhibited by DIDS (500 microM). Diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (200 microM), a NO donor, and 8-bromo-cGMP (200 microM) suppressed IL-Ca by 59 +/- 15% (n = 5) and 62 +/- 21% (n = 4) at -100 mV, respectively. We conclude that in opossum esophageal smooth muscle NO-mediated hyperpolarization may be produced by suppression of a Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl(-)-permeable conductance via formation of cGMP. PMID:9612270

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in the short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Gentles, Andrew J.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Kohany, Oleksiy; Gu, Wanjun; Batzer, Mark A.; Pollock, David D.; Jurka, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica is notable for its large size (∼3.6 Gb). We characterized nearly 500 families of interspersed repeats from the Monodelphis. They cover ∼52% of the genome, higher than in any other amniotic lineage studied to date, and may account for the unusually large genome size. In comparison to other mammals, Monodelphis is significantly rich in non-LTR retrotransposons from the LINE-1, CR1, and RTE families, with >29% of the genome sequence comprised of copies of these elements. Monodelphis has at least four families of RTE, and we report support for horizontal transfer of this non-LTR retrotransposon. In addition to short interspersed elements (SINEs) mobilized by L1, we found several families of SINEs that appear to use RTE elements for mobilization. In contrast to L1-mobilized SINEs, the RTE-mobilized SINEs in Monodelphis appear to shift from G+C-rich to G+C-low regions with time. Endogenous retroviruses have colonized ∼10% of the opossum genome. We found that their density is enhanced in centromeric and/or telomeric regions of most Monodelphis chromosomes. We identified 83 new families of ancient repeats that are highly conserved across amniotic lineages, including 14 LINE-derived repeats; and a novel SINE element, MER131, that may have been exapted as a highly conserved functional noncoding RNA, and whose emergence dates back to ∼300 million years ago. Many of these conserved repeats are also present in human, and are highly over-represented in predicted cis-regulatory modules. Seventy-six of the 83 families are present in chicken in addition to mammals. PMID:17495012

  8. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E; Vandeberg, John L; Champagne, Donald E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa-e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n=3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7-14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21-84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  9. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol® Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol® Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Results: Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol® shampoo more than once. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol® Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia. PMID:25210333

  10. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  11. Uterus didelphys with an obstructed unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: A rare cause of dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Gazi; Inan, Yücel; Küzılkale, Ozge; Karateke, Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Didelphic uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare condition. It usually presents with pelvic pain following the menarche, dysmenorrhoea, and an increase in abdominal volume or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl who referred with recurrent pelvic pain, mainly at the time of menses, and irregular menstrual cycle complaints in this report. The patient underwent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis was performed. The diagnosis was uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesia. Laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Two separated hemiuteri and two cervices with hematometra and hematocolpos on the right side and ipsilateral renal agenesis were detected. The vaginal septum was excised completely and Strassman metroplasty was performed. Her complaints were resolved and she was absolutely asymptomatic after surgery. Diagnosis and management of this congenital anomaly is challenging due to the complexity of the anatomic structures, nonspecific complaints, and heterogenic presentation. These anomalies must always be considered while working-up female patients presenting with episodic abdominal pain and abdominopelvic mass. PMID:24592115

  12. Uterus didelphys with an obstructed unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: A rare cause of dysmenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Rukset; Yıldırım, Gazi; Inan, Yücel; Küzılkale, Özge; Karateke, Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Didelphic uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare condition. It usually presents with pelvic pain following the menarche, dysmenorrhoea, and an increase in abdominal volume or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl who referred with recurrent pelvic pain, mainly at the time of menses, and irregular menstrual cycle complaints in this report. The patient underwent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis was performed. The diagnosis was uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesia. Laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Two separated hemiuteri and two cervices with hematometra and hematocolpos on the right side and ipsilateral renal agenesis were detected. The vaginal septum was excised completely and Strassman metroplasty was performed. Her complaints were resolved and she was absolutely asymptomatic after surgery. Diagnosis and management of this congenital anomaly is challenging due to the complexity of the anatomic structures, nonspecific complaints, and heterogenic presentation. These anomalies must always be considered while working-up female patients presenting with episodic abdominal pain and abdominopelvic mass. PMID:24592115

  13. Structural and functional analyses of DM43, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Perales, Jonas; Fox, Jay W; Shannon, John D; Makino, Débora L; Garratt, Richard C; Domont, Gilberto B

    2002-04-12

    DM43, an opossum serum protein inhibitor of snake venom metalloproteinases, has been completely sequenced, and its disulfide bond pattern has been experimentally determined. It shows homology to human alpha(1)B-glycoprotein, a plasma protein of unknown function and a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family. Size exclusion and dynamic laser light scattering data indicated that two monomers of DM43, each composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, associated to form a homodimer in solution. Analysis of its glycan moiety showed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, and sialic acid, most probably forming four biantennary N-linked chains. DM43 inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activities of bothrolysin and jararhagin and formed 1:1 stoichiometric stable complexes with both metalloproteinases. DM43 was ineffective against atrolysin C or A. No complex formation was detected between DM43 and jararhagin C, indicating the essential role of the metalloproteinase domain for interaction. Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of a killer cell inhibitory receptor suggested the existence of an I-type Ig fold, a hydrophobic dimerization surface and six surface loops potentially forming the metalloproteinase-binding surface on DM43. PMID:11815628

  14. Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed opossums (Didelphidae: Monodelphis): taxonomic implications and tests of evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Silvia E; Jansa, Sharon A; Voss, Robert S

    2014-10-01

    Short-tailed opossums (genus Monodelphis) represent one of the most speciose clades of New World marsupials, with 26 currently recognized species that collectively range from eastern Panama to northern Argentina. Here we present the first phylogenetic analyses of the genus based on dense taxonomic sampling and multiple genes. From most sampled species we obtained >4800bp of DNA sequence from one mitochondrial gene (CYTB), two autosomal exons (IRBP exon 1, BRCA1 exon 11), one autosomal intron (SLC38 intron 7), and one X-linked intron (OGT intron 14). Maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses of these data strongly support the monophyly of Monodelphis and recover six major clades within the genus. Additionally, our analyses support previous suggestions that several nominal taxa are synonyms of other species (M. "sorex" of M. dimidiata, M. "theresa" of M. scalops, M. "rubida" and M. "umbristriata" of M. americana, and M. "maraxina" of M. glirina). By contrast, four unnamed lineages recovered by our analyses may represent new species. Reconstructions of ancestral states of two discrete characters-dorsal pelage color pattern and habitat-suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Monodelphis was uniformly colored (with unpatterned dorsal pelage) and inhabited moist forest. Whereas some dorsal pelage patterns appear to have evolved homoplastically in Monodelphis, dorsal stripes may have had a unique historical origin in this genus. PMID:25017146

  15. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  16. Seasonal population characteristics of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, James B.; DeGraeve, G.M.

    1972-01-01

    This study of depth distribution, abundance, growth, reproduction and standing crop of the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, in southeastern Lake Michigan was based on monthly samples collected from August 1970 through July 1971 (except February and March). Population density was usually low at 10-20 fathoms, moderate at 25-30 fathoms and relatively high at 35 fathoms and deeper. Abundance was highest in midsummer and lowest in December. Free-living mysids were 3-25 mm long. Average growth rate was 1 mm per month. At maximum lengths, females were longer than males. Weight increased as approximately the cube of the length. The population consisted mostly of juveniles during summer and autumn and subadults and adults in winter and spring. Sizable numbers of adults apparently moved to relatively shallow water (10-35 fathoms) in winter, where they bred and released their young. In deeper water (40 fathoms or more), some reproduction occurred throughout the year. Most recruitment was in April and May. Standing crop ranged as high as 50 kg per hectare. Mysis apparently has a one-year life cycle in southeastern Lake Michigan.

  17. Nitric oxide: Mediator of nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerve-induced responses of opossum esophageal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Du, C.; Conklin, J.L.; Ledlow, A.; Bates, J.N. )

    1991-03-15

    Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nerves of the opossum esophagus mediate relaxation of circular muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the off contraction of circular esophageal muscle. The latencies between the end of the stimulus and the off contraction describe a gradient such that the latency is longest in muscle from the caudad esophagus. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and nitric oxide were used to test the hypothesis that NO is a mediator of these nerve-induced responses. Both electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic esophageal nerves and exogenous NO relaxed LES muscle. Only EFS-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-NNA. L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthase, antagonized the inhibitory effect of L-NNA. Exogenous NO neither relaxed nor contracted circular esophageal muscle. Both the amplitude and the latency of the off contraction were diminished by L-NNA. L-arginine antagonized the action of L-NNA. N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine also attenuated the gradient in the latency of the off response by shortening latencies in muscle form the caudad esophagus. It had no effect on cholinergic nerve-induced contraction of longitudinal esophageal muscle. These data support the hypothesis that NO or an NO-containing compound mediates NANC nerve-induced responses of the esophagus and LES.

  18. Characteristics of albumin binding to opossum kidney cells and identification of potential receptors.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J; Nahorski, S; Walls, J

    1997-02-01

    Albumin re-absorption in the kidney proximal tubule may be pathophysiological in disease. Opossum kidney (OK) cell monolayers were used to investigate the characteristics of [125I]-labelled albumin binding at 4 degrees C. Two binding sites were identified, one with high affinity (KD 154.8 +/-7 mg/l) and low capacity, the other with low affinity (KD 8300 +/- 1000 mg/l) and high capacity. Binding was sensitive to lectins Glycine max and Ulex europaeus I, but not other lectins, indicating involvement of a glycoprotein(s) in the binding process. Binding was also sensitive to a number of agents known to inhibit binding to scavenger receptors. [125I]-Labelled albumin ligand blotting of OK cell membrane proteins identified several albumin-binding proteins with identical lectin affinities to those proteins mediating albumin binding to OK cell monolayers. These results provide initial evidence of the identity of albumin receptors in kidney tubules, and suggest that they may be members of the family of scavenger receptors. PMID:9000429

  19. Quantitative genetics of floral traits in a gynodioecious wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana: implications for the independent evolution of female and hermaphrodite floral phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ashman, T L

    1999-12-01

    The independent evolution of floral phenotype is an important part of the process of gender specialization during the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. However, we have little information on the genetic variation of floral traits in species with separate genders. Gynodioecious species (co-occurrence of females and hermaphrodites) have a breeding system intermediate between hermaphroditism and complete separation of the sexes (dioecy) and thus can provide insight into the genetic architecture underlying floral phenotype with respect to both primary (stamens and carpels) and secondary (petals) sexual traits. I used a nested breeding design to examine the potential for response to selection on floral traits and to examine whether this response would be similar in the two sex morphs of gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana. There was significant genetic variation underlying all floral traits, although narrow-sense heritabilities (ranging from -0.25 to 0.44) were, in most cases, much lower than broad-sense ones (ranging from 0.28 to 1. 53). Moreover, the sex morphs differed significantly in their heritabilities for shared traits, such as stamen length, and showed a tendency towards differing significantly in others, like carpel number and petal length. In addition, correlations between the sex morphs for these traits (ranging from 0.41 to 0.58) were significantly greater than 0, but less than 1. These results indicate that greater sexual dimorphism could evolve in this population of F. virginiana, even if selection on these traits is not divergent. However, strong developmental integration of floral traits (e.g. stamen length and petal length) and high levels of nonadditive genetic variance may represent barriers to the evolution of complete sexual dimorphism. PMID:10651918

  20. Laparoscopic management of pregnancy in a patient with uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Nawfal, A Karim; Blacker, Charla M; Strickler, Ronald C; Eisenstein, David

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare and potentially lethal condition. The highest risk of rupture is reported to be during the late first and second trimester. The risk of rupture correlates with the thickness of the myometrium surrounding the fetal pole. In 2005, a 20-year-old woman was incompletely diagnosed by imaging studies and laparoscopy to have an absent right kidney, a bicornate uterus with a right rudimentary uterine horn and a single cervix, a transverse vaginal septum with hematocolpos, and endometriosis caused by reflux menstruation. The transverse vaginal septum was excised, and the surgeon observed a single cervix. Oral contraceptives were prescribed as complementary treatment for the endometriosis and associated dysmenorrhea. In 2009, magnetic resonance imaging confirmed resolution of hematocolpos and revealed a right cervix connected to the right horn of a uterus didelphys and covered by a partial longitudinal vaginal septum. The patient had a contraception failure and presented in 2010 at 9(6/7) weeks' gestation. By ultrasonography and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging, the pregnancy was in the right uterus and the corpus luteum was on the left ovary. The myometrium was thinned to 2 to 3 mm atop the gestational sac. Using the Harmonic ACE, laparoscopic excision of the right fallopian tube and a supracervical right hysterectomy with an intact pregnancy was performed. This case supports the Acién hypothesis that the vagina forms from both Müllerian and Wolffian duct elements, and it illustrates the risk for uterine rupture when pregnancy forms in a rudimentary structure; presumed transperitoneal migration of an ovum that was captured by the opposite fallopian tube; and surgical management of the in situ pregnancy by laparoscopic supracervical excision of the rudimentary uterine body. PMID:21545963

  1. Myosin isoform expression in the prehensile tails of didelphid marsupials: functional differences between arboreal and terrestrial opossums.

    PubMed

    Rupert, J E; Schmidt, E Cordero; Moreira-Soto, A; Herrera, B Rodríguez; Vandeberg, J L; Butcher, M T

    2014-08-01

    Prehensile tails are defined as having the ability to grasp objects and are commonly used as a fifth appendage during arboreal locomotion. Despite the independent evolution of tail prehensility in numerous mammalian genera, data relating muscle structure, physiology, and function of prehensile tails are largely incomplete. Didelphid marsupials make an excellent model to relate myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fiber type with structure/function of caudal muscles, as all opossums have a prehensile tail and tail use varies between arboreal and terrestrial forms. Expanding on our previous work in the Virginia opossum, this study tests the hypothesis that arboreal and terrestrial opossums differentially express faster versus slower MHC isoforms, respectively. MHC isoform expression and percent fiber type distribution were determined in the flexor caudae longus (FCL) muscle of Caluromys derbianus (arboreal) and Monodelphis domestica (terrestrial), using a combination of gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry analyses. C. derbianus expresses three MHC isoforms (1, 2A, 2X) that are distributed (mean percentage) as 8.2% MHC-1, 2.6% 1/2A, and 89.2% 2A/X hybrid fibers. M. domestica also expresses MHC-1, 2A, and 2X, in addition to the 2B isoform, distributed as 17.0% MHC-1, 1.3% 1/2A, 9.0% 2A, 75.2% 2A/X, and 0.3% 2X/B hybrid fibers. The distribution of similar isoform fiber types differed significantly between species (P < 0.001). Although not statistically significant, C. derbianus was observed to have larger cross-sectional area (CSA) for each corresponding fiber type along with a greater amount of extra-cellular matrix. An overall faster fiber type composition (and larger fibers) in the tail of an arboreal specialist supports our hypothesis, and correlates with higher muscle force required for tail hanging and arboreal maneuvering on terminal substrates. Conversely, a broader distribution of highly oxidative fibers in the caudal musculature is well suited for

  2. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  3. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the

  4. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Barbara; Liu, Xi; Corre, Erwan; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i) AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii) AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2%) exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at the onset of

  5. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Gasse, Barbara; Liu, Xi; Corre, Erwan; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i) AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii) AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2%) exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at the onset of

  6. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26553608

  7. Are opossums a relevant factor associated with asymptomatic Leishmania infection in the outskirts of the largest Brazilian cities?

    PubMed

    Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    A population survey was conducted to explore the prevalence and factors associated with Leishmania infection in the Fercal region of the Federal District. The Fercal region is a group of neighborhoods in Brasília in which the first cases of visceral leishmaniasis were described. Leishmania infection was established by a positive leishmanin test. Although other tests were performed in the study (an immunochromatographic assay (Kalazar detect(®)) and a molecular assay), only the leishmanin skin test provided sufficient results for the measurement of the disease prevalence. Data on the epidemiological, clinical and environmental characteristics of individuals were collected along with the diagnostic tests. After sampling and enrollment, seven hundred people from 2 to 14 years of age were included in the study. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was 33.28% (95% CI 29.87-36.84). The factors associated with Leishmania infection according to the multivariate analysis were age of more than seven years and the presence of opossums near the home. Age is a known factor associated with Leishmania infection; however, the presence of wild animals, as described, is an understudied factor. The presence of opossums, which are known reservoirs of Leishmania, in peri-urban areas could be the link between the rural and urban occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in the outskirts of largest Brazilian cities, as suggested by previous studies. PMID:26867473

  8. Phylogenetic evaluation of taxonomic definition of didelphid mouse opossum of the genus Thylamys from valleys of Coquimbo region, Chile.

    PubMed

    Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Zúñiga-Reinoso, Álvaro; Cancino, Ricardo A; González-Acuña, Daniel; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Palma, R Eduardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Only two species of Didelphidae are currently recognized in Chile, the sister species Thylamys elegans, endemic of Mediterranean ecorregion and Thylamys pallidior, the inhabitant of the Puna and desert canyons. Three subspecies have been described for T. elegans: T. e. elegans, T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. soricinus. However, a recent study based on morphological analyses, synonymized T. elegans coquimbensis from the Coquimbo valleys (30-31° S) with T. pallidior and proposed that T. elegans and T. pallidior could be in sympatry at Coquimbo valleys between Fray Jorge (30°40'S) and Paiguano (30°02' S). We assess the current definition of T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. elegans, as well as this taxonomical conflict among the mouse opossums from the Coquimbo valleys through phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b mitochondrial gene sequences. In this study, for the first time, we used specimens from the type localities of T. e. coquimbensis and T. e. elegans. In addition, we analyzed diagnostic cranial structures for this taxonomic revision. The results supported two allopatric clades, allowing us to keep the taxonomic definition of T. e. elegans and T. e. coquimbensis as phylogenetic reciprocal monophyletic clades and polyphyletic with T. pallidior. This result corroborates previous morphological analyses, which support that mouse opossums from the Coquimbo valleys are T. e. coquimbensis, thus extending its geographic distribution to the coast of Coquimbo and Atacama regions. We don´t have evidence for sympatric distribution between T. elegans and T. pallidior in the Coquimbo region. PMID:27394783

  9. Ultrastructural aspects of oocyte growth in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    PubMed Central

    Falconnier, C; Kress, A

    1992-01-01

    The growth of the opossum Monodelphis oocyte does not correspond to the strict biphasic pattern so far described in eutherians and marsupials. The oocyte increases appreciably in size during the last stage of antral follicle development. During the primordial and primary follicle stage Balbiani bodies or paranuclear complexes are not detectable in Monodelphis oocytes. Organelles are randomly distributed. In addition to the nucleolus, perichromatin and ribonucleoprotein particles are other intranuclear structures which occur as regular components in the early Monodelphis oocyte. Clusters of particles are mostly seen in close association with the nuclear envelope. Similar material has been encountered in the cytoplasm as a type of freely-existing 'nuage' material but never as mitochondria-associated 'nuage' or 'cement'. Both types of particles, intranuclear and cytoplasmic, disappear by the time antral follicle formation begins. Mitochondria are at first of the typical transformed shape seen in most mammalian oocytes. They are large, round or oval in outline with a few, often arched, cristae and a light matrix. During the primary follicle stage, mitochondrial size and complexity decrease and the matrix becomes electron dense. A close relationship between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum appears early in the primordial and later in the primary follicle oocyte. Regularly detected structures in the ooplasm of preantrum oocytes are paired or 'confronting' cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum, which are lamellar complexes comprised of 2 or more parallel cisternae with intervening electron-dense material. The most conspicuous inclusions in the Monodelphis oocytes of the tertiary and graafian follicles are vesicles. All other organelles are confined to the peripheral zone of the oocyte. Golgi and endoplasmic vesicles both take part in the formation of multivesicular bodies which seems to be the starting point for the vesicle accumulation. Further increase in size

  10. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  11. Chromosome-wide profiling of X-chromosome inactivation and epigenetic states in fetal brain and placenta of the opossum, Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Douglas, Kory C.; VandeBerg, John L.; Clark, Andrew G.; Samollow, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a few genes in diverse species suggests that X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in marsupials is characterized by exclusive, but leaky inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome. To study the phenomenon of marsupial XCI more comprehensively, we profiled parent-of-origin allele-specific expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications in fetal brain and extra-embryonic membranes in the gray, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The majority of X-linked genes (152 of 176 genes with trackable SNP variants) exhibited paternally imprinted expression, with nearly 100% of transcripts derived from the maternal allele; whereas 24 loci (14%) escaped inactivation, showing varying levels of biallelic expression. In addition to recently reported evidence of marsupial XCI regulation by the noncoding Rsx transcript, strong depletion of H3K27me3 at escaper gene loci in the present study suggests that histone state modifications also correlate strongly with opossum XCI. In contrast to mouse, the opossum did not show an association between X-linked gene expression and promoter DNA methylation, with one notable exception. Unlike all other X-linked genes examined, Rsx was differentially methylated on the maternal and paternal X chromosomes, and expression was exclusively from the inactive (paternal) X chromosome. Our study provides the first comprehensive catalog of parent-of-origin expression status for X-linked genes in a marsupial and sheds light on the regulation and evolution of imprinted XCI in mammals. PMID:24065774

  12. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids.

    PubMed

    Rossano, M G; Kaneene, J B; Marteniuk, J V; Banks, B D; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2001-01-29

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona (the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) was performed on Michigan equids. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to S. neurona in Michigan equids and to identify specific risk factors for seropositivity. A random, weighted sample of Michigan horse farms (stratified by the state's opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population and the number of equids on each operation) was selected. Ninety-eight equine-operation owners agreed to participate, and blood collection occurred from late March through October of 1997. Data regarding the 98 farms' feeding and management practices were collected, as well as descriptive data for each of the 1121 individual horses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to S. neurona using a Western blot test. The true seroprevalence of antibodies specific to S. neurona was estimated to be 60%. Chi-square analysis showed that seroprevalence was lowest in the colder parts of the state that had the fewest opossums (P<0.0001). In two multivariable logistic-regression analyses with random effects grouped by herd, age and exposure to pasture were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, and feeding of sweet feed (grains mixed with molasses) was associated with decreased odds of testing positive. No association was found between farm size, animal gender, hay types, horse-housing types or exposure to natural surface water and seropositivity. PMID:11154784

  13. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods. PMID:25647587

  14. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    PubMed

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  15. Sarcocyst Development in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) Inoculated with Different Strains of Sarcocystis neurona Culture-Derived Merozoites.

    PubMed

    Dryburgh, E L; Marsh, A E; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Reed, S M; Bolten, K E; Pei, W; Saville, W J A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the United States; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon muscles, and raccoons also develop clinical signs simulating EPM. The focus of this study was to determine if sarcocysts would develop in raccoons experimentally inoculated with different host-derived strains of in vitro-cultivated S. neurona merozoites. Four raccoons were inoculated with strains derived from a raccoon, a sea otter, a cat, and a horse. Raccoon tissues were fed to laboratory-raised opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ), the definitive host of S. neurona . Intestinal scraping revealed sporocysts in opossums who received muscle tissue from raccoons inoculated with the raccoon-derived or the sea otter-derived isolates. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can mature in raccoons inoculated with in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites. In contrast, the horse and cat-derived isolates did not produce microscopically or biologically detected sarcocysts. Immunoblot analysis revealed both antigenic and antibody differences when testing the inoculated raccoons. Immunohistochemical staining indicated differences in staining between the merozoite and sarcocyst stages. The successful infections achieved in this study indicates that the life cycle can be manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, thereby allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle. PMID:25811893

  16. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  17. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  18. Primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma of gastric type arising in adenosis: a report of 2 cases, 1 associated with uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Talia, Karen L; Scurry, James; Manolitsas, Thomas; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in adenosis in nondiethylstilbestrol-exposed women, 1 with uterus didelphys. Both tumors exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical features (MUC6 and/or HIK 1083 positivity) identical to the recently described cervical gastric-type adenocarcinoma, a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma that is non-human papillomavirus related and possibly related to adenoma malignum. Both neoplasms were intensely p53 positive, suggesting that TP53 mutation may be implicated in their development. We believe that the vaginal tumors arose from adenosis through atypical adenosis, as benign and atypical glands were present at the periphery of the neoplasms. In reporting these cases, we discuss atypical adenosis and other types of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated vaginal adenocarcinomas. At least 9 other examples of primary vaginal, or more uncommonly cervical, adenocarcinomas arising in non-diethylstilbestrol-exposed women with congenital genitourinary malformations have been reported, suggesting a probable causal association between congenital malformation, vaginal adenosis, and vaginal adenocarcinoma. PMID:22317878

  19. Perinatal exposure to estradiol masculinizes aspects of sexually dimorphic behavior and morphology in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H

    2000-02-01

    The effects on adult sexually dimorphic behavior of perinatal exposure to estrogen were examined by treating male and female gray opossums with estradiol (EST), an estrogen receptor antagonist (tamoxifen:TX) or oil control (OIL) during the first week of life, a time period corresponding in this marsupial to late gestation in rodent species. Following gonadectomy and replacement therapy with testosterone in adulthood, males showed more scent-marking behavior than females and EST animals showed more scent marking than TX or OIL animals. Also, phalluses were longer and body weight was higher in males than in females and in EST-treated animals than in TX-treated animals; OIL animals were intermediate in these morphological measures. EST animals of both sexes showed less female-typical screeching threat behavior than OIL or TX animals. Because these hormone manipulations were conducted on the "fetus" directly in this marsupial (rather than via the maternal circulation as in previously studied eutherian species), these findings provide unique confirming evidence for masculinization of aspects of behavior and morphology by early exposure to estradiol in mammals. PMID:10712860

  20. Sex differences and the development of social behavior in a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H; Corbett, A

    1997-06-01

    The effects of sex and age on social behavior were examined in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), small didelphid marsupials. Each animal received five behavior test batteries spanning prepubertal to postpubertal ages. Each test battery consisted of two tests with animals of the same age, one with a male and one with a female. Precopulatory behavior toward females, intermale fighting requiring test interruptions as well as scent marking behavior were seen at higher levels in males than in females and were seen more frequently around and after puberty than before puberty. Females showed more threat behavior than males in mixed-sex and in same-sex interactions. This sex difference was apparent after puberty in tests with male partners and prior to as well as around puberty in tests with female partners. Because climbing over and boxing with another animal were seen more frequently prior to than after puberty, these behaviors may be elements of play fighting (i.e. attack and defense without submission and threat). These findings are discussed with respect to the role of gonadal hormones in the organization and activation of behavior and with reference to their comparative significance in mammals. PMID:9177557

  1. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  2. Torpor at high ambient temperature in a neotropical didelphid, the grey short-tailed opossum ( Monodelphis domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Sebastian; Lutter, Dominik; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W.

    2014-11-01

    The grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, has been an established research animal for more than five decades, but relatively, little is known about its thermophysiology. Here we studied core body temperature ( T b) and metabolic rate (MR) of female adult M. domestica housed in the laboratory at an ambient temperature ( T a) of 26 °C. In expanding previous reports, the average recorded core T b of M. domestica was 34.3 °C. The T b of an individual M. domestica can drop below 30 °C (minimal T b: 28.6 °C) accompanied by a reduction in MR of up to 52 % even while having ad libitum access to food. These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of spontaneous torpor in M. domestica. Metabolic suppression at relatively high T a and T b furthermore broadens our perspective on the use of torpor as a metabolic strategy not just restricted to cold climates.

  3. Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome) suspected on the presence of hydrocolpos on prenatal sonography.

    PubMed

    Han, Byoung Hee; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Kyung Sang; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a female neonate with ipsilateral renal agenesis and uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina, also known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome. Prenatal sonography revealed the absence of the left kidney and a retrovesical cystic lesion suspected as hydrometrocolpos. Postnatal evaluation confirmed that the cystic lesion was a hydrocolpos associated with double uterus and blind hemivagina (HWW syndrome). HWW syndrome can be suspected prenatally if a retrovesical cystic lesion is detected in a female fetus with unilateral absence of kidney. PMID:22678931

  4. The impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on divergence times and historical population sizes in Thylamys opossums from the Andes.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Jansa, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Climate oscillations during the Quaternary altered the distributions of terrestrial animals at a global scale. In mountainous regions, temperature fluctuations may have led to shifts in range size and population size as species tracked their shifting habitats upslope or downslope. This creates the potential for both allopatric speciation and population size fluctuations, as species are either constrained to smaller patches of habitat at higher elevations or able to expand into broader areas at higher latitudes. We considered the impact of climate oscillations on three pairs of marsupial species from the Andes (Thylamys opossums) by inferring divergence times and demographic changes. We compare four different divergence dating approaches, using anywhere from one to 26 loci. Each pair comprises a northern (tropical) lineage and a southern (subtropical to temperate) lineage. We predicted that divergences would have occurred during the last interglacial (LIG) period approximately 125 000 years ago and that population sizes for northern and southern lineages would either contract or expand, respectively. Our results suggest that all three north-south pairs diverged in the late Pleistocene during or slightly after the LIG. The three northern lineages showed no signs of population expansion, whereas two southern lineages exhibited dramatic, recent expansions. We attribute the difference in responses between tropical and subtropical lineages to the availability of 'montane-like' habitats at lower elevations in regions at higher latitudes. We conclude that climate oscillations of the late Quaternary had a powerful impact on the evolutionary history of some of these species, both promoting speciation and leading to significant population size shifts. PMID:25809909

  5. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Callaway, Jennifer K; Ek, C Joakim; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7) or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling), which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the apparent absence of

  6. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase reduce receptor-mediated endocytosis in opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Sidaway, James E; Davidson, Robert G; McTaggart, Fergus; Orton, Terry C; Scott, Robert C; Smith, Graham J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-09-01

    Renal proximal tubule cells are responsible for the reabsorption of proteins that are present in the tubular lumen. This occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process that has a requirement for some GTP-binding proteins. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase used for the therapeutic reduction of cholesterol-containing plasma lipoproteins. However, they can also reduce intracellular levels of isoprenoid pyrophosphates that are derived from the product of the enzyme, mevalonate, and are required for the prenylation and normal function of GTP-binding proteins. The hypothesis that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in renal proximal tubule cells could reduce receptor mediated-endocytosis was therefore tested. Five different statins inhibited the uptake of FITC-labeled albumin by the proximal tubule-derived opossum kidney cell line in a dose-dependent manner and in the absence of cytotoxicity. The reduction in albumin uptake was related to the degree of inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Simvastatin (e.g., statin) inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis of both FITC-albumin and FITC-beta(2)-microglobulin to similar extents but without altering the binding of albumin to the cell surface. The effect on albumin endocytosis was prevented by mevalonate and by the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not by cholesterol. Finally, evidence that the inhibitory effect of statins on endocytosis of proteins may be caused by reduced prenylation and thereby decreased function of one or more GTP-binding proteins is provided. These data establish the possibility in principle that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins in proximal tubule cells may reduce tubular protein reabsorption. PMID:15339975

  7. Comparative Myology and Evolution of Marsupials and Other Vertebrates, With Notes on Complexity, Bauplan, and "Scala Naturae".

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Molnar, Julia L

    2016-09-01

    Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa. Our data indicate that there were many more muscle synapomorphic changes from the last common ancestor (LCA) of amniotes to the mammalian LCA (63) and from this LCA to the LCA of extant therians (48) than from this latter LCA to the LCA of extant placentals (10 or 11). Importantly, Didelphis is anatomically more plesiomorphic (only 14 changes from LCA of extant therians) than are rats (37 changes) and humans (63 changes), but its musculature is more complex (193 muscles) than that of humans (only 180 muscles). Of the 194 muscles of Didelphis, 172 (89%) are present in rats, meaning that their adult muscle anatomy is indeed very similar. This similarity supports the existence of a common, easy recognizable therian Bauplan, but one that is caused by developmental constraints and by evolutionary change driven by the needs of the embryos/neonates, rather than by a "goal" toward a specific adult plan/"archetype," as the name Bauplan suggests. Anat Rec, 299:1224-1255, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27342702

  8. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  9. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodaminemore » B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  10. A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Rhodes Jr., Olin E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  11. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James C; Atwood, Todd C; Byrne, Michael E; Vercauteren, Kurt C; Johnson, Shylo R; Rhodes, Olin E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but repeated

  12. Asp-ase Activity of the Opossum Granzyme B Supports the Role of Granzyme B as Part of Anti-Viral Immunity Already during Early Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhirong; Thorpe, Michael; Akula, Srinivas; Hellman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Granzyme B is one of the key effector molecules in our defense against viruses and intracellular bacteria. This serine protease together with the pore forming protein perforin, induces caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis in target cells. Here we present the first characterization of a granzyme B homolog, the grathepsodenase, in a non-placental mammal, the American opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The recombinant enzyme was produced in a human cell line and used to study its primary and extended cleavage specificity using a panel of chromogenic substrates and recombinant protein substrates. The opossum granzyme B was found to have a specificity similar to human granzyme B, although slightly less restrictive in its extended specificity. The identification of a granzyme B homolog with asp-ase (cleaving after aspartic acid) specificity in a non-placental mammal provides strong indications that caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis by a serine protease with a conserved primary specificity has been part of anti-viral immunity since early mammalian evolution. This finding also indicates that an asp-ase together with a chymase were the first two serine protease genes to appear in the mammalian chymase locus. PMID:27152961

  13. Asp-ase Activity of the Opossum Granzyme B Supports the Role of Granzyme B as Part of Anti-Viral Immunity Already during Early Mammalian Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhirong; Thorpe, Michael; Akula, Srinivas; Hellman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Granzyme B is one of the key effector molecules in our defense against viruses and intracellular bacteria. This serine protease together with the pore forming protein perforin, induces caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis in target cells. Here we present the first characterization of a granzyme B homolog, the grathepsodenase, in a non-placental mammal, the American opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The recombinant enzyme was produced in a human cell line and used to study its primary and extended cleavage specificity using a panel of chromogenic substrates and recombinant protein substrates. The opossum granzyme B was found to have a specificity similar to human granzyme B, although slightly less restrictive in its extended specificity. The identification of a granzyme B homolog with asp-ase (cleaving after aspartic acid) specificity in a non-placental mammal provides strong indications that caspase or Bid-dependent apoptosis by a serine protease with a conserved primary specificity has been part of anti-viral immunity since early mammalian evolution. This finding also indicates that an asp-ase together with a chymase were the first two serine protease genes to appear in the mammalian chymase locus. PMID:27152961

  14. Action of anti-bothropic factor isolated from Didelphis marsupialis on renal effects of Bothrops erythromelas venom.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alice M C; Sousa, Fabiola C M; Barbosa, Paulo S F; Toyama, Marcos H; Toyama, Daniela O; Aprígio, Cleidiana C; Queiroz, Maria G R; Guarnieri, Mirian C; Havt, Alexandre; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Fonteles, Manassés C; Monteiro, Helena S A

    2005-11-01

    Acute renal failure is the most common complication in the lethal cases caused by snakebites in Brazil. Among the Brazilian venom snakes, Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for the majority of accidents in Northeastern Brazil. Didelphis marsupialis serum could inhibit myonecrotic, hemorrhagic, edematogenic hyperalgesic and lethal effects of envenomation determined by ophidian bites. In the present study, we evaluated the action of the anti-bothropic factor isolated from D. marsupialis on the renal effects promoted by B. erythromelas venom without systemic interference. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin. We analyzed renal perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), and the percentages of sodium and potassium tubular transport (%TNa+, %TK+). The B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) decreased the PP (ct = 108.71+/-5.09 mmHg; BE = 65.21+/-5.6 mmHg*) and RVR (ct = 5.76+/-0.65 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1); BE = 3.10+/-0.45 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1)*). On the other hand, the GFR decreased at 60 min (ct60 = 0.76+/-0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE60 = 0.42+/-0.12 mL g(-1) min(-1)*) and increased at 120 min (ct120 = 0.72+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE120 = 1.24+/-0.26 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The UF increased significantly when compared with the control group (ct = 0.14+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE = 0.47+/-0.08 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The venom reduced the %TNa(+) (ct90 = 79.18+/-0.88%; BE90 = 58.35+/-4.86%*) and %TK+ (ct90 = 67.20+/-4.04%; BE90 = 57.32+/-5.26%*) The anti-bothropic factor from D. marsupialis (10 microg mL(-1)) incubated with B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) blocked the effects on PP, RVR, %TNa+, and %TK+, but was not able to reverse the effects in UF and GFR promoted by venom alone. However, the highest concentration of D. marsupialis serum (30 microg mL(-1)) reversed all the renal effects induced by the venom. In

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in the Proteome Following Complete Spinal Cord Transection in a Postnatal South American Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Natassya M.; Steer, David L.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Ek, C. Joakim; Truettner, Jessie S.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Richardson, Samantha J.; Smith, A. Ian; VandeBerg, John L.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2011-01-01

    Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica), the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P) 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%), metabolism (26%), inflammation (19%) and structure (15%). More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3), brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were different for

  16. Albumin stimulates p44/p42 extracellular-signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Brunskill, N J

    2000-03-01

    The presence of protein in the urine of patients with renal disease is an adverse prognostic feature. It has therefore been suggested that proteinuria per se may be responsible for the development of renal tubulo-interstitial scarring and fibrosis, and disturbances in tubular cell growth and proliferation. We have used the opossum kidney proximal tubular cell line to investigate the effects of albumin on cell growth. The effect of albumin on cell proliferation was investigated by cell counting and measurement of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. We studied the effect of recombinant human albumin on the activity of p44/p42 extracellular-signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase ) using an in vitro kinase assay, and immunoblotting with antibodies against active extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The effects of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 were also examined. Recombinant human albumin was found to stimulate proliferation of opossum kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal stimulation at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In addition, recombinant human albumin activated ERK in a time-dependent (maximal after 5 min) and dose-dependent (maximal at 1 mg/ml) fashion. These effects on cell proliferation and ERK activity were inhibited by PD98059, and were not reproduced by ovalbumin or mannitol. The data therefore indicate that albumin is able to stimulate growth and proliferation of proximal tubular cells that is dependent on the ERK family of MAP kinases. The potential importance of this pathway in the development of renal disease is discussed. PMID:10677388

  17. Functional conservation of the lncRNA NEAT1 in the ancestrally diverged marsupial lineage: Evidence for NEAT1 expression and associated paraspeckle assembly during late gestation in the opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Souquere, Sylvie; Vernochet, Cécile; Heidmann, Thierry; Pierron, Gérard

    2016-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely expressed and play various roles in cell homeostasis. However, because of their low conservation at the sequence level, recapitulating lncRNA evolutionary history is often challenging. While performing an ultrastructural analysis of viral particles present in uterine glands of gestating opossum females, we serendipitously noticed the presence of numerous structures similar to paraspeckles, nuclear bodies which in human and mouse cells are assembled around an architectural NEAT1/MENϵ/β lncRNA. Here, using an opossum kidney (OK) cell line, we confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy the presence of paraspeckles in marsupials. We then identified the orthologous opossum NEAT1 gene which, although poorly conserved at the sequence level, displays NEAT1 characteristic features such as short and long isoforms expressed from a unique promoter and for the latter an RNase P cleavage site at its 3'-end. Combining tissue-specific qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization at the optical and electron microscopic levels, we show that (i) NEAT1 is paraspeckle-associated in opossum (ii) NEAT1 expression is strongly induced in late gestation in uterine/placental extracts (iii) NEAT1 induction occurs in the uterine gland nuclei in which paraspeckles were detected. Finally, treatment of OK cells with proteasome inhibitors induces paraspeckle assembly, as previously observed in human cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate that paraspeckles are tissue-specific, stress-responding nuclear bodies in marsupials, illustrating their structural and functional continuity over 200 My of evolution throughout the mammalian lineage. In contrast, the rapid evolution of the NEAT1 transcripts highlights the relaxed constraint that, despite functional conservation, is exerted on this lncRNA. PMID:27315396

  18. Phylogenetic footprint analysis of IGF2 in extant mammals.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Jennifer R; Murphy, Susan K; Nolan, Catherine M; Dietrich, Fred S; Jirtle, Randy L

    2004-09-01

    Genomic imprinting results in monoallelic gene transcription that is directed by cis-acting regulatory elements epigenetically marked in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. We performed phylogenetic sequence and epigenetic comparisons of IGF2 between the nonimprinted platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and imprinted opossum (Didelphis virginiana), mouse (Mus musculus), and human (Homo sapiens) to determine if their divergent imprint status would reflect differences in the conservation of genomic elements important in the regulation of imprinting. We report herein that IGF2 imprinting does not correlate evolutionarily with differential intragenic methylation, nor is it associated with motif 13, a reported IGF2-specific "imprint signature" located in the coding region. Instead, IGF2 imprinting is strongly associated with both the lack of short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) and an intragenic conserved inverted repeat that contains candidate CTCF-binding sites, a role not previously ascribed to this particular sequence element. Our results are the first to demonstrate that comparative footprint analysis of species from evolutionarily distant mammalian clades, and exhibiting divergent imprint status is a powerful bioinformatics-based approach for identifying cis-acting elements potentially involved not only in the origins of genomic imprinting, but also in its maintenance in humans. PMID:15342558

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals. PMID:24807356

  20. High Prevalence of Porocephalus crotali Infection on a Barrier Island (Cumberland Island) off the Coast of Georgia, with Identification of Novel Intermediate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Cleveland, Christopher A; Ruckdeschel, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Porocephalus crotali is a pentastomid parasite that uses crotaline snakes as definitive hosts and a variety of rodents as intermediate hosts. A study of definitive and intermediate pentastome hosts on Cumberland Island, Georgia, revealed high prevalence of P. crotali infection in crotalid snakes as well as several mammalian species. Despite the presence of numerous nymphs in some animals, clinical signs of disease were not observed. In intermediate hosts, the liver, mesentery, and reproductive organs were most commonly infected. No gross evidence of tissue damage was noted in association with the numerous encysted nymphal pentastomes, and histopathology demonstrated minimal reaction to the encysted nymphs. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the parasites were P. crotali. In contrast to many previous reports in rodents, the prevalence on this barrier island was high, and this is the first report of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and any insectivore species as intermediate hosts. Although generally not considered pathogenic, the long-term consequences of high nymph intensities on individuals deserve attention. PMID:26042344

  1. Implications of raccoon latrines in the epizootiology of baylisascariasis.

    PubMed

    Page, L K; Swihart, R K; Kazacos, K R

    1999-07-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) frequently establish defecation sites, termed latrines, on large logs, stumps, rocks, and other horizontally oriented structures/surfaces. These latrines are important foci of infective eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis, a nematode parasite of raccoons which is pathogenic to numerous species of mammals and birds. To examine the role of raccoon latrines in this animal-parasite interaction, we documented animal visitations to raccoon latrines in two large forested tracts and two woodlots in Indiana (USA) during 1994 and 1995. Species richness of vertebrate visitors did not differ between sites or years, but species composition differed by site and year. Fourteen mammal and 15 bird species were documented visiting raccoon latrines. Small granivorous mammals, including white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, S. niger, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) were the most common visitors to latrine sites. White-footed mice, chipmunks, white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were photographed foraging on undigested seeds in raccoon feces. Active foraging at latrines also was shown experimentally; seeds embedded in raccoon feces were removed at a greater rate at latrine sites than at nonlatrines. We conclude that raccoon latrines are visited routinely by a variety of vertebrates, especially small granivorous rodents and birds which forage for seeds in raccoon feces, and that raccoon latrines are probable sites of transmission of B. procyonis to susceptible mammals and birds. PMID:10479081

  2. A novel Sarcocystis-associated encephalitis and myositis in racing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Olias, P; Gruber, A D; Heydorn, A O; Kohls, A; Mehlhorn, H; Hafez, H M; Lierz, M

    2009-04-01

    Sarcosporidian cysts in the skeletal muscle of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) have previously been attributed to infection with Sarcocystis falcatula, which is shed in the faeces of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Here, we describe fatal spontaneous encephalitis and myositis associated with Sarcocystis infections in three flocks of racing pigeons with 47 of 244 animals affected. The clinical course was characterized by depression, mild diarrhoea, torticollis, opisthotonus, paralysis and trembling. Histopathological examination of 13 pigeons revealed generalized severe granulomatous and necrotizing meningoencephalitis and myositis with sarcosporidian cysts. Light and transmission electron microscopy identified cysts in heart and skeletal muscle of 1 to 2 mm in length and 20 to 50 microm in width. These were subdivided into small chambers by fine septae and filled with lancet-shaped cystozoites (7.5 x 1.5 microm) and dividing metrocytes, which is characteristic for Sarcocystis. The cysts had smooth walls and were devoid of protrusions typical of S. falcatula. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and the complete 28S rRNA identified a novel Sarcocystis species with only 51% ITS-1 nucleotide sequence similarity with S. falcatula. A phylogenetic comparison of the 28S rRNA revealed close sequence homologies with Frenkelia microti, Frenkelia glareoli and Sarcocystis neurona. The clinical, histopathological, electron microscopic and genetic data are unlike any previously described protozoan infections in pigeons, suggesting a novel, severe disease due to an as yet undescribed Sarcocystis species. PMID:19322710

  3. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  4. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  5. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  6. Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. III. Epidemiological investigations of Trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral animals.

    PubMed

    Leiby, D A; Schad, G A; Duffy, C H; Murrell, K D

    1988-10-01

    As part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of Trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. During a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (Mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (Procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 18 deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) were uninfected. Most of the former hosts probably became infected by scavenging dead infected swine or rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, infections obtained through predation of living rats, particularly with regard to the cats, cannot be excluded. Our observations do not suggest that there was transmission of T. spiralis from the wild animals to swine. Therefore, transmission of T. spiralis appeared to occur only from the farm's swine and rats to the associated wild and feral animals. PMID:3193554

  7. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, B.L.; Kus, B.E.; Deutschman, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  8. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    PubMed

    Erb, Peter L; McShea, William J; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and coyotes (Canis latrans). Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor). Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions. PMID:22880038

  10. The early development of major projections from caudal levels of the spinal cord to the brainstem and cerebellum in the gray short-tailed Brazilian opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y Q; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1993-09-17

    The Brazilian short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born 14-15 days after copulation and is available for experimentation at stages of development corresponding to those which occur in utero in placental mammals. In the present study, we took advantage of the opossum's embryology to study the development of projections from caudal levels of the spinal cord to the brainstem and cerebellum using axonal tracing methods. In all cases, a 2-3 day survival time was used for axonal transport. When injections of Fast blue (FB) were made into caudal levels of the thoracic cord at postnatal day (PD) 1 or 2, axonal labeling could not be identified at supraspinal levels. When injections were made at PD3, however, labeled axons were found in the fasciculus gracilis at caudal medullary levels, within the ventrolateral medulla and pons, within an incipient inferior cerebellar peduncle, and within the cerebellar anlage. The dorsal root origin of at least some of the axons within the fasciculus gracilis was evidenced by the transganglionic transport of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase from the hindlimbs. After FB injections at PD7, a few labeled axons could be traced from the fasciculus gracilis into the nucleus gracilis and from the ventrolateral pathway to the inferior olive. Generally comparable results were obtained using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). In cases injected with FB at PD9, the pattern of brainstem labeling was adult-like. Although labeled axons were present within the cerebellum of animals injected with FB on PD3, they were limited to the marginal zone. Axonal labeling was present within an identifiable internal granular layer in cases injected with either FB or WGA-HRP at PD16, and it appeared to be limited to specific bands which foreshadowed those seen at later stages of development and in the adult animal. In some cases, labeled axons were present within the molecular layer where they were not

  11. Antibody Detection and Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Bobcats (Lynx rufus), Domestic Cats (Felis catus), and Wildlife from Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv K; Minicucci, Larissa; Murphy, Darby; Carstensen, Michelle; Humpal, Carolin; Wolf, Paul; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Su, Chunlei; Hill, Dolores; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-09-01

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. Here, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Twenty nine of 50 bobcats and 15 of 41 wildlife trapped on the vicinity of 10 farms and nine of 16 adult domestic cats (Felis catus) and six of 14 domestic dogs resident on farms were seropositive. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in feces of any felid. Tissues of all seropositive wild animals trapped on the farm were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from two badgers (Taxidea taxus), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), one coyote (Canis latrans), and one opossum (Didelphis virginiana). All six T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture. Multi-locus PCR-RFLP genotyping using 10 markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico), and DNA from cell culture derived tachyzoites revealed three genotypes; #5 ToxoDataBase (1 coyote, 1 raccoon), #1 (1 badger, 1 raccoon, 1 opossum), and #2 (1 badger). This is the first report of T. gondii prevalence in domestic cats and in bobcats from Minnesota, and the first isolation of viable T. gondii from badger. PMID:26824935

  12. Effects of climate and exurban development on nest predation and predator presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA).

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-08-01

    In the eastern United States, land-use and climate change have likely contributed to declines in the abundance of Neotropical migrant birds that occupy forest interiors, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We conducted a nest-predation experiment in southern Appalachian Mountain forests (North Carolina, U.S.A.) during the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons to determine the effects of exurban development and temperature on predator presence and the average number of days until eggs in an artificial nest were disturbed by predators. We baited artificial nests with quail (Excalfactoria chinensi) eggs and monitored them for 18 days. We used clay eggs, track plates, and motion-triggered cameras to detect and identify nest predators. The average number of days a nest was undisturbed decreased as mean temperature increased and, to a lesser extent, as the density of buildings increased. Nests on the ground were more often depredated than those in trees, likely due to increased predation by opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and other carnivores. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums, corvids (Corvus brachyrhynchos and Cyanocitta cristata), chipmunks (Tamias striatus), black bears (Ursus americanus), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were the most commonly detected predators. Presence of these predators did not vary as a function of mean temperature. Domestic cats and corvids were detected more frequently in plots with high rather than low densities of buildings. Forest-interior specialists and Neotropical migrants often nest in cool, high-elevation areas with low housing density. These bird species, especially those that nest on the ground, may be most vulnerable to increased nest predation if temperature and exurban development increase at higher elevations as anticipated. PMID:22624665

  13. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Rosypal, Alexa C; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Yabsley, Michael J; Lindsay, David S

    2011-04-01

    Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis are cyst-forming tissue apicomplexan parasites that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana ) and Southern Plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the prevalence of B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis in cats from the United States. Besnoitia darlingi infections have been reported in naturally infected opossums from many states in the United States, and B. neotomofelis infections have been reported from Southern Plains woodrats from Texas, but naturally infected cats have not been identified. The present study examined the IgG antibody response of cats to experimental infection (B. darlingi n  =  1 cat; B. neotomofelis n  =  3 cats). Samples from these cats were used to develop an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), which was then used to examine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to tachyzoites of B. darlingi and B. neotomofelis in a population of domestic cats from Virginia (N  =  232 cats) and Pennsylvania (N  =  209). The serum from cats inoculated with B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis cross-reacted with each other's tachyzoites. The titers to heterologous tachyzoites were 1 to 3 dilutions lower than to homologous tachyzoites. Sera from B. darlingi- or B. neotomofelis-infected cats did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum or merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona using the IFAT. Antibodies to B. darlingi were found in 14% and 2% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Antibodies to B. neotomofelis were found in 5% and 4% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Nine cats from Virginia and 1 cat from Pennsylvania were positive for both. PMID:21506782

  14. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  15. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Duncan, Colleen; Vercauteren, Kurt

    2013-08-20

    ONRAB(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. ONRAB(®) has been used in Canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and striped skunk (Mepthis mephitis). We evaluated the safety of ONRAB(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the United States. We investigated the effects of oral inoculation of high titer ONRAB(®), approximately ten times the dose given to target species, in wood rats (Neotoma spp.), eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestri), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal swabs, oral swabs, and tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and when appropriate nasal turbinates, to detect ONRAB(®) DNA from inoculated animals. By seven days post-inoculation, turkeys, opossums, and cottontails had all stopped shedding ONRAB(®) DNA. One wood rat and one fox squirrel still had detectable levels of ONRAB(®) DNA in fecal swabs 14 days post-inoculation. Real-time PCR analysis of the tissues revealed some ONRAB(®) DNA persisting in certain tissues; however, there were no significant gross or histologic lesions associated with ONRAB(®) in any of the species studied. Our results suggest that many non-target species are not likely to be impacted by the distribution of ONRAB(®) as part of oral rabies vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:23831321

  16. The genomes of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) encode a more complete purine catabolic pathway than placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Keebaugh, Alaine C; Thomas, James W

    2009-09-01

    The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. Mammals have traditionally been grouped into two classes based on their end product of purine catabolism: most mammals, whose end product is allantoin due to an ancient loss of allantoinase (ALLN), and the hominoids, whose end product is uric acid due to recent inactivations of urate oxidase (UOX). However little is known about purine catabolism in marsupials and monotremes. Here we report the results of a comparative genomics study designed to characterize the purine catabolic pathway in a marsupial, the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). We found that both genomes encode a more complete set of genes for purine catabolism than do eutherians and conclude that a near complete purine catabolic pathway was present in the common ancestor of all mammals, and that the loss of ALLN is specific to placental mammals. Our results therefore provide a revised history for gene loss in the purine catabolic pathway and suggest that marsupials and monotremes represent a third class of mammals with respect to their end products of purine catabolism. PMID:20161190

  17. First-generation linkage map of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, reveals genome-wide reduction in female recombination rates.

    PubMed Central

    Samollow, Paul B; Kammerer, Candace M; Mahaney, Susan M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Westenberger, Scott J; VandeBerg, John L; Robinson, Edward S

    2004-01-01

    The gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is the most extensively used, laboratory-bred marsupial resource for basic biologic and biomedical research worldwide. To enhance the research utility of this species, we are building a linkage map, using both anonymous markers and functional gene loci, that will enable the localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provide comparative information regarding the evolution of mammalian and other vertebrate genomes. The current map is composed of 83 loci distributed among eight autosomal linkage groups and the X chromosome. The autosomal linkage groups appear to encompass a very large portion of the genome, yet span a sex-average distance of only 633.0 cM, making this the most compact linkage map known among vertebrates. Most surprising, the male map is much larger than the female map (884.6 cM vs. 443.1 cM), a pattern contrary to that in eutherian mammals and other vertebrates. The finding of genome-wide reduction in female recombination in M. domestica, coupled with recombination data from two other, distantly related marsupial species, suggests that reduced female recombination might be a widespread metatherian attribute. We discuss possible explanations for reduced female recombination in marsupials as a consequence of the metatherian characteristic of determinate paternal X chromosome inactivation. PMID:15020427

  18. Characterization of the CDKN2A and ARF genes in UV-induced melanocytic hyperplasias and melanomas of an opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Chan, J; Robinson, E S; Atencio, J; Wang, Z; Kazianis, S; Coletta, L D; Nairn, R S; McCarrey, J R

    2001-05-01

    We examined the involvement of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) locus in the pathogenesis of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced melanomas in an opossum (Monodelphis domestica) melanoma model in which suckling young were exposed to UVB to produce melanocytic lesions. Monodelphis CDKN2A and alternated reading frame (ARF) cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, and the expression patterns of these genes were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in normal tissues, 39 primary melanocytic skin lesions, and two tumor-derived cell lines, one nonmetastatic and one metastatic. Primary melanocytic lesions, including hyperplasias, benign melanomas, melanomas metastatic to lymph nodes, and melanomas metastatic to nodes and additional visceral organs, were categorized accordingly as types I-IV. Levels of CDKN2A transcripts were most abundant in type III tumor samples and the metastatic cell line but absent in the nonmetastatic cell line. ARF transcripts were expressed in all tumors and cell lines. A UV-signature mutation was detected with the wild-type allele at the CDKN2A locus in type II and III primary tumor samples and in the nonmetastatic cell line. Interestingly, in the metastatic cell line, only the mutant allele was present and expressed. These data suggest dynamic changes in the expression and/or structure of the CDKN2A and ARF genes represent one molecular defect associated with the etiology of melanoma formation and progression in the Monodelphis model system. PMID:11398194

  19. Morphological, morphometric and genetic variation among cryptic and sympatric species of southeastern South American three-striped opossums (Monodelphis: Mammalia: Didelphidae).

    PubMed

    Duda, Rafaela; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    Monodelphis is the most diverse genus of the family Didelphidae, whose systematics and taxonomy have not yet been well established. Two of the included species, Monodelphis americana and M. iheringi, are difficult to distinguish because both present three dorsal black stripes. Furthermore, they show intra- and interspecific variation related to body size and pelage coloration. Because this variation is not well understood, there are problems in correctly identifying these species, which remain poorly collected and thus rare in zoological collections. This study evaluated the morphological and genetic variations in a sample of striped opossums from a single location in southeastern Brazil to understand if the morphological variation observed in individuals from the same location was indicative of the existence of more than one taxon. The comparative analyses of a series from this single locality with museum specimens of other locations revealed variations in the skin and skull qualitative characters that were related to age and sex. Morphological comparisons led to the identification of two morphogroups, which were corroborated by molecular data; the analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicated the existence of two clades, with an average divergence of 14%. Thus, the results support the existence of two taxa in the sample, defined as M. americana and M. iheringi. We confirmed the sympatry of these two species in a location in southeastern Brazil, presented morphological diagnostic characters to distinguish the two species, provided novel phylogenetic information on the group, and also demonstrated the existence of important intra- and interspecific morphological variations related to sexual dimorphism and ontogeny in the group. These results significantly contribute to information on the systematics of the genus. PMID:25947450

  20. Genome-wide histone state profiling of fibroblasts from the opossum, Monodelphis domestica, identifies the first marsupial-specific imprinted gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Imprinted genes have been extensively documented in eutherian mammals and found to exhibit significant interspecific variation in the suites of genes that are imprinted and in their regulation between tissues and developmental stages. Much less is known about imprinted loci in metatherian (marsupial) mammals, wherein studies have been limited to a small number of genes previously known to be imprinted in eutherians. We describe the first ab initio search for imprinted marsupial genes, in fibroblasts from the opossum, Monodelphis domestica, based on a genome-wide ChIP-seq strategy to identify promoters that are simultaneously marked by mutually exclusive, transcriptionally opposing histone modifications. Results We identified a novel imprinted gene (Meis1) and two additional monoallelically expressed genes, one of which (Cstb) showed allele-specific, but non-imprinted expression. Imprinted vs. allele-specific expression could not be resolved for the third monoallelically expressed gene (Rpl17). Transcriptionally opposing histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9Ac, and H3K9me3 were found at the promoters of all three genes, but differential DNA methylation was not detected at CpG islands at any of these promoters. Conclusions In generating the first genome-wide histone modification profiles for a marsupial, we identified the first gene that is imprinted in a marsupial but not in eutherian mammals. This outcome demonstrates the practicality of an ab initio discovery strategy and implicates histone modification, but not differential DNA methylation, as a conserved mechanism for marking imprinted genes in all therian mammals. Our findings suggest that marsupials use multiple epigenetic mechanisms for imprinting and support the concept that lineage-specific selective forces can produce sets of imprinted genes that differ between metatherian and eutherian lines. PMID:24484454

  1. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-12-08

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity /sup 3/H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light /sup 3/H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib.

  2. The origins of supraspinal projections to the cervical and lumbar spinal cord at different stages of development in the gray short-tailed Brazilian opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Xu, X M; Qin, Y Q; Martin, G F

    1992-08-21

    We have used the retrograde transport of Fast blue (FB) to study the origins of supraspinal projections to the lumbar and cervical spinal cord at different stages of development in the Brazilian, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Monodelphis was chosen for study because its young are born in a very immature state, 14-15 days after copulation, making it possible to manipulate its nervous system in an embryonic state without intra-uterine surgery. When injections of FB were made into the lumbar cord at postnatal day (PD) 1, neurons were labeled within several areas of the reticular formation (the retroambiguus nucleus, the ventral and dorsal reticular nuclei of the medulla, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus, and the pontine reticular nucleus), the presumptive coeruleus complex, and the lateral vestibular nucleus. In many cases, labeled neurons were also found within the caudal raphe and the presumptive interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The results of immunocytochemical studies provided evidence for catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the brainstem at PD1 and for axons of both phenotypes in the spinal cord. By PD3, labeled neurons were found within the ventral gigantocellular and ventral pontine nuclei of the reticular formation, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the presumptive paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. When injections were made at PD4, neurons were also labeled within the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, the red nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the presumptive nucleus of Edinger-Westphal and the lateral hypothalamus. By at least PD7, the pattern of supraspinal labeling was similar to that obtained at older ages and in the adult animal. When FB was injected into the cervical cord at PD1, neurons were labeled in all of the areas labeled by lumbar injections at the same age and in larger numbers. In addition

  3. C-peptide signals via Galpha i to protect against TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of opossum kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2006-04-01

    Cell loss by apoptosis occurs in renal injury such as diabetic nephropathy. TNF-alpha is a cytokine that induces apoptosis and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim was to investigate whether C-peptide or insulin could modulate TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells and to examine the mechanism(s) of any effects observed. C-peptide and insulin protect against TNF-alpha-induced proximal tubular cell toxicity and apoptosis. Cell viability was analyzed by methylthiazoletetrazolium assay; cell viability was reduced to 60.8 +/- 2.7% of control after stimulation with 300 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Compromised cell viability was reversed by pretreatment with 5 nM C-peptide or 100 nM insulin. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis was detected by DNA nick-end labeling and by measuring histone associated DNA fragments using ELISA. By ELISA assay, 300 ng/ml TNF-alpha increased apoptosis by 145.8 +/- 4.9% compared with controls, whereas 5 nM C-peptide and 100 nM insulin reduced apoptosis to 81.6 +/- 4.8 and 77.4 +/- 3.1% of control, respectively. The protective effects of C-peptide and insulin were associated with activation of NF-kappaB. Activation of NF-kappaB by C-peptide was pertussis toxin sensitive and dependent on activation of Galpha(i). Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but not extracellular signal regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated C-peptide and insulin activation of NF-kappaB. The cytoprotective effects of both C-peptide and insulin were related to increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, the product of an NF-kappaB-dependent survival gene. These data suggest that C-peptide and/or insulin activation of NF-kappaB-regulated survival genes protects against TNF-alpha-induced renal tubular injury in diabetes. The data further support the concept of C-peptide as a peptide hormone in its own right and suggest a potential therapeutic role for C-peptide. PMID:16510765

  4. Changing serine-485 to alanine in the opossum parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor enhances PTH stimulation of phospholipase C in a stably transfected human kidney cell line: a useful model for PTH-analog screening?

    PubMed

    John, M R; Bösel, J; Breit, S; Wickert, H; Ziegler, R; Blind, E

    2001-02-01

    Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have introduced a serine-485-to-alanine mutation in the opossum parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor. This amino acid is considered to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A upon ligand binding. Both wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor were stably expressed in 293-EBNA HEK cells. The mutant receptor showed comparable binding characteristics and only a slight increase in cAMP production compared with WT. However, the PTH dose-dependent increase in inositol phosphate production was 24-fold for the mutant receptor vs. 6-fold for the WT receptor. This mutant might prove useful in the sensitive detection of phospholipase C activation through various ligands, as the PTH receptor becomes a target of therapeutic intervention in osteoporosis. PMID:11182376

  5. The role of feral mammals on wildlife infectious disease prevalence in two nature reserves within Mexico City limits.

    PubMed

    Suzán, Gerardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2005-09-01

    Wild and feral medium-sized mammals were live trapped at two natural protected areas within the Mexico City limits to determine antibody prevalence for the most common infectious diseases (rabies, toxoplasmosis, and canine parvovirus) in dogs and cats. Mammals were trapped during the dry (March-April) and rainy seasons (July-August) of 1996 and 1997. A total of 68 individuals were captured, representing 8 species: opossums (Didelphis virginiana), ringtails (Bassariscus astutus), spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), weasels (Mustela frenata), rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus), Mexican gray squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster), feral cats (Felis catus), and feral dogs (Canis familiaris). There was marked seroprevalence for parvovirus (86.6%) and lower seroprevalences for both toxoplasma (23.9%) and rabies (17.9%). There were no significant prevalence differences among mammals in both protected areas, which were of contrasting size and isolation (i.e., small and isolated versus large and nonisolated). We suggest that high seroprevalence of these three infectious agents in wild mammals is a result of the high densities of feral dogs and cats in the two areas sampled. Feral dogs are able to maintain the infectious agents in these localities regardless of the protected area size and isolation. However, the native mammals of the small and isolated reserve are more vulnerable to infectious diseases because of small population size and genetic bottlenecks. Our results indicate that natural areas in and around Mexico City are a refugium for latent infectious agents, several of which are zoonotic. These findings suggest that conservation measures, such as eradication of feral mammals and vaccination programs, in the protected areas and surrounding areas could be beneficial. PMID:17312768

  6. An Inventory of Terrestrial Mammals at National Parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Annand, E.M.; Talancy, N.W.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  7. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Lovallo, M J; Sweeny, A R; Grigg, M E; Dubey, J P

    2015-09-15

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000× magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasites. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dasypi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  8. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  9. Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Tyler A.; Long, David B.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2013-06-01

    Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons ( Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine ( Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks.

  10. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  11. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  12. Relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments.

    PubMed

    Markovchick-Nicholls, Lisa; Regan, Helen M; Deutschman, Douglas H; Widyanata, Astrid; Martin, Barry; Noreke, Lani; Hunt, Timothy Ann

    2008-02-01

    Habitat remnants in urbanized areas typically conserve biodiversity and serve the recreation and urban open-space needs of human populations. Nevertheless, these goals can be in conflict if human activity negatively affects wildlife. Hence, when considering habitat remnants as conservation refuges it is crucial to understand how human activities and land uses affect wildlife use of those and adjacent areas. We used tracking data (animal tracks and den or bed sites) on 10 animal species and information on human activity and environmental factors associated with anthropogenic disturbance in 12 habitat fragments across San Diego County, California, to examine the relationships among habitat fragment characteristics, human activity, and wildlife presence. There were no significant correlations of species presence and abundance with percent plant cover for all species or with different land-use intensities for all species, except the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), which preferred areas with intensive development. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and cougars (Puma concolor) were associated significantly and positively and significantly and negatively, respectively, with the presence and prominence of utilities. Woodrats were also negatively associated with the presence of horses. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were associated significantly and negatively and significantly and positively, respectively, with plant bulk and permanence. Cougars and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were negatively associated with the presence of roads. Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) were positively associated with litter. The only species that had no significant correlations with any of the environmental variables were black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Bobcat tracks were observed more often than gray foxes in the study area and bobcats correlated significantly only with water availability, contrasting with results from

  13. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  14. Wildlife contact rates at artificial feeding sites in Texas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tyler A; Long, David B; Shriner, Susan A

    2013-06-01

    Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons (Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine (Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels (Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums (Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks. PMID:23609307

  15. Diversity, seasonality, and context of mammalian roadkills in the southern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D; Patten, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of mammals are killed annually from vehicle collisions, making the issue an important one for conservation biologists and environmental managers. We recorded all readily identifiable kills on or immediately adjacent to roads in the southern Great Plains from March 2004-March 2007. We also recorded distance traveled, whether a road was paved or divided, the number of lanes, and prevailing habitat. Surveys were opportunistic and were conducted by car during conditions of good visibility. Over our 239 surveys and > 16,500 km traveled, we recorded 1412 roadkills from 18 different mammal species (size ranged from Sciurus squirrels to the white-tailed deer, Odocolieus virginianus). The overall kill rate was 8.50/100 km. Four species were prone to collisions: the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and northern raccoon (Procyon lotor). Together they accounted for approximately 85% (1198) of all roadkills. Mortality rate differed significantly between 2- and 4-lane roads (8.39 versus 7.79/100 km). Kill rates were significantly higher on paved versus unpaved roads (8.60 versus 3.65/100 km), but did not depend on whether a road was divided. Roadkills were higher in spring than in fall (1.5 x), winter (1.4x), or summer (1.3x). The spring peak (in kills/100 km) was driven chiefly by the armadillo (2.76 in spring/summer versus 0.73 in autumn/winter) and opossum (2.65 versus 1.47). By contrast, seasonality was dampened by a late winter/early spring peak in skunk mortalities, for which 41% occurred in the 6-week period of mid-February through March. The raccoon did not exhibit a strong seasonal pattern. Our data are consistent with dispersal patterns of these species. Our results underscore the high rate of highway mortality in the southern plains, as well as differences in seasonality and road type that contribute to mortality. Conservation and management efforts should focus on

  16. The unique paired retinal vascular pattern in marsupials: structural, functional and evolutionary perspectives based on observations in a range of species

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Background In the few marsupial species studied to date that possess a retinal vasculature, the arterial and venous segments, down to the smallest calibre capillaries, have been shown to occur in pairs. It is a pattern seen in the marsupial central nervous system (CNS) but not in other tissues in this group or in any tissues in eutherian mammals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of retinal vessels in a range of non‐eutherian mammalian species (marsupials and monotremes) and to determine if the pattern of paired vessels was a widespread phenomenon within this animal group. Methods Species studied included a monotreme, the short‐billed echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and a range of Australian marsupials, the honey possum (Tarispedidae rostratus), fat‐tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata), grey‐bellied dunnart (Sminthopsis griseoventer), numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus), broad‐footed marsupial mouse (Antechinus godmani) and the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Eyes were fixed in glutaraldehyde or paraformaldehyde and retinas were embedded in resin for light and electron microscopic analysis. Results Examination revealed that in those species with retinal vessels (fat‐tailed dunnart, grey‐bellied dunnart, numbat, marsupial mouse, North American opossum) the pattern of vessels differs from the conventional plexus‐like arrangement of mammalian retinal vasculature (that is, anastomotic networks of capillaries between arterioles and venules). In marsupials retinal vessels always occur in closely related pairs, with the arteriolar limb usually situated on the vitread aspect. Vessels penetrate the retina and branch to form layers of paired capillaries as far as the outer nuclear layer in some species. The capillaries form blind‐ended hairpin loops and display classical morphological features of CNS capillaries Conclusion The phylogenetic relations of this vascular pattern in the marsupial CNS and retina, and in

  17. Diversity, Seasonality, and Context of Mammalian Roadkills in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D.; Patten, Michael A.

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of mammals are killed annually from vehicle collisions, making the issue an important one for conservation biologists and environmental managers. We recorded all readily identifiable kills on or immediately adjacent to roads in the southern Great Plains from March 2004-March 2007. We also recorded distance traveled, whether a road was paved or divided, the number of lanes, and prevailing habitat. Surveys were opportunistic and were conducted by car during conditions of good visibility. Over our 239 surveys and >16,500 km traveled, we recorded 1412 roadkills from 18 different mammal species (size ranged from Sciurus squirrels to the white-tailed deer, Odocolieus virginianus). The overall kill rate was 8.50 / 100 km. Four species were prone to collisions: the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus), striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis), and northern raccoon ( Procyon lotor). Together they accounted for approximately 85% (1198) of all roadkills. Mortality rate differed significantly between 2- and 4-lane roads (8.39 versus 7.79 / 100 km). Kill rates were significantly higher on paved versus unpaved roads (8.60 versus 3.65 / 100 km), but did not depend on whether a road was divided. Roadkills were higher in spring than in fall (1.5×), winter (1.4×), or summer (1.3×). The spring peak (in kills / 100 km) was driven chiefly by the armadillo (2.76 in spring/summer versus 0.73 in autumn/winter) and opossum (2.65 versus 1.47). By contrast, seasonality was dampened by a late winter/early spring peak in skunk mortalities, for which 41% occurred in the 6-week period of mid-February through March. The raccoon did not exhibit a strong seasonal pattern. Our data are consistent with dispersal patterns of these species. Our results underscore the high rate of highway mortality in the southern plains, as well as differences in seasonality and road type that contribute to mortality. Conservation and management efforts should

  18. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM ANIMALS IN DURANGO, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people and animals in rural Mexico. Serum samples and tissues from 150 dogs, 150 cats, 65 opossums (Didelphis virginianus), 249 rats (Rattus spp.), 127 mice (Mus musculus), and 69 squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from t...

  19. Transfection-mediated expression of a dominant cAMP-resistant phenotype in the opossum kidney (OK) cell line prevents parathyroid hormone-induced inhibition of Na-phosphate cotransport. A protein kinase-A-mediated event.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, J H; Pollock, A S

    1990-01-01

    Sodium-phosphate cotransport in the PTH-responsive opossum kidney (OK) cell line is inhibited by PTH, cAMP, and activators of protein kinase C. In order to probe the role of cAMP, we stably transfected OK cells with an expression vector for a cAMP-binding mutation of the murine protein kinase A regulatory subunit. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of cAMP-binding proteins from transfected cells indicated a 20-fold overexpression of the mutant regulatory unit. Protein kinase A from these cells had a 20-fold increase in the concentration of cAMP required for half-maximal activation, 2.8 microM vs. 0.15 microM for wild type cells. In the transfected cells, Na-phosphate cotransport was insensitive to up to 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP and 1 microM PTH, while these same agonists caused a significant inhibition of transport in the wild type cells. The effects on Na-phosphate cotransport of the protein kinase C activators oleoyl-acetyl glycerol and tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate, which were marked in the wild type cells, were still present, although attenuated, in the transfected mutants. With prolonged passage, the cAMP-insensitive phenotype reverted to wild type cAMP sensitivity despite continued selection for the cotransfected neo marker. The revertant cells had a normal cAMP requirement for half-maximal activation of protein kinase A, 0.13 microM, and the PTH and cAMP-sensitive inhibition of Na-phosphate cotransport was restored. We suggest that an intact and normally cAMP-sensitive protein kinase A pathway is an absolute requirement for PTH inhibition of Na-phosphate cotransport in the OK cell. Images PMID:2173719

  20. New sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and their reservoir competence in the humid Chaco of Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Cardinal, M Victoria; Schijman, Alejandro G; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2013-05-01

    A four-year longitudinal study of the structure of sylvatic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, reservoir host competence and parasite discrete typing units was conducted in a disturbed rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina. Among 190 mammals examined by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification, the composite prevalence of infection was substantially higher in Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos (57.7%) and Didelphis albiventris opossums (38.1%) than in Euphractus sexcinctus (20.0%), Tolypeutes matacus (12.5%), and Chaetophractus vellerosus (6.3%) armadillos. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected for the first time in Thylamys pusilla small opossums and in two unidentified small rodents. Infection was spatially aggregated only in armadillos. All Didelphis were infected with T. cruzi I and all armadillo species were infected with T. cruzi III, implying two distinct sylvatic cycles with no inputs from the domestic cycle. Dasypus armadillos and Didelphis opossums were much more infectious to vectors than other armadillos, small opossums, or rodents. PMID:23530075

  1. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  2. In vitro cultivation of schizonts of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Lindsay, D S

    2000-08-01

    Schizonts of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 were cultured in vitro in bovine monocyte and equine kidney cell cultures inoculated with infected tissues of nude and gamma-interferon knockout mice fed sporocysts from opossums, Didelphis albiventris. At least 1 asexual cycle was completed in 3 days. In vitro-grown merozoites were structurally and antigenically distinct from those of Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. Culture-derived merozoites of S. speeri were not infective to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). PMID:10958438

  3. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  4. Long-term reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals following deforestation and sustained vector surveillance in northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, L.A.; Cardinal, M.V.; Vazquez-Prokopec, G.M.; Lauricella, M.A.; Orozco, M.M.; Cortinas, R.; Schijman, A.G.; Levin, M.J.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term variations in the dynamics and intensity of sylvatic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi were investigated around eight rural villages in the semiarid Argentine Chaco in 2002–2004 and compared to data collected locally in 1984–1991. Of 501 wild mammals from 13 identified species examined by xenodiagnosis, only 3 (7.9%) of 38 Didelphis albiventris opossums and 1 (1.1%) of 91 Conepatus chinga skunks were infected by T. cruzi. The period prevalence in opossums was four-fold lower in 2002–2004 than in 1984–1991 (32–36%). The infection prevalence of skunks also decreased five-fold from 4.1–5.6% in 1984–1991 to 1.1% in 2002–2004. Infection in opossums increased with age and from summer to spring in both study periods. The force of infection per 100 opossum-months after weaning declined more than six-fold from 8.2 in 1988–1991 to 1.2 in 2002–2004. Opossums were mainly infected by T. cruzi lineage I and secondarily by lineage IId in 1984–1991, and only by T. cruzi I in 2002–2004; skunks were infected by T. cruzi IId in 1984–1991 and by IIc in 2002–2004. The striking decline of T. cruzi infection in opossums and skunks occurred in parallel to community-wide insecticide spraying followed by selective sprays leading to very low densities of infected Triatoma infestans in domestic and peridomestic habitats since 1992; to massive deforestation around one of the villages or selective extraction of older trees, and apparent reductions in opossum abundance jointly with increases in foxes and skunks. These factors may underlie the dramatic decrease of T. cruzi infection in wild reservoir hosts. PMID:16839513

  5. Photoreception in the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta Loven

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY: Evidence from live trapping tests indicated that Peromyscus leucopus did not leave their home ranges because of the attraction of trap bait in nearby areas. A trap line down the center of a heavily live-trapped area caught as many mice before the area trapping as afterward. Thus, there was reason to believe that the area trapping did not serve to pre-bait the mice. Two unbaited lines of live traps caught an equal number of Peromyscus. When one line was baited with rolled oats and peanut butter the efficiency of the traps was improved to the extent that the baited line captured more than twice as many mice as the unbaited line. It is concluded that for the species and habitat tested it is safe to make population calculations based on the assumption that the animals remain within their home ranges and do not tend to move into the trapped area because of the attraction of the trap bait.

  6. Prevalence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in certain central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Farrington, D O; Jorgenson, R D

    1976-10-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from 6 of 13 short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and 1 of 47 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) trapped in the vicinity of a swine Bordetella rhinitis experimental area. The organism was found in four of 50 foxes (Vulpes fulva), 2 of 36 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and 1 of 37 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in the Ames, Iowa area. This bacterium was not culturally isolated from 14 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), 64 house mice (Mus Musculus), 10 masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 54 starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). PMID:16502690

  7. Antifungal metabolites from the roots of Diospyros virginiana by overpressure layer chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preparative overpressure layer chromatography (OPLC) method was successfully used for the separation of two new natural compounds, 4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (1) and (Delta)12,13-20,29-dihydrobetulin (2) together with nine known compounds including 7-methyl-juglone (3), diospyrin (4)...

  8. Comparative genetic mapping in Fragaria virginiana reveals autosomal origin of sex chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, separate sexes (dioecy) have evolved repeatedly. The evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes can often, but not always, accompany this transition. Thus, many have argued that plant genera that contain both hermaphroditic and dioecious members pro...

  9. Growth and chemical responses to CO{sub 2} enrichment - Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.)

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Norby, R.J.; Neill, E.G.O.; Weller, D.G.

    1985-03-01

    Global atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been increasing over the past several decades and are projected to continue increasing for several more decades. Because of the fundamental role of CO{sub 2} in the physiology of all green plants, changes in plant growth and productivity are expected. There is ample experimental evidence illustrating an increase in photosynthesis and growth with increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations. However, much of this evidence is based on short term results and optimal growth and nutrient conditions. Kramer raised the question of whether plants growing in natural environments, which are probably more often limited by water or nutrient (especially nitrogen) deficiencies than by low CO{sub 2}, will respond to rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This package covers one segment of the research performed to determine whether the proposed mechanism occurs with elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations.

  10. The role of fragmentation and landscape changes in the ecological release of common nest predators in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Cove, Michael V; Spínola, R Manuel; Jackson, Victoria L; Saénz, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    Loss of large mammalian carnivores may allow smaller mesopredators to become abundant and threaten other community members. There is considerable debate about mesopredator release and the role that other potential factors such as landscape variables and human alterations to land cover lead to increased mesopredator abundance. We used camera traps to detect four mesopredators (tayra, Eira barbara; white-nosed coati, Nasua narica; northern raccoon, Procyon lotor; and common opossum, Didelphis opossum) in a biological corridor in Costa Rica to estimate habitat covariates that influenced the species' detection and occurrence. We selected these mesopredators because as semi-arboreal species they might be common nest predators, posing a serious threat to resident and migratory songbirds. Pineapple production had a pronounced positive effect on the detectability of tayras, while forest cover had a negative effect on the detection of coatis. This suggests that abundance might be elevated due to the availability of agricultural food resources and foraging activities are concentrated in forest fragments and pineapple edge habitats. Raccoon and opossum models exhibited little influence on detection from habitat covariates. Occurrence models did not suggest any significant factors influencing site use by nest predators, revealing that all four species are habitat generalists adapted to co-existing in human altered landscapes. Furthermore, fragmentation and land cover changes may predispose nesting birds, herpetofauna, and small mammals to heightened predation risk by mesopredators in the Neotropics. PMID:25071989

  11. The role of fragmentation and landscape changes in the ecological release of common nest predators in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Spínola, R. Manuel; Jackson, Victoria L.; Saénz, Joel C.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of large mammalian carnivores may allow smaller mesopredators to become abundant and threaten other community members. There is considerable debate about mesopredator release and the role that other potential factors such as landscape variables and human alterations to land cover lead to increased mesopredator abundance. We used camera traps to detect four mesopredators (tayra, Eira barbara; white-nosed coati, Nasua narica; northern raccoon, Procyon lotor; and common opossum, Didelphis opossum) in a biological corridor in Costa Rica to estimate habitat covariates that influenced the species’ detection and occurrence. We selected these mesopredators because as semi-arboreal species they might be common nest predators, posing a serious threat to resident and migratory songbirds. Pineapple production had a pronounced positive effect on the detectability of tayras, while forest cover had a negative effect on the detection of coatis. This suggests that abundance might be elevated due to the availability of agricultural food resources and foraging activities are concentrated in forest fragments and pineapple edge habitats. Raccoon and opossum models exhibited little influence on detection from habitat covariates. Occurrence models did not suggest any significant factors influencing site use by nest predators, revealing that all four species are habitat generalists adapted to co-existing in human altered landscapes. Furthermore, fragmentation and land cover changes may predispose nesting birds, herpetofauna, and small mammals to heightened predation risk by mesopredators in the Neotropics. PMID:25071989

  12. Serologic evidence of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs, wild carnivores, and marsupials in the Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely

  13. Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana reveals earliest form of sex chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. However, we are now just beginning to gain insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution vi...

  14. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  15. Differential consumption of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by avian and mammalian guilds: Implications for tree invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Increased abundance and distribution of eastern redcedar (Juniperns virginiannus), a native species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern red cedar cones is essential to understanding the invasive spread of the species. We examined animal removal of cedar cones in three habitats (tallgrass prairie, eastern red cedar and woodland-prairie margins) in the Cross Timbers ecoregion using three exclosure treatments during autumn and winter. Exclosure treatments excluded study trees from ungulates, from terrestrial rodents and ungulates or from neither (control). Loss of cones from branches varied by a habitat-time interaction, but was not affected by exclosure type. Loss of cones from containers located under experimental trees varied by a habitat-treatment-time interaction. In December and January, cone consumption from containers in no-exclosure treatments was highest in margins, followed by tallgrass prairie and eastern red cedar habitats. We conclude birds consumed the majority of cones from branches and small-and medium-sized mammals consumed cones on the ground. Both birds and mammals likely contribute to the spread of eastern red cedar but at different scales. Limiting invasion of eastern red cedar in forests may require early detection and selective removal of pioneer seedlings in cross timbers and other habitats that attract a high diversity or density of frugivores.

  16. [Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

    2014-04-01

    Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease. PMID:24896050

  17. Rickettsia in synanthropic and domestic animals and their hosts from two areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Barcelos, Rafael M; Gomes, Gabriel G; Montandon, Carlos E; Pena, Dárlen C H; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; Bouyer, Donald H; Freitas, Renata N; Walker, David H; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvao, Márcio A M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  18. Rickettsia in Synanthropic and Domestic Animals and Their Hosts from Two Areas of Low Endemicity for Brazilian Spotted Fever in the Eastern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Milagres, Bruno S.; Padilha, Amanda F.; Barcelos, Rafael M.; Gomes, Gabriel G.; Montandon, Carlos E.; Pena, Dárlen C. H.; Nieri Bastos, Fernanda A.; Silveira, Iara; Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Bouyer, Donald H.; Freitas, Renata N.; Walker, David H.; Mafra, Cláudio L.; Galvao, Márcio A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the current epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in two rickettsial-endemic regions in Brazil. In the municipalities of Pingo D'Agua and Santa Cruz do Escalvado, among serum samples obtained from horses and dogs, reactivity by immunofluorescent assay against spotted fever group rickettsiae was verified. In some serum samples from opossums (Didelphis aurita) captured in Santa Cruz do Escalvado, serologic response against rickettsiae was also verified. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsiae only in ticks and fleas obtained in Santa Cruz do Escalvado. Rickettsiae in samples had 100% sequence homology with Rickettsia felis. These results highlight the importance of marsupials in maintenance of the sylvatic cycle of rickettsial disease and potential integration with the domestic cycle. Our data also support the importance of horses and dogs as sentinels in monitoring circulation of rickettsiae in an urban area. PMID:21118939

  19. Domiciliation of Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964) in the Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Girley Francisco Machado; Azeredo, Bernardino Vaz de Mello; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Diotaiuti, Liléia; de Lana, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Impact of the vector control program was evaluated eight years after implantation of epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in Berilo, a municipality in the Jequitinhonha Valley of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. In all 5,242 domiciliary units (96% of the total) were inspected and 10 found to be infested by the triatomine bug Triatoma pseudomaculata. Triatomines were found associated with bats inside one house and in the peridomiciles of the other nine. None of the 111 Triatoma pseudomaculata captured was infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Noireau et al traps were installed in (n=8) and around (n=100) the infested house but no Trypanpsoma cruzi-infected triatomines were found. None bat, opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and rat captured in the peridomicile were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi although 24% of the inhabitants of the house infested by Triatoma pseudomaculata were seropositive for the parasite, based on ELISA, IHA and IIF. PMID:17876457

  20. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Mancini Barbieri, F; Amati, M; Casulli, A; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans), three bobcats (Lynx rufus), 32 racoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and five wild boars (Sus scrofa). Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8%) coyotes had trichinellosis; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. PMID:11484391

  1. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

  2. Uterus didelphys with partial vaginal septum and distal vaginal agenesis: an unusual anomaly.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Savita Rani; Lakra, Pinkey; Bishnoi, Pushpa; Rohilla, Seema; Dahiya, Pushpa; Nanda, Smiti

    2013-02-01

    Complex malformations of female genital tract are not so common. Their correct identification is of paramount importance for appropriate management. A thorough knowledge of embryology, pre-operative imaging with MRI and examination under anaesthesia is essential to identify accurately the constellation of anomalies and to plan appropriate management. This case reports the coexistence of Müllerian abnormality with vaginal agenesis in an 18 years old girl which was managed by dissecting the lower half of vagina and pull-through vaginoplasty. PMID:23374522

  3. OHVIRA: Uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: Advantage MRI.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Sunil K; Misra, Ritu; Thukral, Brij B; Gupta, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    We present here a case of an uncommon complex uterine anomaly - Obstructed HemiVagina with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis (OHVIRA), also known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 14-year-old girl along with sonographic (trans-abdominal and trans labial), and MRI findings. The patient underwent surgery wherein imaging findings were confirmed. An MRI has proved to be of great help in correct diagnosis avoiding surgical interventions/ laparoscopy, which were needed in past to diagnose this rare anomaly. We also discuss the development of this anomaly with the help of a relatively new theory of uro-genital development by Acien and review the literature. PMID:22870020

  4. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis) - a case report

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan, İlker İnan; Harma, Müge; Harma, Mehmet İbrahim; Bayar, Ülkü; Barut, Aykut

    2010-01-01

    Uterovaginal duplication with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is referred to as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome. A 17 year old woman presented with right pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea, present since menarche at 13 and worsening over the past year. Ultrasound examination revealed a right pelvic mass (5×5 cm), double endometrial echoes, and hematocolpos. A right pelvic mass, agenesis of the right kidney, double uterus, and blind hemivagina with hematocolpos were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and intravenous pyelography. A right tubo-ovarian abscess with dense adhesions and a double uterus were observed on diagnostic laparoscopy. Adhesiolysis was carried out and purulent material irrigated. After a course of antibiotics, a vaginal septum resection was performed and the pyocolpos drained. She remained symptom free after four months of follow-up. Prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome can significantly improve the lives of sufferers and prevent future complications. PMID:24591910

  5. OHVIRA: Uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: Advantage MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sunil K; Misra, Ritu; Thukral, Brij B; Gupta, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    We present here a case of an uncommon complex uterine anomaly – Obstructed HemiVagina with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis (OHVIRA), also known as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 14-year-old girl along with sonographic (trans-abdominal and trans labial), and MRI findings. The patient underwent surgery wherein imaging findings were confirmed. An MRI has proved to be of great help in correct diagnosis avoiding surgical interventions/ laparoscopy, which were needed in past to diagnose this rare anomaly. We also discuss the development of this anomaly with the help of a relatively new theory of uro-genital development by Acien and review the literature. PMID:22870020

  6. Environmental DNA Marker Development with Sparse Biological Information: A Case Study on Opossum Shrimp (Mysis diluviana)

    PubMed Central

    Carim, Kellie J.; Christianson, Kyle R.; McKelvey, Kevin M.; Pate, William M.; Silver, Douglas B.; Johnson, Brett M.; Galloway, Bill T.; Young, Michael K.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Mysis diluviana, a small glacial relict crustacean, outside its native range has led to unintended shifts in the composition of native fish communities throughout western North America. As a result, biologists seek accurate methods of determining the presence of M. diluviana, especially at low densities or during the initial stages of an invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) provides one solution for detecting M. diluviana, but building eDNA markers that are both sensitive and species-specific is challenging when the distribution and taxonomy of closely related non-target taxa are poorly understood, published genetic data are sparse, and tissue samples are difficult to obtain. To address these issues, we developed a pair of independent eDNA markers to increase the likelihood of a positive detection of M. diluviana when present and reduce the probability of false positive detections from closely related non-target species. Because tissue samples of closely-related and possibly sympatric, non-target taxa could not be obtained, we used synthetic DNA sequences of closely related non-target species to test the specificity of eDNA markers. Both eDNA markers yielded positive detections from five waterbodies where M. diluviana was known to be present, and no detections in five others where this species was thought to be absent. Daytime samples from varying depths in one waterbody occupied by M. diluviana demonstrated that samples near the lake bottom produced 5 to more than 300 times as many eDNA copies as samples taken at other depths, but all samples tested positive regardless of depth. PMID:27551919

  7. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  8. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Liffe Cycle and Fitness of Opossum Shrimp Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known se...

  9. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Life Cycle and fitness of Opossum Shrimp Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known ph...

  10. Environmental DNA Marker Development with Sparse Biological Information: A Case Study on Opossum Shrimp (Mysis diluviana).

    PubMed

    Carim, Kellie J; Christianson, Kyle R; McKelvey, Kevin M; Pate, William M; Silver, Douglas B; Johnson, Brett M; Galloway, Bill T; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Mysis diluviana, a small glacial relict crustacean, outside its native range has led to unintended shifts in the composition of native fish communities throughout western North America. As a result, biologists seek accurate methods of determining the presence of M. diluviana, especially at low densities or during the initial stages of an invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) provides one solution for detecting M. diluviana, but building eDNA markers that are both sensitive and species-specific is challenging when the distribution and taxonomy of closely related non-target taxa are poorly understood, published genetic data are sparse, and tissue samples are difficult to obtain. To address these issues, we developed a pair of independent eDNA markers to increase the likelihood of a positive detection of M. diluviana when present and reduce the probability of false positive detections from closely related non-target species. Because tissue samples of closely-related and possibly sympatric, non-target taxa could not be obtained, we used synthetic DNA sequences of closely related non-target species to test the specificity of eDNA markers. Both eDNA markers yielded positive detections from five waterbodies where M. diluviana was known to be present, and no detections in five others where this species was thought to be absent. Daytime samples from varying depths in one waterbody occupied by M. diluviana demonstrated that samples near the lake bottom produced 5 to more than 300 times as many eDNA copies as samples taken at other depths, but all samples tested positive regardless of depth. PMID:27551919

  11. Life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, T T; Labruna, M B; Abel, I dos S; Clerici, P T

    2000-09-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus Neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. Engorged females collected from opossums trapped in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil, which were used to start the laboratory colonies, were designated as BMG and CSP, respectively. Larval and nymphal ticks from both colonies fed separately on Rattus norvergicus Berkenhout or Calomys callosus Rengger, whereas Didelphis marsupialis L and Didelphis albiventris Lund were used as hosts for BMG and CSP adults, respectively. Biological and developmental data obtained from ticks of both the BMG and CSP colonies that were reared separately for two consecutive generations were compared. The percentage of fed or molted ticks reared on C. callosus was higher than that recorded for ticks fed on R. norvergicus in the majority of the observations. Despite significant differences among several of the biological parameters, the pattern of the life cycles of the two tick colonies was similar. Results indicated that the mean life cycle duration of I. (I.) loricatus was approximately 7 mo from parental oviposition to the occurrence of F1 eggs, regardless of geographic origin or host species. PMID:11004783

  12. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. PMID:26249652

  13. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  14. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M

    2008-06-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) soloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912) from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6 degrees S, 50 degrees 18' W) Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 microm (62.4-76.2) and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0). Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M.) saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M.) freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis ozarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M.) samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 microm and 42.4 microm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood. PMID:18642501

  15. The sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area in the humid Chaco of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Otegui, J.A.; Ceballos, L.A.; Orozco, M.M.; Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Cura, C.; Schijman, A.G.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. We conducted surveys to identify the main sylvatic hosts of T. cruzi, parasite discrete typing units and vector species involved in Pampa del Indio, a rural area in the humid Argentinean Chaco. A total of 44 mammals from 14 species was captured and examined for infection by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). Ten (22.7%) mammals were positive by xenodiagnosis or kDNA-PCR. Four of 11 (36%) Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossums) and six of nine (67%) Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillos) were positive by xenodiagnosis and or kDNA-PCR. Rodents, other armadillo species, felids, crab-eating raccoons, hares and rabbits were not infected. Positive animals were highly infectious to the bugs that fed upon them as determined by xenodiagnosis. All positive opossums were infected with T. cruzi I and all positive nine-banded armadillos with T. cruzi III. Extensive searches in sylvatic habitats using 718 Noireau trap-nights only yielded Triatoma sordida whereas no bug was collected in 26 light-trap nights. Four armadillos or opossums fitted with a spool-and-line device were successfully tracked to their refuges; only one Panstrongylus geniculatus was found in an armadillo burrow. No sylvatic triatomine was infected with T. cruzi by microscopical examination or kDNA-PCR. Our results indicate that two independent sylvatic transmission cycles of T. cruzi occur in the humid Chaco. The putative vectors of both cycles need to be identified conclusively. PMID:22771688

  16. The sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area in the humid Chaco of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Otegui, J A; Ceballos, L A; Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Cura, C; Schijman, A G; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. We conducted surveys to identify the main sylvatic hosts of T. cruzi, parasite discrete typing units and vector species involved in Pampa del Indio, a rural area in the humid Argentinean Chaco. A total of 44 mammals from 14 species were captured and examined for infection by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). Ten (22.7%) mammals were positive by xenodiagnosis or kDNA-PCR. Four of 11 (36%) Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossums) and six of nine (67%) Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillos) were positive by xenodiagnosis and or kDNA-PCR. Rodents, other armadillo species, felids, crab-eating raccoons, hares and rabbits were not infected. Positive animals were highly infectious to the bugs that fed upon them as determined by xenodiagnosis. All positive opossums were infected with T. cruzi I and all positive nine-banded armadillos with T. cruzi III. Extensive searches in sylvatic habitats using 718 Noireau trap-nights only yielded Triatoma sordida whereas no bug was collected in 26 light-trap nights. Four armadillos or opossums fitted with a spool-and-line device were successfully tracked to their refuges; only one Panstrongylus geniculatus was found in an armadillo burrow. No sylvatic triatomine was infected with T. cruzi by microscopical examination or kDNA-PCR. Our results indicate that two independent sylvatic transmission cycles of T. cruzi occur in the humid Chaco. The putative vectors of both cycles need to be identified conclusively. PMID:22771688

  17. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. PMID:26708994

  18. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

  19. An In Silico Insight into Novel Therapeutic Interaction of LTNF Peptide-LT10 and Design of Structure Based Peptidomimetics for Putative Anti-Diabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sonali Gopichand; Deobagkar, Deepti Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) obtained from Opossum serum (Didephis virginiana) is known to exhibit toxin-neutralizing activity for envenomation caused by animals, plants and bacteria. Small synthetic peptide- LT10 (10mer) derived from N-terminal fraction of LTNF exhibit similar anti-lethal and anti-allergic property. In our in silico study, we identified Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) as a potential target of LT10 peptide followed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies which revealed relatively stable interaction of LT10 peptide with IDE. Moreover, their detailed interaction analyses dictate IDE-inhibitory interactions of LT10 peptide. This prediction ofLT10 peptide as a novel putative IDE-inhibitor suggests its possible role in anti-diabetic treatment since IDE- inhibitors are known to assist treatment of Diabetes mellitus by enhancing insulin signalling. Furthermore, series of structure based peptidomimetics were designed from LT10 peptide and screened for their inhibitory interactions which ultimately led to a small set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of IDE. These peptidomimetic thus might provide a new class of IDE-inhibitors, those derived from LT10 peptide. PMID:25816209

  20. Detecting and modelling delayed density-dependence in abundance time series of a small mammal (Didelphis aurita).

    PubMed

    Brigatti, E; Vieira, M V; Kajin, M; Almeida, P J A L; de Menezes, M A; Cerqueira, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the population size time series of a Neotropical small mammal with the intent of detecting and modelling population regulation processes generated by density-dependent factors and their possible delayed effects. The application of analysis tools based on principles of statistical generality are nowadays a common practice for describing these phenomena, but, in general, they are more capable of generating clear diagnosis rather than granting valuable modelling. For this reason, in our approach, we detect the principal temporal structures on the bases of different correlation measures, and from these results we build an ad-hoc minimalist autoregressive model that incorporates the main drivers of the dynamics. Surprisingly our model is capable of reproducing very well the time patterns of the empirical series and, for the first time, clearly outlines the importance of the time of attaining sexual maturity as a central temporal scale for the dynamics of this species. In fact, an important advantage of this analysis scheme is that all the model parameters are directly biologically interpretable and potentially measurable, allowing a consistency check between model outputs and independent measurements. PMID:26865413

  1. Detecting and modelling delayed density-dependence in abundance time series of a small mammal (Didelphis aurita)

    PubMed Central

    Brigatti, E.; Vieira, M. V.; Kajin, M.; Almeida, P. J. A. L.; de Menezes, M. A.; Cerqueira, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the population size time series of a Neotropical small mammal with the intent of detecting and modelling population regulation processes generated by density-dependent factors and their possible delayed effects. The application of analysis tools based on principles of statistical generality are nowadays a common practice for describing these phenomena, but, in general, they are more capable of generating clear diagnosis rather than granting valuable modelling. For this reason, in our approach, we detect the principal temporal structures on the bases of different correlation measures, and from these results we build an ad-hoc minimalist autoregressive model that incorporates the main drivers of the dynamics. Surprisingly our model is capable of reproducing very well the time patterns of the empirical series and, for the first time, clearly outlines the importance of the time of attaining sexual maturity as a central temporal scale for the dynamics of this species. In fact, an important advantage of this analysis scheme is that all the model parameters are directly biologically interpretable and potentially measurable, allowing a consistency check between model outputs and independent measurements. PMID:26865413

  2. Demographic consequences of population subdivision on the long-furred woolly mouse opossum ( Micoureus paraguayanus) from the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Daniel; da Fonseca, Gustavo A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation severely affected the Atlantic Forest. Formerly contiguous populations may become subdivided into a larger number of smaller populations, threatening their long-term persistence. The computer package VORTEX was used to simulate the consequences of habitat fragmentation and population subdivision on Micoureus paraguayanus, an endemic arboreal marsupial of the Atlantic Forest. Scenarios simulated hypothetical populations of 100 and 2000 animals being partitioned into 1-10 populations, linked by varying rates of inter-patch dispersal, and also evaluated male-biased dispersal. Results demonstrated that a single population was more stable than an ensemble of populations of equal size, irrespective of dispersal rate. Small populations (10-20 individuals) exhibited high instability due to demographic stochasticity, and were characterized by high rates of extinction, smaller values for metapopulation growth and larger fluctuations in population size and growth rate. Dispersal effects on metapopulation persistence were related to the size of the populations and to the sexes that were capable of dispersing. Male-biased dispersal had no noticeable effects on metapopulation extinction dynamics, whereas scenarios modelling dispersal by both sexes positively affected metapopulation dynamics through higher growth rates, smaller fluctuations in growth rate, larger final metapopulation sizes and lower probabilities of extinction. The present study highlights the complex relationships between metapopulation size, population subdivision, habitat fragmentation, rate of inter-patch dispersal and sex-biased dispersal and indicates the importance of gaining a better understanding of dispersal and its interactions with correlations between disturbance events.

  3. Crotalid snake venom subproteomes unraveled by the antiophidic protein DM43.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Chapeaurouge, Alex; León, Ileana R; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Snake venoms are mixtures of proteins and peptides with different biological activities, many of which are very toxic. Several animals, including the opossum Didelphis aurita, are resistant to snake venoms due to the presence of neutralizing factors in their blood. An antihemorrhagic protein named DM43 was isolated from opossum serum. It inhibits snake venom metalloproteinases through noncovalent complex formation with these enzymes. In this study, we have used DM43 and proteomic techniques to explore snake venom subproteomes. Four crotalid venoms were chromatographed through an affinity column containing immobilized DM43. Bound fractions were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. With this approach, we could easily visualize and compare the metalloproteinase compositions of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops insularis, and Crotalus atrox snake venoms. The important contribution of proteolytic processing to the complexity of this particular subproteome was demonstrated. Fractions not bound to DM43 column were similarly analyzed and were composed mainly of serine proteinases, C-type lectins, C-type lectin-like proteins, l-amino acid oxidases, nerve growth factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, a few metalloproteinases (and their fragments), and some unidentified spots. Although very few toxin families were represented in the crotalid venoms analyzed, the number of protein spots detected was in the hundreds, indicating an important protein variability in these natural secretions. DM43 affinity chromatography and associated proteomic techniques proved to be useful tools to separate and identify proteins from snake venoms, contributing to a better comprehension of venom heterogeneity. PMID:19267469

  4. The complexity of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil) revealed by the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, O; Mangia, R H; Lisboa, C V; Pinho, A P; Morel, C M; Zingales, B; Campbell, D A; Jansen, A M

    1999-02-01

    American trypanosamiasis occurs in nature as a sylvatic cycle, where Trypanosoma cruzi interacts with wild triatomines and mammalian reservoirs, such as marsupials, rodents, armadillos and other animals. Due to difficulties in trying to isolate T. cruzi stocks from the sylvatic cycle, very few studies have been performed in order to understand the parasite infection in natural environments. Traditionally T. cruzi has been considered to be composed of a highly heterogeneous population of parasites. In contrast, the mini-exon and the 24S alpha rRNA gene loci have shown that T. cruzi stocks can be clustered in 2 major phylogenetic groups: lineage 1 and lineage 2. In this report, 68 recently isolated T. cruzi samples from the sylvatic cycle belonging to different geographical areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have been typed based on a variable spot in the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene. Eight isolates were from triatomines, 26 stocks were from golden-lion tamarins, 31 from opossums, 2 from rodents and 1 from a three-toed sloth. Thirty (44%-30/68) isolates were typed as lineage 1, while 36 (53%-36/68) isolates were typed as lineage 2. Two opossums presented mixed infection. Therefore, 3% (2/68) of the isolates were typed as lineage 1 + lineage 2. Using these geographical regions as models of sylvatic environments, it was observed that 96% of the Didelphis marsupialis were infected by lineage 2 isolates, while all 26 golden-lion tamarins were infected by lineage 1. The results show preferential association of the 2 lineages of T. cruzi with different hosts, composing the complexity of the sylvatic cycle. PMID:10028530

  5. Development of the ethmoid in Caluromys philander (Didelphidae, Marsupialia) with a discussion on the homology of the turbinal elements in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Macrini, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    Homology of turbinals, or scroll bones, of the mammalian ethmoid bone is poorly known and complicated by a varied terminology. Positionally, there are two main types of ossified adult turbinals known as endoturbinals and ectoturbinals, and their cartilaginous precursors are called ethmoturbinals and frontoturbinals, respectively. Endoturbinals are considered to be serially homologous due to similarity in their developmental patterns. Consequently, endoturbinals from mammals with differing numbers of elements cannot be individually homogenized. In this study, the development of the ethmoid of Caluromys philander, the bare-tailed woolly opossum, is described based on serial sections of six pouchlings ranging in age from 20 to 84 days postnatal (PND-84), and computed tomography images of an adult skull. I found that four ethmoturbinals initially develop as seen in PND-20 and PND-30 individuals but by PND-64 an interturbinal (corresponding to endoturbinal III in adults) is present between ethmoturbinals II and III. This developmental pattern is identical to that of Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, and is probably also present in the marsupials Didelphis marsupialis, and Thylacinus cynocephalus based on work of previous authors. These data suggest that endoturbinal III has a developmental pattern that differs from other endoturbinals, and the name interturbinal should be retained for the adult structure in recognition of this difference. These results may prove useful for homologizing this individual turbinal element across marsupials, the majority of which have five endoturbinals as adults. This might also explain the presumed placental ancestral condition of four endoturbinals if the marsupial interturbinal is lost. PMID:25312361

  6. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  7. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae. PMID:25643912

  8. 50 CFR 32.57 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... squirrels, grouse, rabbit, pheasant, quail, woodchuck, crow, fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk, weasel, coyote... grouse, squirrel, rabbit, woodchuck, pheasant, quail, raccoon, fox, coyote, skunk, and opossum...

  9. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... squirrel, armadillo, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, coyote, and beaver on designated areas of the refuge in... or bag limit), gray squirrel, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, raccoon, beaver, and coyote during...

  10. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

  11. Epidemiologic aspects of American visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in Eastern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zulueta, A M; Villarroel, E; Rodriguez, N; Feliciangeli, M D; Mazzarri, M; Reyes, O; Rodriguez, V; Centeno, M; Barrios, R M; Ulrich, M

    1999-12-01

    An endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in eastern Venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to Leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of Leishmania (L. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characteristics of the sandfly population. The male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were < or =12 years old. Serologic reactivity was significantly higher in household contacts than in controls (P = 0.0008), as was the size of leishmanin reactions in contacts < or =10 years of age (P = 0.0141). Leishmania donovani complex-specific PCRs were positive in dogs, an opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), and a black rat (Rattus rattus). Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evansi, both implicated in the transmission of AVL, were identified among the 386 sand flies examined. These observations provide the bases for an active control program as well as further studies of reservoirs and vector-host relationships in this area. PMID:10674675

  12. Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase in the superior colliculus of Cebus monkeys, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Soares, J G M; Mendez-Otero, R; Gattass, Ricardo

    2003-08-01

    We examined the distribution of the enzyme dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the New World monkey Cebus apella, and the co-localization of this enzyme with the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin. Despite the intensely labeled neuropil, rare NADPH-d-positive cells were observed in the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS). Most of the labeled cells in the SC were found in the intermediate layers, with a great number also in the deeper layers. This pattern is very similar to that described in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and in the cat, and different from the pattern found in the rat, which shows labeled cells mainly in the SGS. Cells doubly stained for NADPH-d and CaBPs were observed throughout the SC, although in a small number. Of the NADPH-d-positive cells, 20.3% were doubly labeled for NADPH-d and parvalbumin, 10.2% revealed co-localization with calretinin, and 5.6% with calbindin. The low number of double-stained cells for NADPH-d and the CaBPs indicates that these molecules must participate in different functional circuits within the SC. PMID:12871769

  13. Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Calzada, Jose Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael

    2008-01-01

    The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4%) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%). Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51%) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic. PMID:18488091

  14. Carriage of Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Marcos Tucunduva; Calderwood, Michael S; Athanazio, Daniel A; McBride, Alan J A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Pereira, Martha Maria; Ko, Albert I; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2008-10-01

    A survey was conducted to identify reservoirs for urban leptospirosis in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Sampling protocols were performed in the vicinity of households of severe leptospirosis cases identified during active hospital-based surveillance. Among a total of 142 captured Rattus norvegicus (Norwegian brown rat), 80.3% had a positive culture isolate from urine or kidney specimens and 68.1% had a positive serum sample by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titre of > or = 1:100. Monoclonal antibody-based typing of isolates identified that the agent carried by rats was Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, which was the same serovar isolated from patients during hospital-based surveillance. Leptospira spp. were not isolated from 8 captured Didelphis marsupialis (Opossum), while 5/7 had a positive MAT titre against a saprophytic serogroup. R. rattus were not captured during the survey. The study findings indicate that the brown rat is a major rodent reservoir for leptospirosis in this urban setting. Furthermore, the high carriage rates of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni in captured rats suggest that there is a significant degree of environmental contamination with this agent in the household environment of high risk areas, which in turn is a cause of transmission during urban epidemics. PMID:18721789

  15. [Digestive tract dilation in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Pernía, B; Lugo-Yarbuh, A; Moreno, E

    2001-09-01

    This paper will analyze alterations in the digestive tract (DT) of mice with chronic Chagas' disease infection produced by Trypanosoma cruzi from different sources. X-rays of the DT of 18 mice infected with T. cruzi and 6 control mice were compared after the ingestion of a barium sulfate solution over a period of 6 hours. 120 days post-infection (pi) the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1A infected with trypanosomes DMI isolated from the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and 4 mice in group 2A infected with the isolate EP taken from a patient with acute Chagas' disease, showed swelling of the stomach and the colon (C). 180 days pi, the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1B infected with isolated DMI and the 4 mice in group 2B infected with isolate EP, showed an even greater swelling of the C. Histological examination of the DT of all infected mice showed extensive changes of the intestinal muscle layer, such as the diminution of the muscular and mucous layers and the loss of colonic folds and myoenteric plexus. These results suggest that T. cruzi populations caused severe alterations in the digestive system of the mice used in the experiment, and that the same alterations could occur in the digestive organs of humans, especially those living in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic, but where these abnormalities have not yet been reported. PMID:11552508

  16. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem.

    PubMed

    Barradas, P C; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-02-01

    Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions. PMID:9686148

  17. Infection by trypanosomes in marsupials and rodents associated with human dwellings in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Grijalva, Mario J

    2006-12-01

    Small mammals trapped in domestic and peridomestic environments of rural Ecuador were screened for trypanosome infection by direct microscopy and hemoculture. Identification of species of trypanosomes was then performed by morphological characteristics and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Of 194 animals collected, 15 were positive for infection (7.73%). Eight (4.12%) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (1 of 33 Didelphis marsupialis; 7 of 61 Rattus rattus). Eleven R. rattus (18.03%) harbored T. lewisi, 5 of which presented mixed infections with T. cruzi. Additionally, 1 of 3 Oryzomys xanthaeolus was infected with T. rangeli. No trypanosome infection was detected in Philander opossum (n = 1), Mus musculus (n = 79), Rattus norvegicus (n = 8), Akodon orophilus (n = 4), Sigmodon peruanus (n = 3), or Proechimys decumanus (n = 2). Many of the isolates belong to T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and R. rattus had the highest prevalence. Because of its abundance in the study areas, this species is considered an important reservoir for Chagas disease. This is the first report of T. lewisi and T. rangeli in Ecuador. This study is also the first to describe natural mixed infections of T. cruzi-T. lewisi. PMID:17304802

  18. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3–8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice. PMID:24309069

  19. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessment of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Maria Alice A; Paula, Adelzon A; Camacho, Luis Antonio B; Marzochi, Mauro Célio A; Xavier, Samanta C; da Silva, Alba Valéria M; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    Barra de Guaratiba is a coastal area of the city of Rio de Janeiro where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is endemic. Although control measures including killing of dogs and use of insecticides have been applied at this locality, the canine seroprevalence remains at 25% and during 1995 and 1997 eight autochthonous human cases were notified. In order to evaluate factors related to the increase of the risk for Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection in dogs we have screened 365 dogs by anti-Leishmania immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and captured sandflies in the domestic and peridomestic environment. Some variables related to the infection were assessed by uni- and multivariate analysis. The distance of the residence from the forest border, its altitude and the presence of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis in the backyard, were found predictor factors for L. (L.) chagasi infection in dogs in Barra de Guaratiba. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the peridomestic environment indicates the possibility of appearence of new human cases. Our data also suggest the presence of a sylvatic enzootic cycle at this locality. PMID:12754572

  20. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  1. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  2. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  3. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Angélica H.; Oliveira, Pablo V.; Britto, Karollini B.; Freire, Bárbara F.; Moreno, Marcel R.; dos Santos, Alexandre R.; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G.

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. PMID:26244644

  4. Direct molecular identification of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida from the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    MAFFEY, L.; CARDINAL, M.V.; ORDÓÑEZ-KRASNOWSKI, P.C.; LANATI, L.A.; LAURICELLA, M.A.; SCHIJMAN, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We assessed the distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in domestic and peridomestic Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida specimens collected in a well-defined rural area in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Microscopically-positive bugs were randomly selected with a multi-level sampling design, and DTUs were identified using direct PCR strategies. TcVI predominated in 61% of 69 T. infestans and in 56% of 9 T. sordida. TcV was the secondary DTU in T. infestans (16%) and was found in one T. sordida specimen (11%). Three T. sordida (33%) were found infected with TcI, a DTU also identified in local Didelphis albiventris opossums. Mixed DTU infections occurred rarely (5%) and were detected both directly from the bugs’ rectal ampoule and parasite cultures. The identified DTUs and bug collection sites of T. infestans were significantly associated. Bugs infected with TcV were almost exclusively captured in domiciles whereas those with TcVI were found similarly in domiciles and peridomiciles. All mixed infections occurred in domiciles. TcV-infected bugs fed more often on humans than on dogs, whereas TcVI-infected bugs showed the reverse pattern. T. sordida is a probable sylvatic vector of TcI linked to D. albiventris, and could represent a secondary vector of TcVI and TcV in the domestic/peridomestic cycle. PMID:23036510

  5. Sarcocystis neurona schizonts-associated encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and myositis in a two-month-old dog simulating toxoplasmosis, and presence of mature sarcocysts in muscles.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Morris, E; Hanson, M A; Cooley, A J

    2014-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is an unusual species of the genus Sarcocystis. Opossums (Didelphis virginianus, D. albiventris) are the definitive hosts and several other species, including dogs, cats, marine mammals, and horses are intermediate or aberrant hosts. Sarcocysts are not known to form in aberrant hosts. Sarcocystis neurona causes fatal disease in horses (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, EPM). There are numerous reports of fatal EPM-like infections in other species, usually with central nervous system signs and associated with the schizont stage of S. neurona. Here, we report fatal disseminated S. neurona infection in a nine-week-old golden retriever dog from Mississippi, USA. Protozoal merozoites were identified in smears of the cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopically, lesions and protozoa were identified in eyes, tongue, heart, liver, intestines, nasal turbinates, skeletal muscle and brain, which reacted intensely with S. neurona polyclonal antibodies. Mature sarcocysts were seen in sections of muscles. These sarcocysts were ultrastructurally similar to those of S. neurona from experimentally infected animals. These data suggest that the dog is another intermediate host for S. neurona. Data suggest that the dog was transplacentally infected. PMID:24680604

  6. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3-8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice. PMID:24309069

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission.

    PubMed

    Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1995-01-01

    Sera from 273 wild mammals from Missouri and Kansas (USA), collected between December 1974 and December 1987, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Sixty-five (24%) had antibodies at titers of > or = 1:8, including 38 (66%) of 58 carnivores, 14 (15%) of 94 omnivores, 13 (11%) of 117 herbivores, and none of four insectivores. The prevalence of antibodies in mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus spp.) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Sigmodon hispidus) was low (3%), while medium sized herbivores such as squirrels (Sciurus spp.), rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) had prevalences of about 18%. Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and mink (Mustela vison) had the highest prevalence of antibodies with frequencies of 90 and 66%, respectively. In 32 attempts to isolate Toxoplasma gondii from wild mammals with positive (> or = 1:4) titers, only six (19%) were successful: a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), a beaver (Castor canadensis), an opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), a red fox and two mink. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the probability of infection with Toxoplasma gondii, and therefore prevalence of antibodies in wildlife, is greatest in carnivores. PMID:7563419

  8. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    PubMed

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in different geographic regions and transmission cycles based on a microsatellite motif of the intergenic spacer of spliced leader genes✯

    PubMed Central

    Cura, Carolina I.; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M.; Duffy, Tomás; Burgos, Juan M.; Rodriguero, Marcela; Cardinal, Marta V.; Kjos, Sonia; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Denis; De Pablos, Luis M.; Tomasini, Nicolás; Silva, Alex Da; Russomando, Graciela; Cuba Cuba, Cesar A.; Aznar, Christine; Abate, Teresa; Levin, Mariano J.; Osuna, Antonio; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Diosque, Patricio; Solari, Aldo; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2011-01-01

    The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harboring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia + Tc Id, Tc Ia + Tc Ie and Tc Id + Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time. PMID:20670628

  10. Pregnancy coexisting with uterus didelphys with a blind hemivagina complicated by pyocolpos due to Pediococcus infection: a case report and review of the published reports.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Chul; Lee, Hee Joong

    2013-07-01

    A woman in early pregnancy was referred due to severe pelvic pain. Vaginal examination showed a severely protruding left vaginal wall with severe tenderness. A transvaginal ultrasound showed a double uterus and a mixed echogenic mass next to the cervix of the left uterus. After creating an opening in the left vaginal wall and inserting a Foley catheter through the opening into the vaginal wall for drainage with antibiotic therapy, the patient's condition rapidly improved. A culture of the pus drained from the vaginal wall showed Pediococcus species. The patient delivered a healthy infant by cesarean section at term gestation without recurrence of pyocolpos. Ten months after delivery, resection of the vaginal septum was performed and the left cervix was exposed. Ultrasound revealed normal kidneys. PMID:23718909

  11. Age-Dependent Transcriptome and Proteome Following Transection of Neonatal Spinal Cord of Monodelphis domestica (South American Grey Short-Tailed Opossum)

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Noor, Natassya M.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Steer, David L.; Ek, C. Joakim; Habgood, Mark D.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Lindsay, Helen; Truettner, Jessie; Miller, Robert D.; Smith, A. Ian; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a combined transcriptome and proteome analysis of Monodelphis domestica response to spinal cord injury at two different postnatal ages. Previously we showed that complete transection at postnatal day 7 (P7) is followed by profuse axon growth across the lesion with near-normal locomotion and swimming when adult. In contrast, at P28 there is no axon growth across the lesion, the animals exhibit weight-bearing locomotion, but cannot use hind limbs when swimming. Here we examined changes in gene and protein expression in the segment of spinal cord rostral to the lesion at 24 h after transection at P7 and at P28. Following injury at P7 only forty genes changed (all increased expression); most were immune/inflammatory genes. Following injury at P28 many more genes changed their expression and the magnitude of change for some genes was strikingly greater. Again many were associated with the immune/inflammation response. In functional groups known to be inhibitory to regeneration in adult cords the expression changes were generally muted, in some cases opposite to that required to account for neurite inhibition. For example myelin basic protein expression was reduced following injury at P28 both at the gene and protein levels. Only four genes from families with extracellular matrix functions thought to influence neurite outgrowth in adult injured cords showed substantial changes in expression following injury at P28: Olfactomedin 4 (Olfm4, 480 fold compared to controls), matrix metallopeptidase (Mmp1, 104 fold), papilin (Papln, 152 fold) and integrin α4 (Itga4, 57 fold). These data provide a resource for investigation of a priori hypotheses in future studies of mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in immature animals compared to lack of regeneration at more mature stages. PMID:24914927

  12. Molecular phylogeny implicates new world opossums (Didelphidae) as the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis ramphastosi, a parasite of the keel-billed toucan (Ramphasotos sulfuratus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis ramphastosi Dubey, Lane, and van Wilpe, 2006 were found in a tocan ((Ramphastos sulfuratus) from Costa Rica. The DNA extracted from 11 individual sarcocysts was subjected to PCR amplification assays targeting 1208 bp of 18S ribosomal DNA; data revealed a close ...

  13. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  14. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  15. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feral hog, gray squirrel, armadillo, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, coyote, and beaver on designated areas of..., armadillo, opossum, raccoon, beaver, and coyote during the archery season. 18. Hunters may take deer,...

  16. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feral hog, gray squirrel, armadillo, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, coyote, and beaver on designated areas of..., armadillo, opossum, raccoon, beaver, and coyote during the archery season. 18. Hunters may take deer,...

  17. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feral hog, gray squirrel, armadillo, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, coyote, and beaver on designated areas of..., armadillo, opossum, raccoon, beaver, and coyote during the archery season. 18. Hunters may take deer,...

  18. Biochemical, pharmacological, and structural characterization of new basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom.

    PubMed

    Corasolla Carregari, Victor; Stuani Floriano, Rafael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; Winck, Flavia V; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25-37°C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca(2+) and in the presence of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca(2+). Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12). The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena. PMID:23509754

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi among wild and domestic mammals in different areas of the Abaetetuba municipality (Pará State, Brazil), an endemic Chagas disease transmission area.

    PubMed

    Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta C C; Gerhardt, Marconny; Silva, Miguel F O; Lima, Valdirene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Jansen, Ana M

    2013-03-31

    The presence of acute Chagas disease (ACD) due to oral transmission is growing and expanding in several South American countries. Within the Amazon basin, the Abaetetuba municipality has been a site of recurrent cases spanning across distinct landscapes. Because Chagas disease is primarily a zoonotic infection, we compared the enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles in three different environmental areas of Abaetetuba to better understand this new epidemiological situation. Philander opossum was the most abundant mammalian species collected (38% of the collected mammals) with a T. cruzi prevalence of 57%, as determined by hemocultures. Didelphis marsupialis was abundant only in the area with the higher level of environmental disturbance (approximately 42%) and did not yield detectable parasitemia. Despite similarities observed in the composition of the small mammalian fauna and the prevalence of T. cruzi infection among the studied areas, the potential of these hosts to infect vectors differed significantly according to the degree of land use (with prevalences of 5%, 41%, and 64% in areas A3, A1 and A2, respectively). Domestic mammals were also found to be infected, and one canine T. cruzi isolate was obtained. Our data demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi in the Amazon basin is far more complex than had been previously taught and showed that the probability of humans and domestic mammals coming into contact with infected bugs can vary dramatically, even within the same municipality. The exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection (indicated by positive serology) was the common feature among the studied localities, stressing the importance of selecting domestic mammals as sentinels in the identification of T. cruzi transmission hotspots. PMID:23261089

  20. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  1. Notes on parasitism by Amblyomma humerale (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A; Terrassini, Flávio A; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Camargo, Erney P

    2002-11-01

    The tick Amblyomma humerale Koch is endemic to South America. All host records refer to the adult stage parasitizing tortoises, mostly yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.), and red-footed tortoise, Geochelone carbonaria (Spix). The current study reports the presence of A. humerale in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. A total of 215 adult ticks (201 males, 14 females) was collected from six G denticulata in an Indian reserve and nine Geochelone sp. in rural Monte Negro County, giving an overall mean infestation of 14.3 +/- 12.0 (range: 2-44) ticks per tortoise. Male ticks always outnumbered females on the host and nine tortoises had only male ticks. Male ticks were mostly attached in clusters on the ventral sides of the carapace near the anterior and posterior margins, and more rarely on the outer margin of the plastron. All females were found attached to the tortoise skin, at different sites such as head, neck, shoulders or legs. Male ticks were rarely observed attached to the body skin. Seven engorged nymphs collected on small vertebrates from Monte Negro County molted to adults of A. humerale. This included one nymph each on the seven-colored lizard, Plica plica (L), green tree climber, Plica umbra (L.), and wide-foraging lizard, Kentropyx calcarata Spix,three nymphs on the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis L., and one nymph on the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus L. These constitute the first host records for the immature stages of the tick A. humerale. PMID:12495177

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights from sequence and microsatellite analysis and potential impact on emergent Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Martin S; Lewis, Michael D; Acosta, Nidia; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernan J; Segovia, Maikell; Vargas, Jorge; Torrico, Faustino; Miles, Michael A; Gaunt, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe. PMID:19721699

  3. 50 CFR 32.43 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., raccoon, coyotes, and opossum on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations... legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow... for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow shotguns with...

  4. 50 CFR 32.43 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria...: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow shotguns with only approved nontoxic... other refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat,...

  5. 50 CFR 32.43 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria...: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow shotguns with only approved nontoxic... other refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat,...

  6. 50 CFR 32.43 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria...: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow shotguns with only approved nontoxic... other refuge hunts with legal weapons used for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat,...

  7. [Diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Marcial, Malinalli; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60 km2, while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144 km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H' = 2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargen- teus (IAR = 0.23) and Pecari tajacu (IAR = 0.20). By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR = 2.62) and Nasua narica (IAR = 1.28). In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mam- mals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México. PMID:25720178

  8. Landscape ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    López-Cancino, Sury Antonio; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; De la Cruz-Felix, Himmler Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos Napoleón; Izeta-Alberdi, Amaia; Pech-May, Angélica; Mazariegos-Hidalgo, Carlos Jesús; Valdez-Tah, Alba; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    Landscape interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) with Triatoma dimidiata (Td) depend on the presence and relative abundance of mammal hosts. This study analyzed a landscape adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, composed of conserved areas, crop and farming areas, and the human community of Zoh Laguna with reported Chagas disease cases. Sylvatic mammals of the Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Marsupialia orders were captured, and livestock and pets were sampled along with T. dimidiata in all habitats. Infection by T. cruzi was analyzed using mtDNA markers, while lineage and DTU was analyzed using the mini-exon. 303 sylvatic specimens were collected, corresponding to 19 species during the rainy season and 114 specimens of 18 species during dry season. Five bats Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Sturnira ludovici, Dermanura phaeotis (Dp) and one rodent Heteromys gaumeri were collected in the three habitats. All but Dp, and including Carollia brevicauda and Myotis keaysi, were infected with predominately TcI in the sylvatic habitat and TcII in the ecotone. Sigmodon hispidus was the rodent with the highest prevalence of infection by T. cruzi I and II in ecotone and domestic habitats. Didelphis viginiana was infected only with TcI in both domestic and sylvatic habitats; the only two genotyped human cases were TcII. Two main clades of T. cruzi, lineages I (DTU Ia) and II (DTU VI), were found to be sympatric (all habitats and seasons) in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, suggesting that no species-specific interactions occur between the parasite and any mammal host, in any habitat. We have also found mixed infections of the two principal T. cruzi clades in individuals across modified habitats, particularly in livestock and pets, and in both haplogroups of T. dimidiata. Results are contradictory to the dilution hypothesis, although we did find that most resilient species had an important role as T. cruzi hosts. Our study detected some complex trends in

  9. Edge effects and geometric constraints: a landscape-level empirical test.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Suzy E; Prevedello, Jayme A; Delciellos, Ana Cláudia; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects are pervasive in landscapes yet their causal mechanisms are still poorly understood. Traditionally, edge effects have been attributed to differences in habitat quality along the edge-interior gradient of habitat patches, under the assumption that no edge effects would occur if habitat quality was uniform. This assumption was questioned recently after the recognition that geometric constraints tend to reduce population abundances near the edges of habitat patches, the so-called geometric edge effect (GEE). Here, we present the first empirical, landscape-level evaluation of the importance of the GEE in shaping abundance patterns in fragmented landscapes. Using a data set on the distribution of small mammals across 18 forest fragments, we assessed whether the incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changes the interpretation of edge effects and the degree to which predictions based on the GEE match observed responses. Quantitative predictions were generated for each fragment using simulations that took into account home range, density and matrix use for each species. The incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changed substantially the interpretation of overall observed edge responses at the landscape scale. Observed abundances alone would lead to the conclusion that the small mammals as a group have no consistent preference for forest edges or interiors and that the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita (a numerically dominant species in the community) has on average a preference for forest interiors. In contrast, incorporation of the GEE suggested that the small mammal community as a whole has a preference for forest edges, whereas D. aurita has no preference for forest edges or interiors. Unexplained variance in edge responses was reduced by the incorporation of GEE, but remained large, varying greatly on a fragment-by-fragment basis. This study demonstrates how to model and incorporate the GEE in analyses of edge effects and that this

  10. LIMITATIONS TO EASTERN REDCEDAR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive woody plant species are degrading the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems throughout the world. A species of particular concern in Great Plains grasslands is eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), which has rapidly spread due to fire suppression and intenti...

  11. The importance of an invasive tree fruit as a resource for mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Zarrabi, Ali A

    2011-06-01

    Invasive plants are common and may provide resources through litter for container mosquito larvae. Invasive plant reproductive parts can make up a substantial part of litter but have mostly been ignored as a resource for mosquito larvae. We hypothesized that the reproductive fruits of the invasive eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana, provide high quality resources for the invasive, container mosquito Aedes albopictus at the western margin of its invasive range in North America. To test this hypothesis, we performed two laboratory experiments. The first examined the response of individual larvae of Ae. albopictus to different amounts of J. virginiana leaf (fresh and senesced) and J. virginiana fruit (ripe and unripe), as well as to a control leaf (Quercus virginiana, live oak). The second experiment examined the response of different densities of Ae. albopictus larvae to each litter type. We found significant differences in response by individual larvae to different amounts of litter and litter types. We also found J. virginiana litter components could support positive population growth rates as a function of initial larval density where the control leaf could not. We conclude that invasive plants may provide high quality resources, and that the reproductive parts (fruits, flowers, cones) may be an important and overlooked component in provisioning larval habitats. Therefore, the expansion of J. virginiana into grassland areas may contribute to the expansion of Ae. albopictus westward in North America. PMID:21635658

  12. 50 CFR 32.32 - Illinois.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... quail, raccoon, opossum, red fox, grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance..., rabbit, bobwhite quail, raccoon, opossum, red fox, grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge... rifle for hunting coyotes. 2. We only allow squirrel hunting on the Keithsburg Division from...

  13. Cellular and molecular drivers of differential organ growth: insights from the limbs of Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Anna; Doroba, Carolyn; Maier, Jennifer A; Cohen, Lorna; VandeBerg, John; Sears, Karen E

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental question in biology is "how is growth differentially regulated during development to produce organs of particular sizes?" We used a new model system for the study of differential organ growth, the limbs of the opossum (Monodelphis domestica), to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of differential organ growth in mammals. Opossum forelimbs grow much faster than hindlimbs, making opossum limbs an exceptional system with which to study differential growth. We first used the great differences in opossum forelimb and hindlimb growth to identify cellular processes and molecular signals that underlie differential limb growth. We then used organ culture and pharmacological addition of FGF ligands and inhibitors to test the role of the Fgf/Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway in driving these cellular processes. We found that molecular signals from within the limb drive differences in cell proliferation that contribute to the differential growth of the forelimb and hindlimbs of opossums. We also found that alterations in the Fgf/MAPK pathway can generate differences in cell proliferation that mirror those observed between wild-type forelimb and hindlimbs of opossums and that manipulation of Fgf/MAPK signaling affects downstream focal adhesion-extracellular matrix (FA-ECM) and Wnt signaling in opossum limbs. Taken together, these findings suggest that evolutionary changes in the Fgf/MAPK pathway could help drive the observed differences in cell behaviors and growth in opossum forelimb and hindlimbs. PMID:27194412

  14. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of quail, squirrel, rabbit, opossum, raccoon, coyote, and bobcat on... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer, bobcat, coyote, feral hog, and turkey...

  15. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of quail, squirrel, rabbit, opossum, raccoon, coyote, and bobcat on... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer, bobcat, coyote, feral hog, and turkey...

  16. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of quail, squirrel, rabbit, opossum, raccoon, coyote, and bobcat on... hunting of white-tailed deer, bobcat, coyote, feral hog, and turkey on designated areas of the refuge...

  17. 50 CFR 32.20 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of quail, squirrel, rabbit, opossum, raccoon, coyote, and bobcat on... hunting of white-tailed deer, bobcat, coyote, feral hog, and turkey on designated areas of the refuge...

  18. A Boy or a Girl: Is It Possible to Load the Dice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Presents scientific theories and related research concerning the possibility that animal species, among which are humans, can consciously, or otherwise, biologically determine the sex of their children. Discusses cases involving insects, fish, opossums, primates, and New Zealand women. (MDH)

  19. A new species of Pycnoderiella (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from the West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eccritotarsine plant bug Pycnoderiella insularis, n. sp. is described from Cuba and Jamaica and compared with the type species of Pycnoderiella Henry, P. virginiana Henry, known from only a restricted coastal area of Virginia, in the eastern United States. Color dorsal and lateral adult ima...

  20. Further observations on the phenomenon of secondary vacuolation in living cells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlberg, P.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamics of secondary vacuole movement is studied in living hair cells of Tradescantia virginiana. The pattern of movement of these vacuoles is found to be similar to that described by the author previously for organelles in cultured cells. Evidence is presented in support of the thesis that the occurrence and dynamics of secondary vacuoles is a common phenomenon for plant cells.

  1. Impact of eastern redcedar encroachment on stream discharge in the North Canadian River basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a woody plant that is rapidly encroaching into the grasslands of states located in the US Great Plains. There is some concern that redcedar will adversely impact stream discharge in these water-limited areas through increased transpiration and canopy in...

  2. Molecular and morphological characterization of a Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak trees in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with a redescription of the species and comments on its morphometric variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences thi...

  3. Antioxidant Activities and Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation in Wild Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit extracts from seventeen representatives of three species of strawberries (Fragaria virginiana Mill., F. chiloensis (L.) Mill., and F. x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) were tested for activities against free radicals, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the ability to inhibit proliferation...

  4. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus Virginana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a "trash or nuisance" tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  5. Bioprospection of Eastern Red Cedar from Nine Physiographic Regions in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniperus virginiana (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called as Eastern Red Cedar, is a widely distributed species in the United States and parts of Canada. It produces two important chemical products, the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin and essential oil. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  6. Field test for repellency of cedarwood oil and cedrol to little fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern red cedars (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L.) are an abundant renewable resource and represent a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. The aromatic wood can be extracted to obtain cedarwood oil (CWO) and critical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction o...

  7. First Report of a New ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’-related strain Associated with Witches’-broom of Virginia pine in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, a pine tree (Pinus virginiana Mill.) in Laurel, Maryland was observed to have abnormal shoot branching and witches’ broom symptoms. Total nucleic acids were extracted from needles collected from a symptomatic branch. Polymerase chain reaction assays (PCRs) for amplification of th...

  8. Measurements of Canopy Interception and Trasnpiration of Openly-Grown Eastern Redcedar in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent decades Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) has been rapidly encroaching and degrading native prairie and rangeland landscapes in the Great Plains of the U.S. Increase in redcedar density and areal coverage may negatively impact local and regional water budgets through increased tr...

  9. Sex determination of strawberry genotypes: preparation for genetic mapping of sex.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A resource of unusually great importance for programs developing cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is wild strawberry germplasm, F. virginiana and F. chiloensis. However, the major sources of wild germplasm are sex dimorphic species (those with male or female plants). Sex is thought to be...

  10. Bioactivity of cedarwood oil and cedrol against arthropod pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana, were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) towards several species of arthropods was investigated. Repellency or toxicity was tested for ants, ticks, and cockroaches. Ants in an outdoor bi...

  11. Estimating bioenergy feedstock potential of red cedar in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an invasive species that seriously degrades tallgrass prairie and adjacent landscapes in the southern plains region of the US with an estimated 8 million acres impacted in the state of Oklahoma alone. This study is part of a larger project to improve grassland...

  12. Site Plan, Brief History, Site Elevation, Main Gate Detail, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan, Brief History, Site Elevation, Main Gate Detail, Southern Live Oak (Quercus Virginiana) Information - Main Gate and Auburn Oaks at Toomer's Corner, Entrance to Auburn University's Campus, Intersection of West Magnolia Avenue and South College Street, Auburn, Lee County, AL

  13. A new species of Fragaria (Roseaceae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species Fragaria cascadensis Hummer endemic to the western high Cascade Mountains in Oregon, United States, is described. Fragaria cascadensis, a decaploid, is similar to F. virginiana subsp. platypetala (Rydbert) Staudt (octoploid) but with some characters like those of F. vesca subsp. vesca ...

  14. ASSOCIATIONS OF EASTERN REDCEDAR AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SMALL MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianas), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with several changes in ecosystem function. It can lead to a reduction in herbaceous biomass in the canopy zone, alter species composition, and...

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction and bioactivity of cedarwood oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (70°C, 4,000 psi) was used to extract cedarwood oil from Eastern redcedar, Juniperus virginiana L. The CO2-derived oil was tested for biological activity against several species of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, houseflies, and ants. The cedarwood oil was found...

  16. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Pelvic Pain and High CA 19-9 Levels in an Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Unal, Emel; Tanyildiz, Hikmet Gulsah; Sonmezer, Murat; Erkol, Hatice Gul; Fitoz, Suat

    2016-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare developmental anomaly that includes uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 13-year-old girl presented with chronic abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed uterus didelphys, hematometrocolpos and renal agenesis on the right side with imperforate hymen. Subsequently the patient was found to have Mullerian duct anomalies. CA 19-9 level was high. At laparoscopy combined with vaginoscopy hematocolpos was drained following which she improved clinically and CA 19-9 level returned to normal. PMID:26816677

  17. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Pelvic Pain and High CA 19-9 Levels in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Emel; Sonmezer, Murat; Erkol, Hatice Gul; Fitoz, Suat

    2016-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare developmental anomaly that includes uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. A 13-year-old girl presented with chronic abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed uterus didelphys, hematometrocolpos and renal agenesis on the right side with imperforate hymen. Subsequently the patient was found to have Mullerian duct anomalies. CA 19-9 level was high. At laparoscopy combined with vaginoscopy hematocolpos was drained following which she improved clinically and CA 19-9 level returned to normal. PMID:26816677

  18. OHVIRA syndrome presenting with acute abdomen: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gungor Ugurlucan, Funda; Bastu, Ercan; Gulsen, Gokce; Kurek Eken, Meryem; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2014-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) or Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare congenital urogenital anomaly. A 13-year-old female presented with acute abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed uterus didelphys, hematometrocolpos, obstructed hemivagina, and right renal agenesis. Hemivaginal septal resection and anastomosis between the obstructed hemivagina and the normal vagina was tried, but it was not possible. Unilateral hysterectomy was performed. HWW syndrome may present with acute abdomen and is usually treated with vaginal septum resection and drainage of the hematometrocolpos. PMID:24461469

  19. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  20. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with intravesical cervical invasion.

    PubMed

    Marchalik, Daniel; Krishnan, Jayashree; Verghese, Mohan; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a complicated urological and gynecological history with uterine didelphys with bilaterally inserting intravesical cervical oses presented with cyclical haematuria. Work up revealed a mass in the ectopic cervical os and adjacent bladder wall. Subsequent resection confirmed a clear cell adenocarcinoma of urological origin with invasion into neighbouring os. PMID:26109625

  1. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kamal Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Dhivya; Kanagaraj, Vikrant

    2013-04-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures. It is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic modality for demonstrating anatomic variation and associated complications. PMID:24082660

  3. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  4. An uncommon case of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in covered bladder exstrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Carlo; Vella, Marco; Fontana, Dario; Scalici Gesolfo, Cristina; Oieni, Sebastiano; Toia, Francesca; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of a woman affected by covered exstrophy, uterus didelphys and external genital malformation presenting with advanced bladder cancer. After neoadjuvant therapy and anterior pelvic exenteration, the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a pedicled myocutaneous muscle-sparing vastus lateralis flap.

  5. An uncommon case of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma in covered bladder exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Carlo; Vella, Marco; Fontana, Dario; Scalici Gesolfo, Cristina; Oieni, Sebastiano; Toia, Francesca; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a woman affected by covered exstrophy, uterus didelphys and external genital malformation presenting with advanced bladder cancer. After neoadjuvant therapy and anterior pelvic exenteration, the abdominal wall was reconstructed with a pedicled myocutaneous muscle-sparing vastus lateralis flap. PMID:27583267

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive Müllerian anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kamal Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Dhivya; Kanagaraj, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures. It is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic modality for demonstrating anatomic variation and associated complications. PMID:24082660

  7. 50 CFR 32.32 - Illinois.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... quail, raccoon, opossum, red fox, grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance..., grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to... allow shotgun slug or muzzleloading rifle for hunting coyotes. 2. We only allow squirrel hunting on...

  8. 50 CFR 32.36 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... goose, coot, crow, and waterfowl listed in 50 CFR 10.13 under DUCKS on designated areas of the refuge in... coyote hunt starting at legal sunrise on the first Monday following the end of deer archery season and... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of squirrel, rabbit, quail, raccoon, opossum, and coyote on...

  9. 50 CFR 32.32 - Illinois.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... squirrel, rabbit, bobwhite quail, raccoon, opossum, red fox, grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of..., grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to... use lead shot to hunt turkey. We allow shotgun slug or muzzleloading rifle for hunting coyotes. 2....

  10. 50 CFR 32.36 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... goose, coot, crow, and waterfowl listed in 50 CFR 10.13 under DUCKS on designated areas of the refuge in... coyote hunt starting at legal sunrise on the first Monday following the end of deer archery season and... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of squirrel, rabbit, quail, raccoon, opossum, and coyote on...

  11. 50 CFR 32.43 - Mississippi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of quail, squirrel, rabbit, beaver, nutria, raccoon, coyotes, and..., coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow ATVs only on designated trails (see §27.31 of this... for that hunt: raccoon, opossum, coyote, beaver, bobcat, and nutria. 10. We allow shotguns with...

  12. 50 CFR 32.32 - Illinois.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... quail, raccoon, opossum, red fox, grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance..., grey fox, and coyote on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to... allow shotgun slug or muzzleloading rifle for hunting coyotes. 2. We only allow squirrel hunting on...

  13. 50 CFR 32.36 - Kentucky.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... goose, coot, crow, and waterfowl listed in 50 CFR 10.13 under DUCKS on designated areas of the refuge in... coyote hunt starting at legal sunrise on the first Monday following the end of deer archery season and... Game Hunting. We allow hunting of squirrel, rabbit, quail, raccoon, opossum, and coyote on...

  14. The subventricular zone is the developmental milestone of a 6-layered neocortex: comparisons in metatherian and eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amanda F P; Kondo, Shinichi; Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Chodroff, Rebecca A; Sirey, Tamara M; Bluy, Lisa E; Webber, Natalie; DeProto, Jamin; Karlen, Sarah J; Krubitzer, Leah; Stolp, Helen B; Saunders, Norman R; Molnár, Zoltán

    2010-05-01

    The major lineages of mammals (Eutheria, Metatheria, and Monotremata) diverged more than 100 million years ago and have undergone independent changes in the neocortex. We found that adult South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) possess a significantly lower number of cerebral cortical neurons compared with the mouse (Mus musculus). To determine whether the difference is reflected in the development of the cortical germinal zones, the location of progenitor cell divisions was examined in opossum, tammar wallaby, and rat. The basic pattern of the cell divisions was conserved, but the emergence of a distinctive band of dividing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) occurred relatively later in the opossum (postnatal day [P14]) and the tammar wallaby (P40) than in rodents. The planes of cell divisions in the ventricular zone (VZ) were similar in all species, with comparable mRNA expression patterns of Brn2, Cux2, NeuroD6, Tbr2, and Pax6 in opossum (P12 and P20) and mouse (embryonic day 15 and P0). In conclusion, the marsupial neurodevelopmental program utilizes an organized SVZ, as indicated by the presence of intermediate (or basal) progenitor cell divisions and gene expression patterns, suggesting that the SVZ emerged prior to the Eutherian-Metatherian split. PMID:19726493

  15. Human lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation is associated with raised cyclic nucleotide content.

    PubMed Central

    Barnette, M S; Barone, F C; Fowler, P J; Grous, M; Price, W J; Ormsbee, H S

    1991-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate content accompany relaxation of isolated strips of opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter muscle. The aim of this investigation was to characterise these responses in isolated muscle from the human lower oesophageal sphincter. Electrical stimulation of enteric neurons produced a frequency dependent relaxation of the human lower oesophageal sphincter that was sensitive to tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, as previously shown in the opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter, cyclic guanosine monophosphate content was significantly raised in muscle strips frozen during maximum electrical field stimulation whereas cyclic adenosine monophosphate content was unchanged. In addition, sodium nitroprusside (EC50 = 0.1 microM) produced a concentration dependent relaxation of human lower oesophageal sphincter, significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate content, but did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate content. Zaprinast (M&B 22948) and SK&F 94120, selective inhibitors of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases, respectively, both relaxed human lower oesophageal sphincter with a potency similar to that seen in the dog or opossum lower oesophageal sphincter. Finally, the 8-bromo analogues of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (EC50 = 420 microM) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (EC50 = 100 microM) relaxed the human lower oesophageal sphincter. These studies suggest that in the human, as well as the canine and opossum lower oesophageal sphincter, increases in cyclic nucleotide content are associated with relaxation and increases in cyclic guanosine monophosphate are associated with the relaxation induced by stimulation of enteric neurons. PMID:1846837

  16. 50 CFR 32.34 - Iowa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., litter, fish or any parts thereof, on the banks, in the water, or on the ice. 10. We prohibit digging or..., goose, coot, rail (Virginia and sora only), woodcock, and snipe on the Buffalo Creek Bottoms and Schwob...), groundhog, raccoon, opossum, fox, coyote, and crow on Buffalo Creek Bottoms, Schwob Marsh, and the Core...

  17. 77 FR 41001 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... equipment. * * * * * 10. We allow squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in the Middle Swamp area of the refuge, except during the February small... squirrel on the North Unit from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit...

  18. 77 FR 56027 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., Federal Register (77 FR 41002), we published a proposed rulemaking identifying changes pertaining to... squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in... from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit and squirrel from December...

  19. Modo-UG, a marsupial nonclassical MHC class I locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modo-UG is a class I gene located in the MHC of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum. Modo-UG is expressed as three alternatively spliced mRNA forms, all of which encode a transmembrane form with a short cytoplasmic tail that lacks phosphorylation sites typically found...

  20. Value-based customer grouping from large retail data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehl, Alexander; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we propose OPOSSUM, a novel similarity-based clustering algorithm using constrained, weighted graph- partitioning. Instead of binary presence or absence of products in a market-basket, we use an extended 'revenue per product' measure to better account for management objectives. Typically the number of clusters desired in a database marketing application is only in the teens or less. OPOSSUM proceeds top-down, which is more efficient and takes a small number of steps to attain the desired number of clusters as compared to bottom-up agglomerative clustering approaches. OPOSSUM delivers clusters that are balanced in terms of either customers (samples) or revenue (value). To facilitate data exploration and validation of results we introduce CLUSION, a visualization toolkit for high-dimensional clustering problems. To enable closed loop deployment of the algorithm, OPOSSUM has no user-specified parameters. Thresholding heuristics are avoided and the optimal number of clusters is automatically determined by a search for maximum performance. Results are presented on a real retail industry data-set of several thousand customers and products, to demonstrate the power of the proposed technique.

  1. 75 FR 28511 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... County. approximately 1,175 feet upstream of Opossum Lane. Plum Creek (Backwater effects from From the... 300 feet of Muhlenberg County. downstream of the confluence with Plum Creek Tributary 4. Plum...

  2. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  3. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  4. Activation of mitogenic pathways by albumin in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells: implications for the pathophysiology of proteinuric states.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R; Brunskill, N J

    1999-07-01

    Albumin is filtered into the proximal tubule in large quantities in nephrotic states. It has been proposed that this protein may have a toxic effect on tubular epithelial cells and may be responsible for the initiation of interstitial inflammation and scarring. The mitogenic effect of recombinant human albumin in wild-type opossum kidney cells and in similar cells transfected with a dominant negative p85 subunit (deltap85) of phopshatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been studied. This study demonstrates that recombinant human albumin stimulates proliferation of opossum kidney cells in culture. This effect is mediated via PI 3-kinase, and is inhibited by wortmannin and deltap85 expression. Albumin stimulates PI 3-kinase activity in opossum kidney cells as determined by three different experimental procedures. Recombinant albumin also stimulates pp70(s6) kinase activity in a kinase cascade downstream of PI 3-kinase. Activity of pp70(s6) kinase is essential for albumin-induced proliferation of opossum kidney cells. It is proposed that this mitogenic pathway may have a critical role in proximal tubular homeostasis and pathophysiology of proteinuric states. PMID:10405204

  5. Learning Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudore, Gail M.

    1987-01-01

    Provides directions for 18 environmental activities/concepts for adventure programming including games (clam free, habitat lap sit, spirals); warm-ups/stretches (bug tug, stork stretch); trust builders/group initiatives (willow in wind, opossum ferry); low elements (all aboard, trolley); medium elements (rebirth, tire on pole); and high elements…

  6. Unruptured pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn at 37 weeks with a live fetus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Tang, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Mei; Huang, Meihua; Wu, Xiuling; Wan, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of an unruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn full-term pregnancy. A woman who had a uterine malformation was misdiagnosed as uterus didelphys and gave birth to a live, healthy fetus. The correct diagnosis was not made until cesarean section at 37 4/7 weeks. The case suggests that women who are pregnant in a rudimentary horn could obtain a full-term delivery and give birth to a live and healthy baby. PMID:25745480

  7. A Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome variant with ipsilateral renal absence and a contralateral duplex collecting system in a 26-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Fu, Xiujuan; Qian, Honglang; Lin, Kaiqing; Wang, Jinhua; Zhou, Shuyang; Hu, Xian; Jin, Hangmei

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) is a müllerian duct anomaly typically associated with a uterus didelphys with two cervices and two vaginas, one of which is obstructed. A remarkable case of HWWS with contralateral duplex kidneys and duplication of ureters is described, which, to our knowledge, is a rarely reported variant to date. For this congenital anomaly, a strong suspicion and knowledge of HWWS are essential for a precise diagnosis. PMID:24481003

  8. OHVIRA syndrome: rare cause of chronic vaginal discharge in an unmarried female.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Aruna; Raghunandan, Chitra; Yadav, Reena; Tomer, Shaili; Anand, Rama

    2011-09-01

    Chronic vaginal discharge in adolescent and young females, not responding to antibiotics, can pose a diagnostic dilemma for many gynecologists and general practitioners. Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 22-year-old unmarried female with this syndrome presenting with chronic purulent vaginal discharge. The uniqueness about the case is its much delayed presentation. PMID:20726998

  9. Mitochondrial tRNA-lookalikes in nuclear chromosomes: could they be functional?

    PubMed

    Telonis, Aristeidis G; Kirino, Yohei; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2015-01-01

    The presence in human nuclear chromosomes of multiple sequences that are highly similar to human mitochondrial tRNAs (tRNA-lookalikes) raises intriguing questions about the possible functionality of these genomic loci. In this perspective, we explore the significance of the mitochondrial tRNA-lookalikes based on a series of properties that argue for their non-accidental nature. We particularly focus on the possibility of transcription as well as on potential functional roles for these sequences that can range from their acting as DNA regulatory elements to forming functional mature tRNAs or tRNA-derived fragments. Extension of our analysis to other simians (chimp, gorilla, rhesus, and squirrel monkey), 2 rodents (mouse and rat), a marsupial (opossum) and 3 invertebrates (fruit-fly, worm, and sponge) revealed that mitochondrial tRNA-lookalikes are prevalent in primates and the opossum but absent from the other analyzed organisms. PMID:25849196

  10. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  11. Impacts of stream flow and climate variability on native and invasive woody species in a riparian ecosystem of a semi-arid region of the Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolaut, K.; Awada, T.; Cherubini, P.; Schapaugh, A.; Huddle, J.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian ecosystems support diverse plant communities that exert direct and indirect biological, physical and chemical influence on, and are influenced by, adjacent water through both above and below-ground interactions. Historically, riparian areas of the northern Great Plains (United States) have been dominated by the native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). This species relies on regular floods for regeneration and groundwater access for success. Over the past sixty years, changes in flow management and agricultural practices, coupled with climate variability and drought, have altered stream flow and caused a dramatic decline in stream water yields and levels of groundwater. These and other biotic factors have promoted the expansion of the upland native woody species Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar), and the invasion of the non-native (introduced) Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) into riparian ecosystems. This invasion has further altered the water balance in the system and exasperated the problem of water scarcity with negative feedback on ecosystem services and growth of native woody species. The ability of P. deltoides to re-establish and grow is of concern for natural resource managers. The study utilizes tree ring analysis of annual growth rates and stable isotope ratios of 13C and 18O to determine 1) the response P. deltoides and invasive J. virginiana and E. angustifulia have to climate variation and stream flow regulation, and 2) the impacts of the two invasive species on the growth of native P. deltoides. Preliminary results have shown that P. deltoids annual growth rate (using basal area increment growth) continually declined over the last 40 yrs, while that of E. angustifolia steadily increased. Growth of both P. deltoides and J. virginiana displayed greater dependence on climatic factors than E. angustifolia. Ecological and hydrological significance of the results will be presented.

  12. Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, Brett J.; Pagani, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Local climate and environment broadly affect the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios of plant materials, however the degree to which an individual plant's leaf waxes D/H ratios are affected by these parameters remains in question. Understanding these issues is particularly important in order to reconstruct past floral transitions and changes in the paleohydrologic cycle. For this study, we sampled five co-occurring tree species, Acer rubrum, Platanus occidentalis, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, and Pinus strobus and soils at forty sites along the East Coast of the US, from Florida to Maine. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of leaf wax n-alkanes, stem and surface waters were analyzed and compared against high-resolution temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and vapor pressure deficit data to determine environmental controls on isotopic composition. Our results demonstrate that each tree species produce a unique distribution of n-alkanes with distinct chain length pattern. Average n-alkane chain lengths recovered from soils, A. rubrum, and J. virginiana leaves show significant correlations with mean annual temperature. δD values of A. rubrum leaf n-alkanes were strongly correlated to modeled mean annual precipitation δD values and other climate parameters related to latitude (i.e. temperature, relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit), while the δD values of J. virginiana n-alkanes were not. Differences in correspondence may reflect the timing of leaf wax synthesis between the two species. Further, soil n-alkane D/H compositions were strongly correlated to modeled mean annual precipitation δD values, while the apparent hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not. These findings indicate that the isotope ratio of n-alkanes from soils in Eastern North American forests and similar ecosystems likely represents a time-averaged value that smooth out the environmental influence any one plant experiences.

  13. Snake-venom resistance as a mammalian trophic adaptation: lessons from didelphid marsupials.

    PubMed

    Voss, Robert S; Jansa, Sharon A

    2012-11-01

    Mammals that prey on venomous snakes include several opossums (Didelphidae), at least two hedgehogs (Erinaceidae), several mongooses (Herpestidae), several mustelids, and some skunks (Mephitidae). As a group, these taxa do not share any distinctive morphological traits. Instead, mammalian adaptations for ophiophagy seem to consist only in the ability to resist the toxic effects of snake venom. Molecular mechanisms of venom resistance (as indicated by biochemical research on opossums, mongooses, and hedgehogs) include toxin-neutralizing serum factors and adaptive changes in venom-targeted molecules. Of these, toxin-neutralizing serum factors have received the most research attention to date. All of the toxin-neutralizing serum proteins discovered so far in both opossums and mongooses are human α1B-glycoprotein homologs that inhibit either snake-venom metalloproteinases or phospholipase A(2) myotoxins. By contrast, adaptive changes in venom-targeted molecules have received far less attention. The best-documented examples include amino-acid substitutions in mongoose nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that inhibit binding by α-neurotoxins, and amino-acid substitutions in opossum von Willebrand factor (vWF) that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and coagulopathic C-type lectins. Although multiple mechanisms of venom resistance are known from some species, the proteomic complexity of most snake venoms suggests that the evolved biochemical defences of ophiophagous mammals are likely to be far more numerous than currently recognized. Whereas most previous research in this field has been motivated by the potential for medical applications, venom resistance in ophiophagous mammals is a complex adaptation that merits attention from comparative biologists. Unfortunately, evolutionary inference is currently limited by ignorance about many relevant facts that can only be provided by future research. PMID:22404916

  14. Relevance of in vivo models in melanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    A discussion of possible wavelength dependence of induction of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is provided. Strengths and weaknesses of various experimental approaches to better understanding of the prevalence of CMM in different human populations including latitude effects are compared. Further the advantages and limitations of the use of the laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestic), transgenic mice containing SV40 ongogene sequences under tyrosinase promoter control, and a backcross hybrid fish of the genus Xenophorus are contrasted.

  15. In vivo strains in the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Copploe, Joseph V; Blob, Richard W; Parrish, John H A; Butcher, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    The capacity of limb bones to resist the locomotor loads they encounter depends on both the pattern of those loads and the material properties of the skeletal elements. Among mammals, understanding of the interplay between these two factors has been based primarily on evidence from locomotor behaviors in upright placentals, which show limb bones that are loaded predominantly in anteroposterior bending with minimal amounts of torsion. However, loading patterns from the femora of opossums, marsupials using crouched limb posture, show appreciable torsion while the bone experiences mediolateral (ML) bending. These data indicated greater loading diversity in mammals than was previously recognized, and suggested the possibility that ancestral loading patterns found in sprawling lineages (e.g., reptilian sauropsids) might have been retained among basal mammals. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded in vivo locomotor strains from the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a member of the basal xenarthran clade of placental mammals that also uses crouched limb posture. Orientations of principal strains and magnitudes of shear strains indicate that armadillo femora are exposed to only limited torsion; however, bending is essentially ML, placing the medial aspect of the femur in compression and the lateral aspect in tension. This orientation of bending is similar to that found in opossums, but planar strain analyses indicate much more of the armadillo femur experiences tension during bending, potentially due to muscles pulling on the large, laterally positioned third trochanter. Limb bone safety factors were estimated between 3.3 and 4.3 in bending, similar to other placental mammals, but lower than opossums and most sprawling taxa. Thus, femoral loading patterns in armadillos show a mixture of similarities to both opossums (ML bending) and other placentals (limited torsion and low safety factors), along with unique features (high axial tension

  16. Impacts of Stream Flow and Climate Variability on Native and Invasive Woody Species in a Riparian Ecosystem of a Semi-Arid Region of the Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolaut, K.; Awada, T.; Cherubini, P.; Schapaugh, A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian ecosystems support diverse plant communities that exert direct and indirect biological, physical and chemical influence on, and are influenced by, adjacent water through both above and below-ground interactions. Historically, riparian areas of the northern Great Plains, US have been dominated by the native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). This species relies on regular floods for regeneration and groundwater access for success. Over the past sixty years, changes in flow management and agricultural practices, coupled with climate variability and drought have altered stream flow and caused a dramatic decline in stream water yields and levels of groundwater. These and other biotic and biotic factors have promoted the expansion of the upland native woody species Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar), and the invasion of the non-native (introduced) Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) into riparian ecosystems. This invasion has further altered the water balance in the system and exasperated the problem of water scarcity with negative feedback on ecosystem services and growth of native woody species. The ability of P. deltoides to re-establish and grow is of concern for natural resource managers. Tree ring analysis of annual growth rates were used to determine 1) the responses P. deltoides and invasive J. virginiana and E. angustifulia to climate variability and stream flow regulation, and 2) the impacts of the two invasive species on the growth of native P. deltoides. Results show a dependency of growth for P. deltoides on the previous year summer temperature, and a less significant correlation to annual stream flow. J. virginiana showed the highest correlation to annual stream flow, as well as some dependency on the previous growing season precipitation. While the growth of both P. deltoides and J. virginiana displayed greater dependence on climatic factors, E. angustifolia displayed the lowest mean basal area growth and deviation from the growth. E

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  18. Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, G J; Chung, E B; Ghosh, B; Shukla, Y N; Basak, S P; Morton, J F; Pradhan, S N

    1978-03-01

    Twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. Outbred NIH Black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. The tanninrich plant extracts from Areca catechu and Rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. Other materials included Diospyros virginiana and extracts from plants not rich in tannins. Diospyros and extracts of Sassafras albidum and Chenopodium ambrosiodes were tumorigenic in over 50% of the treated animals. PMID:625070

  19. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:11807968

  20. Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis.

    PubMed

    Periera da Silva, A; Rocha, R; Silva, C M; Mira, L; Duarte, M F; Florêncio, M H

    2000-12-01

    The antioxidant capacity of extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis canadensis, plants native to Europe and North America which have long been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiac and circulatory functions, has been investigated. The total antioxidant potential conferred by all hydrogen donating antioxidants present in these extracts has been assessed by the ABTS assay and the relative order of antioxidant potential has been established. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for the chemical identification of the antioxidant volatile compounds present in the extracts. The GC-MS data were related to the results obtained using the ABTS assay. PMID:11113998

  1. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci. PMID:26835888

  2. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis. PMID:18810551

  3. Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in a subdioecious plant with a proto-sex chromosome.

    PubMed

    Spigler, Rachel B; Lewers, Kim S; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2011-04-01

    The rise of sexual dimorphism is thought to coincide with the evolution of sex chromosomes. Yet because sex chromosomes in many species are ancient, we lack empirical evidence of the earliest stages of this transition. We use QTL analysis to examine the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in subdioecious octoploid Fragaria virginiana. We demonstrate that the region housing the male-function locus controls the majority of quantitative variation in proportion fruit set, confirming the existence of a proto-sex chromosome, and houses major QTL for eight additional sexually dimorphic traits, consistent with theory and data from animals and plants with more advanced sex chromosomes. We also detected autosomal QTL, demonstrating contributions to phenotypic variation in sexually dimorphic traits outside the sex-determining region. Moreover, for proportion seed set we found significant epistatic interactions between autosomal QTL and the male-function locus, indicating sex-limited QTL. We identified linked QTL reflecting trade-offs between male and female traits expected from theory and positive integration of male traits. These findings indicate the potential for the evolution of greater sexual dimorphism. Involvement of linkage groups homeologous to the proto-sex chromosome in these correlations reflects the polyploid origin of F. virginiana and raises the possibility that chromosomes in this homeologous group were predisposed to become the sex chromosome. PMID:21062281

  4. Further description of Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda: Cruzidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adnet, F A O; Anjos, D H S; Menezes-Oliveira, A; Lanfredi, R M

    2009-04-01

    Species of Cruzia are parasites of the large intestine of marsupials, reptiles, amphibians, and mammalians. Cruzia tentaculata specimens were collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Colombia (new geographical record) and from Brazil and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of males and females by light microscopy corroborated most of the previous description and the ultrastructure by scanning electron microscopy evidence: the topography of the cuticle, deirids, amphids, phasmids in both sexes, a pair of papillae near the vulva opening, and the number and location of male caudal papillae, adding new features for species identification only observed by this technique. PMID:19130086

  5. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Pedro Salomao; Doski, John

    2015-04-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of the Müllerian ducts in which there is uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and unilateral renal agenesis. The most common presentation is an abdominal mass secondary to hematocolpos, pain and dysmenorrhea. However, in some cases, such as the one we present here, menses are normal due to an obstructed hemivagina, and diagnosis can be delayed. We describe evaluation and surgical management of a 13-year-old girl with this condition who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan and confirmed by pelvic ultrasound and surgical exploration, as well as a review of the literature. PMID:25992503

  6. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome presenting with infertility: Role of MRI in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zohra; Goyal, Ankur; Das, Chandan J; Deka, Dipika; Sharma, Raju

    2013-07-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, is an uncommon combined Mullerian and mesonephric duct anomaly, and its presentation in adulthood is even rarer. We report here a 22-year-old female presenting with primary infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of HWWS with endometriosis. In a patient of infertility with endometriosis and unilateral renal agenesis, diagnosis of HWWS should be suspected and MRI is the investigation of choice for such anomalies. PMID:24347855

  7. Laparoscopic Strassman metroplasty in a postmenarcheal adolescent girl with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich müllerian anomaly variant, obstructed noncommunicating didelphic uterus without gartner duct pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Mitsuo; Shiga, Naomi; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric obstructed uterus didelphys (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome), also known as obstructed hemivagina with ipsilateral renal agenesis syndrome, is a rare congenital müllerian duct anomaly. Herein we present a case report of incomplete Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, with absence of the hemivaginal septum, diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl. Treatment of the severe pain using an analgesic agent was ineffective. Therefore, laparoscopic metroplastic surgery via the modified Strassman procedure was performed. After surgery, the patient no longer reported dysmenorrhea. PMID:23465264

  8. Unruptured pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn at 37 weeks with a live fetus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chen; Tang, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Mei; Huang, Meihua; Wu, Xiuling; Wan, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report an extremely rare case of an unruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn full-term pregnancy. A woman who had a uterine malformation was misdiagnosed as uterus didelphys and gave birth to a live, healthy fetus. The correct diagnosis was not made until cesarean section at 37 4/7 weeks. The case suggests that women who are pregnant in a rudimentary horn could obtain a full-term delivery and give birth to a live and healthy baby. PMID:25745480

  9. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas and concomitant urogenital malformations in a young woman

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor with low malignant potential. It occurs characteristically more often in young women. SPT associated with extra- and pancreatic anomalies are occasionally reported. Here we report a case of pancreatic SPT with concomitant urogenital malformations including solitary kidney and uterus didelphys in a 25-year-old woman. The patient underwent central pancreatectomy, and SPT was confirmed with pathological results. Recurrence or metastasis was not found after 14 months of follow-up. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4264758678755142 PMID:23445554

  10. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas and concomitant urogenital malformations in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Lu; Wang, Yan-Qiu; Xu, Bai-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a rare pancreatic tumor with low malignant potential. It occurs characteristically more often in young women. SPT associated with extra- and pancreatic anomalies are occasionally reported. Here we report a case of pancreatic SPT with concomitant urogenital malformations including solitary kidney and uterus didelphys in a 25-year-old woman. The patient underwent central pancreatectomy, and SPT was confirmed with pathological results. Recurrence or metastasis was not found after 14 months of follow-up. PMID:23445554

  11. Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome presenting with infertility: Role of MRI in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zohra; Goyal, Ankur; Das, Chandan J; Deka, Dipika; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, is an uncommon combined Mullerian and mesonephric duct anomaly, and its presentation in adulthood is even rarer. We report here a 22-year-old female presenting with primary infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of HWWS with endometriosis. In a patient of infertility with endometriosis and unilateral renal agenesis, diagnosis of HWWS should be suspected and MRI is the investigation of choice for such anomalies. PMID:24347855

  12. Retroviral envelope gene captures and syncytin exaptation for placentation in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Carradec, Quentin; Souquere, Sylvie; Mulot, Baptiste; Catzeflis, François; Nilsson, Maria A; Menzies, Brandon R; Renfree, Marilyn B; Pierron, Gérard; Zeller, Ulrich; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    Syncytins are genes of retroviral origin captured by eutherian mammals, with a role in placentation. Here we show that some marsupials-which are the closest living relatives to eutherian mammals, although they diverged from the latter ∼190 Mya-also possess a syncytin gene. The gene identified in the South American marsupial opossum and dubbed syncytin-Opo1 has all of the characteristic features of a bona fide syncytin gene: It is fusogenic in an ex vivo cell-cell fusion assay; it is specifically expressed in the short-lived placenta at the level of the syncytial feto-maternal interface; and it is conserved in a functional state in a series of Monodelphis species. We further identify a nonfusogenic retroviral envelope gene that has been conserved for >80 My of evolution among all marsupials (including the opossum and the Australian tammar wallaby), with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of a canonical immunosuppressive domain, but with only limited expression in the placenta. This unusual captured gene, together with a third class of envelope genes from recently endogenized retroviruses-displaying strong expression in the uterine glands where retroviral particles can be detected-plausibly correspond to the different evolutionary statuses of a captured retroviral envelope gene, with only syncytin-Opo1 being the present-day bona fide syncytin active in the opossum and related species. This study would accordingly recapitulate the natural history of syncytin exaptation and evolution in a single species, and definitely extends the presence of such genes to all major placental mammalian clades. PMID:25605903

  13. The cellular composition of the marsupial neocortex.

    PubMed

    Seelke, Adele M H; Dooley, James C; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2014-07-01

    In the current investigation we examined the number and proportion of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary sensory areas of the neocortex of a South American marsupial, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The primary somatosensory (S1), auditory (A1), and visual (V1) areas were dissected from the cortical sheet and compared with each other and the remaining neocortex using the isotropic fractionator technique. We found that although the overall sizes of V1, S1, A1, and the remaining cortical regions differed from each other, these divisions of the neocortex contained the same number of neurons, but the remaining cortex contained significantly more non-neurons than the primary sensory regions. In addition, the percent of neurons was higher in A1 than in the remaining cortex and the cortex as a whole. These results are similar to those seen in non-human primates. Furthermore, these results indicate that in some respects, such as number of neurons, the neocortex is homogenous across its extent, whereas in other aspects of organization, such as non-neuronal number and percentage of neurons, there is non-uniformity. Whereas the overall pattern of neuronal distribution is similar between short-tailed opossums and eutherian mammals, short-tailed opossum have a much lower cellular and neuronal density than other eutherian mammals. This suggests that the high neuronal density cortices of mammals such as rodents and primates may be a more recently evolved characteristic that is restricted to eutherians, and likely contributes to the complex behaviors we see in modern mammals. PMID:24414857

  14. A first-generation integrated tammar wallaby map and its use in creating a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The limited (2X) coverage of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) genome sequence dataset currently presents a challenge for assembly and anchoring onto chromosomes. To provide a framework for this assembly, it would be a great advantage to have a dense map of the tammar wallaby genome. However, only limited mapping data are available for this non-model species, comprising a physical map and a linkage map. Results We combined all available tammar wallaby mapping data to create a tammar wallaby integrated map, using the Location DataBase (LDB) strategy. This first-generation integrated map combines all available information from the second-generation tammar wallaby linkage map with 148 loci, and extensive FISH mapping data for 492 loci, especially for genes likely to be located at the ends of wallaby chromosomes or at evolutionary breakpoints inferred from comparative information. For loci whose positions are only approximately known, their location in the integrated map was refined on the basis of comparative information from opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and human. Interpolation of segments from the opossum and human assemblies into the integrated map enabled the subsequent construction of a tammar wallaby first-generation virtual genome map, which comprises 14336 markers, including 13783 genes recruited from opossum and human assemblies. Both maps are freely available at http://compldb.angis.org.au. Conclusions The first-generation integrated map and the first-generation virtual genome map provide a backbone for the chromosome assembly of the tammar wallaby genome sequence. For example, 78% of the 10257 gene-scaffolds in the Ensembl annotation of the tammar wallaby genome sequence (including 10522 protein-coding genes) can now be given a chromosome location in the tammar wallaby virtual genome map. PMID:21854555

  15. Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria A.; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of ∼217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and

  16. Retroviral envelope gene captures and syncytin exaptation for placentation in marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Carradec, Quentin; Souquere, Sylvie; Mulot, Baptiste; Catzeflis, François; Nilsson, Maria A.; Menzies, Brandon R.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Pierron, Gérard; Zeller, Ulrich; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Syncytins are genes of retroviral origin captured by eutherian mammals, with a role in placentation. Here we show that some marsupials—which are the closest living relatives to eutherian mammals, although they diverged from the latter ∼190 Mya—also possess a syncytin gene. The gene identified in the South American marsupial opossum and dubbed syncytin-Opo1 has all of the characteristic features of a bona fide syncytin gene: It is fusogenic in an ex vivo cell–cell fusion assay; it is specifically expressed in the short-lived placenta at the level of the syncytial feto–maternal interface; and it is conserved in a functional state in a series of Monodelphis species. We further identify a nonfusogenic retroviral envelope gene that has been conserved for >80 My of evolution among all marsupials (including the opossum and the Australian tammar wallaby), with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of a canonical immunosuppressive domain, but with only limited expression in the placenta. This unusual captured gene, together with a third class of envelope genes from recently endogenized retroviruses—displaying strong expression in the uterine glands where retroviral particles can be detected—plausibly correspond to the different evolutionary statuses of a captured retroviral envelope gene, with only syncytin-Opo1 being the present-day bona fide syncytin active in the opossum and related species. This study would accordingly recapitulate the natural history of syncytin exaptation and evolution in a single species, and definitely extends the presence of such genes to all major placental mammalian clades. PMID:25605903

  17. UV radiation-induced skin tumors in Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Ley, R D; Applegate, L A; Stuart, T D; Fry, R J

    1987-06-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from an FS-40 sunlamp (280-400 nm) 3 times per week for a total of 200 exposures resulted in the appearance of actinic keratoses, fibrosarcomas, squamous cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas. At the higher doses of UVR used in this study, moderate to severe hyperplasia was also observed. The susceptibility of this animal to the induction of skin tumors by UVR in conjunction with the capacity to enzymatically photoreactive pyrimidine dimers in cutaneous DNA identifies this animal as a useful model in determining the role of pyrimidine dimers in skin tumor induction by UVR. PMID:3684736

  18. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  19. A Structural Modelling Study on Marine Sediments Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Bolboacã, Sorana D.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship models were obtained by applying the Molecular Descriptor Family approach to eight ordnance compounds with different toxicity on five marine species (arbacia punctulata, dinophilus gyrociliatus, sciaenops ocellatus, opossum shrimp, and ulva fasciata). The selection of the best among molecular descriptors generated and calculated from the ordnance compounds structures lead to accurate monovariate models. The resulting models obtained for six endpoints proved to be accurate in estimation (the squared correlation coefficient varied from 0.8186 to 0.9997) and prediction (the correlation coefficient obtained in leave-one-out analysis varied from 0.7263 to 0.9984). PMID:18728732

  20. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  1. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Howe, Daniel K; MacKay, Robert J; Reed, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) can be caused by either of 2 related protozoan parasites, Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, although S. neurona is the most frequent etiologic pathogen. Horses are commonly infected, but clinical disease occurs infrequently; the factors influencing disease occurrence are not well understood. Risk factors for the development of EPM include the presence of opossums and prior stressful health-related events. Attempts to reproduce EPM experimentally have reliably induced antibody responses in challenged horses but have not consistently produced acute neurologic disease. Diagnosis and options for treatment of EPM have improved over the past decade. PMID:25441115

  2. Feeding preferences of Triatoma dimidiata maculipennis in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quintal, R E; Polanco, G G

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether a low preference for human blood by Triatoma dimidiata maculipennis Stal, 1859, the only known vector of Chagas' disease in Yucatan, Mexico, would account for the low prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in man in the area, the intestinal contents of 924 bugs were tested against antisera to blood antigens of chicken, opossum, dog, bat, monkey, pig, goat, rabbit, horse, human, rat, ox, cat, and armadillo. Although the chicken was the primary host, man was fed upon frequently; thus, the hypothesis was rejected. Other explanations must be found for the relative lack of antibodies against T. cruzi in humans in Yucatan. PMID:320892

  3. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  4. Detection of Rickettsia felis in Wild Mammals from Three Municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Torres-Castro, Marco; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; López-Avila, Karina; Tello-Martín, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information of the occurrence of Rickettsia felis in wild mammals from three municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The reactivity of rodent serum to Rickettsia antigens was detected in 80.9% (17 of 21) samples using immunofluorescence assay. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsial DNA in spleens of 43.5% (10 of 23) rodents and 57.1% (4 of 7) opossums. The identification of the rickettsial DNA was confirmed as R. felis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. This study comprises the first report of R. felis detection in wild mammals in Yucatan. PMID:25537628

  5. Complete genome sequence of Piry vesiculovirus.

    PubMed

    de Souza, William Marciel; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Romeiro, Marilia Farignoli; Júnior, Osvaldo Reis; Tolardo, Aline Lavado; de Andrade, Amanda Araújo Serrão; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior, João Lídio; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Piry virus (PIRYV) is a rhabdovirus (genus Vesiculovirus) and is described as a possible human pathogen, originally isolated from a Philander opossum trapped in Para State, Northern Brazil. This study describes the complete full coding sequence and the genetic characterization of PIRYV. The genome sequence reveals that PIRYV has a typical vesiculovirus-like organization, encoding the five genes typical of the genus. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PIRYV is most closely related to Perinet virus and clustered in the same clade as Chandipura and Isfahan vesiculoviruses. PMID:27216928

  6. Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Bennett, Bradley C; Mathee, Kalai

    2006-05-24

    Bacterial intercellular communication, or quorum sensing (QS), controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Anti-QS compounds are known to exist in marine algae and have the ability to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity. We hypothesized that terrestrial plants traditionally used as medicines may also produce anti-QS compounds. To test this hypothesis, 50 medicinal plants from southern Florida were screened for anti-QS activity using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Of these plants, six showed QS inhibition: Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae), Chamaecyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (Euphorbiaceae), Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don (Myrtaceae), Bucida burceras L. (Combretaceae), Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae), and Quercus virginiana Mill. (Fagaceae). This study introduces not only a new mode of action and possible validation for traditional plant use, but also a potentially new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:16406418

  7. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  8. Direct seeding woody species for restoration of bottomlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    I direct seeded (broadcast) seeds of 39 species of trees and shrubs using an ATV-mounted rotary spreader to initiate restoration of bottomland forest on retired agricultural sites. Four sites were planted during February, 2000, and 13 additional sites were planted during April and May, 2001. After two growing seasons, stem density of direct-seeded species varied greatly among study plots (range = 0 to 888 stems/ha) but averaged only 110 stems/ha. I recommend that future efforts at direct seeding focus on seven shrub species (Amorpha fruticosa L., Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ilex decidua Walt., Morus rubra L., and Prunus spp.) and seven tree species (Celtis laevigata Willd., Diospyros virginiana L., Fraxinus spp., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, and Ulmus spp.) that successfully established in these trials.

  9. Xylem Development in Prunus Flower Buds and the Relationship to Deep Supercooling

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Edward N.

    1984-01-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16663523

  10. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  11. Bioactivity of cedarwood oil and cedrol against arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Eller, F J; Vander Meer, R K; Behle, R W; Flor-Weiler, L B; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-06-01

    Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana L. were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide, and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) toward several species of ants and cedrol toward ticks was determined. Repellency was tested for ants, and toxicity was tested for ticks. Ants in an outdoor bioassay were significantly repelled by the presence of CWO on a pole leading to a sugar-water solution. Similarly, CWO was a significant repellent barrier to red imported fire ants and prevented them from finding a typical food source. Black-legged tick nymphs exhibited dosage-dependent mortality when exposed to cedrol and at the highest dosage (i.e., 6.3 mg/ml) tested, the cedrol killed 100% of the ticks. These repellency and toxicity results together demonstrate a clear potential for the use of CWO as a pest control agent. PMID:24690252

  12. Discovery of a quorum-sensing inhibitor of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Madanahally D; Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Silvestri, Carmela; Scalise, Giorgio; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio; Orlando, Fiorenza; Shoham, Menachem; Balaban, Naomi

    2008-05-01

    Staphylococci are a major health threat because of increasing resistance to antibiotics. An alternative to antibiotic treatment is preventing virulence by inhibition of bacterial cell-to-cell communication using the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP). In this work, we identified 2',5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose (hamamelitannin) as a nonpeptide analog of RIP by virtual screening of a RIP-based pharmacophore against a database of commercially available small-molecule compounds. Hamamelitannin is a natural product found in the bark of Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), and it has no effect on staphylococcal growth in vitro; but like RIP, it does inhibit the quorum-sensing regulator RNAIII. In a rat graft model, hamamelitannin prevented device-associated infections in vivo, including infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. These findings suggest that hamamelitannin may be used as a suppressor to staphylococcal infections. PMID:18314496

  13. Laccase-assisted formation of bioactive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel stabilized with plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Rocasalbas, Guillem; Francesko, Antonio; Touriño, Sonia; Fernández-Francos, Xavier; Guebitz, Georg M; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2013-02-15

    Laccase-assisted simultaneous cross-linking and functionalization of chitosan/gelatin blends with phenolic compounds from Hamamelis virginiana was investigated for the development of bioactive hydrogel dressings. The potential of these hydrogels for chronic wound treatment was evaluated in vitro, assessing their antibacterial and inhibitory effect on myeloperoxidase and collagenase. Rheological studies revealed that the mechanical properties of the hydrogels were a function of the enzymatic reaction time. Stable hydrogels and resistant to lysozyme degradation were achieved after 2 h laccase reaction. The inhibitory capacity of the hydrogel for myeloperoxidase and collagenase was 32% and 79% respectively after 24 h incubation. Collagenase activity was additionally suppressed by adsorption (20%) of the enzyme onto the hydrogel. Therefore, the bioactive properties of the hydrogels were due to the effect of both released phenolic compounds and the permanently functionalized platform itself. The hydrogels showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23399119

  14. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun. PMID:19245460

  15. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  16. Gastric impaction and obstruction of the small intestine associated with persimmon phytobezoar in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kellam, L L; Johnson, P J; Kramer, J; Keegan, K G

    2000-04-15

    Signs of mild colic, intermittent lethargy, and weight loss of 6 weeks' duration in a 2-year-old Quarter Horse gelding were attributed to persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) phytobezoar formation. Diagnosis of the phytobezoar was facilitated by gastric endoscopy. Signs of gastrointestinal tract obstruction were associated with a large phytobezoar in the lumen of the stomach, gastric ulceration, and obstruction of the small intestine (as a consequence of fragmentation of the primary bezoar). Conservative treatment, using mineral oil and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, was unsuccessful. A celiotomy was performed, and gastric impaction and partial obstruction of the small intestine associated with phytobezoar formation and fragmentation were identified. The horse made a complete recovery following removal of all phytobezoars. Persimmon phytobezoar should be considered in the fall and winter as a possible cause of lethargy, colic, and weight loss in horses allowed access to persimmon fruit. PMID:10767970

  17. Life cycle assessment of the production of ethanol from eastern redcedar.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, Ife A; Ramachandriya, Karthikeyan D; Wilkins, Mark R; Aichele, Clint P

    2014-12-01

    This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental impacts of an ethanol production system using eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) as the feedstock. Aspen Plus® was used to model the acid bisulfite pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation steps. A cradle-to-gate LCA was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts from cutting the trees to the production of anhydrous ethanol. The environmental impacts of the redcedar ethanol process were compared to those from the production of corn ethanol. Inventory data for the system were collected and used to calculate a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the IMPACT 2002+ and BEES+ framework in SimaPro 8.0.0. Four impact categories were evaluated: land occupation, water use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and non-renewable energy use. Results indicate that acid bisulfite pretreatment contributed to 65% of GHG emissions, 81% of non-renewable energy use, and 77% of water use of the overall process. PMID:25305654

  18. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.; Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  19. Groundlayer vegetation gradients across oak woodland canopy gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Sluis, W.

    2006-01-01

    Frequency of groundlayer plants was measured across oak woodland canopy gaps at three sites in northwest Indiana to examine how vegetation varied with gap size, direction along the gap edge, and microhabitat. Microhabitats were defined as under the canopy adjacent to the gap, along the gap edge, and within the gap. Gap-sites consisted of gaps plus adjacent tree canopy. Gaps were classified as small (16 ± 1 m2), medium (97 ± 8), and large (310 ± 32). Neither richness nor diversity differed among microhabitats, gap sizes, or edges. Similarity between microhabitats wthin a gap-site increased as the distance between plots decreased and as the difference in PAR decreased, the latter explaining twice the variation in percent dissimilarity compared to Mg concentration, A horizon depth, and litter cover. Diervilla lonicera, Frageria virginiana, Helianthus divaricatus, Polygonatum pubescens, Quercus velutina, Smilacena stellata, and Tradescantia ohiensis decreased, whileTephrosia virginiana and legumes increased in frequency, from canopy to gap, and C4 grasses peaked at the gap edge, independent of gap size. Additional species frequency varied across the microhabitat gradient within specific sites. Sorghastrum nutans was three times more frequent in gaps at large sites than elsewhere. The vegetation in medium-sized gap-sites was more variable than within small and large gap-sites, suggesting greater environmental heterogeneity at that scale. Within gap-sites, vegetation was more heterogeneous within edges and canopies than in gaps. Edges were more similar in composition to gaps than to canopy groundlayer within gap-sites. Few species varied significantly in frequency around the gap edge. The oak woodland groundlayer on sandy substrates can be characterized as a mosaic of forb dominated vegetation that varies across light gradients associated with canopy gaps, transitioning to islands of grassland vegetation when gaps exceed 160 m2.

  20. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera

  1. Past agricultural land use and present-day fire regimes can interact to determine the nature of seed predation.

    PubMed

    Stuhler, John D; Orrock, John L

    2016-06-01

    Historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes can have significant effects on contemporary ecosystems. Although past agricultural land use can lead to long-term changes in plant communities, it remains unclear whether these persistent land-use legacies alter plant-consumer interactions, such as seed predation, and whether contemporary disturbance (e.g., fire) alters the effects of historical agriculture on these interactions. We conducted a study at 27 sites distributed across 80,300 ha in post-agricultural and non-agricultural longleaf pine woodlands with different degrees of fire frequency to test the hypothesis that past and present-day disturbances that alter plant communities can subsequently alter seed predation. We quantified seed removal by arthropods and rodents for Tephrosia virginiana and Vernonia angustifolia, species of conservation interest. We found that the effects of land-use history and fire frequency on seed removal were contingent on granivore guild and microhabitat characteristics. Tephrosia virginiana removal was greater in low fire frequency sites, due to greater seed removal by rodents. Although overall removal of V. angustifolia did not differ among habitats, rodents removed more seeds than arthropods at post-agricultural sites and non-agricultural sites with low fire frequencies, but not at non-agricultural sites with high fire frequencies. Land-use history and fire frequency also affected the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and removal of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that historical agriculture and present-day fire regimes may alter seed predation by shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators among habitats, with potential consequences for the establishment of rare plant species consumed by one or both predators. PMID:26905418

  2. Cystic adnexal mass in a 16-year-old female: Ovarian pathology or complication of a Müllerian anomaly?

    PubMed Central

    Santacana-Laffitte, Guido; Ruiz, Lorell; Pedrogo, Yasmin; Colon, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 16 Final Diagnosis: Pelvic mass Symptoms: None Medication: None Clinical Procedure: CT • MRI Specialty: Diagnostic radiology • pediatrics Objective: Unusual presentation of unknown etiology, Rare disease, Mistake in diagnosis Background: Müllerian anomalies encompass a wide variety of malformations in the female genital tract, usually associated with renal and anorectal malformations. Of these anomalies, approximately 11% are uterus didelphys, which occurs when midline fusion of the müllerian ducts is arrested to a variable extent. Case Report: We report the case of a 16-year-old female with uterine didelphys, jejunal malrotation, hematometra, hematosalpinx, and bilateral subcentimeter homogenous circular cystic-like renal lesions, who initially presented with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, non-bloody vomiting, and a history of irregular menstrual periods. Initial CT was confusing for an adnexal cystic mass, but further imaging disclosed the above müllerian anomalies. Conclusions: Müllerian anomalies may mimic other, more common, adnexal lesions; thus, adequate evaluation of suspicious cystic adnexal masses with multiple and advanced imaging modalities such as MRI is essential for adequate diagnosis and management. PMID:23826455

  3. [Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly: unusual cause of piocolpos. Report a case and review of literature ].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Contreras, Diana Karen; Juárez-Cruz, Patricio Manuel; Vázquez-Flores, José; Vázquez-Flores, Al David

    2014-10-01

    OHVIRA (Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly) by acronym and abbreviations in English or Herlyn Werner Wunderlich syndrome is a rare congenital malformation caused by an alteration in the Mullerian ducts and Wolffian Ducts. Which is characterized by a triad: uterus didelphys, obstructed and ipsilateral renal agenesis hemivagina still uncertain etiology. Patients are usually asymptomatic until menarche where the most common clinical presentation is pelvic pain, followed by a vaginal or abdominal mass, normal menstrual periods, infertility, and vaginal discharge rarely appears. The case of a female patient of 15 years, nubile with chronic fetid vaginal discharge, initially diagnosed and treated as pelvic inflammatory disease occurs, however because it is an exceptional condition with the background of the patient, by complementary studies were conducted where pelvic ultrasound revealed pyocolpos and absence of left kidney, uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina by other imaging studies, where we could integrate Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. In conclusion, abnormalities in the development of the Miillerian ducts are difficult to diagnose early, so you must have the embryological knowledge, conduct thorough clinical assessment and detailed picture in whom the coridition is suspected to identify malformations coexisting urinary tract and vaginal defects with the importance of preserving reproductive success through appropriate planning of surgical approach, given that the fertility rate in these patients is comparable to the average. PMID:25510063

  4. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome emphasizes ultrasonographic and MR findings: a case report and review of the literatures.

    PubMed

    Angthong, Wirana; Visetsripong, Mattana; Amornvithayachan, Ornsiri; Varavithya, Vithya

    2012-12-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare developmental anomaly that is consists of uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. This rare entity is the spectrum of Mullerian duct anomalies (MDA) accompanied by developmental anomaly of one of Wolffian ducts. The present report demonstrated HWW syndrome and reviewed literatures in term of embryological etiology, clinical manifestation, radiographic findings and surgical management. In this case report is a 11-year-old girl presented with chronic pelvic pain. She had menarche at the age of 10 and her menstrual cycles were regular with moderate dysmenorrhea. Physical examination revealed palpable pelvic mass with tenderness. Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated uterine didelphys with right-sided hematometrocolpos and absent right kidney. Right hematosalpinx was also detected due to distal tubal occlusion from adhesion. These preoperative images can verify all of the features of this syndrome and correctly anticipated diagnosis was achieved. The patient underwent laparoscopic right tubal drainage with lysis of pelvic adhesion and hysteroscopic resection of vaginal septum. Her symptoms were improved uneventfully. In conclusion, HWW syndrome exhibits unique clinical presentation with characteristic radiographic findings and symptom can be relieved dramatically after receiving appropriate surgical management. PMID:23513478

  5. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    PubMed Central

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G.; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; Klingenspor, M.; White, C. R.; Jastroch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence. PMID:21632624

  6. Constraints on Mammalian forelimb development: insights from developmental disparity.

    PubMed

    Ross, Darcy; Marcot, Jonathan D; Betteridge, Keith J; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette; Bailey, C Scott; Sears, Karen E

    2013-12-01

    Tetrapod limb development has been studied extensively for decades, yet the strength and role of developmental constraints in this process remains unresolved. Mammals exhibit a particularly wide array of limb morphologies associated with various locomotion modes and behaviors, providing a useful system for identifying periods of developmental constraint and conserved developmental mechanisms or morphologies. In this study, landmark-based geometric morphometrics are used to investigate levels and patterns of morphological diversity (disparity) among the developing forelimbs of four mammals with diverse limb morphologies: mice, opossums, horses, and pigs. Results indicate that disparity among the forelimbs of these species slightly decreases or stays the same from the appearance of the limb ridge to the bud stage, and increases dramatically from the paddle through tissue regression stages. Heterochrony exhibited by the precocial opossum limb was not found to drive these patterns of morphological disparity, suggesting that the low disparity of the middle stages of limb development (e.g., paddle stage) is driven by processes operating within the limb and is likely not a result of embryo-wide constraint. PMID:24299415

  7. Identification of autoantigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Holl, T. Matt; Liu, Yang; Li, Yi; Lu, Xiaozhi; Nicely, Nathan I.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Cain, Derek W.; Spicer, Leonard; VandeBerg, John L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Many human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple clades of HIV-1 are polyreactive and bind avidly to mammalian autoantigens. Indeed, the generation of neutralizing antibodies to the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of HIV-1 gp41 in man may be proscribed by immune tolerance because mice expressing the VH and VL regions of 2F5 have a block in B cell development that is characteristic of central tolerance. This developmental blockade implies the presence of tolerizing autoantigens that are mimicked by the membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41. We identify human kynureninase (KYNU) and splicing factor 3b subunit 3 (SF3B3) as the primary conserved, vertebrate self-antigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 antibodies, respectively. 2F5 binds the H4 domain of KYNU which contains the complete 2F5 linear epitope (ELDKWA). 4E10 recognizes an epitope of SF3B3 that is strongly dependent on hydrophobic interactions. Opossums carry a rare KYNU H4 domain that abolishes 2F5 binding, but they retain the SF3B3 4E10 epitope. Immunization of opossums with HIV-1 gp140 induced extraordinary titers of serum antibody to the 2F5 ELDKWA epitope but little or nothing to the 4E10 determinant. Identification of structural motifs shared by vertebrates and HIV-1 provides direct evidence that immunological tolerance can impair humoral responses to HIV-1. PMID:23359068

  8. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. PMID:26336238

  9. Oxygen consumption and thermoregulatory responses in three species of South American marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcel Cintra Pereira; Bicudo, José Eduardo Pereira Wilken

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), body temperature (T(b)) and wet thermal conductance (C(wet)), under resting conditions, exposure to low ambient temperature (T(a)) and during sustained exercise (treadmill running) were measured in three phylogenetic related (same family; Didelphidae) South American marsupials possessing similar body masses: Caluromys philander (arboreal/fruit and insect eating), Philander opossum (terrestrial and arboreal/omnivore), and Metachirus nudicaudatus (terrestrial/omnivore). Our measurements of VO(2) and C(wet) under resting conditions agree with those previously reported for other marsupials. We expected that C. philander would show a lower maximal sustained VO(2), compared to the other two species, based on its more reduced skeletal muscle mass. However, the values obtained for C. philander were not statistically different (ANOVA) from those obtained for the other two species. When exposed to low ambient temperature (12 degrees C), differences among the three species were detected, i.e., M. nudicaudatus did not survive, while the other two species were able to reduce their T(b) under such conditions. C. philander gradually decreases its T(b) when cold exposed, and P. opossum shows a more pronounced T(b) drop only when exposure to low ambient temperatures occurs for a more prolonged period of time. PMID:17020814

  10. Myosin 1b Regulates Amino Acid Transport by Associating Transporters with the Apical Plasma Membrane of Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Komaba, Shigeru; Coluccio, Lynne M.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATers) in the brush border of the apical plasma membrane (APM) of renal proximal tubule (PT) cells mediate amino acid transport (AAT). We found that the membrane-associated class I myosin myosin 1b (Myo1b) localized at the apical brush border membrane of PTs. In opossum kidney (OK) 3B/2 epithelial cells, which are derived from PTs, expressed rat Myo1b-GFP colocalized in patched microvilli with expressed mouse V5-tagged SIT1 (SIT1-V5), which mediates neutral amino acid transport in OK cells. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of opossum Myo1b-specific shRNA resulted in knockdown (kd) of Myo1b expression, less SIT1-V5 at the APM as determined by localization studies, and a decrease in neutral AAT as determined by radioactive uptake assays. Myo1b kd had no effect on Pi transport or noticeable change in microvilli structure as determined by rhodamine phalloidin staining. The studies are the first to define a physiological role for Myo1b, that of regulating renal AAT by modulating the association of AATers with the APM. PMID:26361046

  11. Active vibrissal sensing in rodents and marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Mitchinson, Ben; Grant, Robyn A.; Arkley, Kendra; Rankov, Vladan; Perkon, Igor; Prescott, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    In rats, the long facial whiskers (mystacial macrovibrissae) are repetitively and rapidly swept back and forth during exploration in a behaviour known as ‘whisking’. In this paper, we summarize previous evidence from rats, and present new data for rat, mouse and the marsupial grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) showing that whisking in all three species is actively controlled both with respect to movement of the animal's body and relative to environmental structure. Using automatic whisker tracking, and Fourier analysis, we first show that the whisking motion of the mystacial vibrissae, in the horizontal plane, can be approximated as a blend of two sinusoids at the fundamental frequency (mean 8.5, 11.3 and 7.3 Hz in rat, mouse and opossum, respectively) and its second harmonic. The oscillation at the second harmonic is particularly strong in mouse (around 22 Hz) consistent with previous reports of fast whisking in that species. In all three species, we found evidence of asymmetric whisking during head turning and following unilateral object contacts consistent with active control of whisker movement. We propose that the presence of active vibrissal touch in both rodents and marsupials suggests that this behavioural capacity emerged at an early stage in the evolution of therian mammals. PMID:21969685

  12. [Ectoparasites of small wild mammals from the adjacent areas of Itapecuru River and Environmental Preservation Area of Inhamum, state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Reis, Francineto S; Barros, Maria Claudene; Fraga, Elmary Da C; Da Penha, Tatiane A; Teixeira, Whaubytfran C; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N De C

    2008-09-01

    During fauna studies, thirty-six wild mammals were collected in adjacent areas of Itapecuru River and Environmental Preservation area of Inhamum, state of Maranhão, Brazil. They were sampled for ectoparasites. The following specimens of the order Rodentia and its respective ectoparasites were identified: Akodon sp. (Androlaelaps sp. and Laelaps sp.), Oecomys sp. (Androlaelaps sp. and Amblyomma cajennense), Oligoryzomys sp. (Androlaelaps sp. Laelaps sp. and Amblyomma sp.) e Oryzomys megacephalus (A. cajennense). In Calomys callosus no ectoparasite was found. It was observed infestation in the order Didelphimorphia as follows: Didelphis marsupialis (Androlaelaps sp., Laelaps sp. and larvae of Diptera Cyclorrhapha); Gracilinanus sp. (Laelaps sp. and larvae of Diptera Cyclorrhapha), Monodelphis domestica (Poplygenis (Polygenis)), Cummingsia sp., Amblyomma sp. and Androlaelaps sp.). Marmosa sp. e Thylamis sp. had no ectoparasites. From the captured hosts 56% were infested, 82% and 44% rodents and marsupials, respectively. Mites from the family Laelapidae presented the great diversity of hosts and genus. PMID:20059819

  13. In vivo studies of 5-arylethenylbenzofuroxans in acute murine models of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Boiani, Lucía; Davies, Carolina; Arredondo, Carolina; Porcal, Williams; Merlino, Alicia; Gerpe, Alejandra; Boiani, Mariana; Pacheco, José Pedro; Basombrío, Miguel Angel; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2008-10-01

    5-arylethenylbenzofuroxan derivatives with high in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity were studied in vivo using acute murine models of Chagas' disease. The selected compounds, as pure isomeric forms, 1, 2, 3 and 4, or as equimolecular mixture of geometric isomers, 1:2, 3:4, 5:6 were studied against different T. cruzi strains. Consequently, Tulahuen 2 strain, Colombiana strain (resistant to Nifurtimox and Benznidazole), and two different wild strains, one isolated from the wild reservoir Didelphis marsupialis and another one from Uruguayan patients, were selected. No relevant signs of in vivo toxicity were observed with the benzofuroxans orally administered. Compound 1 and the mixture of isomers 1:2 were the best for treating infection against the four studied strains. PMID:18255195

  14. Mapping the distribution of the interstitial telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequences in eight species of Brazilian marsupials (Didelphidae) by FISH and the correlation with constitutive heterochromatin. Do ITS represent evidence for fusion events in American marsupials?

    PubMed

    Pagnozzi, J M; Ditchfield, A D; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

    2002-01-01

    The C-band pattern and the distribution of the (TTAGGG)(n) sequence after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), were studied in eight species of Didelphidae marsupials: four species with 2n = 14 (Marmosops parvidens, Marmosops incanus, Marmosa murina and Metachirus nudicaudatus), two species with 2n = 18 (Monodelphis domestica and M. americana), and two with 2n = 22 (Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata). The hybridization signals were observed at both termini telomeres of all chromosomes. In addition, interstitial sequences were detected in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes of Marmosops parvidens, in five chromosome pairs of M. incanus, and in the first pair of Monodelphis domestica. These sites always occur in the region of constitutive heterochromatin, even though C-band positive regions do not always present interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS). We suggest that the interstitial (TTAGGG)(n) sequences are associated with satellite DNA and do not necessarily arise through chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:12826754

  15. Successful term delivery of spontaneous twin pregnancy in a woman with bicorporeal septate uterus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfang; Yang, Lilin; Tian, Yuanyuan; Li, Daocheng; Luo, Songping

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we report the first case of successful term delivery of twins in a patient with bicorporeal septate uterus via natural conception. The patient had been diagnosed with complete septate, didelphys and bicornuate uterus during different phases of her three pregnancies. Based on follow-up data at six weeks and then six months post-partum of the last pregnancy, we found that the abnormalities presented in our case did not fit the criteria of any categories following American Fertility Society and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology-European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy classification systems. After comprehensive review of the uterine morphologic characteristics, embryology and pregnancy outcome, we considered 'bicorporeal septate uterus' the most appropriate diagnosis. This case emphasized the atypical changes of uterine shape as twin pregnancy advances and its influence on productive performance and pregnancy outcome in uterine malformation. It also raised concern regarding the usability and comprehensiveness of the two most popular classification systems. PMID:27094222

  16. Imaging Diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome- An Extremely Rare Urogenital Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Shibani; Chamaria, Komal; Garga, U C; Kataria, Ankur; Ahuja, Ashim

    2015-05-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract resulting from maldevelopment of both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. It is characterized by the triad of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It generally presents at puberty shortly following menarche with the symptom of acute pelvic pain. Management of these cases is surgical and consists mainly of vaginoplasty with excision of the vaginal septum in order to release the obstruction and prevent the long term complication of recurrent pyocolpos and infertility. We report here a case of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 13-year-old adolescent girl, emphasizing the role of imaging in the accurate and prompt diagnosis of this rare developmental urogenital anomaly. Only a few hundred such cases have been reported in literature till date. PMID:26155531

  17. Eriophyoid mite fauna (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Turkey: new species, new distribution reports and an updated catalogue.

    PubMed

    Denizhan, Evsel; Monfreda, Rosita; Lillo, Enrico De; Çobanoğlu, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    More than one hundred species of Eriophyoidea have been recorded hitherto from Turkey. Within the last decade, a large plant survey was carried out in order to investigate the eriophyoid fauna present in Turkey, with particular emphasis on species affecting weeds and ornamental plants. In addition, the Turkish literature has been examined for previous records of eriophyoid mites. New species, Paraphytoptus intybi n. sp. on common cichory, Cichorium intybus (Compositae) and Phytoptus albae n. sp. on white poplar, Populus alba (Salicaceae), are described and illustrated herein. In addition, a further 31 species were found to be new records for the eriophyoid fauna of Turkey with Aceria calaceris, Phyllocoptes didelphis and Vasates immigrans being new reports for the Palaearctic region. All known eriophyoid species records from Turkey appearing in papers published up until March 2013 are listed in this catalogue along with remarks and information on their current distribution in Turkey and taxonomic status. PMID:26250255

  18. Hemivaginal septum resection in a patient with a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Anderson, Sharon H; Verrecchio, Elizabeth S; Brown, M Allyson; Glassner, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is characterized by a triad of uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The syndrome should be suspected in any young woman with abdominal pain or cyclic dysmenorrhea, and radiologic evidence of müllerian duct and renal anomalies. Herein is presented the case of a 25-year-old woman with a rare variant of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, characterized by an anomalous connection between the 2 endocervical canals, who underwent hemivaginal septum resection to relieve progressively worsening dysmenorrhea. The right hemivaginal septum was resected medially from the left cervix and laterally off the right vaginal wall. Hydrodissection between the hemivaginal septum and right cervix facilitated surgical resection. After resection of the hemivaginal septum there was complete resolution of dysmenorrhea and no recurrence of hematometra or hematocolpos. PMID:24858986

  19. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Saraiva, Danilo Gonçalves; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Dubey, Jitender Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25) were found in 8.6% (13/151) of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48) of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus), and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita) presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes. PMID:26444068

  20. PAX2 in 192 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities: mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Han; Sun, Mei; Li, Yuan; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The paired box gene 2 (PAX2) has been proven to be a crucial gene during organogenesis of the urogenital system in mice models. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between PAX2 mutations and human Müllerian duct abnormalities (MDA). A total of 192 Chinese MDA patients (15 cases of uterine aplasia and 177 of incomplete Müllerian fusion) and 192 ethnic-matched controls were recruited from 2009 to 2011. Coding regions of PAX2 of MDA cases were amplified and sequenced. One rare novel synonymous variant (c.320G>A) was discovered in one patient with uterus didelphys, whereas this variant was not found in the control group. Mutations in PAX2 may be not a common cause of MDA. PMID:22683154