Science.gov

Sample records for opportunity costs

  1. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  2. Opportunity Cost: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author's objective for this reply in reexamining opportunity cost was to draw attention to two conflicting definitions of the concept in current use and to argue the case for dropping one of them. The comments of Daniel Arce, Rod O'Donnell, and Daniel Stone might be read as demonstration that the author has failed on both counts. Such a…

  3. Opportunity Cost of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkoglu, Recep

    2004-01-01

    In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

  4. Complexities in the Examination of Opportunity Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Rod O'Donnell writes here that there is a wide and deep confusion in contemporary economics about the concept and role of opportunity cost (OC). O'Donnell states that his main grounds for making this claim are the muddled, variable, and sometimes conflicting treatments of OC in modern textbooks; the disturbing empirical results in surveys of both…

  5. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cui-Xia; Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shu; Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon called “hidden opportunity cost of time effect” was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) option to the larger but later (LL) option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the “obvious” opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals. PMID:25870570

  6. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cui-Xia; Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shu; Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon called "hidden opportunity cost of time effect" was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) option to the larger but later (LL) option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the "obvious" opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals. PMID:25870570

  7. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  8. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  9. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). PMID:25784036

  10. The opportunity cost of capital: development of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chit, Ayman; Chit, Ahmad; Papadimitropoulos, Manny; Krahn, Murray; Parker, Jayson; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity cost of the capital invested in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) to bring a new drug to market makes up as much as half the total cost. However, the literature on the cost of pharmaceutical R&D is mixed on how, exactly, one should calculate this "hidden" cost. Some authors attempt to adopt models from the field of finance, whereas other prominent authors dismiss this practice as biased, arguing that it artificially inflates the R&D cost to justify higher prices for pharmaceuticals. In this article, we examine the arguments made by both sides of the debate and then explain the cost of capital concept and describe in detail how this value is calculated. Given the significant contribution of the cost of capital to the overall cost of new drug R&D, a clear understanding of the concept is critical for policy makers, investors, and those involved directly in the R&D. PMID:25933615

  11. Modeling opportunity costs of conservation in transitional landscapes.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Adamowicz, Wiktor L

    2006-04-01

    Conservation scientists recognize the urgency of incorporating opportunity costs into conservation planning. Despite this, applications to date have been limited, perhaps partly because of the difficulty in determining costs in regions with limited data on land prices and ownership. We present methods for estimating opportunity costs of land preservation in landscapes or ecoregions that are a changing mix of agriculture and natural habitat. Our approach derives from the literature on estimating land values as opportunity costs of alternate land uses and takes advantage of general availability of necessary data, even in relatively data-poor regions. The methods integrate probabilities of habitat conversion with region-wide estimates of economic benefits from agricultural land uses and estimate land values with a discount rate to convert annual values into net present values. We applied our method in a landscape undergoing agricultural conversion in Paraguay. Our model of opportunity costs predicted an independent data set of land values and was consistent with implicit discount rates of 15-25%. Model-generated land values were strongly correlated with actual land values even after correcting for the effect of property size and proportion of property that was forested. We used the model to produce a map of opportunity costs and to estimate the costs of conserving forest within two proposed corridors in the landscape. This method can be applied to conservation planning in situations where natural habitat is currently being converted to market-oriented land uses. Incorporating not only biological attributes but also socioeconomic data can help in the design of efficient networks of protected areas that represent biodiversity at minimum costs. PMID:16903110

  12. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    PubMed Central

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  13. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  14. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force. PMID:26921247

  15. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  16. Limitations and opportunities for the social cost of carbon (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Estimates of the marginal value of carbon dioxide-the social cost of carbon (SCC)-were recently adopted by the U.S. Government in order to satisfy requirements to value estimated GHG changes of new federal regulations. However, the development and use of SCC estimates of avoided climate change impacts comes with significant challenges and controversial decisions. Fortunately, economics can provide some guidance for conceptually appropriate estimates. At the same time, economics defaults to a benefit-cost decision framework to identify socially optimal policies. However, not all current policy decisions are benefit-cost based, nor depend on monetized information, or even have the same threshold for information. While a conceptually appropriate SCC is a useful metric, how far can we take it? This talk discusses potential applications of the SCC, limitations based on the state of research and methods, as well as opportunities for among other things consistency with climate risk management and research and decision-making tools.

  17. The opt-in program: Creating opportunities for cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, A.

    1995-12-31

    The final regulation implementing the opt-in program for combustion sources will be published within the next month. This regulation will allow combustion sources (i.e., non-affected boilers, turbines, and internal combustion engines) the opportunity to enter the Acid Rain Program on a voluntary basis. Although anyone can buy and sell allowances, opt-in sources will receive their own allowance allocation and profit from the sale of excess allowances. Excess allowances can only be generated, though, through emission reductions at the opt-in source. This presentation provides an overview of the opt-in program and focuses on the program`s motivation to lower the cost of acid rain control. The opt-in program will not reduce emissions in the aggregate, but instead offers incentives for emissions reductions at non-affected sources. By creating excess allowances, an opt-in source has a means for recouping the market value of those reductions through Acid Rain allowances. Lower cost opportunities for reducing sulfur dioxide at opt-in sources can, through allowance trading, reduce the costs of compliance for affected utility units.

  18. Opportunity Cost of Surgical Management of Craniomaxillofacial Trauma.

    PubMed

    Moses, Helen; Powers, David; Keeler, Jarrod; Erdmann, Detlev; Marcus, Jeff; Puscas, Liana; Woodard, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The provision of trauma care is a financial burden, continually associated with low reimbursement, and shifts the economic burden to major trauma centers and providers. Meanwhile, the volume of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma and the number of surgically managed facial fractures are unchanged. Past financial analyses of cost and reimbursement for facial trauma are limited to mandibular and midface injuries, consistently revealing low reimbursement. The incurred financial burden also coincides with the changing landscape of health insurance. The goal of this study is to determine the opportunity cost of operative management of facial trauma at our institution. From our CMF database of greater than 3,000 facial fractures, the physician charges, collections, and relative value units (RVUs) for CMF trauma per year from 2007 to 2013 were compared with a general plastic surgery and otolaryngology population undergoing operative management during this same period. Collection rates were analyzed to assess if a significant difference exists between reimbursement for CMF and non-CMF cases. Results revealed a significant difference between the professional collection rate for operative CMF trauma and that for other operative procedures (17.25 vs. 29.61%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The average number of RVUs billed per provider for CMF trauma declines significantly, from greater than 700 RVUs to 300 over the study period, despite a stable volume. Surgical management of CMF trauma generates an unfavorable financial environment. The large opportunity cost associated with offering this service is a potential threat to the sustainability of providing care for this population. PMID:26889352

  19. Indirect cost in economic evaluation: the opportunity cost of unpaid inputs.

    PubMed

    Posnett, J; Jan, S

    1996-01-01

    Unpaid time represents a potentially significant input into the health production function. The paper sets out the basis for valuation of time inputs consistent with the notion of opportunity cost. Such analysis requires consideration of whether time displaced in the production of health involves lost work or lost leisure. Furthermore, because valuation of opportunity cost requires the consistent treatment of costs and benefits, the study also considers the valuation of outputs. The basis for valuing the shadow price of work time is examined by firstly assuming perfect competition. The analysis then considers the presence of monopoly and monopsony in product markets and income and sales taxes. The basis for valuing the shadow price of leisure ("leisure' being all uses of time except paid employment) is restricted to an examination of methods previously used to value unpaid housework. The two methods examined are the replacement cost and the opportunity cost method. As the methods are not equivalent, the circumstances where each is appropriate vary depending on whether the output lost in producing health is replaced. Although not set out as the primary focus of the paper, the issues surrounding the valuation of outputs generated by non-market and quasi-market activity are examined. In particular, where activities such as informal care result in indirect utility to the carers (and patients) themselves, it is likely the full market wage provides a lower bound estimate of the value of marginal benefit. Finally the paper provides a practical approach to examining opportunity cost of unpaid inputs consistent with the concepts set out in preceding sections. PMID:8653189

  20. Valuing Human Leptospirosis Prevention Using the Opportunity Cost of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila’s gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents’ knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public’s knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis. PMID:23644831

  1. Valuing human leptospirosis prevention using the opportunity cost of labor.

    PubMed

    Arbiol, Joseph; Borja, Maridel; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Nomura, Hisako; Gloriani, Nina; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious public health concern in the Philippines, not only because of its increasing incidence rate, but also because of its significant health and economic impacts. Despite its relatively high seroprevalence, knowledge on the economic burden of disease, particularly on the value that the society places on disease prevention remains limited. Obtaining such information is important within the context of public health policy. This study was conducted in Metro Manila to determine the economic burden of leptospirosis, by asking respondents about their willingness to contribute to labor (WTCL) for the prevention of leptospirosis. The respondents pledged an average labor contribution of 10.66 h/month. The average WTCL corresponded to a monetary value of US$4.01 per month when valued using the opportunity cost of labor (leisure rate of time). From the monetized labor contribution, the total economic value of preventing leptospirosis was estimated at US$124.97 million per annum, which represents 1.13% of Metro Manila's gross domestic product (GDP). Estimates from a Tobit regression model identified the respondents' knowledge regarding leptospirosis, the susceptibility of their homes to flooding, and the proximity of their homes to sewers as significant factors to consider when developing resource contribution programs for leptospirosis prevention. More efforts need to be made in developing community level preventive programs, and in improving public's knowledge and awareness about leptospirosis. PMID:23644831

  2. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  3. Introduction to Cost Analysis in IR: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman; McWilliams, Justin; Bresnahan, Brian; Padia, Siddharth A

    2016-04-01

    Demonstration of value has become increasingly important in the current health care system. This review summarizes four of the most commonly used cost analysis methods relevant to IR that could be adopted to demonstrate the value of IR interventions: the cost minimization study, cost-effectiveness assessment, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. In addition, the issues of true cost versus hospital charges, modeling in cost studies, and sensitivity analysis are discussed. PMID:26922978

  4. The Influence of School Factors on Racial Opportunity Cost for High-Achieving Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Previous work on racial opportunity cost--that is, the price that students of color pay in their pursuit of academic success--is extended here using organizational culture literature to more closely explore the interplay of school culture with the racial opportunity cost experienced by the study participants. Eighteen African American and Latina/o…

  5. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  6. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

  7. Cooperative vehicle routing problem: an opportunity for cost saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaei, Sedighe; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Ghashami, Seyed Sajad

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology is proposed to solve a cooperative multi-depot vehicle routing problem. We establish a mathematical model for multi-owner VRP in which each owner (i.e. player) manages single or multiple depots. The basic idea consists of offering an option that owners cooperatively manage the VRP to save their costs. We present cooperative game theory techniques for cost saving allocations which are obtained from various coalitions of owners. The methodology is illustrated with a numerical example in which different coalitions of the players are evaluated along with the results of cooperation and cost saving allocation methods.

  8. Estimating the Costs of Torture: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Due to its nature, extent and consequences, torture is considered a major public health problem and a serious violation of human rights. Our study aims to set the foundation for a theoretical framework of the costs related to torture. It examines existing challenges and proposes some solutions. Our proposed framework targets policy makers, human rights activists, professionals working in programmes, centres and rehabilitation projects, judges and lawyers, survivors of torture and their families and anyone involved in the prevention and fight against this practice and its consequences. We adopted a methodology previously used in studies investigating the challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs in health disorders. We identify and discuss conceptual, methodological, political and ethical challenges that studies on the economic and social costs of torture pose and propose alternatives in terms of possible solutions to these challenges. The economic dimension of torture is rarely debated and integrated in research, policies and programmes. Several challenges such as epistemological, methodological, ethical or political ones have often been presented as obstacles to cost studies of torture and as an excuse for not investigating this dimension. In identifying, analysing and proposing solutions to these challenges, we intend to stimulate the integration of the economic dimension in research and prevention of torture strategies. PMID:26385586

  9. The opportunity cost model: automaticity, individual differences, and self-control resources.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S

    2013-12-01

    I contend that Kurzban et al.'s model is silent on three issues. First, the extent to which opportunity-cost computations are automatic or deliberative is unclear. Second, the role of individual differences in biasing opportunity-cost computations needs elucidating. Third, in the absence of "next-best" tasks, task persistence will be indefinite, which seems unfeasible, so perhaps integration with a limited-resource account is necessary. PMID:24304785

  10. Using Linked Electronic Health Records to Estimate Healthcare Costs: Key Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Asaria, Miqdad; Grasic, Katja; Walker, Simon

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses key challenges and opportunities that arise when using linked electronic health records (EHR) in health economics and outcomes research (HEOR), with a particular focus on estimating healthcare costs. These challenges and opportunities are framed in the context of a case study modelling the costs of stable coronary artery disease in England. The challenges and opportunities discussed fall broadly into the categories of (1) handling and organising data of this size and sensitivity; (2) extracting clinical endpoints from datasets that have not been designed and collected with such endpoints in mind; and (3) the principles and practice of costing resource use from routinely collected data. We find that there are a number of new challenges and opportunities that arise when working with EHR compared with more traditional sources of data for HEOR. These call for greater clinician involvement and intelligent use of sensitivity analysis. PMID:26645571

  11. Cost and Energy Savings Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Great potential exists for saving energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major electric services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy savings opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning…

  12. Implementation and opportunity costs of reducing deforestation and forest degradation in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Brendan; Lewis, Simon L.; Burgess, Neil D.; Malimbwi, Rogers E.; Munishi, Panteleo K.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Kerry Turner, R.; Willcock, Simon; Balmford, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    The Cancún Agreements provide strong backing for a REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) mechanism whereby developed countries pay developing ones for forest conservation. REDD+ has potential to simultaneously deliver cost-effective climate change mitigation and human development. However, most REDD+ analysis has used coarse-scale data, overlooked important opportunity costs to tropical forest users and failed to consider how to best invest funds to limit leakage, that is, merely displacing deforestation. Here we examine these issues for Tanzania, a REDD+ country, by comparing district-scale carbon losses from deforestation with the opportunity costs of carbon conservation. Opportunity costs are estimated as rents from both agriculture and charcoal production (the most important proximate causes of regional forest conversion). As an alternative we also calculate the implementation costs of alleviating the demand for forest conversion--thereby addressing the problem of leakage--by raising agricultural yields on existing cropland and increasing charcoal fuel-use efficiency. The implementation costs exceed the opportunity costs of carbon conservation (medians of US$6.50 versus US$3.90 per Mg CO2), so effective REDD+ policies may cost more than simpler estimates suggest. However, even if agricultural yields are doubled, implementation is possible at the competitive price of ~US$12 per Mg CO2.

  13. Mating opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna females: Costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Hernández Duran, Linda C; Fajardo Medina, Gonzalo E; Fuentes Quinter, Luz S; Martin, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25368058

  14. Mating Opportunities in Sangalopsis veliterna Females: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Linda C. Hernández; Quintero, Luz S. Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    In nature, females of several animal taxa exhibit considerable variation in their mating system, and this variation involves different balances of costs (e.g., energetic, reproductive) and benefits (e.g., increased net reproductive rate of the female, increased longevity). Many studies have focused on discovering the potential advantages and disadvantages that females could have when increasing their mating rate and the possible evolutionary consequences that may result. Butterflies and moths are an ideal study system because it is easy to determine and to manipulate experimentally their mating frequency. In this study, the effect of continuous availability of different numbers of males (1, 2, 4, 8) on female mating rate and fitness components was estimated by comparing the number of spermatophores in the corpus bursa (an estimate of the number of copulations, but not of the number males involved in these copulations), female longevity, lifetime number of laid eggs (fecundity), and proportion of hatching eggs (fertility) in the moth Sangalopsis veliterna Druce (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). The results showed that there were no significant differences in either fertility or fecundity when treatments were compared, but longevity and in some cases fecundity increased when females had several matings. PMID:25205137

  15. Kinky thresholds revisited: opportunity costs differ in the NE and SW quadrants.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Historically, a kinked threshold line on the cost-effectiveness plane at the origin was suggested due to differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain with trade-offs in the north-east (NE) quadrant versus willingness to accept (WTA) cost reductions for health loss with trade-offs in the south-west (SW) quadrant. Empirically, WTA is greater than WTP for equivalent units of health, a finding supported by loss aversion under prospect theory. More recently, appropriate threshold values for health effects have been shown to require an endogenous consideration of the opportunity cost of alternative actions in budget-constrained health systems, but also allocative and displacement inefficiency observed in health system practice. Allocative and displacement inefficiency arise in health systems where the least cost-effective program in contraction has a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = m) than the most cost-effective program in expansion (ICER = n) and displaced services (ICER = d), respectively. The health shadow price derived by Pekarsky, [Formula: see text] reflects the opportunity cost of best alternative adoption and financing actions in reimbursing new technology with expected incremental costs and net effect allowing for allocative (n < m), and displacement, inefficiency (d < m). This provides an appropriate threshold value for the NE quadrant. In this paper, I show that for trade-offs in the SW quadrant, where new strategies have lower expected net cost while lower expected net effect than current practice, the opportunity cost is contraction of the least cost-effective program, with threshold ICER m. That is, in the SW quadrant, the cost reduction per unit of decreased effect should be compared with the appropriate opportunity cost, best alternative generation of funding. Consequently, appropriate consideration of opportunity cost produces a kink in the threshold at the origin, with the health shadow price in the NE quadrant

  16. Efficiency and concordance of alternative methods for minimizing opportunity costs in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Susan E; Williams, Kristen J; Mitchell, David K

    2008-08-01

    Scarce resources and competing land-use goals necessitate efficient biodiversity conservation. Combining multicriteria analysis with conservation decision-support tools improves efficiency of conservation planning by maximizing outcomes for biodiversity while minimizing opportunity costs to society. An opportunity cost is the benefit that could have been received by taking an alternative course of action (i.e., costs to society of protecting an area for biodiversity rather than developing it for some other use). Although different ways of integrating multiple opportunity costs into conservation planning have been suggested, there have been no tests as to which method is most efficient. We compared the relative efficiency of 3 such procedures(Faith & Walker [1996], Sarkar et al. [2004], and a procedure of our own design) in a systematic conservation-planning framework for the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. We devised 14 opportunity costs and assigned these to 3 scenarios representing different conservation planning concerns: food security, macro-economic development, and biodiversity persistence. For each scenario, we compared the efficiency of the 3 methods in terms of amount of biodiversity protected relative to total expenditure for each opportunity cost. All 3 methods captured similar amounts of biodiversity, but differed in total cost. Our method had the least overall cost and was therefore most efficient. Nevertheless, there was a high correlation and geographical concordance among all 3 methods, indicating a high degree of spatial overlap. This suggests that choosing an appropriate approach may often depend on contextual factors related to the design of the planning question, rather than efficiency alone. PMID:18637906

  17. Timing with opportunity cost: Concurrent schedules of reinforcement improve peak timing

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Federico; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal generalization gradient produced by the peak-interval (PI) procedure reflects behavior under the control of positive reinforcement for responding after the criterial time, but shows negligible discouragement for early responses. The lack of consequences for premature responding may affect estimates of timing accuracy and precision in the PI procedure. In two experiments, we sought to encourage more accurate timing in pigeons by establishing an opportunity cost for such responding. Concurrent ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement reduced the dispersion of keypecking around the target time. A sequence of three response-rate states (low-high-low) characterized performance in individual trials. Opportunity cost substantially reduced the mean and standard deviation of the duration of the middle-high state that typically enveloped the target time, indicating improved temporal acuity. We suggest a model as a first-order approximation to timing with opportunity cost. PMID:19542089

  18. Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estkowski, Terri

    2008-01-01

    In life, each person is offered opportunities, one after the other, until life ceases. For the author, one of those opportunities was to attend the Kalamazoo Area Mathematics and Science Center (KAMSC), an NCSSSMST school. While attending KAMSC as a member of its inaugural class required a bit of imagination regarding the opportunity at hand, and…

  19. Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Matthias; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.; Blumentrath, Stefan; Nordén, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%. PMID:25393951

  20. Opportunity Analysis and Selection: 50 or More Ways To Reduce Costs. Mendip Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Bob; Davies, Trefor

    This paper discusses activity analysis and the identification of options as the first two stages of a structured approach to achieving budget savings at postsecondary institutions, focusing on schools and practices in the United Kingdom. It presents five checklists of opportunities for reducing spending and controlling costs. The checklists cover:…

  1. Comments on "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination": A Case in Point of No Free Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Ferraro and Taylor (2005) and Potter and Sanders (2012) have sparked a debate about the definition of opportunity cost (OC). This is, of course, ostensibly a very basic term, but Ferraro and Taylor said that most economists do not readily know its correct definition, and Potter and Sanders argued that this can be explained by the fact that there…

  2. "That "Fuego," That Fire in Their Stomach": Academically Successful Latinas/os and "Racial Opportunity Cost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; Locke, Leslie A.; Tagarao, Annel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the racial opportunity cost of academic achievement for Latina/o students who graduated from urban high schools and participated in a larger study of 18 high-achieving students of color. The article focuses on the ways the school context influenced their success. Interviews with the seven Latina/o participants reveal that…

  3. National HRD and Investment in Human Capital: Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornachione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This study explores opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades. Based on human capital theory, data from the U.S. Census, along with parameters for high education achievement (involving bachelors and advanced degrees), were fed into a forecasting model developed for this purpose. Beyond descriptive…

  4. Crowdsourcing healthcare costs: Opportunities and challenges for patient centered price transparency.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Zachary F; VonHoltz, Lauren A Houdek; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to improve health care price transparency have garnered significant attention from patients, policy makers, and health insurers. In response to increasing consumer demand, state governments, insurance plans, and health care providers are reporting health care prices. However, such data often do not provide consumers with the most salient information: their own actual out-of-pocket cost for medical care. Although untested, crowdsourcing, a mechanism for the public to help answer complex questions, represents a potential solution to the problem of opaque hospital costs. This article explores, the challenges and potential opportunities for crowdsourcing out-of-pocket costs for healthcare consumers. PMID:27001090

  5. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  6. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches. PMID:25647962

  7. Opportunities for Reducing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) compliance costs: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Wainger, Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program is an unprecedented opportunity to restore the Chesapeake Bay, yet program costs threaten to undermine its complete implementation. Analyses of Bay TMDL program design and implementation were used to relate program cost-effectiveness to choices in (1) compliance definitions, (2) geographic load allocations, and (3) approaches to engaging unregulated sources. A key finding was that many design choices require choosing an acceptable level of risk of achieving water quality outcomes, and a lack of data can lead to precautionary choices, which increase compliance costs. Furthermore, although some choices managed costs, others decisions may have reduced the potential for cost savings from water quality trading and payment programs. In particular, the choice by some states to distribute the portion of load reductions that improve water quality in the Bay mainstem to many small basins is likely to diminish the potential for market development or reduce funding for the most cost-effective nutrient and sediment reduction practices. Strategies for reducing costs of future TMDLs include considering diminishing marginal returns early in the TMDL design to balance costs and risks in regulatory goal setting and to design rules and incentives that promote innovation and cost-effective compliance strategies. PMID:22891870

  8. The Effect of Tuition and Opportunity Cost on the Pursuit and Completion of a Graduate Management Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; Powell, Irene

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used multivariate statistical analysis to examine the impact of cost on the likelihood that a person will both enroll in and complete a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. They considered both the "explicit" cost of paying tuition and the "implicit" cost, or opportunity cost, of earnings foregone while in…

  9. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    PubMed Central

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  10. Estimating the opportunity costs of biodiversity protection in the Brigalow Belt, New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Sinden, J A

    2004-04-01

    The New South Wales Government recently introduced the Native Vegetation Conservation Act to protect the native grassland and woodland of the state. The Act protects biodiversity by preventing farmers from clearing such vegetation on their properties but, as a consequence, reduces farm incomes and land values. An economic model of the relationship between land value and percentage of farm in native vegetation is integrated with an ecological model of the relationship between species lost and percentage of the farms in native vegetation. The integrated framework is applied to estimate the opportunity costs of the Act for one important agricultural area of the state, the northern part of the Brigalow Belt South Bio-Region. If all the vegetation were protected, the reduction in land value would be at least 14.3%, which is an opportunity cost of at least 148.5 dollars m for the area. Both the benefits and costs of biodiversity protection must be accounted for, so risk simulations are then combined with benefit-cost analysis to compare the benefits of biodiversity protection to these costs. PMID:15016443

  11. Analyzing and minimizing the impact of opportunity cost in QoS-aware job scheduling.

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.; Balaji, P.; Sabin, G.; Sadayappan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) mechanisms allowing users to request for turn-around time guarantees for their jobs have recently generated much interest. In our previous work we had designed a framework, QoPS, to allow for such QoS. This framework provides an admission control mechanism that only accepts jobs whose requested deadlines can be met and, once accepted, guarantees these deadlines. However, the framework is completely blind to the revenue these jobs can fetch for the supercomputer center. By accepting a job, the supercomputer center might relinquish its capability to accept some future arriving (and potentially more expensive) jobs. In other words, while each job pays an explicit price to the system for running it, the system may also be viewed as paying an implicit opportunity cost by accepting the job. Thus, accepting a job is profitable only when the job's price is higher than its opportunity cost. In this paper we analyze the impact such opportunity cost can have on the overall revenue of the supercomputer center and attempt to minimize it through predictive techniques. Specifically, we propose two extensions to QoPS, Value-aware QoPS (VQoPS) and Dynamic Value-aware QoPS (DVQoPS), to provide such capabilities. We present detailed analysis of these schemes and demonstrate using simulation that they not only achieve several factors improvement in system revenue, but also good service differentiation as a much desired side-effect.

  12. Opportunity costs of reward delays and the discounting of hypothetical money and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the "magnitude effect," steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  13. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  14. The cost of prospecting for dispersal opportunities in a social bird

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why individuals delay dispersal and become subordinates within a group is central to studying the evolution of sociality. Hypotheses predict that dispersal decisions are influenced by costs of extra-territorial prospecting that are often required to find a breeding vacancy. Little is known about such costs, partly because it is complicated to demonstrate them empirically. For example, prospecting individuals may be of inferior quality already before prospecting and/or have been evicted. Moreover, costs of prospecting are mainly studied in species where prospectors suffer from predation risk, so how costly prospecting is when predators are absent remains unclear. Here, we determine a cost of prospecting for subordinate Seychelles warblers, Acrocephalus sechellensis, in a population where predators are absent and individuals return to their resident territory after prospecting. Prospecting individuals had 5.2% lower body mass than non-prospecting individuals. Our evidence suggests this may be owing to frequent attacks by resident conspecifics, likely leading to reduced food intake by prospectors. These results support the hypothesis that energetic costs associated with dispersal opportunities are one factor influencing dispersal decisions and shaping the evolution of delayed dispersal in social animals. PMID:27330175

  15. Gender Equity, Opportunity Costs of Parenthood, and Educational Differences in Unintended First Births: Insights from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Raymo, James M.; Musick, Kelly; Iwasawa, Miho

    2014-01-01

    We examine educational differences in the intendedness of first births in Japan using data from a nationally representative survey of married women (N = 2,373). We begin by describing plausible scenarios for a negative, null, and positive educational gradient in unintended first births. In contrast to well-established results from the U.S., we find evidence of a positive educational gradient in Japan. Net of basic demographic controls, university graduates are more likely than less-educated women to report first births as unintended. This pattern is consistent with a scenario emphasizing the high opportunity costs of motherhood in countries such as Japan where growing opportunities for women in employment and other domains of public life have not been accompanied by changes in the highly asymmetric roles of men and women within the family. We discuss potential implications of this suggestive finding for other low-fertility settings. PMID:25914433

  16. The Importance of Predation Risk and Missed Opportunity Costs for Context-Dependent Foraging Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eccard, Jana A.; Liesenjohann, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    Correct assessment of risks and costs of foraging is vital for the fitness of foragers. Foragers should avoid predation risk and balance missed opportunities. In risk-heterogeneous landscapes animals prefer safer locations over riskier, constituting a landscape of fear. Risk-uniform landscapes do not offer this choice, all locations are equally risky. Here we investigate the effects of predation risk in patches, travelling risk between patches, and missed social opportunities on foraging decisions in risk-uniform and risk-heterogeous landscapes. We investigated patch leaving decisions of 20 common voles (M. arvalis) in three experimental landscapes: safe risk-uniform, risky risk-uniform and risk-heterogeneous. We varied both the predation risk level and the predation risk distribution between two patches experimentally and in steps, assuming that our manipulation consequently yield different distributions and levels of risk while foraging, risk while travelling, and costs of missed, social opportunities (MSOCs). We measured mean GUDs (giving-up density of food left in the patch) for both patches as a measure of foraging gain, and delta GUD, the differences among patches, as a measure of the spatial distribution of foraging effort over a period of six hours. Distribution of foraging effort was most even in the safe risk-uniform landscapes and least even in the risk-heterogeneous landscape, with risky risk-uniform landscapes in between. Foraging gain was higher in the safe than in the two riskier landscapes (both uniform and heterogeneous). Results supported predictions for the effects of risk in foraging patches and while travelling between patches, however predictions for the effects of missed social opportunities were not met in this short term experiment. Thus, both travelling and foraging risk contribute to distinct patterns observable high risk, risk-uniform landscapes. PMID:24809666

  17. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  18. Learning the opportunity cost of time in a patch-foraging task.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Sara M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-12-01

    Although most decision research concerns choice between simultaneously presented options, in many situations options are encountered serially, and the decision is whether to exploit an option or search for a better one. Such problems have a rich history in animal foraging, but we know little about the psychological processes involved. In particular, it is unknown whether learning in these problems is supported by the well-studied neurocomputational mechanisms involved in more conventional tasks. We investigated how humans learn in a foraging task, which requires deciding whether to harvest a depleting resource or switch to a replenished one. The optimal choice (given by the marginal value theorem; MVT) requires comparing the immediate return from harvesting to the opportunity cost of time, which is given by the long-run average reward. In two experiments, we varied opportunity cost across blocks, and subjects adjusted their behavior to blockwise changes in environmental characteristics. We examined how subjects learned their choice strategies by comparing choice adjustments to a learning rule suggested by the MVT (in which the opportunity cost threshold is estimated as an average over previous rewards) and to the predominant incremental-learning theory in neuroscience, temporal-difference learning (TD). Trial-by-trial decisions were explained better by the MVT threshold-learning rule. These findings expand on the foraging literature, which has focused on steady-state behavior, by elucidating a computational mechanism for learning in switching tasks that is distinct from those used in traditional tasks, and suggest connections to research on average reward rates in other domains of neuroscience. PMID:25917000

  19. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  20. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  1. Can the real opportunity cost stand up: displaced services, the straw man outside the room.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Pekarsky, Brita

    2014-04-01

    In current literature, displaced services have been suggested to provide a basis for determining a threshold value for the effects of a new technology as part of a reimbursement process when budgets are fixed. We critically examine the conditions under which displaced services would represent an economically meaningful threshold value. We first show that if we assume that the least cost-effective services are displaced to finance a new technology, then the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the displaced services (d) only coincides with that related to the opportunity cost of adopting that new technology, the ICER of the most cost-effective service in expansion (n), under highly restrictive conditions-namely, complete allocative efficiency in existing provision of health care interventions. More generally, reimbursement of new technology with a fixed budget comprises two actions; adoption and financing through displacement and the effect of reimbursement is the net effect of these two actions. In order for the reimbursement process to be a pathway to allocative efficiency within a fixed budget, the net effect of the strategy of reimbursement is compared with the most cost-effective alternative strategy for reimbursement: optimal reallocation, the health gain maximizing expansion of existing services financed by the health loss minimizing contraction. The shadow price of the health effects of a new technology, βc = (1/n + 1/d - 1/m)(-1), accounts for both imperfect displacement (the ICER of the displaced service, d < m, the ICER of the least cost-effective of the existing services in contraction) and the allocative inefficiency (n < m) characteristic of health systems. PMID:24515251

  2. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are

  3. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  4. Intraguild Interactions between Egg Parasitoids: Window of Opportunity and Fitness Costs for a Facultative Hyperparasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Amodeo, Valentina; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Colazza, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated intraguild interactions between two egg parasitoids of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), Ooencyrtus telenomicida (Vassiliev) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), as the former has the potential to be a facultative hyperparasitoid of the latter. We assessed the suitability of N. viridula eggs for the development of O. telenomicida as a function of egg age when they were unparasitized, or had been attacked by T. basalis at different times prior to exposure to O. telenomicida females. Ooencyrtus telenomicida can exploit healthy N. viridula host eggs up to 5 days of age, just prior to the emergence of N. viridula. This window of opportunity can be extended for an additional 6–7 days through interspecific competition or facultative hyperparasitism. While there are minor fitness costs for O. telenomicida as the result of interspecific larval competition, those costs are greater with facultative hyperparasitism. In choice assays O. telenomicida females discriminated between different quality N. viridula eggs, avoiding those where their progeny would have to develop as facultative hyperparasitoids of T. basalis. Results are discussed with respect to the possible effects that the costs of intraguild parasitism might have on biological control programmes. PMID:23705009

  5. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    To realise the full potential of modern low cost mini-micro-nano-satellite missions, regular and affordable launch opportunities are required. It is simply not economic to launch individual satellites of 5-300kg on single dedicated launchers costing typically 15-20M per launch. Whilst there have been periodic 'piggy-back' launches of small satellites on US launchers since the 1960's, these have been infrequent and often experienced significant delays due the vagaries of the main (paying!) payload. In 1989, Arianespace provided a critical catalyst to the microsatellite community when it imaginatively developed the ASAP platform on Ariane-4 providing, for the first time, a standard interface and affordable launch contracts for small payloads up to 50kg. During the 1990's, some 20 small satellites have been successfully launched on the Ariane-4 ASAP ring for international customers carrying out a range of operational, technology demonstration and training missions. However, most of these microsatellite missions seek low Earth orbit and especially sun-synchronous orbits, but the number of primary missions into these orbit has declined since 1996 and with it the availability of useful low cost launch opportunities for microsatellites. Whilst Ariane-5 has an enhanced capacity ASAP, it has yet to be widely used due both to the infrequent launches, higher costs, and the GTO orbit required by the majority of customers. China, Japan and India have also provided occasional secondary launches for small payloads, but not yet on a regular basis. Fortunately, the growing interest and demand for microsatellite missions coincided with the emergence of regular, low cost launch opportunities from the former Soviet Union (FSU) - both as secondary 'piggy-back' missions or as multiple microsatellite payloads on converted military ICBMs. Indeed, the FSU now supplies the only affordable means of launching minisatellites (200-500kg) into LEO as dedicated missions on converted missiles as

  6. An Exploration of the Relationships among Size, Cost, and Selected Educational Opportunities in Certain Texas Public Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas Earl

    For 31 Texas public junior colleges, this study analyzed revenues, expenditures, and ability to support a stratified program according to enrollment, and explored the relationships among size, cost, and selected educational opportunities. Data were collected from questionnaires, professional literature, documents of the Texas Education Agency, and…

  7. Beyond simple utility in predicting self-control fatigue: a proximate alternative to the opportunity cost model.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2013-12-01

    The opportunity cost model offers an ultimate explanation of ego depletion that helps to move the field beyond biologically improbable resource accounts. The model's more proximate explanation, however, falls short of accounting for much data and is based on an outdated view of human rationality. We suggest that our own process model offers a better proximate account of self-control fatigue. PMID:24304793

  8. Trends in Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education: A National HRD and Human Capital Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades (1975-2005), as a measure to support investment decisions at national levels and as experienced by individuals deciding on pursuing further education. Based on human capital theory and inspired by a set of studies aiming at…

  9. Between Too Little and Too Late: Political Opportunity Costs in Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Vandenbergh, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Discussion of climate policy has focused almost exclusively on comprehensive regulatory instruments to price emissions with tradeable permits or emissions taxes. More recently, a number of proposals have been advanced to abandon comprehensive emissions pricing in favor of focusing exclusively on clean-energy innovation. Neither approach adequately accounts for the combination of timing and scale. Advocates of emissions pricing are persuasive that this is the most likely way to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at desirable levels. However, as innovation advocates point out, the political climate is inhospitable to such sweeping regulations and it is unlikely that comprehensive carbon pricing can be enacted and implemented in the next decade. However, clean-energy innovation by itself is a high-stakes gamble that may fail to reduce emissions sufficiently to stabilize GHG concentrations, and may reduce support for the kind of comprehensive pricing measures that could stabilize GHG concentrations.We propose that analysis of climate policies take account of the opportunity costs associated with the process of enacting a proposed policy: If one measure is much more controversial than another, how does the difference in time necessary to persuade the public and legislators to adopt them affect their ultimate impact? As General Patton is reputed to have said, "A good solution applied with vigor now is better than a perfect solution applied ten minutes later." Similarly, it is important to consider whether adopting one measure would build or erode support for complementary ones. As an example, we consider the largely neglected role of nonregulatory measures, such as private governance and household-level behavior change, as examples of actions that could buy time by producing rapid, although modest, impacts without eroding support for more comprehensive measures later on.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  11. Modeling the cost effectiveness of injury interventions in lower and middle income countries: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M; Hyder, Adnan A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of five interventions that could counter injuries in lower and middle income countries(LMICs): better traffic enforcement, erecting speed bumps, promoting helmets for bicycles, promoting helmets for motorcycles, and storing kerosene in child proof containers. Methods We adopt an ingredients based approach to form models of what each intervention would cost in 6 world regions over a 10 year period discounted at both 3% and 6% from both the governmental and societal perspectives. Costs are expressed in local currency converted into US $2001. Each of these interventions has been assessed for effectiveness in a LMIC in limited region, these effectiveness estimates have been used to form models of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted for various regions, taking account of regional differences in the baseline burden of injury. Results The interventions modeled in this paper have cost effectiveness ratios ranging from US $5 to $ 556 per DALY averted depending on region. Depending on local acceptability thresholds many of them could be judged cost-effective relative to interventions that are already adopted. Enhanced enforcement of traffic regulations is the most cost-effective interventions with an average cost per DALY of $64 Conclusion Injury counter measures appear to be cost-effective based on models. More evaluations of real interventions will help to strengthen the evidence basis. PMID:16423285

  12. The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, George

    2008-01-01

    Most colleges and universities offer study abroad programs, and an increasing number of students participate in such programs. The cost of offering and promoting study abroad programs is often misunderstood and incorrectly assessed. This paper provides an analysis of study abroad costs that will be of general interest, but will be especially…

  13. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. PMID:23126406

  14. Examining Health Care Costs: Opportunities to Provide Value in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Chang, Beverly; Lorenzo, Javier; Macario, Alex

    2015-12-01

    As health care costs threaten the economic stability of American society, increasing pressures to focus on value-based health care have led to the development of protocols for fast-track cardiac surgery and for delirium management. Critical care services can be led by anesthesiologists with the goal of improving ICU outcomes and at the same time decreasing the rising cost of ICU medicine. PMID:26610628

  15. Technological opportunities in energy management controls systems: ways of lowering installation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-08-01

    Installation costs comprise the principal economic obstacle to the diffusion of energy management control systems (EMCS) into more plants and buildings. This paper examines ways of lowering these costs. Four alternatives to traditional dedicated wiring are considered--power line carrier (PLC), FM radio frequency equipment (RF), telephone lines and local area networks (LANs). Major benefits and limitations of these options are discussed, as well as areas for technical improvement.

  16. Early discharge of infectious disease patients: an opportunity or extra cost for the Italian Healthcare System?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Fabrizio; Alberici, Francesco; Deales, Alberto; Furneri, Gianluca; Menichetti, Francesco; Orchi, Nicoletta; Quesada-Rodriguez, Carolina; Pilli, Stefano; Rapisarda, Franco; Tassielli, Domenica; Tringali, Michele; Esposito, Silvano; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the economic benefits of an early discharge (ED) programme for patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) in terms of hospital and regional authority costs, an economic analysis was conducted comparing two possible alternatives: standard hospital management vs. an ED strategy followed by a period of outpatient management. Utilization of resources and costs were derived from the literature and expert panel evaluation. Patients were classified into four groups: low-intensity non-walking (LINW), low-intensity walking (LIW), high-intensity non-walking (HINW) and high-intensity walking (HIW). The overall costs (inpatient/outpatient) of hospitalization with ED for cSSTIs range from Euros 2,079 for LIW to Euros 2,193 for HINW, with the most expensive regimen (HINW) being 50% lower than the costs for 12.6 days of hospitalization alone (Euros 4,619). The weighted average Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement for cSSTIs (Euros 2,042) does not cover the costs of such hospitalization. In conclusion, when a patient's conditions allow for early discharge there is an economic advantage for the hospital with an outpatient management plan, especially for patients requiring low-intensity care. However, this could be disadvantageous in terms of regional costs if outpatient management has to be paid in addition to payment by the DRG. PMID:24335457

  17. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe. PMID:24852090

  18. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  19. Generation of low cost sugars from wheat straw: Progress, opportunities, and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat straw (WS) is a low cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. It contains about 35-45% cellulose, 20-30% hemicelluloses, and 8-15% lignin. Generation of sugars from WS involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as native WS is very resistant to enzymatic...

  20. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  1. Cost Reduction in University Information Systems: The Opportunities and the Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aherne, Michael P.; Navarro, Joseph J.

    Computerized information systems are often installed to reduce costs of: (1) system maintenance by requiring fewer man-hours, (2) system enhancement by requiring less manpower, (3) mechanical efficiency by doing more per clock-hour of time, (4) personnel by substituting machine expenditures, (5) supplies and support services by using microforms or…

  2. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    fracturing and produced water issues relate to the larger water-energy nexus. Specifically, this study develops a play-specific model to compare the decision factors and costs involved in managing produced water. For example, when transport distances to a wastewater disposal site are far enough, options for recycling water become more favorable, depending on the characteristics of each play. This model can provide policymakers and other interested parties with cost estimates of different water management options, including a better understanding of the costs and opportunities associated with recycling produced water. This work provides a cross-play assessment of produced water management options and costs and could serve as the foundation for more detailed analyses of opportunities to minimize hydraulic fracturing's impacts on freshwater resources.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  4. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs. PMID:27451632

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  6. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration: opportunities for 21st century agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Crop genotypes with reduced metabolic costs of soil exploration would have improved water and nutrient acquisition. Three strategies to achieve this goal are (1) production of the optimum number of axial roots; (2) greater biomass allocation to root classes that are less metabolically demanding; and (3) reduction of the respiratory requirement of root tissue. An example of strategy 1 is the case of reduced crown root number in maize, which is associated with greater rooting depth, N capture and yield in low N soil. An example of strategy 2 is the case of increased hypocotyl-borne rooting in bean, which decreases root cost and increases P capture from low P soil. Examples of strategy 3 are the cases of increased formation of root cortical aerenchyma, decreased cortical cell file number and increased cortical cell size in maize, which decrease specific root respiration, increase rooting depth and increase water capture and yield under water stress. Root cortical aerenchyma also increases N capture and yield under N stress. Root phenes that reduce the metabolic cost of soil exploration are promising, underexploited avenues to the climate-resilient, resource-efficient crops that are urgently needed in global agriculture. PMID:25255708

  7. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  8. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32 201±$23 059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  9. ED-based screening programs for hepatitis C (HCV) highlight significant opportunity to identify patients, prevent downstream costs/complications.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    New data suggest there is a huge opportunity for EDs to identify patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and link them into care before downstream complications lead to higher medical costs and adverse outcomes. Early results from a pilot study at the University of Alabama Medical Center in Birmingham show that at least 12% of the targeted baby boomer population being screened for HCV in the ED is testing positive for HCV, with confirmatory tests showing that about 9% of the screened population is infected with the disease. Both the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time HCV screening for patients who were born between 1945 and 1965. Public health experts say 75% of HCV infections occur in patients born during the baby boomer years, and that roughly half of them are unaware of their HCV status. Researchers at UAB report that so many patients are testing positive for HCV that demand for care can quickly overwhelm the health system if new primary care/specialty resources are not identified. Administrators of ED-based HCV screening programs in both Birmingham and Houston note that EDs with existing screening programs for HIV should have the easiest time implementing HCV screening. They also stress that patients are more accepting of HCV screening, and that the counseling process is easier. PMID:24432549

  10. Diversity, College Costs, and Postsecondary Opportunity: An Examination of the Financial Nexus between College Choice and Persistence for African Americans and Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Paulsen, Michael B.; Carter, Deborah Faye

    2005-01-01

    Questions about how student financial aid and the costs of attending college influence educational opportunity for diverse racial groups have lurked beneath the surface of the policy debates about higher education for decades. When the Higher Education Act (HEA) was passed in 1965, there was a general acceptance that the federal government had a…

  11. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  13. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  14. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    PubMed

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  15. Modulation of Habitat-Based Conservation Plans by Fishery Opportunity Costs: A New Caledonia Case Study Using Fine-Scale Catch Data

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50–60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15–25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  16. Agribusiness Opportunity Costs and Environmental Legal Protection: Investigating Trade-Off on Hotspot Preservation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km2 covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  17. Evaluating Opportunities for Achieving Cost Efficiencies Through the Introduction of PrePex Device Male Circumcision in Adult VMMC Programs in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Naminga; Yano, Nanako; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mpasela, Felton; Muguza, Edward; Mangono, Tichakunda; Madidi, Ngonidzashe; Samona, Alick; Tagar, Elva; Hatzold, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from recent costing studies have put into question potential Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) cost savings with the introduction of the PrePex device. Methods: We evaluated the cost drivers and the overall unit cost of VMMC for a variety of service delivery models providing either surgical VMMC or both PrePex and surgery using current program data in Zimbabwe and Zambia. In Zimbabwe, 3 hypothetical PrePex only models were also included. For all models, clients aged 18 years and older were assumed to be medically eligible for PrePex and uptake was based on current program data from sites providing both methods. Direct costs included costs for consumables, including surgical VMMC kits for the forceps-guided method, device (US $12), human resources, demand creation, supply chain, waste management, training, and transport. Results: Results for both countries suggest limited potential for PrePex to generate cost savings when adding the device to current surgical service delivery models. However, results for the hypothetical rural Integrated PrePex model in Zimbabwe suggest the potential for material unit cost savings (US $35 per VMMC vs. US $65–69 for existing surgical models). Conclusions: This analysis illustrates that models designed to leverage PrePex's advantages, namely the potential for integrating services in rural clinics and less stringent infrastructure requirements, may present opportunities for improved cost efficiency and service integration. Countries seeking to scale up VMMC in rural settings might consider integrating PrePex only MC services at the primary health care level to reduce costs while also increasing VMMC access and coverage. PMID:27331598

  18. Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? A Benefit/Cost Analysis of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; McShane, Michael

    2013-01-01

    School voucher programs have become a prominent aspect of the education policy landscape in the United States. The DC Opportunity Scholarship Program is the only federally funded voucher program in the United States. Since 2004 it has offered publicly funded private school vouchers to nearly four thousand students to attend any of seventy-three…

  19. Opportunities for Efficiency and Innovation: A Primer on How to Cut College Costs. Working Paper 2011-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Vance H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how colleges whose primary mission is undergraduate education can strategically allocate resources in a way that reduces costs and prioritizes teaching and learning. He starts from a provocative thought-experiment--what would it cost to educate undergraduates at a hypothetical college built from scratch?--and uses…

  20. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  2. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  3. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  5. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  8. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  9. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  10. Cured of Primary Bone Cancer, But at What Cost: A Qualitative Study of Functional Impairment and Lost Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fauske, Lena; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Grov, Ellen Karine; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3–7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n = 10) previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: “their current daily life,” “their future opportunities,” and “their identity.” They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity. PMID:25949211

  11. Personalized medicine and genomics: challenges and opportunities in assessing effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Conti, Rena; Veenstra, David L; Armstrong, Katrina; Lesko, Lawrence J; Grosse, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    Personalized medicine is health care that tailors interventions to individual variation in risk and treatment response. Although medicine has long strived to achieve this goal, advances in genomics promise to facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. A symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making on 23 October 2007 highlighted the challenges and opportunities posed in translating advances in molecular medicine into clinical practice. A panel of US experts in medical practice, regulatory policy, technology assessment, and the financing and organization of medical innovation was asked to discuss the current state of practice and research on personalized medicine as it relates to their own field. This article reports on the issues raised, discusses potential approaches to meet these challenges, and proposes directions for future work. The case of genetic testing to inform dosing with warfarin, an anticoagulant, is used to illustrate differing perspectives on evidence and decision making for personalized medicine. PMID:20086232

  12. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  14. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges for Cost-Efficient Implementation of New Point-of-Care Diagnostics for HIV and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Trevor F.; Cavanaugh, Sean; Piatek, Amy S.; Young, Gloria J.; Alexander, Heather; Coggin, William; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Ellenberger, Dennis; Ermantraut, Eugen; Jani, Ilesh V.; Katamba, Achilles; Palamountain, Kara M.; Essajee, Shaffiq; Dowdy, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholders agree that supporting high-quality diagnostics is essential if we are to continue to make strides in the fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Despite the need to strengthen existing laboratory infrastructure, which includes expanding and developing new laboratories, there are clear diagnostic needs where conventional laboratory support is insufficient. Regarding HIV, rapid point-of-care (POC) testing for initial HIV diagnosis has been successful, but several needs remain. For tuberculosis, several new diagnostic tests have recently been endorsed by the World Health Organization, but a POC test remains elusive. Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis are coendemic in many high prevalence locations, making parallel diagnosis of these conditions an important consideration. Despite its clear advantages, POC testing has important limitations, and laboratory-based testing will continue to be an important component of future diagnostic networks. Ideally, a strategic deployment plan should be used to define where and how POC technologies can be most efficiently and cost effectively integrated into diagnostic algorithms and existing test networks prior to widespread scale-up. In this fashion, the global community can best harness the tremendous capacity of novel diagnostics in fighting these 2 scourges. PMID:22457286

  16. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  17. Estimating the opportunity costs of environmental conservation in the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Machado, F H; Mattedi, A P; Dupas, F A; Silva, L F; Vergara, F E

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to infer the opportunity cost of land use of the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil), in order to estimate the financial resources necessary to compensate landowners willing to convert their production areas into areas of environmental preservation. Net values were estimated by calculating the Annual Value and the Net Present Value of each activity. The area used for agricultural production was estimated using the Land Cover Map of the watershed. The study involved four production areas: forestry, livestock, sugarcane and orange, accounting for 66% of the watershed area of 22,300 hectares. Considering a scenario of total consent from landowners, the 2011 net annual values were estimated at R$ 13.4 million: R$ 2.2 million (eucalyptus), R$ 1.9 million (livestock), R$ 1.1 million (sugarcane) and R$ 8.2 million (orange). This amount would be used as payment for ecosystem services. PMID:26909620

  18. Desalting ``opportunity crudes``

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The escalating cost of environmental compliance, combined with fluctuating market conditions, have refiners struggling to remain profitable. To help maintain profitability, many refiners are realigning their processes and resources to allow them to run heavier, lower cost, opportunity crudes. Many of these heavier crudes are difficult to desalt (due to the lower density difference between the crude and water), and can significantly contribute to downstream corrosion, fouling and catalyst poisoning. Consequently, effective desalting is a critical first step to successfully processing these crudes. The real challenge when desalting these crudes is to maintain clean effluent brine and at the same time minimize total operating costs. Lose control of either, and the economic benefit of processing opportunity crudes in the first place can be diminished. This paper will discuss how recent technological advancements, specifically emulsion polymers combined with a patented split feed application technique, can help maintain optimum desalter performance and minimize overall treatment costs when processing opportunity crudes.

  19. Existing Whole-House Case Study: Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations.

  20. Maintenance of State Effort for Higher Education: "Barriers to Equal Educational Opportunity in Addressing the Rising Costs of a College Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, F. King

    2011-01-01

    A Maintenance of Effort (MOE) provision for higher education was first adopted in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 and was included as a requirement for states to participate in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The information in this article was presented before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on…

  1. Seizing Opportunity: "Opportunity as Transformation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael; Muller, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity creates conditions for achievement. We learn daily of the success of others that resulted from conditions they created through opportunity. Often these conditions of opportunity are the product of a compelling vision of a future steeped in possibility and rich in reward. These visions, however, must be operationalized in order to be…

  2. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  3. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  4. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  5. Digital Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…

  6. Growth opportunity.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Frances

    2014-06-10

    As a career development opportunity, RCN congress is unparalleled. Debates, fringe meetings, seminars, start-up events for new specialties and interest groups, product launches and networking opportunities for nurses to learn about developments in other workplaces all take place against a backdrop of one of the largest exhibitions at any conference. PMID:24894258

  7. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  8. The Costs to the Nation of Inadequate Education. A Report Prepared for the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the costs to the nation of the inadequate education of a substantial portion of the population, where an inadequate education for the latter third of the twentieth century was defined as an attainment of less than high school graduation. Using data from the Department of Commerce and other sources in…

  9. Reducing hospital expenditures with the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment) program for parents and premature infants: an analysis of direct healthcare neonatal intensive care unit costs and savings.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Feinstein, Nancy Fischbeck

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 premature infants are born in the United States every year. Preterm birth results in a multitude of negative adverse outcomes for children, including extended stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), developmental delays, physical and mental health/behavioral problems, increased medical utilization, and poor academic performance. In addition, parents of preterms experience a higher incidence of depression and anxiety disorders along with altered parent-infant interactions and overprotective parenting, which negatively impact their children. The costs associated with preterm birth are exorbitant. In 2005, it is estimated that preterm birth cost the United States $26.2 billion. The purpose of this study was to perform a cost analysis of the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for parents of premature infants, a manualized educational-behavioral intervention program comprising audiotaped information and an activity workbook that is administered to parents in 4 phases, the first phase commencing 2 to 4 days after admission to the NICU. Findings indicated that the COPE program resulted in cost savings of at least $4864 per infant. In addition to improving parent and child outcomes, routine implementation of COPE in NICUs across the United States could save the healthcare system more than $2 billion per year. PMID:19092521

  10. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  11. Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis programs in resource-limited settings: opportunities for improved outcomes and more cost-effective interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV-1 infection confers substantial benefits to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected infants, to their families, and to programs providing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, but has been challenging to implement in resource-limited settings. In order to correctly inform parents/caregivers of infant infection status and link HIV-infected infants to care and treatment, a 'cascade' of events must successfully occur. A frequently cited barrier to expansion of EID programs is the cost of the required laboratory assays. However, substantial implementation barriers, as well as personnel and infrastructure requirements, exist at each step in the cascade. In this update, we review challenges to uptake at each step in the EID cascade, highlighting that even with the highest reported levels of uptake, nearly half of HIV-infected infants may not complete the cascade successfully. We next synthesize the available literature about the costs and cost effectiveness of EID programs; identify areas for future research; and place these findings within the context of the benefits and challenges to EID implementation in resource-limited settings. PMID:21599888

  12. Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    The Water Power Program focuses on technological development, and deployment of innovative technologies capable of generating electricity from water. The program funds research and development activities through competitive solicitations. Financial opportunities are avaliable here.

  13. Opportunity's Travels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview map made from Mars Orbiter camera images illustrates the path that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has taken from its first sol on the red planet through its 87th sol. After thoroughly examining its 'Eagle Crater' landing-site, the rover moved onto the plains of Meridiani Planum, stopping to examine a curious trough and a target within it called 'Anatolia.' Following that, Opportunity approached and remotely studied the rocky dish called 'Fram Crater.' As of its 91st sol (April 26, 2004), the rover sits 160 meters (about 525 feet) from the rim of 'Endurance Crater.'

  14. Creating Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In this age of greater accountability, local school districts within the USA increasingly use summer school programs as an intervention service to provide students who have failed to meet classroom, district, or state performance requirements with the opportunity to "catch up." Although such programs attempt to provide varying types of…

  15. Computers and Social Knowledge; Opportunities and Opportunity Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael

    Educators must use computers to move society beyond the information age and toward the age of wisdom. The movement toward knowledge and wisdom constitutes an evolution beyond the "third wave" or electronic/information age, the phase of history in which, according to Alvin Toffler, we are now living. We are already moving into a fourth wave, the…

  16. Opportunity's Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Long Term Planning graphic was created from a mosaic of navigation camera images overlain by a polar coordinate grid with the center point as Opportunity's original landing site. The blue dots represent the rover position at various locations.

    The red dots represent the center points of the target areas for the instruments on the rover mast (the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer). Opportunity visited Stone Mountain on Feb. 5. Stone Mountain was named after the southernmost point of the Appalachian Mountains outside of Atlanta, Ga. On Earth, Stone Mountain is the last big mountain before the Piedmont flatlands, and on Mars, Stone Mountain is at one end of Opportunity Ledge. El Capitan is a target of interest on Mars named after the second highest peak in Texas in Guadaloupe National Park, which is one of the most visited outcrops in the United States by geologists. It has been a training ground for students and professional geologists to understand what the layering means in relation to the formation of Earth, and scientists will study this prominent point of Opportunity Ledge to understand what the layering means on Mars.

    The yellow lines show the midpoint where the panoramic camera has swept and will sweep a 120-degree area from the three waypoints on the tour of the outcrop. Imagine a fan-shaped wedge from left to right of the yellow line.

    The white contour lines are one meter apart, and each drive has been roughly about 2-3 meters in length over the last few sols. The large white blocks are dropouts in the navigation camera data.

    Opportunity is driving along and taking a photographic panorama of the entire outcrop. Scientists will stitch together these images and use the new mosaic as a 'base map' to decide on geology targets of interest for a more detailed study of the outcrop using the instruments on the robotic arm. Once scientists choose their targets of interest, they plan to study the outcrop for roughly five to

  17. Lost Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that failure to improve the quality of public education since publication of "A Nation at Risk" has cost the American economy hundreds of billions of dollars in unrealized growth. Asserts that policymakers must look beyond the largely ineffective efforts to improve school quality by increasing expenditures and reducing class size. (PKP)

  18. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    Interviews were conducted with 184 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students to determine patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing. In the first portion of the 35-minute interview, respondents were presented with a current daily television listing and asked to indicate which programs they normally watched. To…

  19. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    1984-01-01

    This study explored patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing among middle school children. Findings are compared with those of Robinson's study (1981) for alternative media, video games, and sleeping variables, as well as dichotomous measures for group membership, playing a musical instrument, and hobbies.…

  20. Opportunity emerges

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, S.

    1995-01-01

    Indian is one of the largest potential markets for private power. Shri P.V. Rangayya Naidu, Minister of State for Power, details the opportunities his country offers. Electricity plays a key role in the Indian economy, and its consumption is an indicator of productivity and growth. Development in the power sector has been given a high priority. Despite remarkable growth, India still faces power shortages. After rigorous review of the power sector the Government of India (GOI) is doubtful of reaching new capacity goals. It has therefore become imperature to accelerate capacity growth. To bridge the power gap the GOI is encouraging private participation. In 1991 the GOI had opened its doors to both foreign and domestic investors. Since then the legal, financial, and administrative framework has been modified to suit investors and developers. The present economic reforms pave the way for a smooth transition.

  1. Community Opportunity, Perceptions of Opportunity, and the Odds of an Adolescent Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne; Sugland, Barbara; Manlove, Jennifer; Papillo, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the opportunity cost framework to predict the risk of a teen birth is tested by analyzing the relationship between adolescents perceptions of opportunity and the odds of a teen birth across levels of community opportunity. Patterns of this relationship are compared across African American, Latina, and White teens and across…

  2. Policy opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

  3. Nikola Tesla Educational Opportunity School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Nikola Tesla Educational Opportunity School in Colorado Springs, Colorado. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  4. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

  5. A Guide To Measuring College Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that full-cost models in higher education fail to account correctly for capital and financial aid expenditures. Urges full accounting of all cost drivers that impact on higher education expenditures, e.g., operating costs, maintenance costs, physical capital costs, the current replacement value of capital stock, and the opportunity cost of…

  6. Evaluation of the Quantum Opportunities Program (QOP). Did the Program Work? A Report on the Post Secondary Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of the QOP Program (1989-1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Andrew; And Others

    The Quantum Opportunities Project (QOP) was a multisite youth development demonstration project funded by the Ford Foundation in San Antonio (Texas), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), Milwaukee (Wisconsin), Saginaw (Michigan), and Oklahoma City (Oklahoma). The programs, organized around educational activities, guaranteed up to 250 hours of education,…

  7. 75 FR 52956 - Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Older Americans Act (OAA), Title VI, Part A... funding opportunity. Funding Opportunity Number: Program Announcement No. is HHS-2011-...

  8. Novel catalyst widens octane opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, G.

    1987-01-01

    Of the octane upgrading options available, refiners are focusing on those which offer a low upgrading cost, a low capital cost and a short implementation time. The BP ETHEROL Process with the novel trifunctional catalyst satisfies all of these requirements and, with the added ability to produce heavier ethers than just MTBE, provides a new opportunity for octane enhancement. The trifunctional catalyst combines the benefits of etherification, diolefin hydrogenation and olefin isomerisation in one single catalyst and for essentially no incremental investment relative to a conventional MTBE unit. The economics demonstrate that at an upgrading cost of 15 cents per octane barrel, the BP ETHEROL Process is highly competitive with other octane upgrading options.

  9. New Suborbital Flight Opportunities and Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltman, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    New opportunities for suborbital research are on the horizon. Reusable suborbital vehicles will offer immediate and routine space access for scientific payloads, provide access to altitudes around 100 kilometers, create opportunities for low-cost monitoring of upper atmospheric phenomena, as well as small scale solar observation. Reduced operational cost and quick turn-around will enable equipment to be flown opportunistically, in response to specific solar activity, or in continuous test and improvement cycles. Suborbital test flights will also provide opportunities to test prospective satellite instruments in an extended microgravity environment before being launched to orbit, raising the technology readiness level (TRL) of flight hardware and reducing the risk of anomalies during missions. I discuss the capabilities of emerging suborbital vehicles, payload and integration requirements, and funding opportunities for suborbital flights at NASA.

  10. Opportunities Center. Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimeldorf, Martin

    The opportunities center is a new school service concept that can help students find opportunities related to their talents and interests in work, education, leisure, small business, or community service. The opportunities center model expands the career center model into an information search center offering multiple services that link academic…

  11. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  12. Opportunities in respiratory drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N; Giles, Rachael D

    2014-12-01

    A wide range of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease products are soon to be released onto the inhaled therapies market and differentiation between these devices will help them to gain market share over their competitors. Current legislation is directing healthcare towards being more efficient and cost-effective in order to continually provide quality care despite the challenges of aging populations and fewer resources. Devices and drugs that can be differentiated by producing improved patient outcomes would, therefore, be likely to win market share. In this perspective article, the current and potential opportunities for the successful delivery and differentiation of new inhaled drug products are discussed. PMID:25531928

  13. Vehicle Technologies Program Funding Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides funding opportunities for advanced vehicle technology projects that are aimed at removing technical and cost barriers. Much of the funding available to the Vehicle Technologies Program is distributed to private firms, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, state and local governments, Native American organizations, and individuals, through competitive solicitations. DOE is strongly committed to partnerships to help ensure the eventual market acceptance of the technologies being developed. New solicitations are announced regularly.

  14. Opportunity at the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took images during the rover's 285th martian day (Nov. 11, 2004) that are combined into this panorama. Opportunity had reached the base of 'Burns Cliff,' a portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' This view shows rock layers in the wall, with a portion of Opportunity's solar array visible at the bottom right.

  15. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  16. Career Opportunities in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Examines the areas that the field of telecommunications encompasses, technological advances in the field, employment projections, career opportunities, educational requirements, and evolution of the telecommunications industry. (CT)

  17. Student Success: Challenges & Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges are a crucial source of educational opportunity for millions of Americans, making fundamental contributions to state and national economies. While community colleges should be proud of their role in providing access to higher education and the opportunity to obtain better quality jobs for their students, there is much more to…

  18. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  19. An Opportunity to Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's wheels in their stowed configuration. As of 9:00 a.m. January 28, 2004, the rover had deployed its wheels and completed the first half of the stand-up process. This image was taken at Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, by the hazard-identification camera.

  20. The Economics of Higher Education: Focus on Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this topical issue on costs in higher education with an overview of the economics of higher education. Considers various types of supplier costs (opportunity versus accounting costs), various ways of determining costs (cost accounting, statistical estimation, and modeling), and factors that influence supplier costs (environmental…

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  2. No Shortcut for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was making its way back toward its original entry path into 'Endurance Crater,' scientists and engineers spotted what they hoped might be a shortcut for climbing out of the crater. The possible exit path, pictured on the far right of this image where the outcrop is punctuated, was eventually deemed too hazardous for the rover to attempt. Opportunity would have had to cross terrain with a slope of 28 degrees and face a tall rock outcropping very close to the exit chute opening which, itself, is too narrow for the rover to pass. This stereo view combines several frames taken by the rover's navigation camera during Opportunity's 297th sol on Mars (Nov. 24, 2004). It is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The location from which the image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 38, Position 97.

  3. Career Opportunities in Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Physiologists offer their viewpoints on career opportunities in the pharmaceutical industries. A director's and an employee's views of what a director of pharmacology looks for in a physiologist are included. (JN)

  4. Opportunity Spies Its Backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    From its new location at the inner edge of the small crater surrounding it, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was able to look out to the plains where its backshell (left) and parachute (right) landed. Opportunity is currently investigating a rock outcropping with its suite of robotic geologic tools. This approximate true-color image was created by combining data from the panoramic camera's red, green and blue filters.

  5. Opportunity's Fast Progress Southward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Opportunity's Traverse from Landing through Sol 413 Opportunity's Fast Progress Southward

    As of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 413th martian day, or sol, (March 23, 2005), the robot had driven a total of 4.62 kilometers (2.87 miles) since. The red line on this image traces the rover's route. The base image is a mosaic combining images from the Mars Observer Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter, the Thermal Emission Imaging System on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, and Opportunity's own Descent Image Motion Estimation System.

    The rover has been making rapid progress southward since it finished examining its jettisoned heat shield on sol 357 (Jan. 24, 2005, one year after landing). Scientists are eager for Opportunity to reach an area to the south called the 'Etched Terrain,' which appears mottled in the map's base images and might offer access to different layers of bedrock than what the rover has seen so far. See figure 1.

    As of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 414th martian day, or sol, (March 24, 2005), the robot had driven a total of 4.81 kilometers (2.99 miles) since landing. In this two-month period, Opportunity drove 2.69 kilometers (1.67 miles). As landmarks along the route, it used craters that the rover team informally named for ships of historic voyages of exploration. See figure 2. Figures 1 and 2 are traverse maps overlaid on a mosaic of images from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters and from Opportunity's descent camera. The scale bar in figure 1 at lower left is 2 kilometers (1.24 miles) long and the scale bar in figure 2 is 1 kilometer (0.62 mile) long.

  6. Opportunity on Its Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  7. Fulbright Award opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More than a dozen opportunities are available to geophysicists in the 1982-1983 Fulbright Awards program for United States scholars to study abroad. The lecturing and research awards are listed in a new brochure published by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars. Geophysics-related opportunities are also available in geography, engineering, and technology.The majority of grants are for the academic year in the host country. All are subject to availability of funds and changes in program priorities.

  8. Safeguards Professional Development Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan, Kimberly V

    2010-01-01

    Across the international field of safeguards there has been a rising awareness of the need for development of the next generation of safeguards professionals. The 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Symposium includes a suggested topic of 'developing safeguards professionals.' This can first be addressed by making university students and young professionals aware of safeguards and the unique career opportunities it encompasses. Then, once someone decides to go into safeguards he/she needs to be offered professional development opportunities in order to become a more effective member of the international safeguards community. This paper begins to do that by reviewing opportunities currently available. There are not many opportunities that are well advertised and this paper will serve to raise awareness of what does already exist and therefore benefit the international safeguards community. The current opportunities that will be discussed include training programs, graduate degrees, organizational outreach, professional networks, and intensive topic specific programs. The paper will also identify current needs and holes in the current offerings of professional development opportunities and suggest ways they can be filled. In the conclusion the paper addresses what types of programs are still needed.

  9. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.

  11. A Precious Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This three-dimensional model superimposes the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on one of its potential targets, a scientific treasure chest of martian rocks contained within the landing site, a crater on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The rover is placed on the rock outcrop for scale. Opportunity has not yet visited these rocks; it is currently still on its lander. Scientists plan to use the tools on the rover's instrument deployment device, or robotic 'arm,' to examine these rocks, which are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) high and approximately 8 meters (26 feet) away from the rover. The image of the terrain was acquired on Sol, or martian day, 2 of Opportunity's journey. This model was created using data from the rover's panoramic camera and is displayed using software developed by NASA's Ames Research Center.

  12. Paved Path for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues a southward trek from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the terrain consists of large sand ripples and patches of flat-lying rock outcrops, as shown in this image. Whenever possible, rover planners keep Opportunity on the 'pavement' for best mobility.

    This false-color image mosaic was assembled using images acquired by the panoramic camera on Opportunity's 784th sol (April 8, 2006) at about 11:45 a.m. local solar time. The camera used its 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. This view shows a portion of the outcrop named 'Bosque,' including rover wheel tracks, fractured and finely-layered outcrop rocks and smaller, dark cobbles littered across the surface.

  13. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  14. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  15. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  16. Satellite servicing: A business opportunity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, R. E.; Medler, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities of satellite servicing as a business opportunity are examined. The service rate which a user must be charged to yield a reasonable return is derived and then compared against the market's willingness to pay that rate. Steps taken to provide the basis from which the service rate could be derived include: (1) constructing a hypothetical on orbit servicing business offering both on orbit and associated ground services; (2) estimating the total on orbit service business potential by analyzing mission models to the year 2000; and (3) setting up ground rules to bound the conduct of the business. Using this basic information service demand (business volume) cost to set up the business, costs for operation and maintenance tax rates and desired rate of return are estimated to determine the user charge. Sensitivity of the service rate to various parameters are also assessed. The time span for the business venture runs from 1986 through 2000 with service to 1991 provided via the orbiter and by a space station beyond 1991. This point analysis shows about five years of negative cash flow, with steady profits thereafter.

  17. Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Financial Resources and Management Services.

    This report describes the history and programs of the Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program (WEOP), a bureau within the State Department of Public Instruction that provides support services for Wisconsin youths and adults (particularly the disadvantaged) who intend to complete a postsecondary education program. Currently, it is said, WEOP…

  18. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  19. Opportunity Turns 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccio, Maria; Pierre-Vil, Samienta

    2016-01-01

    The New England Educational Opportunity Association (NEOA) drew more than 250 TRIO and college access professionals to its 40th annual conference in Massachusetts earlier this spring. NEOA's mission is to advocate for access to and success in postsecondary education for low-income individuals, "first-generation" college students, and…

  20. Opportunity Spies Its Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a forward-looking view of the Meridiani Planum plains that lie between the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and its primary drive target, 'Endurance Crater.' The images in this image mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 88.

  1. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the…

  2. Window of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Newt

    1985-01-01

    Advances in space, communications, and biotechnology are creating many opportunities and hope for the future. But to take full advantage of these technological breakthroughs, the United States must rethink its approaches to education, welfare, health, justice, and defense. (Author/RM)

  3. Demographic Problems and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Frances P.

    A comparison of Monroe County projections of high school graduates and the March 1986 Rochester Labor Area Summary points to some excellent opportunities for marketing Monroe Community College (MCC). Projections of high school graduation rates show a 25% decrease in the number of graduates between 1989 and 1991, while the demand for entry-level…

  4. Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama (QTVR)

    This view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an outcrop called 'Olympia' along the northwestern margin of 'Erebus' crater. The view spans about 120 degrees from side to side, generally looking southward. The outcrop exposes a broad expanse of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. The rocks were formed predominantly from windblown sediments, but some also formed in environmental conditions from damp to under shallow surface water. After taking the images that were combined into this view, Opportunity drove along along a path between sand dunes to the upper left side of the image, where a cliff in the background can be seen. This is a cliff is known as the 'Mogollon Rim.' Researchers expect it to expose more than 1 meter (3 feet) of new strata. These strata may represent the highest level observed yet by Opportunity. The image is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  5. EERE Financial Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) works with business, industry, universities, and others to increase the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. One way EERE encourages the growth of these technologies is by offering financial assistance opportunities for their development and demonstration.

  6. The Promise of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, John F.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that now as never before, education is the key to opportunity, essential to a strong America. In an age when people compete with workers on every continent and information flows across oceans, high-wage jobs are more dependent than ever on high-level skills. The author suggests that together, an America that…

  7. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NCEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Career Appointments:

  8. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  9. Opportunity for progress.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Daloni

    The Cavendish review into HCAs and support workers highlighted the contribution such staff make to patient care, and called for them to be supported with improved training, career opportunities and status. This article shows how some enlightened employers are leading the way in developing their HCA workforce. PMID:23965074

  10. The Educational Opportunity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.

    The Educational Opportunity Bank (EOB) has received short shrift among educators and many objections have been raised to establishing it. Among these are the workability of the plan, the problem for women borrowers, and the creation of a new force--student financial power - in opposition to the influence of the Federal Government. Though…

  11. Means, Motive, & Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauly, Stephen K.

    1999-01-01

    Development officers at DePauw University (Indiana) use a structured, five-section, face-to-face interview process to assess prospective donors' ability to give and interest in giving, which then determines how the institution offers them the opportunity to support it. A step-by-step outline of the interview process is provided, as are answers to…

  12. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  14. Cost Evaluation of Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Many treatment programs have adopted or are considering adopting evidence-based treatments (EBTs). When a program evaluates whether to adopt a new intervention, it must consider program objectives, operational goals, and costs. This article examines cost concepts, cost estimation, and use of cost information to make the final decision on whether to adopt an EBT. Cost categories, including variable and fixed, accounting and opportunity, and costs borne by patients and others, are defined and illustrated using the example of expenditures for contingency management. Ultimately, cost is one consideration in the overall determination of whether implementing an EBT is the best use of a program’s resources. PMID:22002453

  15. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  16. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers cou...

  17. Collaboration on Technology Projects Results in Cost Sharing Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Carole; Hartleb, David; Neves, Darrow

    2007-01-01

    Realizing they shared a common and growing need for information technology consulting services, new administrative systems, and interrelated instructional technology growth at their respective institutions, two colleges in Massachusetts joined forces. They chose to partner with CampusWorks, Inc. and found a way to save money and improve their…

  18. TRADING ALLOWANCES FOR STORMWATER CONTROL: HYDROLOGY AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Excess stormwater runoff is a serious problem in a large number of urban areas, causing flooding, water pollution, groundwater recharge deficits and ecological damage to urban streams. It has been posited that to mitigate the effects of excess stormwater runoff, policy makers...

  19. Next-generation cost management.

    PubMed

    Angert, Sean; Seabrook, Hazel

    2011-03-01

    To implement a comprehensive approach for nonlabor cost reduction, hospitals should: Set goals, Identify areas to include or exclude, Establish a project structure, Develop a communications plan, Collect and analyze data, Establish teams to review opportunities forchange > Monitor progress and report results. PMID:21449305

  20. 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Payson' Panorama by Opportunity (QTVR)

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meters (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This approximately true-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  1. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  2. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  3. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  4. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Cancer.gov

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  5. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  6. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  7. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  8. Missed opportunities in crystallography.

    PubMed

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-09-01

    Scrutinized from the perspective of time, the giants in the history of crystallography more than once missed a nearly obvious chance to make another great discovery, or went in the wrong direction. This review analyzes such missed opportunities focusing on macromolecular crystallographers (using Perutz, Pauling, Franklin as examples), although cases of particular historical (Kepler), methodological (Laue, Patterson) or structural (Pauling, Ramachandran) relevance are also described. Linus Pauling, in particular, is presented several times in different circumstances, as a man of vision, oversight, or even blindness. His example underscores the simple truth that also in science incessant creativity is inevitably connected with some probability of fault. PMID:24814223

  9. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity... forms of direct financial support for participants. (b) Research not directly related to the...

  10. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity... forms of direct financial support for participants. (b) Research not directly related to the...

  11. 34 CFR 644.31 - What are unallowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 644.31 What are unallowable costs? Costs that are unallowable under the Educational Opportunity... forms of direct financial support for participants. (b) Research not directly related to the...

  12. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  13. The impact of desalting opportunity crudes on corrosion precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, M.S.; Hart, P.R.

    1995-12-01

    Processing of lower cost ``opportunity`` crudes has become common practice among US refiners. These cheaper crudes, however, in many cases do not come without higher associated processing costs. Several refiners have documented higher than expected chlorides in their atmospheric tower overhead systems when processing opportunity crudes. These high chlorides increase corrosion potential, elevate chemical treatment costs and, in severe cases, cause system failure and/or serious product contamination concerns. Traditional methods to measure crude quality (salt content) have in some cases failed to predict potential hydrolyzable chlorides in the desalted crude stream. Laboratory desalter simulation apparati which operate at desalter system temperature and mixing conditions can be used to more completely extract water soluble chloride salts from the crude oil. Subsequent steam distillation of these laboratory desalted crude oils yields a truer measure of potential hydrolyzable chlorides left in the desalted crude. These tools have been used to better define the impact of processing opportunity crudes on crude distillation overhead systems.

  14. New design opportunities with OVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleikolm, Anton F.

    1998-04-01

    Optically Variable Ink (OVITM) chosen for its unique colour shifting properties is applied to the currencies of more than 50 countries. An significant colour difference at viewing angles of 90 degrees and 30 degrees respectively makes colour copying impossible. New manufacturing techniques for the interference pigment (OVP) provide ever better cost/performance ratios. Screen printing presses newly available on the market guarantee production speeds of 8000 sheets/hour or 130 meters/minute in the case of web printing, perfectly in line with the traditional equipment for manufacturing of currency. Specifically developed ink formulations allow UV-curing at high speed or oxidative drying to create highly mechanically and chemically resistant colour shifting prints. The unique colour shifting characteristics together with overprinting in intaglio give design opportunities providing the best protection against colour copying or commercial reprint. Specific designs of OVP together with high security ingredients allow the formulation of machine readable optically variable inks useful for the authentication and sorting of documents.

  15. Global biomass opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1993-10-01

    Low cost and plentiful resources make biomass a viable choice for power projects worldwide. Nevertheless, the potential does not alleviate the development obstacles. The developing world appears to hold the greatest promise for using biomass technologies - primarily Latin America, Africa, China, and other parts of Asia and Oceania.

  16. Reducing pharmacy costs through improved utilization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Cinda; Richards, Barton S

    2013-06-01

    Strategies Trinity Regional Health System in Rock Island, III., used to reduce pharmacy expenses included: Leveraging benchmarking information to identify opportunities for cost savings. Implementing change management techniques, bolstered by well-presented and coherent data, to promote acceptance of change. Forming a multidisciplinary team of clinical and financial leaders to address quality, outcomes, and cost issues and collaborate on solutions. PMID:23795386

  17. The intrinsic cost of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control carries intrinsic subjective costs. PMID:24304795

  18. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  19. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. PMID:26798020

  20. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries. PMID:20664223

  1. Text mining in healthcare. Applications and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Raja, Uzma; Mitchell, Tara; Day, Timothy; Hardin, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare information systems collect massive amounts of textual and numeric information about patients, visits, prescriptions, physician notes and more. The information encapsulated within electronic clinical records could lead to improved healthcare quality, promotion of clinical and research initiatives, fewer medical errors and lower costs. However, the documents that comprise the health record vary in complexity, length and use of technical vocabulary. This makes knowledge discovery complex. Commercial text mining tools provide a unique opportunity to extract critical information from textual data archives. In this paper, we share our experience of a collaborative research project to develop predictive models by text mining electronic clinical records. We provide an overview of the text mining process, examples of existing studies, experiences of our collaborative project and future opportunities. PMID:19267032

  2. Ionospheric research opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickel, Dwight

    1985-05-01

    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  3. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yin, Jin; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been developed as biodegradable plastics for the past many years. However, PHA still have only a very limited market. Because of the availability of large amount of shale gas, petroleum will not raise dramatically in price, this situation makes PHA less competitive compared with low cost petroleum based plastics. Therefore, two strategies have been adopted to meet this challenge: first, the development of a super PHA production strain combined with advanced fermentation processes to produce PHA at a low cost; second, the construction of functional PHA production strains with technology to control the precise structures of PHA molecules, this will allow the resulting PHA with high value added applications. The recent systems and synthetic biology approaches allow the above two strategies to be implemented. In the not so distant future, the new technology will allow PHA to be produced with a competitive price compared with petroleum-based plastics. PMID:24976377

  5. Science Opportunities with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, J. Anthony; Ivezic, Z.; Strauss, M.; LSST Science Collaborations

    2012-01-01

    The LSST design is driven by four science themes: dark energy and matter, Galactic structure, transient objects, and the Solar System inventory. These and many other science opportunities are described in the LSST Science Book: http://www.lsst.org/lsst/scibook The LSST will carry out a ten-year very deep imaging survey of 18,000 sq.deg. of the sky in six broad optical bands, with a deep stack reaching r 27.5 (5 sigma, point source). The LSST design, with an 8.4m (6.7m effective) primary mirror and a 9.6 square degree field of view, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be imaged to an effective depth of r=24.5 every three nights. Each patch of the sky will be visited over 800 times with pairs of 15 sec exposures, opening a new window on the universe: faint time-domain. The resulting petabytes of data will be made available to the US and Chilean communities for scientific investigations ranging from the properties of near-Earth asteroids, to characterizations of dark energy from strong and weak lensing, galaxy clustering, and distant supernovae. More information is available at http://www.lsst.org Eleven LSST Science Collaborations are actively laying the groundwork for first light: working on image analysis algorithms and database design, exploring cadence choices, developing commissioning plans, and outlining scientific opportunities. These Collaborations have over 200 members to date, with membership open to the US and Chilean communities via an application process administered by NOAO. Full end-to-end LSST image simulations are a useful resource for exploring science capability. LSST Science Collaborations: Supernovae Weak Lensing Stellar Populations Active Galactic Nuclei Solar System Galaxies Transients/variable stars Large-scale structure and baryon oscillations Milky Way and Local Volume Structure Strong Lensing Informatics and Statistics

  6. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  7. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  8. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  9. Wildfire Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation we address federal wildfire risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, wildfires present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal wildfire management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of wildfire management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the wildfire management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of wildfire, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of wildfire, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors

  10. Arc of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Adam Vai

    2011-07-01

    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia. PMID:21878026

  11. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  12. The cost of waste: Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.

    1996-06-01

    Some of the greatest opportunities for tapping into hidden profit potential at industrial coatings manufacturing plants may be in their waste or, rather, in their ability to eliminate the root causes of waste generation. This occurs because the total cost of waste (TCOW) does not appear only in a plant`s cost to dispose or recycle its waste. TCOW has four principal components, each of which are shown in different lines in the monthly financial accounting report. An additional potential component--the production plant capacity and personnel that are utilized producing controllable waste instead of product for sale and profit--fails to show up at all. Expanding the focus of waste reduction from merely reducing an individual component`s costs to eliminating the root causes of controllable waste generation provides significant additional profits and frees plant production equipment and people to: make more product for sale and profit, and reduce per-unit manufacturing costs.

  13. Opportunities are our future.

    PubMed

    Gookin, L B

    1996-01-01

    The national health care revolution is having especially important effects in California. Hospitals are closing, downsizing, or joining larger systems. Solo-practice physicians are joining group practices, which in turn are being purchased by large for-profit physician practice organizations. Companies that have in the past provided a single service, such as home medical equipment, home infusion, hospice, or home care, are joining forces to offer many services in an effort to appeal to payors who would rather contract with comprehensive providers. Coalitions of home health agencies are forming to better compete for managed care contracts. Home health care agencies are merging in anticipation of prospective pay and the need to spread administrative costs over a wider base. The driving force behind this revolution? Managed care. PMID:9157905

  14. Untapped opportunities for improving performance and increasing smelter production

    SciTech Connect

    Forberg, H.O.

    1996-10-01

    A review has been made of a large number of aluminum smelters concerning opportunities for improving performance and increasing production. Smelters have been grouped according to current efficiency. Opportunities for improvement of older and newer smelters are discussed. For older smelters to remain competitive and extend economic life, it is important to find new ways to increase production. These efforts have been going on for many years and the most successful producers have been able to stay viable. Opportunities are still available for many older facilities as further incremental increases of production wait to be harvested. Newer smelters are also interested in decreasing cost by increasing production. Even if the operating costs of newer plants are lower than those of older ones, it is important that newer plants make improvements that generate an acceptable rate of return on invested capital.

  15. Job Opportunities Glitter for Librarians Who Surf the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, A. Paula

    1996-01-01

    The Internet gives library professionals access to job opportunities that are not readily accessible in print. Employers can advertise at minimal cost and reach a broad, technically adept audience. This article lists Internet job resource sites and listservs for library and information professionals, providing Uniform Resource Locators (URLs),…

  16. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have a big impact on energy use. In the United States, 44.6 million small buildings consume 44% of the overall energy used in buildings, presenting an enormous opportunity to cut costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes opportunities for leading fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible fuel cell technology performance and durability analysis by sharing their raw fuel cell test data related to operations, maintenance, safety, and cost with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory via the Hydrogen Secure Data Center.

  18. 78 FR 43220 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Funding Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Funding... that is approved by an independent review group. Funding Opportunity Title: SM-13-012. Catalog Of... funding under this announcement. It is considered most cost-effective and efficient to supplement...

  19. Opportunity Road: The Promise and Challenge of America's Forgotten Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Milano, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    There are millions of youth ages 16 to 24 who are out of school and out of work. They cost the nation billions of dollars every year and over their lifetimes in lost productivity and increased social services. They also represent an opportunity for the nation to tap the talents of millions of potential leaders and productive workers at a time when…

  20. Revolutionary opportunities for materials and structures study, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feig, P. D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an addendum to the Revolutionary Opportunities for Materials and Structures Study (ROMS), modifying the original by the addition of two tasks. The primary purpose of these tasks was to conduct additional aircraft/engine sizing and mission analysis to obtain contributory aircraft performance data such as fuel burns and direct operating costs for both the subsonic and supersonic engines.

  1. Costs of Carrying Students to a Criterion Level of Competency in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    Presents data on student performance in a competency-based, multiple-opportunity format physics course, indicating that costs are related to character of examination questions and comprehensional modes of students. Compares costs for single/multiple trial formats, showing that multiple-trial opportunity has lower costs and a higher yield of…

  2. Ensuring equal opportunity sprinkler irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equal opportunity for plants to sprinkler irrigation water must be carefully considered by crop producers, irrigation consultants, and the industry that supplies the irrigation equipment. Equal opportunity can be negated by improper marketing, design, and installation, as well as through improper f...

  3. Doubling the Opportunity for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs are a way for teenagers to get started early on their journey to a successful future, and many appear to be taking advantage of the opportunity. This article describes success stories in dual enrollment programs in Louisiana and Texas. Dual enrollment programs in these states are not only giving students an opportunity to…

  4. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  5. Opportunity Structures Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that we have a theory--namely, opportunity structure theory--which can account for how school-to-work transitions were accomplished "then" and "now", and also why "now" is different from "then". Opportunity structures are formed primarily by the inter-relationships between family backgrounds, education, labour market processes…

  6. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  7. Cost trajectories for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wodchis, W.P.; Arthurs, E.; Khan, A.I.; Gandhi, S.; MacKinnon, M.; Sussman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care spending is known to be highly skewed, with a small subset of the population consuming a disproportionate amount of health care resources. Patients with cancer are high-cost users because of high incremental health care costs for treatment and the growing prevalence of cancer. The objectives of the present study included characterizing cancer-patient trajectories by cost, and identifying the patient and health system characteristics associated with high health system costs after cancer treatment. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified Ontario adults newly diagnosed with cancer between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2010. Costs of health care use before, during, and after cancer episodes were used to develop trajectories of care. Descriptive analyses examined differences between the trajectories in terms of clinical and health system characteristics, and a logistic regression approach identified predictors of being a high-cost user after a cancer episode. Results Ten trajectories were developed based on whether patients were high- or low-cost users before and after their cancer episode. The most common trajectory represented patients who were low-cost in the year before cancer, survived treatment, and continued to be low-cost in the year after cancer (31.4%); stage ii cancer of the male genital system was the most common diagnosis within that trajectory. Regression analyses identified increases in age and in multimorbidity and low continuity of care as the strongest predictors of high-cost status after cancer. Conclusions Findings highlight an opportunity to proactively identify patients who might transition to high-cost status after cancer treatment and to remediate that transition. PMID:26985150

  8. Assessing new applications and testing business opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzei, A.; Gampe, F.; Pseiner, K.

    2000-05-01

    The generation of business opportunities from suitable space applications is an essential element of ESA's long term vision. This paper discusses some examples of new space applications and related business opportunities investigated within ESA, namely: HYDROSAT (Hydrological Satellite); OSAT (Operational Service for Air Transportation); CDEDS (Collection and Distribution of Ecological Data by Satellite); The Remote Sensing Forest Map of Europe. HYDROSAT and OSAT are two model missions which serve as cases for service and business ideas. HYDROSAT is a hydrological satellite concept for monitoring arid areas, while OSAT is an operational real-time 3-D high precision weather satellite concept. Both these model missions are briefly discussed, together with two actual application opportunities. One of these, the collection and distribution of ecological data by satellites, was a study performed in close cooperation with the European Commission and later successfully translated into commercial business. This business opportunity is based on ESA-developed Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) technology for cost efficient two-way transmission of low rate data. More than 200 systems have been installed by industry reaching a turnover of several mission ECUs. In the second application, ESA has produced a map based on remote sensing data classifying the European forest. This product — available as hard copy and digital data set — has become a European standard. For some 300 applications within the scientific area, public domain and industry, the data sets have been used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Several thousand hard copies have been distributed on request to a variety of user groups, including national ministries and international organisations.

  9. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  10. Cost Analysis of Online Courses. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John H., Jr.

    This paper presents a complex, hybrid, method of cost analysis of online courses, which incorporates data on expenditures; student/course enrollment; departmental consumption/contribution; space utilization/opportunity costs; direct non-personnel costs; computing support; faculty/staff workload; administrative overhead at the department, dean, and…